Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2020 Appropriations

The Agriculture appropriations bill funds the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) except for the U.S. Forest Service. It also funds the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and—in even-numbered fiscal years—the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC).

Agriculture appropriations include both mandatory and discretionary spending. Discretionary amounts, though, are the primary focus during the bill’s development. The largest discretionary spending items are the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); agricultural research; rural development; FDA; foreign food assistance and trade; farm assistance loans and salaries; food safety inspection; animal and plant health programs; and technical assistance for conservation programs.

In the absence of an enacted full-year appropriation, FY2020 began on October 1, 2019, under a continuing resolution (CR) that lasted until November 21, 2019 (P.L. 116-59, Division A). A second CR (P.L. 116-69) was enacted to last until December 20, 2019.

For the regular annual appropriation, the Trump Administration requested in March 2019 $19.2 billion for discretionary-funded accounts within the jurisdiction of Agriculture appropriations subcommittees. The request would be a reduction of $4.1 billion from FY2019 (-18%).

On June 4, 2019, the House Appropriations Committee reported a stand-alone Agriculture appropriations bill (H.R. 3164, H.Rept. 116-107) by a vote of 29-21. On June 25, 2019, the House passed a five-bill minibus appropriation with Agriculture as Division B (H.R. 3055). The discretionary total of the House-passed Agriculture appropriations bill is $24.3 billion. This is $1 billion more (+4%) than the comparable amount that was enacted for FY2019 and $5.1 more (+27%) than the Administration’s request.

On September 19, the Senate Appropriations Committee reported its Agriculture appropriations bill (S. 2522, S.Rept. 116-110) by a vote of 31-0. On October 31, 2019, the Senate passed a four-bill minibus appropriation with Agriculture as Division B (H.R. 3055). The discretionary total of the Senate-passed bill is $23.1 billion. This is $57 million more than the FY2019 appropriation (+0.2%), $4.2 billion more than the Administration’s request, and $894 million less than the House-passed bill on a comparable amount without CFTC (-3.7%).

The primary components of the $1 billion increase in the House-passed bill from FY2019 include increases to rural development accounts by $412 million (+14%, primarily for rural water, broadband, and housing), a rural broadband pilot program by $393 million (+314%), foreign agricultural assistance by $377 million (+19%), departmental administration by $205 million (+53%, primarily for construction to renovate USDA headquarters), agricultural research programming by $197 million (+6%), and FDA appropriations by $185 million (+6%). Reductions in budget authority include decreases to agricultural research buildings and facilities funding by -$331 million, rescinding WIC carryover balances an additional -$300 million, and eliminating temporary funding for international food assistance by -$216 million (with a larger increase to the base appropriation, as noted above in foreign agricultural assistance).

The primary differences that comprise the -$894 million difference in the Senate-reported bill from the House-passed bill include providing agricultural research $193 million more than in the House bill and department administration accounts $97 million more than in the House bill. These greater allowances are more than offset by providing rural development $407 million less than in the House bill (largely from rural water and waste disposal grants), rural broadband in the General Provisions title $518 million less than in the House bill, foreign agricultural assistance $159 million less than in the House bill, and FDA $105 million less than the House bill.

Discretionary Agriculture Appropriations, by Title, FY2019-FY2020

/

Source: CRS, using P.L. 116-6 (Division B), House-passed H.R. 3055 (Division B), and Senate-passed H.R. 3055 (Division B).

Note: FDA = Food and Drug Administration, CFTC = Commodity Futures Trading Commission. For comparability, includes CFTC in Related Agencies in all columns regardless of jurisdiction.

The appropriation also carries mandatory spending that is largely determined in separate authorizing laws. These mandatory spending amounts total nearly $131 billion in the House-passed bill and $129 billion in the Senate-reported bill. Thus, the overall total of the FY2020 Agriculture appropriation would be about $155 billion in the House-passed bill and $152 billion in the Senate-reported bill.

Policy provisions may also be included that affect how the appropriation is delivered. This year, these provisions include issues such as the relocation of USDA agencies, disaster programs, rural definitions, livestock regulations, nutrition programs, and dietary guidelines.

Budget sequestration continues to affect mandatory agricultural spending accounts. Sequestration refers to automatic across-the-board reductions in spending authority. In FY2020, sequestration on mandatory spending accounts is 5.9% and totals about $1.4 billion for agriculture accounts. Recent budget acts have extended sequestration through FY2029.

Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2020 Appropriations

Updated November 27, 2019 (R45974)
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Contents

Tables

Summary

The Agriculture appropriations bill funds the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) except for the U.S. Forest Service. It also funds the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and—in even-numbered fiscal years—the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC).

Agriculture appropriations include both mandatory and discretionary spending. Discretionary amounts, though, are the primary focus during the bill's development. The largest discretionary spending items are the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); agricultural research; rural development; FDA; foreign food assistance and trade; farm assistance loans and salaries; food safety inspection; animal and plant health programs; and technical assistance for conservation programs.

In the absence of an enacted full-year appropriation, FY2020 began on October 1, 2019, under a continuing resolution (CR) that lasted until November 21, 2019 (P.L. 116-59, Division A). A second CR (P.L. 116-69) was enacted to last until December 20, 2019.

For the regular annual appropriation, the Trump Administration requested in March 2019 $19.2 billion for discretionary-funded accounts within the jurisdiction of Agriculture appropriations subcommittees. The request would be a reduction of $4.1 billion from FY2019 (-18%).

On June 4, 2019, the House Appropriations Committee reported a stand-alone Agriculture appropriations bill (H.R. 3164, H.Rept. 116-107) by a vote of 29-21. On June 25, 2019, the House passed a five-bill minibus appropriation with Agriculture as Division B (H.R. 3055). The discretionary total of the House-passed Agriculture appropriations bill is $24.3 billion. This is $1 billion more (+4%) than the comparable amount that was enacted for FY2019 and $5.1 more (+27%) than the Administration's request.

On September 19, the Senate Appropriations Committee reported its Agriculture appropriations bill (S. 2522, S.Rept. 116-110) by a vote of 31-0. On October 31, 2019, the Senate passed a four-bill minibus appropriation with Agriculture as Division B (H.R. 3055). The discretionary total of the Senate-passed bill is $23.1 billion. This is $57 million more than the FY2019 appropriation (+0.2%), $4.2 billion more than the Administration's request, and $894 million less than the House-passed bill on a comparable amount without CFTC (-3.7%).

The primary components of the $1 billion increase in the House-passed bill from FY2019 include increases to rural development accounts by $412 million (+14%, primarily for rural water, broadband, and housing), a rural broadband pilot program by $393 million (+314%), foreign agricultural assistance by $377 million (+19%), departmental administration by $205 million (+53%, primarily for construction to renovate USDA headquarters), agricultural research programming by $197 million (+6%), and FDA appropriations by $185 million (+6%). Reductions in budget authority include decreases to agricultural research buildings and facilities funding by -$331 million, rescinding WIC carryover balances an additional -$300 million, and eliminating temporary funding for international food assistance by -$216 million (with a larger increase to the base appropriation, as noted above in foreign agricultural assistance).

The primary differences that comprise the -$894 million difference in the Senate-reported bill from the House-passed bill include providing agricultural research $193 million more than in the House bill and department administration accounts $97 million more than in the House bill. These greater allowances are more than offset by providing rural development $407 million less than in the House bill (largely from rural water and waste disposal grants), rural broadband in the General Provisions title $518 million less than in the House bill, foreign agricultural assistance $159 million less than in the House bill, and FDA $105 million less than the House bill.

Discretionary Agriculture Appropriations, by Title, FY2019-FY2020

Source: CRS, using P.L. 116-6 (Division B), House-passed H.R. 3055 (Division B), and Senate-passed H.R. 3055 (Division B).

Note: FDA = Food and Drug Administration, CFTC = Commodity Futures Trading Commission. For comparability, includes CFTC in Related Agencies in all columns regardless of jurisdiction.

The appropriation also carries mandatory spending that is largely determined in separate authorizing laws. These mandatory spending amounts total nearly $131 billion in the House-passed bill and $129 billion in the Senate-reported bill. Thus, the overall total of the FY2020 Agriculture appropriation would be about $155 billion in the House-passed bill and $152 billion in the Senate-reported bill.

Policy provisions may also be included that affect how the appropriation is delivered. This year, these provisions include issues such as the relocation of USDA agencies, disaster programs, rural definitions, livestock regulations, nutrition programs, and dietary guidelines.

Budget sequestration continues to affect mandatory agricultural spending accounts. Sequestration refers to automatic across-the-board reductions in spending authority. In FY2020, sequestration on mandatory spending accounts is 5.9% and totals about $1.4 billion for agriculture accounts. Recent budget acts have extended sequestration through FY2029.


Status of FY2020 Agriculture Appropriations

In the absence of an enacted full-year appropriation, FY2020 began on October 1, 2019, under a continuing resolution (CR) that lasted until November 21, 2019 (P.L. 116-59, Division A). A second CR (P.L. 116-69) was enacted to last until December 20, 2019.

For the regular annual Agriculture appropriation, the House passed a five-bill minibus appropriation on June 25, 2019 (H.R. 3055), and the Senate passed a four-bill minibus on October 31, 2019 (H.R. 3055) from Senate-reported bills as amended on the floor. In both cases, the Agriculture portion is Division B (Table 1). The Administration released its budget request in two parts: an overview on March 11, 2019, and more detailed documents on March 18, 2019. See Figure 1 for a decade-long comparison of timelines and Appendix D for more details.

To set spending levels to develop the bills, an Agriculture subcommittee allocation was established in the House on May 14, 2019 (H.Rept. 116-59). The Senate waited for an overall budget agreement before marking up bills. On August 2, 2019, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019 (P.L. 116-37) raised the statutory caps on discretionary spending. A different subcommittee allocation was set in the Senate on September 12, 2019 (S.Rept. 116-104). A compromise appropriation is pending, including agreement to set common subcommittee spending levels.

Table 1. Status of FY2020 Agriculture Appropriations

Administration Request

House Action

Senate Action

Continuing Resolutions

Final Appropriation

 

Subcmte.

Cmte.

Floor

Subcmte.

Cmte.

Floor

 

 

3/11/2019
OMB Budget

3/18/2019
OMB Appendix
USDA
FDA
CFTC
FCA

5/23/2019

Draft

Voice vote

6/4/2019

H.R. 3164

H.Rept. 116-107

Vote 29-21

6/25/2019

H.R. 3055,a Division B

Vote
227-194

9/17/2019

Draft

Voice vote

9/19/2019

S. 2522

S.Rept. 116-110

Vote 31-0

10/31/2019

H.R. 3055,a Division B

Vote
84-9

9/27//2019

P.L. 116-59,
until 11/21/2019

11/21/2019

P.L. 116-69,a
until 12/20/2019

Source: CRS, compiled from Congress.gov, OMB, and agency websites.

Note: OMB = Office of Management and Budget, USDA = U.S. Department of Agriculture, FDA = Food and Drug Administration, CFTC = Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and FCA = Farm Credit Administration.

a. H.R. 3055 was originally a Commerce-Justice-Science Appropriations bill. It became the vehicle for a House minibus and later a Senate minibus. It was also used to carry the second CR without the minibus text.

The discretionary total of the House-passed Agriculture appropriations bill is $24.3 billion. This is $1 billion more than (+4%) the comparable amount for FY2019 that includes the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)1 and $5.1 billion more than (+27%) the request. The $23.1 billion discretionary total in the Senate-reported bill would be $57 million more than FY2019 (+0.2%). This is $894 million less than (-3.7%) the House-passed bill on a comparable basis.

The appropriation also carries mandatory spending that is largely determined in authorizing laws—nearly $131 billion in the House-passed bill and $129 billion in the Senate-passed bill (Table 2).

Table 2. Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations, by Title, FY2019-FY2020

Budget authority in millions of dollars

 

FY2019

FY2020

Change from FY2019

Title of Agriculture Appropriations Act

P.L. 116-6

Admin. request

House-passed H.R. 3055

Senate-passed
H.R. 3055

Enacted

to House-passed

to Senate-passed

I. Agricultural Programs: Discretionary

6,033.9

5,712.3

6,165.6

6,439.2

+131.6

+405.3

Mandatory

1,374.0

1,404.0

1,404.0

1,404.0

+30.0

+30.0

Subtotal

7,407.9

7,116.3

7,569.6

7,843.2

+161.6

+435.3

II. Farm Production and Conservation Programs

2,748.8

2,430.6

2,798.0

2,819.9

+49.3

+71.1

Mandatory

30,821.1

34,489.6

34,489.6

34,489.6

+3,668.5

+3,668.5

Subtotal

33,569.9

36,920.2

37,287.6

37,309.5

+3,717.7

+3,739.6

III. Rural Development

3,011.7a

2,938.1

3,423.8a

3,016.7

+412.1

+5.0

IV. Domestic Food Programs: Discretionary

6,620.3

5,958.3

6,584.8

6,563.5

-35.5

-56.8

Mandatory

96,560.0

93,013.1

95,049.8

92,708.3

-1,510.2

-3,851.7

Subtotal

103,180.3

98,971.4

101,634.6

99,271.8

-1,545.7

-3,908.5

V. Foreign Assistance

1,938.0a

205.0

2,315.2

2,156.3

+377.2

+218.4

VI. Related Agencies:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Food and Drug Administration

3,080.5

3,251.3

3,265.7

3,160.5

+185.3

+80.0

Commodity Futures Trading Commission

[268.0]b

250.0

315.0

[305.0]b

+47.0

+37.0

VII. General Provisions:

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHIMPS and rescissionsc

-490.0

-1,153.0

-799.8

-810.1

-309.8

-320.1

Other appropriations

493.5

0.0

628.8

141.5

+135.3

-352.0

Scorekeeping adjustmentsd

-404.0

-403.0

-398.0

-398.0

+6.0

+6.0

Discretionary: Senate basis w/o CFTC

23,032.7

18,939.6

[23,984.0]

23,089.6

+951.3

+56.9

Discretionary: House basis w/ CFTC

[23,300.7]

19,189.6

24,299.0

[23,394.6]

+998.3

+93.9

Mandatory

128,755.1

128,906.7

130,943.4

128,601.9

+2,188.3

-153.2

Total: Senate basis w/o CFTC

151,787.8

147,846.4

154,927.4

151,691.5

+3,139.6

-96.4

Total: House basis w/ CFTC

152,055.8

148,096.4

155,242.4

151,996.5

+3,186.6

-59.4

Source: CRS, using appropriations text and reports, and unpublished CBO tables.

Notes: H.R. 3055 refers to the June 25, 2019, and October 31, 2019, House-passed and Senate-passed bills, respectively. H.R. 3055 later became the vehicle to carry the second CR without the minibus text.

Amounts are nominal discretionary budget authority unless labeled otherwise. Excludes amounts in supplemental appropriations acts. Bracketed amounts are not in the Agriculture appropriations totals due to differing House-Senate jurisdiction for the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC).

a. Excludes amounts for other appropriations that are provided separately in General Provisions.

b. The amount for CFTC is from the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) division of the FY2019 Consolidated Appropriation and for FY2020 from the Senate bill for FSGG (S. 2524).

c. Changes in Mandatory Program Spending (CHIMPS) are reductions made to mandatory programs via appropriations. Rescissions are permanent cancellations of previously provided budget authority.

d. "Scorekeeping adjustments" are not necessarily appropriated but are part of the official CBO accounting.

Figure 1. Timeline of Action on Agriculture Appropriations, FY2010-FY2020

Source: CRS. For specific dates and links to bills, see Appendix D.

Other CRS Resources for Agricultural Appropriations

In addition to the agency-level amounts presented in Table 3, the following CRS reports provide more detail and analysis about various agencies and programs within the Agriculture appropriations act:

Scope of Agriculture Appropriations

The Agriculture appropriations bill—formally known as the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act—funds all of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), excluding the U.S. Forest Service.2 It also funds the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the Department of Health and Human Services and, in even-numbered fiscal years, CFTC.

Jurisdiction is with the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations and their Subcommittees on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies. The bill includes mandatory and discretionary spending, but the discretionary amounts are the primary focus (Figure 2). Some programs are not in the authorizing jurisdiction of the House or Senate Agriculture Committees, such as FDA, WIC, and child nutrition (checkered regions in Figure 2).

The federal budget process treats discretionary and mandatory spending differently:3

  • Discretionary spending is controlled by annual appropriations acts and receives most of the attention during the appropriations process. The annual budget resolution4 process sets spending limits for discretionary appropriations. Agency operations (salaries and expenses) and many grant programs are discretionary.
  • Mandatory spending5 is carried in the appropriation and usually advanced unchanged, since it is controlled by budget rules during the authorization process.6 Spending for so-called entitlement programs is determined in laws such as the 2018 farm bill7 and 2010 child nutrition reauthorizations.8

In the FY2019 appropriation (P.L. 116-6), the discretionary amount was 15% ($23 billion) of the $152 billion total. Mandatory spending carried in the act comprised $129 billion, about 85% of the total, of which about $106 billion is attributable to programs in the 2018 farm bill.

Within the discretionary total, the largest spending items are the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); agricultural research; rural development; FDA; foreign food aid and trade; farm assistance loans and salaries; food safety inspection; animal and plant health programs; and technical assistance for conservation program.

The main mandatory spending items are the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and other food and nutrition act programs, child nutrition (school lunch and related programs), crop insurance, and farm commodity and conservation programs that are funded through USDA's Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). SNAP is referred to as an "appropriated entitlement" and requires an annual appropriation.9 Amounts for the nutrition program are based on projected spending needs. In contrast, the CCC appropriations reimburse spending from a line of credit.10

Figure 2. Scope of Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations

FY2019 budget authority in billions of dollars

Source: CRS.

Notes: SNAP = Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program; CCC = Commodity Credit Corporation; FCIC = Federal Crop Insurance Corporation; Section 32 = Funds for Strengthening Markets, Income and Supply; WIC = Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; CSFP = Commodity Supplemental Food Program; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; FSA = Farm Service Agency, incl. Farm Production and Conservation Business Center; RMA = Risk Management Agency; FSIS = Food Safety and Inspection Service; APHIS = Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; NRCS = Natural Resources Conservation Service. Does not show agencies under $0.5 billion. Spending in the General Provisions are presented with the agencies.

Key Budget Terms

Budget authority is the main purpose of an appropriations act or a law authorizing mandatory spending. It provides the legal basis from which to obligate funds. It expires at the end of a period, usually after one year unless specified otherwise (e.g., two years or indefinite). Most funding amounts in this report are budget authority.

Obligations are contractual agreements between a government agency and its clients or employees. These occur when an agency agrees to spend money from its budget authority. The Antideficiency Act prohibits agencies from obligating more budget authority than is provided in law, such as during a government shutdown.

Outlays are the payments (cash disbursements) that satisfy a valid obligation. Timing of outlays may differ from budget authority or obligations because payments from an agency may not occur until services are fulfilled, goods are delivered, or construction is completed, even though an obligation occurred.

Program level represents the sum of the activities undertaken by an agency. A program level may be higher than a budget authority if the program (1) receives user fees, (2) includes loans that are leveraged by an expectation of repayment (loan authority may exceed budget authority), or (3) receives transfers from other agencies.

Rescissions are actions that reduce budget authority after enactment. They generally score budgetary savings.

CHIMPS (Changes in Mandatory Program Spending) are adjustments via an appropriations act that can change available funding for mandatory programs. CHIMPS usually change spending for one year and may score either as an increase or decrease to outlays. They do not change the underlying authority of the program in law.

For more background, see CRS Report 98-721, Introduction to the Federal Budget Process.

Recent Trends in Agriculture Appropriations

Discretionary Agriculture appropriations were at an all-time high in FY2010, declined through FY2013, and have gradually increased since then. Changes within titles have generally been proportionate to changes in the overall bill, though some areas have sustained relative increases, such as FDA and rural development.

The stacked bars in Figure 3 represent the discretionary authorization for each appropriations title. The total of the positive stacked bars is the budget authority in Titles I-VI. In FY2018, USDA reorganization affected the placement of some programs between Titles I and II of the bill (most noticeably, the Farm Service Agency). Prior to FY2018, the cumulative appropriation for the agencies was higher than the official discretionary total in the spending allocation (the blue line) because of the budgetary offset from negative amounts in Title VII (general provisions) and other negative scorekeeping adjustments. These negative offsets were mostly due to limits on mandatory programs and rescissions, which have been used less since FY2018.

Historical trends may be tempered by inflation adjustments, as shown in the dotted line. The inflation-adjusted total since FY2011 has been nearly level until a slightly higher trend line in the FY2018 appropriation.

Figure 3. Discretionary Agriculture Appropriations, by Title, FY2010-FY2020

Source: CRS.

Note: For FY2020, Adm is the Trump Administration's request; Hse is chamber-passed H.R. 3055, Division B; Sen is Senate-reported S. 2522. For comparability, includes CFTC in Related Agencies in all columns regardless of jurisdiction. The inflation-adjusted line was calculated using the gross domestic product price deflator. Amounts printed diagonally correspond to the solid blue line, which is the subcommittee allocation.

Action on FY2020 Appropriations

Administration's Budget Request

The Trump Administration released a general overview of its FY2020 budget request on March 11, 2019,11 and a detailed budget proposal to Congress on March 18, 2019.12 USDA released its more detailed budget summary and justification,13 as did the FDA,14 and the independent agencies of the CFTC15 and the Farm Credit Administration.16 The Administration also highlighted separately some of its proposed reductions and eliminations.17

For accounts in the jurisdiction of the Agriculture appropriations bill, the Administration's budget requested $19.2 billion, a $4.1 billion reduction from FY2019 (-18%; Table 2, Figure 3). The Administration released its budget request for FY2020 after Congress had enacted the omnibus FY2019 appropriation in February 2019 (P.L. 116-6). Amounts in the FY2019 column of the Administration's budget documents are based on FY2018 levels, not enacted FY2019 amounts.

Discretionary Budget Caps and Subcommittee Allocations

Budget enforcement has procedural and statutory elements. The procedural elements relate to a budget resolution and are enforced with points of order. The statutory elements impose discretionary spending limits and are enforced with budget caps and sequestration.18

Budget Resolution

Typically, each chamber's Appropriations Committee receives a top-line limit on discretionary budget authority, referred to as a "302(a)" allocation, from the Budget Committee via an annual budget resolution. The Appropriations Committees then in turn subdivide the allocation among their subcommittees, referred to as the "302(b)" allocations.19

For FY2020, the House did not report or pass a budget resolution. The Senate Budget Committee reported S.Con.Res. 12, though it received no further action.

Budget Caps

The Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA, P.L. 112-25) set discretionary budget caps through FY2021 as a way of reducing federal spending.20 Sequestration is an across-the-board backstop to achieve budget reductions if spending exceeds the budget caps (2 U.S.C. §901(c)).21

Bipartisan Budget Acts (BBAs) have avoided sequestration on discretionary spending—with the exception of FY2013—by raising those caps four times in two-year increments in 2013, 2015, 2018, and 2019 (Figure 4).22 Most recently, the BBA of 2019 (P.L. 116-37) raised the cap on nondefense discretionary spending by $78 billion for FY2020 (to $621 billion) and by $72 billion for FY2021 (to $627 billion). The amount for FY2020 is 4.1% greater than the nondefense cap in FY2019. The BBA also provides language to execute (or "deem") those higher caps for the appropriations process without a budget resolution.23

Figure 4. BCA Discretionary Limits, FY2014-FY2021

Budget authority in billions of nominal dollars

Source: CRS Insight IN11148, The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019: Changes to the BCA and Debt Limit.

Discretionary Spending Allocations

In the absence of a budget resolution and before the BBA that occurred in August, the House Appropriations Committee on May 14, 2019, set an overall discretionary target and provided the subcommittees with 302(b) allocations (H.Rept. 116-59). The allocation for the House Agriculture appropriations subcommittee is $24.3 billion, $1 billion greater (+4.3%) than the comparable amount for the enacted FY2019 Agriculture appropriation (Table 2).

The Senate chose to wait for the overall budget agreement in the BBA of 2019 before setting subcommittee allocations or proceeding to mark up any appropriations bills for FY2020. On September 12, 2019, the Senate Appropriations Committee set its subcommittee allocations (S.Rept. 116-104). The allocation for the Agriculture appropriation subcommittee in the Senate is $23.1 billion, $0.1 billion greater (+0.3%) than the enacted FY2019 appropriation.

Without Congress having agreed on a joint budget resolution, subcommittee allocations are different between the chambers and eventually need to be reconciled.

Budget Sequestration

Despite the BBA agreements that raise discretionary spending caps and avoid sequestration on discretionary accounts, sequestration still applies to mandatory spending. Sequestration on mandatory accounts began in FY2013, continues to the present, and has been extended beyond the original FY2021 sunset of the BCA. The various BBAs continue sequestration on mandatory spending through FY2029. See Appendix A for more on budget sequestration and its effects on agriculture spending.

House Action

The House Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee marked up its FY2020 bill on May 23, 2019, by voice vote.24 On June 4, 2019, the full Appropriations Committee passed and reported an amended bill (H.R. 3164, H.Rept. 116-107) by a vote of 29-21. The committee adopted four amendments by voice vote.25

On June 25, 2019, the House passed a five-bill minibus appropriation (H.R. 3055) with the Agriculture bill as Division B (Table 1, Figure 1).26 Under a structured rule,27 the Rules Committee allowed 35 amendments for floor debate (H.Res. 445, H.Rept. 116-119). The House considered 33 of those amendments, of which 31 were adopted and two were rejected. Of the 31 amendments that were adopted, 28 were adopted en bloc by voice vote, two were adopted by recorded votes, and another was adopted separately by voice vote. Of the 31 amendments that were adopted, 14 revised funding amounts with offsets,28 three added policy statements, and 14 made no substantive changes but were for the purposes of discussion.

The $24.3 billion discretionary total in the House-passed FY2020 Agriculture appropriation would be $1 billion more than (+4%) the comparable amount enacted for FY2019 that includes the CFTC (Table 2, Figure 3). Generally speaking, the House-passed bill does not include most of the reductions proposed by the Administration.

Comparison of Discretionary Authority: House-Passed Bill to FY2019

Table 3 provides details of the House-passed bill at the agency level. The primary changes from FY2019 that comprise the $1 billion increase, ranked by increases and decreases, include:

  • Increase Rural Development accounts by $412 million (+14%), including a $144 million increase for the Rural Housing Service (+9%) and a $238 million increase for the Rural Utilities Service (+38%) to support rural water and waste disposal and rural broadband. In addition, the General Provisions title includes a $393 million increase for a rural broadband pilot program (+314%).
  • Increase foreign agricultural assistance by $377 million (+19%), including increasing Food for Peace humanitarian assistance by $350 million and McGovern-Dole Food for Education by $25 million. In FY2019, Food for Peace had received a temporary increase of $216 million in the General Provisions title. The larger FY2020 amount would be to the program's base appropriation rather than the FY2019 approach that used the General Provisions.
  • Increase related agencies appropriations by $232 million, including raising FDA appropriations by $185 million (+6%) and the CFTC by $47 million (+18%).
  • Increase other agricultural program appropriations by $151 million, including:
  • Increase departmental administration accounts by a net $205 million (+53%), including funding most of the Administration's request for a $271 million increase for construction to renovate USDA headquarters.
  • Increase USDA regulatory programs by $56 million, including increasing the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service by $23 million (+2%) and the Agricultural Marketing Service by $33 million (+20%).
  • Decrease agricultural research by a net $134 million (-4%), mostly through smaller appropriations for construction. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) construction would be reduced by $331 million from FY2019 (-87%), while salaries and expenses would increase for ARS (+$44 million, +3%) and the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) (+$146 million, +10%).
  • Some of these increases are offset by a net change of -$175 million in budget authority that is accomplished through the General Provisions title. This is mostly a combination of greater rescissions of carryover balances in WIC (-$300 million) and the absence of continuing the FY2019 appropriations in the General Provisions for Food for Peace (-$216 million, as mentioned above) and rural water and waste disposal (-$75 million). The General Provisions provide increases in funding for rural broadband (+$393 million, as mentioned above) and several appropriations for miscellaneous programs (+$33 million).

Comparison of Mandatory Spending: House-Passed Bill to FY2019

In addition to discretionary spending, the House-passed bill also carries mandatory spending—largely determined in separate authorizing laws—that totals $131 billion. This is about $2 billion more than in FY2019 often because of automatic changes from economic conditions and expectations about enrollment in entitlement programs. Reimbursement for the CCC would increase by $10 billion, mostly due to the cost of the Trump Administration's trade aid assistance that was announced in 2018.29 Child nutrition programs would increase by $0.9 billion. Crop insurance spending would decrease by $6.4 billion, and SNAP spending decreases by about $2.4 billion.

CHIMPS from the 2018 farm bill are incorporated in these spending levels and were subject to budgetary enforcement at enactment of the 2018 farm bill.30

Senate Action

The Senate Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee marked up its FY2020 bill on September 17, 2019. On September 19, 2019, the full Appropriations Committee passed and reported an amended bill (S. 2522, S.Rept. 116-110) by a vote of 31-0. The committee adopted a manager's amendment with three additions to bill text and 19 additions to report language.31

On October 31, 2019, the Senate passed a four-bill minibus appropriation (H.R. 3055, after adopting S.Amdt. 948 in the nature of a substitute, which was comprised of four Senate-reported bills and amended by floor amendments).32 The Agriculture bill is Division B (Table 1, Figure 1). The Senate adopted 16 amendments to Division B, of which 14 were adopted en bloc by unanimous consent and two were adopted by recorded votes. Of these 16 amendments, eight revised funding amounts with offsets,33 three revised funding amounts within an existing appropriation, three changed the terms of an appropriation, and two required reports or studies.

The $23.1 billion discretionary total in the Senate-reported FY2020 Agriculture appropriation would be $57 million more than (+0.2%) the amount enacted for FY2019 (Table 2, Figure 3). The Senate bill is $894 million less than (-3.7%) the House-passed bill on a comparable basis without CFTC. Generally speaking, the Senate-reported bill does not include most of the reductions proposed by the Administration. Table 3 provides details of the Senate-reported bill at the agency level.

Comparison of Discretionary Authority: Senate-Passed Bill to FY2019

Compared to FY2019 and ranked by increases and decreases, the primary changes that comprise the $57 million overall increase are the following:

  • Increase USDA departmental administration accounts by a net $302 million (+77%), including a requested $271 million increase to renovate USDA headquarters and a $46 million increase for the Chief Information Officer.
  • Increase foreign agricultural assistance by $218 million (+11%), mostly by incorporating $216 million into the base appropriation of Food for Peace that had been a temporary increase in the FY2019 General Provisions title.
  • Increase other appropriations by $184 million, including:
  • Increase FDA appropriations by $80 million (+3%).
  • Increase agricultural research by a net $60 million (+1.7%). ARS salaries and expenses would increase by $121 million from FY2019 (+9%) and NIFA by $13 million (+1%). The amount for ARS buildings and facilities would decline by $76 million (-20%).
  • Increase USDA regulatory programs by $39 million, including increasing the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service by $17 million (+2%) and the Agricultural Marketing Service by $22 million (+14%).
  • Maintain Rural Development funding (+$5 million, +0.2%) by offsetting a $73 million increase for the Rural Housing Service (+5%) with reductions to the Rural Utilities Service (-$62 million, -10%) and the Rural Business Cooperative Service ($12 million, -12%). The General Provisions title does not continue any funding for a rural broadband pilot program.
  • Most of these increases are offset by a net change of -$672 million in budget authority that is accomplished through the General Provisions title. This is mostly a combination of greater rescissions of carryover balances in WIC (-$300 million) and the absence of continuing the FY2019 appropriations in the General Provisions for Food for Peace (-$216 million, as mentioned above), rural broadband (-$125 million, as mentioned above), and rural water and waste disposal (-$75 million). The General Provisions title increases appropriations for several miscellaneous programs (+$64 million).

Comparison of Discretionary Authority: Senate-Passed to House-Passed Bill

Compared to the House-passed bill and ranked by increases and decreases, the primary changes in the Senate-reported bill that comprise the -$894 million difference from the House bill include:

  • Agricultural research would be $193 million greater in the Senate-reported bill than in the House-passed bill. ARS buildings and facilities would be $255 million greater than in the House-passed bill, ARS salaries and expenses $77 million greater, and NIFA $132 million less.
  • Departmental administration accounts would be $97 million greater in the Senate bill than in the House bill, mostly by maintaining appropriations for the Chief Information Officer, General Counsel, and Departmental Administration that were reduced as offsets to pay for floor amendments that were adopted in the House bill.
  • Rural Development would be $407 million less in the Senate-reported bill than in the House-passed bill, mostly by a $300 million less for the Rural Utilities Service ($233 million less for rural water and waste disposal grants, $41 million less for distance learning and telemedicine, and $25 million less for existing non-pilot rural broadband programs), $70 million less for Rural Housing Service, and $22 million less for the Rural Business-Cooperative Service.
  • In addition, for a separate rural broadband pilot account, the General Provisions title in the Senate-reported bill does not provide for any of the $518 million that the House bill would provide.
  • Foreign agricultural assistance would be $159 million less in the Senate bill than in the House bill, mostly by not increasing Food for Peace as much as in the House bill, and maintaining the McGovern-Dole program at a constant level.
  • FDA appropriations would be $105 million less in the Senate-reported bill than in the House-passed bill.

Comparison of Mandatory Spending: Senate-Passed to House-Passed Bill

In addition to discretionary spending, the Senate-reported bill also carries mandatory spending—largely determined in separate authorizing laws—that totals $129 billion. This is $153 million less than in FY2019 and $2.3 billion less than in the House-passed bill. Compared to the House-passed bill, amounts for CCC and crop insurance are the same. Mandatory amounts for the child nutrition programs are about $400 million less than the House bill, and the amount for SNAP is about $1.9 billion less than in the House bill.

Continuing Resolutions

In the absence of a final Agriculture appropriation at the beginning of FY2020 on October 1, 2019, Congress passed a CR to continue operations and prevent a government shutdown (P.L. 116-59, Division A).34 The first CR lasted nearly eight weeks until November 21, 2019. A second CR (P.L. 116-69) was enacted to last until December 20, 2019.35

In general, a CR continues the funding rates and conditions that were in the previous year's appropriation.36 The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may prorate funding to the agencies on an annualized basis for the duration of the CR through a process known as apportionment.37 For the first 52 days (about 14% of FY2020) through November 21, 2019, and the next 29 days (about 8% of FY2020) through December 20, 2019, the CRs:

  • continue the terms of the FY2019 Agriculture appropriations act (§101) with a proviso for rural development in the anomalies below.
  • provide sufficient funding to maintain mandatory program levels, including for nutrition programs (§111).38 This is similar to the approach taken in recent years.

CRs may adjust prior-year amounts through anomalies or make specific administrative changes. Five anomalies applied specifically to the Agriculture appropriation during the first CR:

  • Rural Water and Waste Disposal Program (§101(1)). Allows the CR to cover the cost of direct loans in addition to loan guarantees and grants. In FY2019, direct loans did not require appropriation because they had a negative subsidy rate (i.e., fees and repayments more than covered the cost of loan making). In FY2020, OMB estimates a need for a positive subsidy rate.
  • Disaster Assistance for Sugar Beet Processors (§116). Amends the list of eligible losses that may be covered under the Additional Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster Relief Act of FY2019 (P.L. 116-20, Title I) to include payments to cooperative processors for reduced sugar beet quantity and quality. The FY2019 supplemental provided $3 billion to cover agricultural production losses in 2018 and 2019 from natural disasters.39
  • Agricultural Research (§117). Allows USDA to waive the nonfederal matching funds requirement for grants made under the Specialty Crop Research Initiative (7 U.S.C. §7632(g)(3)). The requirement was added in the 2018 farm bill.
  • Summer Food for Children Demonstration Projects (§118). Allocates funding for the Food and Nutrition Service summer food for children demonstration projects at a rate so that projects can fully operate by May 2020 (prior to summer service, which typically starts in June). Similar provisions have been part of previous CRs. These projects, which include the Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) demonstration, have operated in selected states since FY2010.40
  • Commodity Credit Corporation (§119). Allows CCC to receive its appropriation about a month earlier than usual to reimburse the Treasury for a line of credit, prior to a customary final report and audit.41 Many payments to farmers were due in October 2019, including USDA's plan to make supplemental payments under its trade assistance program.42 Without the anomaly, CCC might have exhausted its $30 billion line of credit in October or November before the audit is completed, which could suspend payments. This provision was part of a CR in FY2019. In addition, the FY2020 CR requires USDA to submit a report to Congress by October 31, 2019, with various disaggregated details about Market Facilitation Program payments, trade damages, and whether commodities were purchased from foreign-owned companies under the program.
  • Hemp (§120). Provides $16.5 million on an annualized basis to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service to implement the Hemp Production Program (P.L. 115-334, §10113), which was created in the 2018 farm bill.43

The second CR continues the terms of the first CR until December 20, 2019. It adds one new anomaly for Agriculture appropriations:

  • Commodity Assistance Program (§146). Allows funding for the Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP) to be apportioned at a rate to maintain current program caseload. This means that funding available for CFSP under the second CR may exceed amounts that would otherwise have been available.

Table 3. Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations, by Agency, FY2017-FY2020

Budget authority in millions of dollars

 

FY2017

FY2018

FY2019

FY2020

Change from FY2019

Agency or major program

P.L. 115-31

P.L. 115-141

P.L. 116-6

Admin. request

House H.R. 3055

Senate
H.R. 3055

Enacted

to House-passed

to Senate-passed

Title I. Agricultural Programs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Departmental Administration (Table A-1)

403.9

396.0

390.4

695.1

595.3

691.9

+205.0

+301.6

Research, Education and Economics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agricultural Research Service

1,269.8

1,343.4

1,684.5

1,253.5

1,397.5

1,729.8

-287.0

+45.3

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

1,362.9

1,407.8

1,471.3

1,391.7

1,617.1

1,484.7

+145.8

+13.4

National Agricultural Statistics Service

171.2

191.7

174.5

163.0

180.8

175.3

+6.3

+0.8

Economic Research Service

86.8

86.8

86.8

60.5

87.8

86.8

+1.0

+0.0

Under Secretary

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

+0.0

+0.0

Marketing and Regulatory Programs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

949.4

985.1

1,014.3

984.6

1,037.2

1,031.1

+22.9

+16.8

Agricultural Marketing Servicea

86.2

152.8

160.3

116.3

193.1

182.8

+32.8

+22.5

Section 32 (M)

1,322.0

1,344.0

1,374.0

1,404.0

1,404.0

1,404.0

+30.0

+30.0

Grain Inspection, Packers, Stockyards Admin.a

43.5

moved into Agricultural Marketing Servicea

Under Secretary

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.9

-0.1

+0.0

Food Safety

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Food Safety and Inspection Service

1,032.1

1,056.8

1,049.3

1,045.3

1,054.3

1,054.3

+5.0

+5.0

Under Secretary

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

+0.0

+0.0

Farm and Commodity Programsa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Farm Service Agencyb

1,624.0

moved to Title II: Farm Production and Conservationa

FSA Farm Loans: Loan Authorityc

8,002.6

moved to Title II: Farm Production and Conservationa

Risk Management Agency

74.8

moved to Title II: Farm Production and Conservationa

Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (M)

8,667.0

moved to Title II: Farm Production and Conservationa

Commodity Credit Corporation (M)

21,290.7

moved to Title II: Farm Production and Conservationa

Under Secretary

0.9

moved to Title II: Farm Production and Conservationa

Subtotal, Title I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discretionary

7,107.7

5,622.8

6,033.9

5,712.3

6,165.6

6,439.2

+131.6

+405.3

Mandatory (M)

31,280.2

1,344.0

1,374.0

1,404.0

1,404.0

1,404.0

+30.0

+30.0

Subtotal

38,387.9

6,966.8

7,407.9

7,116.3

7,569.6

7,843.2

+161.6

+435.3

Title II. Farm Production and Conservationa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Business Center

1.0

216.4

206.5

206.5

206.5

-9.8

-9.8

Farm Service Agencyb

a

1,625.2

1,494.2

1,412.7

1,536.1

1,544.4

+41.9

+50.2

FSA Farm Loans: Loan Authorityc

a

8,005.6

7,987.7

7,674.3

7,997.8

8,037.8

+10.1

+50.1

Risk Management Agency

a

74.8

58.4

56.0

58.4

58.4

+0.0

+0.0

Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (M)

a

8,913.0

15,410.6

8,936.0

8,936.0

8,936.0

-6,474.6

-6,474.6

Commodity Credit Corporation (M)

a

14,284.8

15,410.0

25,553.1

25,553.1

25,553.1

+10,143.1

+10,143.1

Conservation Operations

864.5

874.1

819.5

755.0

829.6

835.2

+10.1

+15.7

Watershed and Flood Prevention

150.0

150.0

150.0

155.0

175.0

+5.0

+25.0

Watershed Rehabilitation Program

12.0

10.0

10.0

12.0

+2.0

-10.0

Under Secretary

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

+0.0

+0.0

Subtotal, Title II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discretionary

1,027.4

2,735.6

2,748.8

2,430.6

2,798.0

2,819.9

+49.3

+71.1

Mandatory (M)

a

23,198.3

30,821.1

34,489.6

34,489.6

34,489.6

+3,668.5

+3,668.5

Subtotal

a

25,933.9

33,569.9

36,920.2

37,287.6

37,309.5

+3,717.7

+3,739.6

Title III. Rural Development

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salaries and Expenses (including transfers)d

675.8

680.8

686.8

622.2

705.8

692.0

+19.0

+5.2

Rural Housing Service

1,654.9

1,582.4

1,606.0

1,467.0

1,749.7

1,678.8

+143.7

+72.8

RHS Loan Authorityc

28,083.4

28,390.1

28,293.8

27,260.0

28,423.0

28,645.5

+129.2

+351.7

Rural Business-Cooperative Servicee

97.7

109.5

98.6

27.5

109.3

87.0

+10.7

-11.6

RBCS Loan Authorityc

988.4

991.2

1,026.4

1,000.0

1,288.9

1,038.9

+262.5

+12.5

Rural Utilities Service

639.9

628.1f

620.2f

821.3

858.1f

558.1

+237.9

-62.1

RUS Loan Authorityc

8,217.0

8,219.9

8,419.9

7,390.0

8,419.9

8,419.9

+0.0

+0.0

Under Secretaryg

0.9

temporarily moved to Dept. Admin.g

0.8

0.8

+0.0

+0.0

Subtotal, Title III

3,069.2

3,000.9f

3,011.7f

3,016.7

3,423.8f

3,016.7

+412.1

+5.0

Subtotal, RD Loan Authorityc

37,288.9

37,601.2

37,740.0

38,104.2

38,131.7

38,104.2

+391.7

+364.2

Title IV. Domestic Food Programs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Child Nutrition Programs (M)

22,794.0

24,254.1

23,140.8

23,943.2

24,041.6

23,602.6

+900.8

+461.8

WIC Program

6,350.0

6,175.0

6,075.0

5,750.0

6,000.0

6,000.0

-75.0

-75.0

SNAP, Food and Nutrition Act Programs (M)

78,480.7

74,013.5

73,476.9

69,069.9

71,093.9

69,163.3

-2,383.0

-4,313.6

Commodity Assistance Programs

315.1

322.1

322.1

55.5

344.2

344.2

+22.1

+22.1

Nutrition Programs Administration

170.7

153.8

164.7

152.0

154.0

160.9

-10.6

-3.8

Under Secretary

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

+0.0

+0.0

Subtotal, Title IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discretionary

6,884.7

6,709.8

6,620.3

5,958.3

6,584.8

6,563.5

-35.5

-56.8

Mandatory (M)

101,226.7

98,209.6

96,560.0

93,013.1

95,049.8

92,708.3

-1,510.2

-3,851.7

Subtotal

108,111.3

104,919.4

103,180.3

98,971.4

101,634.6

99,271.8

-1,545.7

-3,908.5

Title V. Foreign Assistance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign Agricultural Service

196.6

199.7

213.9

192.8

215.5

217.9

+1.6

+4.0

Food for Peace Title II, and admin. expenses

1,466.1f

1,600.1f

1,500.1f

0.1

1,850.1

1,716.1

+350.0

+216.0

McGovern-Dole Food for Education

201.6

207.6

210.3

0.0

235.0

210.3

+24.7

+0.0

CCC Export Loan Salaries

8.5

8.8

8.8

6.4

8.8

6.4

+0.0

-2.5

Office of Codex Alimentarius

3.8

4.0

4.8

4.8

4.8

+0.8

+0.8

Under Secretary

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

+0.0

+0.0

Subtotal, Title V

1,872.9

2,021.0

1,938.0

205.0

2,315.2

2,156.3

+377.2

+218.4

Title VI. Related Agencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Food and Drug Administration

2,771.2

2,811.9

3,080.5

3,251.3

3,265.7

3,160.5

+185.3

+80.0

Commodity Futures Trading Commissionh

[250.0]i

249.0

[268.0]i

250.0

315.0

[305.0]i

+47.0

+37.0

Subtotal, Title VI

[3,021.2]

3,060.9

[3,348.5]

3,501.3

3,580.7

[3,465.5]

+232.3

+117.0

Title VII. General Provisions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Changes in Mandatory Programs (CHIMPS)j

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a. Conservation programs

-235.0

[-0.1]k

[-60.2]k

-60.2

-60.2

-60.2

+0.0

+0.0

b. Nutrition programs

-106.0

+5.0

+5.0

+6.0

+5.0

+1.0

+0.0

c. Energy programs

-40.0

-21.0

d. Rural Development (Cushion of Credit)

-132.0

e. Section 32

-231.0

f. Farm Production & Conservation Bus. Ctr.

[+0.1]k

[+60.2]k

+60.2

+60.2

+60.2

+0.0

+0.0

g. Other CHIMPS and mandatory rescissions

+15.0

+10.0

-10.0

-10.0

Subtotal, CHIMPS (Table B-1)

-744.0

-1.0

+15.0

+0.0

+6.0

+5.0

-9.0

-10.0

Rescissions (discretionary)l (Table B-2)

-854.0

-800.0

-505.0

-1,153.0

-805.8

-815.1

-300.8

-310.1

Other appropriations (Table B-3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a. Disaster/emergency programs

234.8

b. Water and Waste Water

500.0

75.0

-75.0

-75.0

c. Broadband pilot

600.0

125.0

518.0

+393.0

-125.0

d. Opioid Enforcement and Surveillance

94.0

e. Food for Peace

134.0

116.0

216.0

-216.0

-216.0

f. Other appropriations

103.4

68.1

77.5

110.8

141.5

+33.3

+64.0

Subtotal, Other appropriations

472.2

1,378.1

493.5

628.8

141.5

+135.3

-352.0

Subtotal, Title VII

-1,125.8

577.1

3.5

-1,153.0

-171.0

-668.6

-174.5

-672.1

Scorekeeping Adjustmentsm (Table B-4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disaster declaration in this bill

-206.1

Other scorekeeping adjustments

-524.0

-481.0

-404.0

-403.0

-398.0

-398.0

+6.0

+6.0

Subtotal, Scorekeeping adjustments

-730.1

-481.0

-404.0

-403.0

-398.0

-398.0

+6.0

+6.0

Totals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discretionary: Senate basis w/o CFTCh

20,877.0

[22,998.0]

23,032.7

18,939.6

[23,984.0]

23,089.6

+951.3

+56.9

Discretionary: House basis w/ CFTCh

[21,127.0]

23,247.0

[23,300.7]

19,189.6

24,299.0

[23,394.6]

+998.3

+93.9

Mandatory (M)

132,506.9

122,752.0

128,755.1

128,906.7

130,943.4

128,601.9

+2,188.3

-153.2

Total: Senate basis w/o CFTC

153,383.9

[145,750.0]

151,787.8

147,846.4

[154,927.4]

151,691.5

+3,139.6

-96.4

Total: House basis w/ CFTC

[153,633.9]

145,999.0

[152,055.8]

148,096.4

155,242.4

151,996.5

+3,186.6

-59.4

Source: CRS, using appropriations text, report tables, and unpublished CBO tables. H.R. 3055 refers to Division B of the June 25, 2019, and October 31, 2019, House-passed and Senate-passed minibus bills, respectively. Later, amendments to H.R. 3055 became the vehicle to carry the second CR without the minibus text.

Notes: Amounts are nominal discretionary budget authority in millions of dollars unless labeled otherwise. "(M)" indicates that the account is mandatory authority (or primarily mandatory authority). Excludes amounts in supplemental appropriations acts. Bracketed amounts are not in the Agriculture appropriations totals due to differing House-Senate jurisdiction for CFTC but are shown for comparison.

a. Row headings reflect recent USDA reorganization. The Farm Service Agency and Risk Management Agency were moved from Title I to Title II, as was the Commodity Credit Corporation and Federal Crop Insurance Corporation in mandatory spending. Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration was moved into the Agricultural Marketing Service.

b. Includes regular FSA salaries and expenses, plus transfers for farm loan program salaries and administrative expenses. Also includes farm loan program loan subsidy, State Mediation Grants, Dairy Indemnity Program (mandatory funding), and Grassroots Source Water Protection Program. Does not include appropriations to the Foreign Agricultural Service for export loans and P.L. 480 administration that are transferred to FSA.

c. Loan authority is the amount of loans that can be made or guaranteed with a loan subsidy. This amount is not added in the budget authority subtotals or totals.

d. Rural Development salaries and expenses include a base amount plus transfers from the three rural development agencies. Amounts presented for the agencies therefore include program funds for loans and grants.

e. Amounts for the Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBCS) are before the rescission in the Cushion of Credit account, which is different than the Appropriations Committee tables. The rescission is included with the CHIMPS as classified by CBO, which allows the RBCS subtotal to remain positive (Table B-1).

f. Excludes a portion of the other appropriations that are provided separately in General Provisions (see Table B-3).

g. The USDA-initiated reorganization in 2017 created an "Assistant to the Secretary for Rural Development" as part of the Office of the Secretary rather than the previously Senate-confirmed undersecretary position. The 2018 farm bill reinstated the undersecretary position.

h. Jurisdiction for the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is in the House Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee and the Senate Financial Services Appropriations Subcommittee. After FY2008, CFTC is carried in the enacted Agriculture appropriations in even-numbered fiscal years. It is always carried in House Agriculture subcommittee markup but never in Senate Agriculture subcommittee markup. Bracketed amounts are not in the Agriculture appropriations totals due to differing House-Senate jurisdiction for CFTC but are shown for comparison.

i. The amount for CFTC in FY2017 and FY2019 is from the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) division of the Consolidated Appropriation and for FY2020 from the Senate bill for FSGG (S. 2524).

j. Includes reductions (limitations and rescissions) and increases to mandatory programs that are known as CHIMPS.

k. These bracketed amounts were not in the official CBO scoring of CHIMPS. Appropriations acts in FY2018 and FY2019 transferred mandatory conservation funding into the Farm Production and Conservation Business Center, but the official CBO scoring of appropriations at that time did not record it as a CHIMP the way that the FY2020 scoring reflects. For more background, see CRS Report R45406, FY2018 and FY2019 Appropriations for Agricultural Conservation.

l. Rescissions are actions that reduce a budget authority subsequent to an enacted appropriation. They score budgetary savings. Any rescissions from mandatory programs are included with the CHIMPS.

m. "Scorekeeping adjustments" are not necessarily appropriated items and may not be shown in Appropriations Committee tables but are part of the official CBO score (accounting) of the bill. They predominantly include "negative subsidies" in loan program accounts (mostly from receipt of fees) and adjustments for disaster designations in the bill.

Policy-Related Provisions

Appropriations bills have also been a vehicle for policy-related provisions that direct how the executive branch should carry out an appropriation. These provisions may have the force of law if they are included in the text of the appropriation, but their effect is generally limited to the current fiscal year unless they amend the U.S. Code. Table 4 compares some of the primary policy provisions that are included in the FY2020 Agriculture appropriations bills.

In addition to the text of an appropriations act, report language may also provide policy instructions. Although report language does not carry the force of text in an act, it often explains congressional intent, which the agencies may be expected to follow. Statements in the committee reports that accompany the committee-reported versions of the FY2020 bills (H.Rept. 116-107 for H.R. 3164, and S.Rept. 116-110 for S. 2522) are not included in Table 4.

In the past, Congress has said that committee and conference reports need to be read together to capture all of the congressional intent for a fiscal year. For example, the FY2019 explanatory statement for the consolidated appropriations act instructs that the House and Senate reports should be read together with the conference agreement:

Congressional Directives. The explanatory statement is silent on provisions that were in both the House Report (H.Rept. 115-706) and Senate Report (S.Rept. 115-259) that remain unchanged by this conference agreement, except as noted in this explanatory statement. The conference agreement restates that executive branch wishes cannot substitute for Congress's own statements as to the best evidence of congressional intentions, which are the official reports of the Congress…. The House and Senate report language that is not changed by the explanatory statement is approved and indicates congressional intentions. The explanatory statement, while repeating some report language for emphasis, does not intend to negate the language referred to above unless expressly provided herein.44

Table 4. Selected Policy Provisions Considered in FY2020 Agriculture Appropriations

House-passed H.R. 3055, Division B

Senate-passed H.R. 3055, Division B

Enacted

Relocation and restructuring

 

 

Economic Research Service (ERS). Appropriation states that "necessary expenses" do not provide funds to relocate the ERS outside the National Capital Region. (Title I)

No comparable provision in Title I.

Provides $15.5 million for relocation. (§762)

National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA). Appropriation states that "necessary expenses" do not provide funds to relocate the NIFA outside the National Capital Region. (Title I)

No comparable provision in Title I.

Provides $9.5 million for relocation. (§762)

Farm Service Agency. None of the funds may be used to close a county office or to permanently relocate county-based employees that results in an office with two or fewer employees without congressional notification. (Title I)a

Same as House provision. (Title I)a

Program reorganizationUSDA. No funds may be used to create or eliminate programs, relocate offices or employees, reorganize offices, or privatize functions. (§716)b

No comparable provision. See §716.

Program reorganizationCFTC and FDA. No funds may be used to create or eliminate programs, relocate offices or employees, reorganize offices, or privatize functions unless notice is provided and approval is received from the Appropriations Committees. (§717)b

Program reorganizationUSDA and FDA. Similar approach to §717 of the House bill. Specifies USDA and FDA, but not CFTC. (§716)b

Relocation. None of the funds may be used to relocate an agency to outside the National Capital Region without enactment of appropriation that is specific for that relocation. (§758)

No comparable provision.

Restructuring. None of the funds may be used to restructure an agency into another mission area or office without specific appropriation for that restructuring. (§759)

No comparable provision.

Disaster Programs

 

 

Disaster payments. In general, prohibits the use of Clause (3) of Section 32 (Funds for Strengthening Markets, Income and Supply, 7 U.S.C. §612c) to reestablish farmers' purchasing power by making payments to farmers. However, allows an exception to use up to $350 million of carryover for this purpose with congressional notification. (§714)c

Same as House provision. (§714)c

No comparable provision.

Disaster assistance for sugar beet processors. Amends the list of eligible losses that may be covered under the Disaster Relief Act of FY2019 (P.L. 116-20, Title I) to include payments to cooperative processors for reduced sugar beet quantity and quality. 764)

 

Agricultural Research

 

 

Climate change. Prohibits USDA from removing the term "climate change" from any publication by any entity that receives USDA funding. (§784)

No comparable provision.

Matching requirement. Allows USDA to waive the matching funds requirement for the Specialty Crops Research Initiative. (§762)

No comparable provision.

National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF). Directs that NBAF shall be transferred from the Department of Homeland Security to USDA. (§766)

Same as House provision.735)

Nutrition Assistance Programs

 

 

SNAP retailer standards. Prohibits funding to administer the "variety requirements" in the final rule "Enhancing Retailer Standards in SNAP" until the Secretary amends the definition of variety to increase the number of items that qualify as acceptable varieties in each staple food category. (§728)

Same as House provision. (§726)

School meal prices. Exempts certain school food authorities (those without a negative balance in their school food service accounts as of December 31, 2019) from paid meal equity requirements in school year 2020-2021. (§747)

No comparable provision.

Vegetables in school breakfast. Prohibits funding to implement or enforce the portion of a School Breakfast Program regulation that limits substituting fruits with certain vegetables. (§750)

Same as House provision.751)

Livestock, Animals, Regulatory Agencies

 

 

Horse slaughter. Prohibits USDA from conducting horse slaughter inspection. (§740)

Same as House provision.765)

Animal Welfare Act. Prohibits funding to issue or renew licenses to class B dealers who sell dogs and cats for use in research, experiments, teaching, or testing. (§736)

Same as House provision.739)

Directs the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to restore to its website and provide updated contents in an animal welfare database that was removed from the web in 2017. 760)

No comparable provision.

Organic livestock. Directs USDA to finalize the proposed rule "National Organic Program; Origin of Livestock," published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2015. (§756)

Same as House provision.752)

Poultry from China. Prohibits funds to buy raw or processed poultry products from China for the National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, Child and Adult Care Food Program, and Summer Food Service Program. (§739)

No comparable provision.

Prohibits funding to finalize the proposed rule, "Eligibility of the People's Republic of China to Export to the United States Poultry Products," until USDA verifies certain conditions. (§742)

No comparable provision.

Swine Slaughter Inspection. Prohibits USDA from implementing the proposed rule "Modernization of Swine Slaughter Inspection" (February 1, 2018) until the USDA inspector general issues a report and the Food Safety and Inspection Service responds. (§779)

No comparable provision.

No comparable provision.

Genetically engineered salmon. Prohibits genetically engineered salmon from entering into interstate commerce until completion of a study commissioned jointly by USDA and FDA. (§763)

 

Rural Development

 

 

American steel. Prohibits funding for rural water, wastewater, waste disposal, and solid waste management projects unless all of the iron and steel products are produced in the United States. (§737)

Same as House provision.740)

Persistent poverty counties. Requires that at least 10% of the funds in certain rural development programs shall be allocated to persistent poverty counties, defined as any county that has had 20% or more of its population living in poverty over the past 30 years. (§741)

Same as House provision.745)

No comparable provision.

REAP Zones. Sets aside funding for Rural Economic Area Partnership (REAP) Zones for several programs in amounts that were most recently obligated in REAP Zones from such programs. (§741)

 

Food and Drug Administration

 

 

Produce for human consumption. Prohibits FDA funds to enforce the final rule "Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption" with respect to wine grapes, hops, pulse crops, or almonds. (§746)

Grapes for wine. Similar to House provision except applies only to grapes used for wine.749)

Seafood. Directs the FDA to revise the advice in a notice about eating fish to be consistent with nutrition science recognized by FDA about seafood consumption. (§751)

No comparable provision.

Human embryos. Prohibits FDA from using funds to accept any investigational new drug application for "research in which a human embryo is intentionally created or modified to include a heritable genetic modification." (§778)

Same as House provision.730)

No comparable provision.

E-cigarettes and vaping. Directs FDA to address recent illnesses from e-cigarettes and vaping products.767)

 

USDA Forest Serviced

 

 

Forest Service. Prohibits USDA from eliminating the Forest Service Job Corps Civilian Conservation Center or altering the jurisdiction as it existed in the department on January 1, 2019. (§780)

No comparable provision.

Other

 

 

Hemp. No comparable provision in Division B. Division A (for Commerce, Justice, Science appropriations) carries a similar provision for the Drug Enforcement Agency and Department of Justice. (Division A, §530)

Prohibits using appropriations to contravene §7606 of the 2014 farm bill or §10114 of the 2018 farm bill regarding hemp.727)

 

Source: CRS.

a. The issue of closing an FSA county office is also addressed in a permanent law that requires certain conditions and notifications (7 U.S.C. §6932a). This appropriations provision, continued from previous years, would augment the standing law for one year.

b. For USDA, Section 716 of the House bill omits a conditional clause that has been used in prior years' appropriations that would presumably allow reorganization only if USDA notifies Congress and receives approval from the Appropriations committees. For CFTC and FDA, Section 717 of the House bill (and Section 716 of the Senate bill for USDA and FDA) retains the conditional approval clause. The USDA Office of General Counsel recently noted that these types of approval clauses have been found to be unconstitutional as determined by the Supreme Court in INS v. Chada (1983). See the USDA inspector general's report about relocating ERS and NIFA and the USDA Office of General Counsel's comments (OIG Report 91801-00001-23, p. 35, August 2019).

c. Appropriations acts from FY2012 to FY2016 imposed a complete prohibition on disaster payments that relied upon Clause (3) of Section 327 (U.S.C. §612c) or Section (5) of the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC, 15 U.S.C. §714c). Beginning in FY2017, the restriction provision in appropriations began to allow a limited amount of carryover in Section 32 to fund Clause (3) up to $75 million, but the complete prohibition continued on Section (5) of CCC. Beginning in FY2018, the restriction on CCC was lifted (by no longer being inserted into the appropriation), and the Section 32 allowance for carryover rose to up to $350 million.

d. Although the Forest Service is part of USDA, jurisdiction for its appropriations are in the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act.

Appendix A. Appropriations in Administrative Accounts

Table A-1. USDA Departmental Administration Appropriations

Budget authority in millions of dollars

 

FY2017

FY2018

FY2019

FY2020

Change from FY2019

Office

P.L. 115-31

P.L. 115-141

P.L. 116-6

Admin. request

House H.R. 3055

Senate
H.R. 3055

Enacted

to House-passed

to Senate-passed

Office of the Secretary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Office of the Secretary

5.1

5.1

5.1

4.9

3.9

6.0

-1.2

+1.0

Office of Tribal Relations

0.5

Combined with Public Partnership and Engagement

Assistant to the Sec. for Rural Developmenta

0.8

0.8

0.8

Moved back to Rural Developmenta

-0.8

-0.8

Office of Homeland Security

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.4

1.5

+0.0

+0.0

Public Partnership and Engagementb

1.2

4.7

4.7

1.7

6.2

4.7

+1.5

+0.0

Assistant Secretary for Admin.

0.8

0.8

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

+0.0

+0.0

Departmental Administration

24.1

22.3

22.3

21.4

0.4

16.3

-21.9

-6.0

Asst. Sec. Congressional Relations

3.9

3.9

3.9

3.1

3.1

3.9

-0.8

+0.0

Office of Communications

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.3

3.7

7.5

-3.8

+0.0

Subtotal

44.6

46.5

46.6

41.4

19.5

40.8

-27.1

-5.8

Executive Operations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Office of Chief Economist

18.9

19.8

21.3

18.5

21.0

24.3

-0.3

+3.0

Office of Hearings and Appeals

13.4

15.2

15.2

13.5

15.2

15.2

+0.0

+0.0

Office of Budget, Program Analysis

9.5

9.5

9.5

8.2

9.5

9.5

+0.0

+0.0

Subtotal

41.8

44.5

46.0

40.2

45.8

49.0

-0.3

+3.0

Other Administration

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chief Information Officer

49.5

59.0

55.6

101.4

48.9

101.4

-6.7

+45.8

Chief Financial Officer

8.0

6.0

6.0

13.5

6.0

7.5

+0.0

+1.5

Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.9

0.9

+0.0

+0.0

Office of Civil Rights

24.2

24.2

24.2

21.2

24.2

24.2

+0.0

+0.0

Buildings and facilities

84.2

64.4

60.0

331.1

330.1

317.1

+270.1

+257.1

Hazardous materials management

3.6

3.5

3.5

3.3

5.3

3.5

+1.8

+0.0

Office of Inspector General

98.2

98.2

98.2

98.2

99.2

98.2

+1.0

+0.0

General Counsel

44.7

44.5

45.1

41.2

11.2

45.1

-33.9

+0.0

Office of Ethics

4.1

4.1

4.1

2.8

4.1

4.1

+0.0

+0.0

Subtotal

317.5

304.9

297.7

613.5

530.1

602.1

+232.3

+304.4

Total, Departmental Administration

403.9

396.0

390.4

695.1

595.3

691.9

+205.0

+301.6

Source: CRS, using appropriations text and report tables. For FY2020, House-passed and Senate-passed are H.R. 3055 (Division B).

a. The USDA-initiated reorganization in 2017 created an "Assistant to the Secretary for Rural Development" as part of the Office of the Secretary rather than the previously Senate-confirmed undersecretary position. The 2018 farm bill reinstated the undersecretary position.

b. Formerly, this was the Office of Advocacy and Outreach.


Appendix B. Appropriations in General Provisions

Table B-1. General Provisions: Changes in Mandatory Program Spending (CHIMPS)

Budget authority in millions of dollars

 

FY2017

FY2018

FY2019

FY2020

Change from FY2019

CHIMPS and mandatory rescissions

P.L. 115-31

P.L. 115-141

P.L. 116-6

Admin. request

House H.R. 3055

Senate
H.R. 3055

Enacted

to House-passed

to Senate-passed

a. Farm bill conservation programs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Farm Security Rural Investment Act programs

[-0.1]a

[-60.2]a

-60.2

-60.2

-60.2

+0.0

+0.0

Environmental Quality Incentives Program

-179.0

Watershed Rehabilitation Program

-54.0

Agricultural Management Assistance

-2.0

b. Other farm bill programs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program

-125.0

The Emergency Food Assistance Program

+19.0

Farm to School

+5.0

+5.0

+6.0

+5.0

+1.0

+0.0

Biorefinery Assistance Program

-20.0

Biomass Crop Assistance Program

-20.0

-21.0

Tree Assistance Program

+15.0

Subtotal, farm bill programs

-381.0

-1.0

+5.0

-60.0

-54.0

-55.0

+1.0

+0.0

Other CHIMPS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Farm Production & Conservation Bus. Ctr.

[+0.1]a

[+60.2]a

+60.2

+60.2

+60.2

+0.0

+0.0

Cushion of Credit (Rural Development)

-132.0

Section 32

-231.0

Food for Progress

+10.0

-10.0

-10.0

Total CHIMPS

-744.0

-1.0

+15.0

+0.0

+6.0

+5.0

-9.0

-10.0

Source: CRS, using appropriations text and report tables, and unpublished CBO tables. For FY2020, House-passed and Senate-passed are H.R. 3055 (Division B).

a. Amounts in brackets were not in the official CBO scoring of CHIMPS. Appropriations acts in FY2018 and FY2019 transferred mandatory conservation funding into the Farm Production and Conservation Business Center, but the official CBO scoring of appropriations at that time did not record it as a CHIMP the way that the FY2020 scoring reflects. For more background, see CRS Report R45406, FY2018 and FY2019 Appropriations for Agricultural Conservation.

Table B-2. General Provisions: Rescissions from Discretionary Accounts

Budget authority in millions of dollars

 

FY2017

FY2018

FY2019

FY2020

Change from FY2019

Rescissions of discretionary accounts

P.L. 115-31

P.L. 115-141

P.L. 116-6

Admin. request

House H.R. 3055

Senate
H.R. 3055

Enacted

to House-passed

to Senate-passed

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children

-850.0

-800.0

-500.0

-1,000.0

-800.0

-800.0

-300.0

-300.0

NIFA buildings and facilities (relocation)

-5.8

-5.8

Rural Development balances

-4.0

Rural community facilities program

-4.2

Rural Housing Service

-40.0

Water and waste disposal cancellation

-100.0

Electric loan refinancing

-15.1

-15.1

FAS salaries and expenses

-8.8

USDA unobligated balances

-5.0

+5.0

+5.0

Total

-854.0

-800.0

-505.0

-1,153.0

-805.8

-815.1

-300.8

-310.1

Source: CRS, using appropriations text and report tables, and unpublished CBO tables. For FY2020, House-passed and Senate-passed are H.R. 3055 (Division B).

Table B-3. General Provisions: Other Appropriations

Budget authority in millions of dollars

 

FY2017

FY2018

FY2019

FY2020

Change from FY2019

Program

P.L. 115-31

P.L. 115-141

P.L. 116-6

Admin. request

House H.R. 3055

Senate
H.R. 3055

Enacted

to House-passed

to Senate-passed

Opioid Enforcement and Surveillance

94.0

FDA buildings and facilities

20.0

+20.0

Zika virus, Ebola funding

10.0

Agriculture Risk Coverage pilot

5.0

5.0

5.0

-5.0

-5.0

Dairy Innovation

20.0

+20.0

Mitigation banking

5.0

+5.0

Conservation Reserve Program pilot

1.0

1.0

1.0

-1.0

+0.0

Farmland Relending Program

5.0

+5.0

Farm Ownership Report

1.0

+1.0

Citrus greening

5.5

7.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

+0.0

+0.0

Pet shelter and housing assistance grant

3.0

+3.0

Eastern equine encephalitis

1.0

+1.0

APHIS buildings and facilities

47.0

Fruit fly quarantine payments

9.0

-9.0

-9.0

Hardwood trees reforestation pilot

0.6

0.6

Geographically disadvantaged farmers

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

+0.0

+0.0

Farming Opportunities Training and Outreach

10.0

+10.0

Water Bank

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

-4.0

+0.0

Rural Energy Savings Program

8.0

8.0

10.0

15.0

10.0

+5.0

+0.0

Maturing mortgage pilot

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

-1.0

+0.0

Rural microentrepreneur assistance program

3.0

-3.0

-3.0

Water and Waste Water

500.0

75.0

-75.0

-75.0

Waste water pilot

5.0

+5.0

Broadband pilot

600.0

125.0

518.0

+393.0

-125.0

Distance Learning Telemedicine

20.0

16.0

1.0

-16.0

-15.0

Rural Hospital Technical Assistance

1.0

+1.0

Protecting Animals with Shelter Grants

2.0

+2.0

Tribal Demonstration Projects

3.0

+3.0

Electric loan refinancing

13.8

5.0

Healthy Food Financing Initiative

1.0

1.0

2.0

10.0

2.0

+8.0

+0.0

Healthy Fluid Milk

1.0

1.0

+1.0

+1.0

RISE grants

5.0

+5.0

Farm and Ranch Stress Network

5.0

+5.0

NIFA military veterans grants

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

+0.0

+0.0

NIFA buildings and facilities (relocation)

6.0

a

ERS-NIFA relocation expenses

25.0

+25.0

Genome to Phenome

1.0

+1.0

Science Technology Engineering Math programs

0.5

NIFA 1890 land grants, Centers of Excellence

5.0

10.0

3.0

+5.0

-2.0

Tribal Student Scholarships

2.5

5.0

+2.5

+5.0

International Agriculture Education

1.0

+1.0

Pollinator Research Coordinator

0.4

+0.4

Urban Agriculture Office

5.0

5.0

+5.0

+5.0

Food Loss Liaison

0.4

+0.4

Food for Peace

134.0

116.0

216.0

-216.0

-216.0

Food for Progress

6.0

-6.0

-6.0

Child Nutrition training pilot

2.0

Nutrition Assistance Program Study

7.0

+7.0

Micro-Grants for Food Security

10.0

2.0

+10.0

+2.0

Food insecurity pilot project

2.0

+2.0

School breakfast expansion

10.0

+10.0

Subtotal, other spending provisions

237.4

1,378.1

493.5

0.0

628.8

141.5

+135.3

-352.0

Disaster/Emergency programs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emergency Watershed Protection

103.1

Emergency Conservation Program

131.6

Subtotal, disaster/emergency programs

234.8b

Total

472.2

1,378.1

493.5

0.0

628.8

141.5

+135.3

-352.0

Source: CRS, using appropriations text and report tables, and unpublished CBO tables. For FY2020, House-passed and Senate-passed are H.R. 3055 (Division B).

Note: Excludes supplemental appropriations outside the annual appropriations act.

a. See Table B-2 for a rescission from the FY2018 appropriation.

b. Of this amount, $206 million was designated as a disaster spending and not counted against the discretionary spending limit (see Table B-4).

Table B-4. General Provisions: Scorekeeping Adjustments

Budget authority in millions of dollars

 

FY2017

FY2018

FY2019

FY2020

Change from FY2019

Scorekeeping Adjustment

P.L. 115-31

P.L. 115-141

P.L. 116-6

Admin. request

House H.R. 3055

Senate
H.R. 3055

Enacted

to House-passed

to Senate-passed

Loan program negative subsidies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rural housing negative subsidy

-146.0

-147.0

-135.0

-125.0

-125.0

-125.0

+10.0

+10.0

Rural community facilities negative subsidy

-159.0

-99.0

-72.0

-72.0

-72.0

-72.0

+0.0

+0.0

Rural elec. & tele. loan negative subsidy

-203.0

-207.0

-173.0

-176.0

-176.0

-176.0

-3.0

-3.0

Rural water & waste loan negative subsidy

-2.0

-2.0

-2.0

-3.0

-3.0

-3.0

-1.0

-1.0

Ag credit loan negative subsidy

-24.0

-24.0

-23.0

-23.0

-23.0

-23.0

+0.0

+0.0

Subtotal, negative subsidies

-534.0

-479.0

-405.0

-399.0

-399.0

-399.0

+6.0

+6.0

Denali Commission

4.0

-4.0

Interest Native American Fund Endowment

5.0

Child nutrition equipment grants

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

+0.0

+0.0

Emergency designations not counted in allocation

-206.1

Total

-730.1

-481.0

-404.0

-403.0

-398.0

-398.0

+6.0

+6.0

Source: CRS, using appropriations text and report tables, and unpublished CBO tables. For FY2020, House-passed and Senate-passed are H.R. 3055 (Division B).

Notes: A negative subsidy for a loan program generally occurs when the interest rate and/or fees charged to the borrowers are more than sufficient to cover the costs of the risk of default (Government Accountability Office, "Credit Reform: Current Method to Estimate Credit Subsidy Costs Is More Appropriate for Budget Estimates Than a Fair Value Approach," GAO-16-41, January 2016).

Appendix C. Budget Sequestration

Sequestration is a process to reduce federal spending through automatic, largely across-the-board reductions that permanently cancel mandatory and/or discretionary budget authority.45 Sequestration is triggered as a budget enforcement mechanism when federal spending would exceed statutory budget goals.46 Sequestration is currently authorized by the BCA (P.L. 112-25).

A sequestration rate is the percentage reduction that is subtracted from an appropriated budget authority to achieve an intended budget goal. OMB computes these rates annually. Table C-1 shows the rates of sequestration that have been announced and the total amounts of budget authority that have been cancelled from accounts in Agriculture appropriations. Table C-2 provides additional detail at the program level for mandatory accounts.

Table C-1. Summary of Sequestration on Agriculture Accounts

 

Discretionary Accounts

Mandatory Accounts

Fiscal Year

Sequestration Rate

Sequestered Budget Authority
($ millions)

Sequestration Rate

Sequestered Budget Authority
($ millions)

2013

5.0%

1,153

5.1%

713

2014

7.2%

1,052

2015

7.3%

1,153

2016

6.8%

1,819

2017

6.9%

1,686

2018

6.6%

1,316

2019

6.2%

1,530

2020

5.9%

1,378

Source: CRS, compiled from OMB, Reports to the Congress on the Joint Committee Reductions, various fiscal years. Available for FY2018-FY2020 at https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/legislative/sequestration-reports-orders and for FY2013-FY2017 at https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/omb/legislative_reports/sequestration.

Notes: Sequestration rates listed here are for nonexempt, nondefense accounts. CRS computed amount totals from the compilation in Table C-2.

Discretionary Spending

For discretionary spending, sequestration is authorized through FY2021 if discretionary defense and nondefense spending exceed caps that are specified in statute (2 U.S.C. §901(c)).

In FY2013, the timing of the appropriations acts and the first year of sequestration resulted in triggering sequestration on discretionary spending.

In FY2014-FY2019, BBAs in 2013, 2015, and 2018 (P.L. 113-67, P.L. 114-74, and P.L. 115-123, respectively) have avoided sequestration on discretionary spending. These BBAs raised the discretionary budget caps that were placed in statute by the BCA and allowed Congress to enact larger appropriations than would have been allowed. The enacted appropriations in FY2014-FY2019 met the spending limitations of the revised budget caps, and therefore no sequestration on discretionary accounts was necessary.

For FY2020-FY2021, the BBA of 2019 (P.L. 116-37) similarly provides a higher discretionary cap that may avoid sequestration (see "Discretionary Budget Caps and Subcommittee Allocations").47

Mandatory Spending

Sequestration Occurs and Continues

For mandatory spending, sequestration is presently authorized and scheduled to continue through FY2029, having been amended and extended by budget acts that were subsequent to the BCA (2 U.S.C. §901a(6)). That is, sequestration of mandatory spending has not been avoided by the BBAs and continues to apply annually to certain accounts (Table C-2).

The original FY2021 sunset on the sequestration of mandatory accounts has been extended five times as an offset to pay for raising the caps on discretionary spending to avoid sequestration in the near term (or as a general budgetary offset for other authorization acts):

  • 1. Congress extended the duration of mandatory sequestration by two years (until FY2023) as an offset in BBA 2013.48
  • 2. Congress extended it by another year (until FY2024) to maintain retirement benefits for certain military personnel (P.L. 113-82).
  • 3. Congress extended sequestration on nonexempt mandatory accounts another year (until FY2025) as an offset in BBA 2015.49
  • 4. Congress extended sequestration on nonexempt mandatory accounts for two years (until FY2027) as an offset in BBA 2018 (P.L. 115-123, §30101(c)).50
  • 5. Congress extended sequestration on nonexempt mandatory accounts by another two years (until FY2029) as an offset in BBA 2019 (P.L. 116-37, §402).51

Exemptions from Sequestration

Some USDA mandatory programs are statutorily exempt from sequestration. Those expressly exempt by statute are the nutrition programs (SNAP, the child nutrition programs, and the Commodity Supplemental Food Program)52 and the Conservation Reserve Program.53 Some prior legal obligations in the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation54 and the farm commodity programs may be exempt55 as determined by OMB.56

Generally speaking, the experience since FY2013 is that OMB has ruled that most of crop insurance is exempt from sequestration, while the farm commodity programs, disaster assistance, and most conservation programs have been subject to it.57

Implementation of Sequestration

Nonexempt mandatory spending in FY2020 is to be reduced by a 5.9% sequestration rate (Table C-1) and thus would be paid at 94.1% of what would otherwise have been provided. This is projected to result in a reduction of about $1.4 billion from mandatory agriculture accounts in FY2020, including over $900 million from amounts paid by the CCC (Table C-2).

For example, for the farm commodity programs that support farm income such as the Agricultural Risk Coverage and Price Loss Coverage programs,58 payments to farmers are computed by a regular formula authorized in the farm bill, and the final actual payment to the farmer is reduced by the sequestration rate. For programs that operate on a fixed budget authority, such as the Environmental Quality Incentives Program and the Market Assistance Program, the sequestration rate is applied to the available budget authority for the fiscal year.

Table C-2. Sequestration of Mandatory Accounts

Sequestered budget authority in millions of dollars

 

FY2013

FY2014

FY2015

FY2016

FY2017

FY2018

FY2019

FY2020

Sequestration rate on nonexempt, nondefense mandatory accounts

5.1%

7.2%

7.3%

6.8%

6.9%

6.6%

6.2%

5.9%

U.S. Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Office of the Secretary

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.9

Office of Chief Economist

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Agricultural Research Service

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

9.9

10.0

11.7

Extension

0.3

0.4

1.8

3.3

0.3

Biomass Research and Development

0.2

0.2

0.2

Integrated Activities

7.3

6.6

5.0

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salaries appropriation

13.6

18.8

21.5

20.1

19.5

18.8

52.1

51.3

Miscellaneous Trust Funds

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Food Safety Inspection Service

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Grain Inspection Packers and Stockyards Administration

2.1

3.0

3.0

3.1

3.1

2.9

Agricultural Marketing Service

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 32

40.4

79.7

81.9

77.3

79.6

78.1

74.4

72.2

Payments to states and possessions

5.3

5.0

5.0

5.6

5.3

5.0

Milk Market Orders Assessment Fund

2.9

4.2

4.2

4.0

4.1

4.0

3.8

4.8

Fee-Funded Inspection, Weighing, and Examinationa

2.9

Marketing services

2.2

2.0

2.1

2.0

3.0

2.1

Perishable Agriculture Commodities Act

0.6

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expenses and refunds

0.4

0.9

0.9

1.3

1.3

0.4

0.4

0.6

Risk Management Agency

0.6

Federal Crop Insurance Corporation

3.0

4.2

5.9

3.5

3.9

3.7

5.0

3.2

Farm Service Agency

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commodity Credit Corporation Fund

329.5

573.7

710.8

1,388.6

1,238.6

904.1

1,088.2

938.6

Wool Apparel Manufacturers Trust Fund

2.0

2.1

2.0

1.9

1.8

Pima Cotton Trust Fund

1.1

1.1

1.1

0.9

Commodity Credit Corporation Export Loans

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

Agricultural Credit Insurance Corporation

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Agricultural Disaster Relief Fund

70.0

Tobacco Trust Fund

49.0

69.1

Farm Production and Conservation Business Center

3.7

Natural Resources Conservation Service

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Farm bill conservation programs

171.2

263.1

269.9

265.7

281.5

254.9

262.4

252.2

Watershed Rehabilitation Program

11.9

11.2

4.7

4.7

4.4

3.0

3.0

Damage Assessment Restoration Revolving Fund

0.1

0.1

Rural Development, Rural Business Cooperative Service

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rural Energy for America Program

1.1

3.0

3.7

3.4

3.5

3.3

3.1

3.0

Biorefinery Assistance Program

3.7

3.4

1.4

1.3

1.5

Rural Cooperative Development Grants

1.1

Rural Economic Development Grants

1.6

0.9

0.9

Rural Microenterprise Investment Program

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

Energy Assistance Payments

3.3

3.2

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.4

Foreign Agricultural Service

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Food and Nutrition Serviceb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SNAP

4.7

8.0

8.4

9.8

10.6

9.6

9.2

9.4

Child Nutrition Programs

2.5

4.2

4.2

3.9

4.3

4.0

3.9

3.2

Commodity Assistance Program

1.1

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.3

1.2

WIC

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Related Agencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commodity Futures Trading Commission

0.7

0.9

1.0

2.2

2.2

0.1

0.3

3.5

Food and Drug Administration

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revolving Fund for Certification

0.4

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

User fees

16.3

Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

Total

713.3

1,051.9

1,153.0

1,818.9

1,685.6

1,315.9

1,530.3

1,377.8

Source: CRS, compiled from amounts published in advance in OMB, Reports to the Congress on the Joint Committee Reductions, various fiscal years. Available for FY2018-FY2019 at https://www.whitehouse.gov, and for FY2013-FY2017 at https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov.

Notes: Column totals were computed by CRS based on the jurisdiction of the House Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee. Sequestration rates are for nonexempt, nondefense accounts. The sequesterable budget authority for each cell may be computed by dividing the amount of sequestration by the sequestration rate.

a. USDA reorganization moved the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration into the Agricultural Marketing Service.

b. Benefits from the nutrition programs are generally exempt from sequestration by statute, but some administrative expenses in these programs may be subject to sequestration, and therefore a relatively small portion of the total budget authority may be sequesterable.

Appendix D. Action on Agriculture Appropriations, FY1996-FY2020

Table D-1. Congressional Action on Agriculture Appropriations Since FY1996

 

House Action

Senate Action

Final Appropriation

 

Fiscal Year

Subcmte.

Cmte.

Floor

Subcmte.

Cmte.

Floor

Enacted

Public Law

CRS Report

1996

6/14/1995

6/27/1995

7/21/1995

9/13/1995

9/14/1995

9/20/1995

10/21/1995

E

P.L. 104-37

95-624

1997

5/30/1996

6/6/1996

6/12/1996

7/10/1996

7/11/1996

7/24/1996

8/6/1996

E

P.L. 104-180

IB96015

1998

6/25/1997

7/14/1997

7/24/1997

7/15/1997

7/17/1997

7/24/1997

11/18/1997

E

P.L. 105-86

97-201

1999

6/10/1998

6/16/1998

6/24/1998

6/9/1998

6/11/1998

7/16/1998

10/21/1998

O

P.L. 105-277

98-201

2000

5/13/1999

5/24/1999

6/8/1999

6/15/1999

6/17/1999

8/4/1999

10/22/1999

E

P.L. 106-78

RL30201

2001

5/4/2000

5/16/2000

7/11/2000

5/4/2000

5/10/2000

7/20/2000

10/28/2000

E

P.L. 106-387

RL30501

2002

6/6/2001

6/27/2001

7/11/2001

Polled out

7/18/2001

10/25/2001

11/28/2001

E

P.L. 107-76

RL31001

2003

6/26/2002

7/26/2002

7/23/2002

7/25/2002

2/20/2003

O

P.L. 108-7

RL31301

2004

6/17/2003

7/9/2003

7/14/2003

7/17/2003

11/6/2003

11/6/2003

1/23/2004

O

P.L. 108-199

RL31801

2005

6/14/2004

7/7/2004

7/13/2004

9/8/2004

9/14/2004

12/8/2004

O

P.L. 108-447

RL32301

2006

5/16/2005

6/2/2005

6/8/2005

6/21/2005

6/27/2005

9/22/2005

11/10/2005

E

P.L. 109-97

RL32904

2007

5/3/2006

5/9/2006

5/23/2006

6/20/2006

6/22/2006

2/15/2007

Y

P.L. 110-5

RL33412

2008

7/12/2007

7/19/2007

8/2/2007

7/17/2007

7/19/2007

12/26/2007

O

P.L. 110-161

RL34132

2009

6/19/2008

Polled out

7/17/2008

3/11/2009

O

P.L. 111-8

R40000

2010

6/11/2009

6/18/2009

7/9/2009

Polled out

7/7/2009

8/4/2009

10/21/2009

E

P.L. 111-80

R40721

2011

6/30/2010

Polled out

7/15/2010

4/15/2011

Y

P.L. 112-10

R41475

2012

5/24/2011

5/31/2011

6/16/2011

Polled out

9/7/2011

11/1/2011

11/18/2011

O

P.L. 112-55

R41964

2013

6/6/2012

6/19/2012

Polled out

4/26/2012

3/26/2013

O

P.L. 113-6

R43110

2014

6/5/2013

6/13/2013

6/18/2013

6/20/2013

1/17/2014

O

P.L. 113-76

R43110

2015

5/20/2014

5/29/2014

5/20/2014

5/22/2014

12/16/2014

O

P.L. 113-235

R43669

2016

6/18/2015

7/8/2015

7/14/2015

7/16/2015

12/18/2015

O

P.L. 114-113

R44240

2017

4/13/2016

4/19/2016

5/17/2016

5/19/2016

5/5/2017

O

P.L. 115-31

R44588

2018

6/28/2017

7/12/2017

9/14/2017

7/18/2017

7/20/2017

3/23/2018

O

P.L. 115-141

R45128

2019

5/9/2018

5/16/2018

5/22/2018

5/24/2018

8/1/2018

2/15/2019

O

P.L. 116-6

R45230

2020

5/23/2019

6/4/2019

6/25/2019

9/17/2019

9/19/2019

10/31/2019

R45974

Source: CRS.

Notes: E = Enacted as standalone appropriation (eight times over 24 years); O = Omnibus appropriation (14 times); Y = Year-long CR (two times). "Polled out" refers to a procedure that permits a Senate subcommittee to transmit a bill to its full committee without a formal markup session. See CRS Report RS22952, Proxy Voting and Polling in Senate Committee.

Author Contact Information

Jim Monke, Specialist in Agricultural Policy ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Key Policy Staff

Area of Expertise

Name

Agricultural appropriations, USDA budget

Jim Monke

Agricultural Marketing Service

Joel Greene

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

Tadlock Cowan

Commodity Futures Trading Commission

Rena Miller

Conservation

Megan Stubbs

Crop insurance

Randy Schnepf

Disaster assistance

Megan Stubbs

Farm Service Agency

Jim Monke

Food and Drug Administration

Agata Dabrowska

Food safety, generally

Renée Johnson

Food safety, meat and poultry inspection

Joel Greene

International food assistance

Alyssa Casey

Nutrition and domestic food assistance

Randy Alison Aussenberg

Kara Clifford Billings

Research and extension

Genevieve Croft

Rural development

Alyssa Casey

Trade

Anita Regmi

Footnotes

1.

Jurisdiction for CFTC appropriations differs between the chambers. Since FY2008, CFTC is marked up in the Agriculture Subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee and in the Financial Services and General Government Subcommittee of the Senate Appropriations Committee. The enacted CFTC appropriation is carried in the Agriculture bill in even-numbered fiscal years and in the Financial Services bill in odd-numbered fiscal years.

2.

Although the Forest Service is part of USDA, jurisdiction for its appropriations are in the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act.

3.

See CRS In Focus IF11032, Budgetary Decisionmaking in Congress; and CRS Report R44582, Overview of Funding Mechanisms in the Federal Budget Process, and Selected Examples.

4.

See CRS Report R42388, The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction.

5.

Mandatory spending creates funding stability and consistency compared to annual discretionary appropriations. In agriculture, it originated with farm commodity programs that had uncertain outlays due to weather and markets.

6.

See CRS Report 98-560, Baselines and Scorekeeping in the Federal Budget Process.

7.

P.L. 115-334 (Agricultural Act of 2018). See CRS Report R45425, Budget Issues That Shaped the 2018 Farm Bill.

8.

P.L. 111-296 (Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010). See CRS In Focus IF10266, An Introduction to Child Nutrition Reauthorization.

9.

See CRS Report RS20129, Entitlements and Appropriated Entitlements in the Federal Budget Process.

10.

See CRS Report R44606, The Commodity Credit Corporation: In Brief.

11.

Office of Management and Budget (OMB), A Budget for a Better America: President's Budget FY 2020.

12.

OMB, FY2020 Budget of the U.S. Government, Appendix.

13.

USDA, FY2020 USDA Budget Summary; and USDA, FY2020 Budget Explanatory Notes.

14.

FDA, FY2020 Justification of Estimates for Appropriations.

15.

CFTC, FY2020 President's Budget Request.

16.

Farm Credit Administration, FY2020 Proposed Budget and Performance Plan.

17.

OMB, FY2020 Budget of the U.S. Government, Major Savings and Reforms.

18.

CRS Report R42388, The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction.

19.

References to 302(a) and 302(b) are to sections of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.

20.

CRS Report R44874, The Budget Control Act: Frequently Asked Questions.

21.

CRS Report R42972, Sequestration as a Budget Enforcement Process: Frequently Asked Questions.

22.

CRS Insight IN11090, Increasing the BCA Spending Limits: Characteristics of Previously Enacted Legislation.

23.

CRS Insight IN11148, The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019: Changes to the BCA and Debt Limit.

24.

See the House Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee website for the bill draft and report draft.

25.

House Appropriations Committee, "FY2020 Full Committee Adopted Amendments," June 4, 2019.

26.

H.R. 3055 was originally a Commerce-Justice-Science Appropriations bill. It became the vehicle for a House minibus and later a Senate minibus. It was also used to carry the second CR without the minibus text.

27.

CRS Report R42933, Regular Appropriations Bills: Terms of Initial Consideration and Amendment in the House, FY1996-FY2015.

28.

These 14 amendments added $109 million spread across rural broadband, distance learning and telemedicine, dairy innovation, 1890s institutions, geographically disadvantaged farmers, nutrition initiatives, farm-to-school, rural energy, and opioid abuse. They remained budget neutral by reducing (offsetting) seven mostly administrative accounts by $110 million, including the Chief Information Officer (-$52 million), Office of General Counsel (-$30 million), Departmental Administration (-$21 million), Office of Communications (-$3.6 million), Office of the Secretary (-$1 million), Agricultural Marketing Service (-$1 million), and Agriculture Buildings and Facilities (-$1 million). These reductions were about 98% of the committee-proposed amount for the Departmental Administration, 73% of the Office of General Counsel, and 52% of the Chief Information Officer. See Table A-1.

29.

See CRS Report R45310, Farm Policy: USDA's 2018 Trade Aid Package. Most of the trade aid announced in 2019 (see CRS Report R45865, Farm Policy: USDA's 2019 Trade Aid Package) is likely to be paid out (outlays) in FY2020 and reimbursed in the FY2021 appropriation after those payments are incorporated into CCC's net realized losses.

30.

See CRS Report R45425, Budget Issues That Shaped the 2018 Farm Bill.

31.

Senate Appropriations Committee, "FY2020 Agriculture Manager's Package," September 19, 2019.

32.

H.R. 3055 was originally a Commerce-Justice-Science Appropriations bill. It became the vehicle for a House minibus and later a Senate minibus. It was also used to carry the second CR without the minibus text.

33.

These eight amendments added $25 million spread across food insecurity, urban agriculture, equine encephalitis, pet shelter and housing, distance learning and telemedicine, tribal student scholarships, 1890s institutions, and the farm and ranch stress network. They remained budget neutral by reducing (offsetting) three administrative accounts by $26 million, including Agriculture Buildings and Facilities (-$14 million), Chief Financial Officer (-$6 million), and Departmental Administration (-$6 million). These reductions were about 44% of the committee-proposed amount for the Departmental Administration and 27% of the Chief Financial Officer (Table A-1).

34.

CRS Report R45982, Overview of Continuing Appropriations for FY2020 (P.L. 116-59).

35.

The legislative vehicle for the second CR was H.R. 3055, which was originally a Commerce-Justice-Science Appropriations bill and later became, for agriculture, the vehicle to carry the minibus appropriation bills that were developed in each chamber. The second CR did not include any of the chamber-passed minibus appropriations text.

36.

CRS Report R42647, Continuing Resolutions: Overview of Components and Practices.

37.

For example, if a CR lasts for three months, then three-twelfths of the previous fiscal year amount may be apportioned to limit agency spending. See OMB, "Apportionment of the Continuing Resolution(s) for Fiscal Year 2020," September 30, 2019, See also CRS Report RL34700, Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations.

38.

The OMB bulletin about implementing CRs (footnote 37) identifies the scope of mandatory programs that are included in Section 111 by referencing the conference report for the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (H.Rept. 105-217). These include nearly all of the mandatory agriculture programs: SNAP, child nutrition, CCC, crop insurance, Section 32, and the dairy indemnity program.

39.

For more information, see CRS In Focus IF11245, FY2019 Supplemental Appropriations for Agriculture.

40.

For more information, see CRS Report R45486, Child Nutrition Programs: Current Issues.

41.

For more information, see CRS Insight IN11168, The CCC Anomaly in an FY2020 Continuing Resolution.

42.

For more information, see CRS Report R45865, Farm Policy: USDA's 2019 Trade Aid Package.

43.

For more information, see CRS In Focus IF11088, 2018 Farm Bill Primer: Hemp Cultivation and Processing.

44.

H.Rept. 116-9, Conference Report for the FY2019 Consolidated Appropriations Act, Explanatory Statement for Division B.

45.

CRS Report R43411, The Budget Control Act of 2011: Legislative Changes to the Law and Their Budgetary Effects.

46.

CRS Report R42972, Sequestration as a Budget Enforcement Process: Frequently Asked Questions.

47.

CRS Insight IN11148, The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019: Changes to the BCA and Debt Limit.

48.

CBO, Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, December 11, 2013, https://www.cbo.gov/publication/44964.

49.

CBO, Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, October 28, 2015, https://www.cbo.gov/publication/50938. In addition to extending sequestration and related to mandatory spending in agriculture, crop insurance was used as an additional budgetary offset in BBA 2015. The effect was temporary, however, and the crop insurance reduction was restored. For more background, see the section on crop insurance and the Standard Reinsurance Agreement in CRS Report R44240, Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2016 Appropriations.

50.

CBO, Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, February 8, 2018, https://www.cbo.gov/publication/53556.

51.

CBO, Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019, July 23, 2019, https://www.cbo.gov/publication/55478.

52.

2 U.S.C. §905(h).

53.

2 U.S.C. §905(g)(1)(A).

54.

2 U.S.C. §905(g)(2).

55.

2 U.S.C. §906(j).

56.

Some administrative expenses may be subject to sequestration, and therefore programs that are otherwise exempt may have a relatively small sequesterable amount compared to their total budget authority, as shown, for example, in Table C-2 for the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, SNAP, child nutrition programs, and WIC.

57.

CRS Report R42050, Budget "Sequestration" and Selected Program Exemptions and Special Rules.

58.

CRS In Focus IF11161, 2018 Farm Bill Primer: ARC and PLC Support Programs.