African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020




African American Members of the U.S.
Congress: 1870-2020

Updated July 23, 2020
Congressional Research Service
https://crsreports.congress.gov
RL30378




African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2019

Summary
In total, 162 African Americans have served in Congress. This total includes
 152 African Americans (146 Representatives and 6 Delegates) elected only to the
House of Representatives;
 9 African Americans elected or appointed only to the Senate; and
 1 African American who has served in both chambers.
The first African American Members, Senator Hiram Revels of Mississippi and Representative
Joseph Rainey of South Carolina, both took the oath of office in 1870. These first two Members
were among the 22 African American Members (2 in the Senate, 20 in the House) who began
their service in the period of time after the Civil War but prior to the start of the 20th century. After
these first 22, the presence of African Americans in the membership of Congress was not
continuous, and there were subsequent periods in both chambers with no African American
Members.
Most recently, the 116th Congress began with the highest number of African American Members
ever at the start of a Congress: 57 (52 Representatives, 2 Delegates, and 3 Senators).
Other information in this report includes the following:
 Numbers of African Americans who have served in Congress by party and type
of service;
 Numbers of African Americans who have served in each Congress since 1870;
 Numbers of African Americans who have served in the House and Senate by
state, district, or territory;
 Means of entry to Congress, including regular elections, special elections, and
appointments;
 Brief background and selected data on the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC);
 Lists of selected “firsts” for African Americans in Congress;
 Lists of the African Americans who have served in leadership;
 Records for length of service in the House and Senate; and
 Lists of the African American women in the 116th Congress.

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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1
Source Note .............................................................................................................. 2
Brief Overview of Studies on African Americans in Congress ................................................ 2
African Americans in Congress Since 1870: Totals and in Each Congress ................................ 4
How African Americans Enter Congress: Regular Elections, Special Elections, and
Appointments ............................................................................................................ 10
The Congressional Black Caucus (CBC): A Congressional Member Organization................... 11
African American Firsts in Congress ................................................................................ 12
African Americans Who Have Served in Party Leadership Positions ..................................... 14
African Americans and Leadership of Congressional Committees......................................... 15
Length of Service Records.............................................................................................. 15
African American Women in Congress ............................................................................. 16
Alphabetical Listing, Including Dates of Service and Committee Assignments ....................... 16


Figures
Figure 1. Number of African Americans by Congress, 1870 to Present .................................... 6
Figure 2. Number of African Americans in the House and Senate by State, District, or
Territory, 1870-Present ................................................................................................ 10
Figure 3. African Americans’ Initial Entrance to the Senate: Regular Elections, Special
Elections, and Appointments to Unexpired Terms ............................................................ 11

Tables
Table 1. Number of African American Members in the 116th Congress .................................... 1
Table 2. African American Members of Congress by Chamber and Party: Summary
Statistics, 1870-Present ................................................................................................. 5
Table 3. Number of African American Members in Each Congress: 41st Congress to
Present........................................................................................................................ 6
Table 4. List of Firsts by an African American in Congress .................................................. 12
Table 5. Selected Congressional Party Leadership Positions Held by African Americans .......... 14
Table 6. Longest Service by an African American in the House and Senate ............................ 15
Table 7. African American Women in the 116th Congress..................................................... 16

Contacts
Author Information ....................................................................................................... 50


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Introduction
The 116th Congress began with 57 African American Members, the highest number ever at the
beginning of a Congress. After the deaths of African American House Members in October 2019
and July 2020, and the swearing in of another in May 2020, the current 56 African American
Members represent the following proportions of the entire Congress, and of the House and Senate
separately:
 10.1% of voting Members in the Congress (54 of 535, does not include the
Delegates and Resident Commissioner);
 10.4% of total Members in the Congress (56 of 541, includes the Delegates and
Resident Commissioner);
 11.7% of voting Members in the House (51 of 435, does not include the
Delegates and Resident Commissioner);
 12.0% of total Members in the House (53 of 441, includes the Delegates and
Resident Commissioner); and
 3.0% of total Members in the Senate (3 of 100).
Table 1 provides more detail on these African American Members across the 116th Congress.
Table 1. Number of African American Members in the 116th Congress
(As of July 20, 2020)
House Subtotal
Total
Nonvoting
(Representatives
African
Members
and Nonvoting

Americans
Senators
Representatives
in the Housea
Members)
Total
56
3
51
2
53
Democrats
54
2
50
2
52
Republicans
2
1
1
0
1
Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives.
Notes: Inclusion for this report is based on entry in U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, Black
Americans in Congress, at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-
Congress/. It does not include additional Members who might identify as African American, or as having African
ancestry, but are not included in this publication. See the “Source Note” section for additional information.
The 116th Congress began with 57 African American Members. One African American Member of the House
died in October 2019, another died in July 2020, and another was sworn into the House in May 2020. These
numbers include, also based on information from the Office of the Historian, one Senator and one House
Member who are of African American and Asian ancestry, and one House Member who is of African American
and Hispanic ancestry.
a. Nonvoting Members may include Delegates and the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. None of the
sources used for this report identified an African American Resident Commissioner. Al data in this report
on nonvoting Members, therefore, refer to Delegates.
In addition to data for the 116th Congress, this report provides historical information. The report
also includes an appendix with an alphabetical listing of African American Members, selected
biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in Congress.
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

Source Note
Inclusion in this report, and related data, is based on entry in Black Americans in Congress, 1870-
2007, the Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2019 e-book,1 and the accompanying website
maintained by the House Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives
(http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/).
According to that office, the website2
is based on the 2008 print edition but updated to reflect the entry of new African Americans
into Congress. In 2018, at the direction of the Committee on House Administration, the
Historian’s Office revised and updated the contextual essays of the 2008 print edition in
order to prepare the 2019 e-book edition of Black Americans in Congress.
This report does not include additional Members who might identify as African American, or as
having African ancestry, but are not included in these sources.
Additional historical information, including committee assignments, leadership positions, and
dates of service, is based on Biographical Directory of the American Congress
(http://bioguide.congress.gov), various editions of the Congressional Directory, and a broad range
of Congressional Quarterly Inc. and Leadership Directories Inc. publications.
Brief Overview of Studies on African Americans
in Congress
Numerous studies of Congress have examined the role and impact of African Americans in
Congress. Many of these studies relate to larger questions about the nature of representation or
about Congress as an institution.3
Central to these studies have been questions about the following:
 Descriptive representation (i.e., representation by those who share demographic
characteristics with their constituents) and substantive representation (i.e.,
representation of policy preferences and a linkage to policy outcomes) in the
representation of minority electoral and policy interests, as wel as any linkage or
trade-offs between the two. While the former concentrates on election outcomes

1 Available at https://bookstore.gpo.gov/products/black-americans-congress-1870-2019-0.
2 Available at https://history.house.gov/historiography.aspx. The 2008 volume and its predecessors were printed
pursuant to concurrent resolutions adopted by Congress periodically since the 1970s:
H.Con.Res. 182, 95th Congress, a concurrent resolution providing for the printing as a House document of the
pamphlet entitled “ Black Americans in Congress,” November 3, 1977. T his resulted in the printing of H.Doc. 95-
258.
H.Con.Res. 170, 101st Congress, a concurrent resolution authorizing the printing of the book entitled “ Black
Americans in Congress,” November 20, 1989. T his resulted in the printing of H.Doc. 101 -117.
H.Con.Res. 43, 107th Congress, a concurrent resolution authorizing the printing of a revised and updated version
of the House document entitled “Black Americans in Congress, 1870 -1989,” April 6, 2001. T his resulted in the
printing of H.Doc. 108-224.
3 T he idea of “representation,” including its forms and variations, has long been debated among political scientists and
political theorists. For a discussion, see Hanna F. Pitkin, The Concept of Representation (Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press, 1967).
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

(e.g., percentages of congressional seats), the latter focuses on behaviors and
actions once an elected official is in office.4
 The Voting Rights Act of 1965, impact of majority-minority districts in
representing minority interests in a district, and influence of majority-minority
districts on electoral and policy preferences in surrounding districts.5 These
studies have also examined recent court rulings.6
 The relationship of minority Members of Congress with their constituents,
including any impact on turnout, electoral competitiveness or strategies, hiring of
minority staff, communication styles, constituency services, and voter
satisfaction and engagement.7

4 For example: David Lublin, The Paradox of Representation: Racial Gerrymandering and Minority Interests in
Congress
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997); Kenny J. Whitby, The Color of Representation: Congressional
Behavior and Black Interests
(Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997); David T . Canon, “ Electoral Systems
and the Representation of Minority Interests in Legislatures,” Legislative Studies Quarterly, vol. 24:331-85 (1999);
David T . Canon, Race, Redistricting, and Representation: The Unintended Consequences of Black Majority Districts
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999); Carol M. Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests, Enlarged Edition
(Lanham, MD: University Press of America, Inc., 2006); Daniel C. Bowen and Christopher J. Clark, “ Revisiting
Descriptive Representation in Congress: Assessing the Effect of Race on the Constituent –Legislator Relationship,”
Political Research Quarterly, vol. 67, no. 3 (September 2014), pp. 695-707; Shane A. Gleason and Christopher T .
Stout, “ Who Is Empowering Who: Exploring the Causal Relationship Between Descriptive Representation and Black
Empowerment ,” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 45, no. 7 (October 2014), pp. 635-659; and Nolan Kopkin, “ Substantive
Black Political Representation: Evidence from Matching Estimates in the United States House of Representatives,” The
Review of Black Political Econom y
, vol. 44, no. 3-4 (2017), pp. 203-232.
5 For example: Charles Cameron, David Epstein, and Sharon O’Halloran, “Do Majority-Minority Districts Maximize
Substantive Black Representation in Congress?” American Political Science Review, vol. 90, pp. 794-812, 1996);
David Lublin, “ Racial Redistricting and African-American Representation: A Critique of ‘Do Majority-Minority
Districts Maximize Substantive Black Representation in Congress?’” The Am erican Political Science Review, vol. 93,
no. 1 (March 1999), pp. 183-186; Vincent L. Hutchings, Harwood K. McClerking, and Guy -Uriel Charles,
“Congressional Representation of Black Interests: Recognizing the Importance of Stability,” Journal of Politics, vol.
66, no. 2 (2004), pp. 450-468; and Christina R. Rivers, Congressional Black Caucus, Minority Voting Rights, and the
U.S. Suprem e Court
(University of Michigan Press, 2012).
6 See, for example, CRS Report R44798, Congressional Redistricting Law: Background and Recent Court Rulings, by
L. Paige Whitaker, Congressional Redistricting Law: Background and Recent Court Rulings, by L. Paige Whitaker;
and CRS Report R44199, Congressional Redistricting: Legal and Constitutional Issues, by L. Paige Whitaker,
Congressional Redistricting: Legal and Constitutional Issues, by L. Paige Whitaker.
7 For example: Claudine Gay, “Spirals of T rust: T he Effect of Descriptive Representation on the Relationship Between
Citizens and their Government,” American Journal of Political Science, vol. 46, p. 717 (2002); Richard F. Fenno,
Going Hom e: Black Representatives and Their Constituencies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003); John D.
Griffin and Michael Keane, “ Descriptive Representation and the Composition of African American T urnout,”
Am erican Journal of Political Science, vol. 50, no. 4 (Oct ober 2006), pp. 998-1012; Christian R. Grose, Maurice
Mangum, and Christopher Martin, “ Race, Political Empowerment, and Constituency Service: Descriptive
Representation and the Hiring of African-American Congressional Staff,” Polity, vol. 39, no. 4 (Oct ober 2007), pp.
449-478; Claudine Gay, “ Legislating without Constraints: T he Effect of Min ority Districting on Legislator
Responsiveness to Constituency Preferences,” The Journal of Politics, vol. 69, no. 2 (May 2007), pp. 442-456; Kenny
J. Whitby, “ T he Effect of Black Descriptive Representation on Black Electoral T urnout in the 2004 Elections,” Social
Science Quarterly,
vol. 88, no. 4 (December 2007), pp. 1010-1023; Thomas L. Brunell, Christopher J. Anderson , and
Rachel K. Cremona, “ Descriptive Representation, District Demography, and Attitudes T oward Congress Among
African Americans,” Legislative Studies Quarterly, vol. 33, no. 2 (May 2008), pp. 223-244; Whose Black Politics?
Cases in Post-Racial Black Leadership
, ed. Andra Gillespie (New York: Routledge, 2010); Phillip J. Ardoin, “ Why
Don’t You T weet? T he Congressional Black Caucus’ Social Media Gap,” Race, Gender, and Class, vol. 20, no. 1-2
(2013), pp. 130-140; and Bernard L. Fraga, “ Candidates or Districts? Reevaluating the Role of Race in Voter T urnout ,”
Am erican Journal of Political Science, vol. 60, no. 1 (January 2016), pp. 97-122.
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 Legislative activities and influence, including work in committees, floor
speeches, bil introduction and passage, cosponsorship, coalition formation,
career progression and seniority, and relations with congressional leadership.8
 Roll-cal voting behavior, including voting cohesion compared to party or state
delegations.9
 Positions on various domestic or international issues.10
African Americans in Congress Since 1870: Totals
and in Each Congress
The first African American to serve in the Senate, Hiram Revels of Mississippi, was sworn in on
February 23, 1870. The first African American to serve in the House, Joseph Rainey of South
Carolina, was sworn in on December 12, 1870.
Both chambers subsequently had periods without any African American Members. The longest
period for the House stretched from the 57th Congress (1901-1903) until the beginning of the 71st
Congress (1929-1931), or 28 years. The longest period for the Senate stretched from the
beginning of the 47th Congress (1881-1883) until the beginning of the 90th Congress (1967-1968),
or 86 years.

8 For example: Kerry L. Haynie, “African Americans and the New Politics of Inclusion,” in Congress Reconsidered,
ed. Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 8th ed. (Washington: CQ Press, 2005), pp. 395 -409; Scott A. Frisch
and Sean Q. Kelly, Com m ittee Assignm ent Politics in the U.S. House of Representatives (Norman: University of
Oklahoma Press, 2006); Katrina L. Gamble, “Black Political Representation: An Examination of Legislative Activity
within U.S. House Committees,” Legislative Studies Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 3 (August 2007), pp. 421-447; Franklin G.
Mixon Jr. and Amanda C. Pagels, “ Are Congressional Black Caucus Members More Reliable? Loyalty Screening and
Committee Assignments of Newly Elected Legislators,” The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, vol. 66,
no. 2 (April 2007), pp. 413-432; Katrina L. Gamble, “ Black Voice: Deliberation in the United States Congress,” Polity,
vol. 43, no. 3 (July 2011), pp. 291-312; Michael S. Rocca, Gabriel R. Sanchez, and Jason L. Morin, “ T he Institutional
Mobility of Minority Members of Congress,” Political Research Quarterly, vol. 64, no. 4 (December 2011), pp. 897-
909; John D. Griffin and Michael Keane, “ Are African Americans Effectively Represented in Congress?” Political
Research Quarterly
, vol. 64, no. 1 (March 2011), pp. 145-156; Gbemende Johnson, Bruce I. Oppenheimer, and
Jennifer L. Selin, “ T he House as a Stepping Stone to the Senate: Why Do So Few African American House Members
Run?” Am erican Journal of Political Science, vol. 56, no. 2 (April 2012), pp. 387-399; Stella M. Rouse, Michele L.
Swers, and Michael D. Parrott, “ Gender, Race, and Coalition Building: Agenda Setting as a Mechanism for
Collaboration Among Minority Groups in Congress,” paper delivered for presentation at the American Political
Science Association Meeting (2013); and Katherine T ate, Concordance: Black Lawm aking in the U.S. Congress from
Carter to Obam a
(University of Michigan Press, 2014).
9 For example: Charles E. Jones, “United We Stand, Divided We Fall: An Analysis of the Congressional Black Caucus’
Voting Behavior, 1975-1980,” Phylon, vol. 48, no. 1 (First quarter, 1987), pp. 26 -37; Roxanne L. Gile and Charles E.
Jones, “Congressional Racial Solidarity: Exploring Congressional Black Caucus Voting Cohesion, 1971 -1990,”
Journal of Black Studies, vol. 25, no. 5 (May 1995), pp. 622 -641; Neil Pinney and George Serra, “ T he Congressional
Black Caucus and Vote Cohesion: Placing the Caucus within House Voting Patterns,” Political Research Quarterly,
vol. 52, no. 3 (September 1999), pp. 583 -608; Michael S. Rocca, Gabriel R. Sanchez, and Ro n Nikora, “ T he Role of
Personal Attributes in African American Roll-Call Voting Behavior in Congress,” Political Research Quarterly, vol.
62, no. 2 (June 2009), pp. 408-414.
10 For example: Edward O. Erhagbe, “T he Congressional Black Caucus and United States Policy T oward Africa:1971-
1990,” Transafrican Journal of History, vol. 24 (1995), pp. 84-96; Joseph Uscinski, Michael S. Rocca, Gabriel R.
Sanchez, and Marina Brenden, “ Congress and Foreign Policy: Congressional Action on the Darfur Genocide,” PS:
Political Science and Politics
, vol. 42, no. 3 (July 2009), pp. 489-496; Michael D. Minta and Valeria Sinclair-
Chapman, “ Diversity in Political Institutions and Congressional Responsiveness to Minority Interests,” Political
Research Quarterly
, vol. 66, no. 1 (March 2013), pp. 127-140.
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African American membership in the House first reached 10 Members during the 91st Congress
(1969-1970), and voting membership first exceeded 5% during the 100th Congress (1987-1988).
Another large increase occurred during the 103rd Congress (1993-1994), which was the first
Congress after the redistricting that followed the 1990 U.S. Census.
The 116th Congress began with the highest number of African American Members ever for the
start of a Congress: 57 (52 Representatives, 2 Delegates, and 3 Senators).
Table 2 provides a summary of the 162 African Americans who have served in the House, Senate,
and both chambers. Of these 162 Members, 22 began their service after the Civil War but prior to
the start of the 20th century (2 in the Senate, 20 in the House).
Table 2. African American Members of Congress by Chamber and Party: Summary
Statistics, 1870-Present
(Including any Members who served only a portion of the Congress)
African
Americans
Who Have
House
House
House
Served in
Senate
Service
Service
Service
Both
Service
Only
Only
Only

Total
Chambers
Only
(Representatives)
(Delegates)
(Subtotal)
Total
162a
1
9
146
6a
152a
Democrats
131b
0
6
120
5b
125
Republicans
31
1
3
26
1
27
Source: Inclusion for this report is based on entry in U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, Black
Americans in Congress, at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-
Congress/. It does not include additional Members who might identify as African American, or as having African
ancestry, but are not included in this publication. See the “Source Note” section for additional information.
These numbers include, also based on information from the Office of the Historian, one Senator and one House
Member who are of African American and Asian ancestry, and one House Member who is of African American
and Hispanic ancestry.
Notes:
a. The total number of African American Members of the House includes two Delegates from the District of
Columbia and four Delegates from the U.S. Virgin Islands.
b. Includes one Independent who caucused with the Democrats in the 104 th Congress.
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

Figure 1. Number of African Americans by Congress, 1870 to Present
(Including any Members who served only a portion of the Congress)

Source: Inclusion for this report is based on entry in U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, Black
Americans in Congress, at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-
Congress/. It does not include additional Members who might identify as African American, or as having African
ancestry, but are not included in this publication. See the “Source Note” section for additional information.
Notes: Delegates are included in the data. The figure also includes Members who served only a portion of the
Congress (due, for example, to special elections, appointments to the Senate, deaths, and resignations) and so
may not reflect the number serving at a given time within a Congress.
Table 3. Number of African American Members in Each Congress:
41st Congress to Present
(Including any Members who served only a portion of the Congress)
Nonvoting
House
Members
Subtotal
Total
in the
(Voting &
Total
(Voting &
House
Nonvoting
(Voting
Nonvoting
Congress
Reps
(Delegates)a
Members)
Senators
Members)
Members)
41st (1869-1871)
2b
0
2
1c
3bc
3bc
42nd (1871-1873)
5d
0
5d
0
5d
5d
43rd (1873-1875)
7e
0
7
0
7
7
44th (1875-1877)
7f
0
7
1
8
8
45th (1877-1879)
3
0
3
1
4
4
46th (1879-1881)
0
0
0
1
1
1
47th (1881-1883)
2g
0
2
0
2
2
48th (1883-1885)
2h
0
2
0
2
2
49th (1885-1887)
2
0
2
0
2
2
50th (1887-1889)
0
0
0
0
0
0
51st (1889-1891)
3g
0
3
0
3
3
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Nonvoting
House
Members
Subtotal
Total
in the
(Voting &
Total
(Voting &
House
Nonvoting
(Voting
Nonvoting
Congress
Reps
(Delegates)a
Members)
Senators
Members)
Members)
52nd (1891-1893)
1
0
1
0
1
1
53rd (1893-1895)
1
0
1
0
1
1
54th (1895-1897)
1i
0
1
0
1
1
55th (1897-1899)
1
0
1
0
1
1
56th (1899-1901)
1
0
1
0
1
1
57th (1901-1903)
0
0
0
0
0
0
58th (1903-1905)
0
0
0
0
0
0
59th (1905-1907)
0
0
0
0
0
0
60th (1907-1909)
0
0
0
0
0
0
61st (1909-1911)
0
0
0
0
0
0
62nd (1911-1913)
0
0
0
0
0
0
63rd (1913-1915)
0
0
0
0
0
0
64th (1915-1917)
0
0
0
0
0
0
65th (1917-1919)
0
0
0
0
0
0
66th (1919-1921)
0
0
0
0
0
0
67th (1921-1923)
0
0
0
0
0
0
68th (1923-1925)
0
0
0
0
0
0
69th (1925-1927)
0
0
0
0
0
0
70th (1927-1929)
0
0
0
0
0
0
71st (1929-1931)
1
0
1
0
1
1
72nd (1931-1933)
1
0
1
0
1
1
73rd (1933-1934)
1
0
1
0
1
1
74th (1935-1936)
1
0
1
0
1
1
75th (1937-1938)
1
0
1
0
1
1
76th (1939-1940)
1
0
1
0
1
1
77th (1941-1942)
1
0
1
0
1
1
78th (1943-1944)
1
0
1
0
1
1
79th (1945-1946)
2
0
2
0
2
2
80th (1947-1948)
2
0
2
0
2
2
81st (1949-1950)
2
0
2
0
2
2
82nd (1951-1952)
2
0
2
0
2
2
83rd (1953-1954)
2
0
2
0
2
2
84th (1955-1956)
3
0
3
0
3
3
85th (1957-1958)
4h
0
4
0
4
4
86th (1959-1960)
4
0
4
0
4
4
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Nonvoting
House
Members
Subtotal
Total
in the
(Voting &
Total
(Voting &
House
Nonvoting
(Voting
Nonvoting
Congress
Reps
(Delegates)a
Members)
Senators
Members)
Members)
87th (1961-1962)
4
0
4
0
4
4
88th (1963-1964)
5
0
5
0
5
5
89th (1965-1966)
6
0
6
0
6
6
90th (1967-1968)
6j
0
6
1
7
7
91st (1969-1970)
10k
0
10
1
11
11
92nd (1971-1972)
12k
1h
13
1
13
14
93rd (1973-1974)
15h
1
16
1
16
17
94th (1975-1976)
16
1
17
1
17
18
95th (1977-1978)
16l
1
17
1
17
18
96th (1979-1980)
16m
2
18
0
16
18
97th (1981-1982)
18h
1
19
0
18
19
98th (1983-1984)
21m
1
22
0
21
22
99th (1985-1986)
20h
1
21
0
20
21
100th (1987-1988)
22
1
23
0
22
23
101st (1989-1990)
24n
1
25
0
24
25
102nd (1991-1992)
27eo
1
28
0
27
28
103rd (1993-1994)
39eh
1
40
1
40
41
104th (1995-1996)
41p
2
43
1
42
44
105th (1997-1998)
39q
2
41
1
40
42
106th (1999-2000)
37k
2
39
0
37
39
107th (2001-2002)
37h
2
39
0
37
39
108th (2003-2004)
38m
2
40
0
38
40
109th (2005-2006)
40
2
42
1
41
43
110th (2007-2008)
44r
2
46
1s
45
47
111th (2009-2010)
39
2
41
1t
40
42
112th (2011-2012)
43u
2
45
0
43
45
113th (2013-2014)
42v
2
44
3w
45
47
114th (2015-2016)
45m
2
47
2
47
49
115th (2017-2018)
47m
2
49
3
50
52
116th (2019-2020)
53x
2
55
3
56
58
Source: CRS summary, based on entry in U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, Black Americans in
Congress, at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/. Does not
include additional Members who might identify as African American, or as having African ancestry, but are not
included in this publication. See the “Source Note” section for additional information.
Notes: Three columns include numbers for the House: (1) the number of African American Representatives, (2)
the number of African American nonvoting Members (Delegates and Resident Commissioner), and (3) the total
number of African Americans in the House.
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Totals are provided for (1) the number of African Americans in the House and Senate, not including nonvoting
Members; and (2) the number of African Americans in the House and Senate, including nonvoting Members.
For simplification, Congresses are listed in two-year increments. Pursuant to the 20th Amendment to the
Constitution, which was ratified January 23, 1933, “the terms of Senators and Representatives [shal end] at noon
on the 3rd day of January.” For specific dates, see “Dates of Sessions of the Congress, present-1789,” at
http://www.senate.gov/reference/Sessions/sessionDates.htm.
The numbers include Members who served only a portion of the Congress and so may not reflect the number
serving at any given time within a Congress.
Service for less than the entirety of a Congress is noted below:
a. Nonvoting Members may include Delegates and the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. None of the
sources used for this report identified an African American Resident Commissioner. Al data in this report
on nonvoting Members, therefore, refer to Delegates.
b. Includes two House Members who were elected by special election (serving from December 12, 1870, and
January 16, 1871, respectively).
c. Includes one Senator who presented his credentials upon the readmission of Mississippi and served from
February 23, 1870.
d. Includes two Representatives who served until their elections were contested.
e. Includes one House Member who resigned.
f.
Includes one House Member who served until their election was contested.
g. Includes two Representatives who successful y contested an election and served for a portion of the
Congress.
h. Includes one House Member who was elected to fil a vacancy.
i.
Includes one Representative who successful y contested an election and served for a portion of the
Congress.
j.
Includes one Representative excluded from membership in the 90th Congress pursuant to H.Res. 278. This
same person was subsequently elected by special election to fil the vacancy caused by his exclusion, though
he did not appear to be sworn in.
k. Includes one House Member who died.
l.
Includes one House Member who died and one House Member who resigned.
m. Includes one House Member who resigned and one House Member who was elected to fil a vacancy.
n. Includes one House Member who was elected to fil a vacancy and one House Member who died.
o. Includes two House Members who were elected to fil a vacancy.
p. Includes three House Members who resigned and four House Members who were elected to fil a vacancy.
q. Includes two House Members who resigned and two House members who were elected to fil a vacancy.
r. Includes four Members who were elected to fil a vacancy, three Members who died, and one Member who
resigned.
s. President Barack Obama served in the Senate in the 110th Congress until his resignation on November 16,
2008.
t.
Includes one Senator who was appointed to fil a vacancy.
u. Includes one Member who died, one who was elected to fil a vacancy, one who resigned, and one who was
appointed to the Senate and resigned from the House on January 2, 2013.
v. Includes three House Members who were elected to fil a vacancy and one House Member who resigned.
w. Includes one Senator who was appointed to fil a vacancy (February 1, 2013) and one Senator who was
elected to fil a vacancy (October 31, 2013).
x. Includes one House Member who was elected to fil a vacancy and two House Members who died.
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

Figure 2. Number of African Americans in the House and Senate
by State, District, or Territory, 1870-Present
(Including any Members who served only a portion of the Congress, as of June 2020)

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives, “Black Americans in
Congress,” http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/.
Notes: 162 African Americans have served in Congress. One African American who has served in both the
House and Senate, from South Carolina, is included in both House and Senate tal ies in this figure. Delegates are
included in the data. The figure also includes Members who served only a portion of the Congress (due, for
example, to special elections, appointments to the Senate, deaths, and resignations).
How African Americans Enter Congress: Regular
Elections, Special Elections, and Appointments
Article I, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution requires that al Members of the House of
Representatives must be “chosen every second Year by the People of the several States.”
Therefore, al 153 of the African Americans who have served in the House entered office through
election, even those who entered after a seat became open during a Congress.
By contrast, the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution, which was ratified in 1913, gives
state legislatures the option to empower governors to fil congressional Senate vacancies by
temporary appointment. The Seventeenth Amendment also provides for direct elections of
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

Senators by the “people” of a state. Previously, Senators were elected by legislative selection
rather than through the direct elections by which Representatives to Congress were elected.11
Of the 10 African Americans who have served in the Senate,
 two were elected prior to the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the
Constitution;
 four initial y entered Senate service by winning a regular election;
 one initial y entered Senate service by winning a special election and was
subsequently reelected; and
 three were appointed. Of these three, one was a candidate for reelection and
served in more than one Congress.
Figure 3. African Americans’ Initial Entrance to the Senate: Regular Elections,
Special Elections, and Appointments to Unexpired Terms
(Inclusive through December 13, 2019)

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives, “Black Americans in
Congress,” http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/ and the
“Biographical Directory of the United States Congress,” http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp.
The Congressional Black Caucus (CBC):
A Congressional Member Organization
In 1971, the 13 African Americans then serving in the House established the Congressional Black
Caucus.

11 For information on the Seventeenth Amendment, see National Archives, “T he Constitution: Amendments 11 -27,” at
https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/amendments-11-27#toc-amendment-xvii; and Congressional Research
Service, “Seventeenth Amendment —Popular Election of Senators,” in Constitution Annotated, at http://www.crs.gov/
conan/details/?mode=topic&doc=Amendment17.xml&t=1&c=1.
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

In the 116th Congress, the CBC12 is one of more than 270 registered congressional member
organizations (CMOs) in the House.13 House CMOs are required to register with the Committee
on House Administration. CMOs do not receive separate funding, and they have not since a
change in the Rules of the House adopted for the 104th Congress.14 Members may use their
Members’ Representational Al owance (MRA) to support staff, including shared staff, assigned to
CMO duties.15 Members, rather than the CMO, remain the employing authority, and the CMO is
not an independent entity. The committee’s Members’ Congressional Handbook lists a number of
additional regulations related to the staffing and funding of CMOs.16
CMOs are not required to register in the Senate. As in the House, informal congressional groups
or organizations do not receive separate funding.
The CBC CMO is distinct from the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, which was
established in 1976 and is a §501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.17
African American Firsts in Congress
Table 4. List of Firsts by an African American in Congress
(Including Member, dates, and related information)
Congress First
Occurred
[total dates of
Related Information
First
Member
service]
(if applicable)
African American
Hiram Rhodes Revels (R-
41st Congress
On January 20, 1870, he was
Member of Congress, also
MS)
[February 23, 1870-
chosen by the Mississippi
first African American
March 3, 1871]
legislature to take the seat
Member of the Senate
previously held by Albert G.
Brown, who withdrew from
the Senate on January 12,
1861, after Mississippi
seceded from the Union.

12 For information on the CBC CMO, see the website of the Congressional Black Caucus at https://cbc.house.gov/. For
additional historical information, see http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Essays/
Permanent -Interest/Congressional-Black-Caucus/.
13 Number includes CMOs listed as of May 16, 2019. For a list of CMOs in the 116 th Congress, see U.S. House of
Representatives, “ Creation and Evolution of the Congressional Black Caucus,” at https://cha.house.gov/sites/
democrats.cha.house.gov/files/documents/cmo_cso_docs/116th_CMOs.pdf.
14 H.Res. 6 (104th Congress), §222. T hese groups were previously referred to as Legislative Service Organizations
(LSOs).
15 Rules of the House adopted for t he 114th and subsequent Congresses made changes to the accounting of CMOs
(H.Res. 5, §3(p), 114th Congress; H.Res. 5, §(3)(n), 115th Congress; H.Res. 6, §103(p), 116th Congress) by allowing a
“Member of the House of Representatives and an eligible Congressional Member Organization [to] enter into an
agreement ” to allow for a transfer of funds from the MRA to a “ dedicated account in the House of Representatives
which is administered by the Organization,” subject to regulations adopted by the Committee on House Administration.
16 For information, see Committee on House Administration, “Congressional Member Organizations,” in Members’
Congressional Handbook
, at https://cha.house.gov/handbooks/members-congressional-handbook#Members-Handbook-
Organizations-CMO.
17 For information, see the website of the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation at https://www.cbcfinc.org/.
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

Congress First
Occurred
[total dates of
Related Information
First
Member
service]
(if applicable)
African American
Joseph H. Rainey (R-SC)
41st Congress
Elected to fil the vacancy
Member of the House
[December 12, 1870-
caused by the action of the
March 3, 1879]
House of Representatives in
declaring the seat of B.
Franklin Whittemore vacant.
African American
Blanche K. Bruce (R-MS)
44th Congress

Member of the Senate to
[March 4, 1875-March
serve a ful term
3, 1881]
Senate Committee Chair
Blanche K. Bruce (R-MS)
45th Congress
Senate Select Committee on
[March 5, 1877-March
the Levees of the Mississippi
3, 1879]
River
House Committee Chair
Wil iam L. Dawson (D-IL)
81st Congress
House Committee on
[January 18, 1949-
Expenditures in the
January 3, 1953;
Executive Departments
January 13, 1955-
November 9, 1970]
Chair of the
Charles Diggs (D-MI)
84th Congress

Congressional Black
[January 3, 1955-June
Caucus
3, 1980]
African American elected
Edward Brooke (R-MA)
90th Congress

to the Senate after
[January 3, 1967-
passage of the
January 3, 1979]
Seventeenth Amendment
(providing for direct
election of Senators)
African American woman
Shirley Chisholm (D-NY)
91st Congress

elected to the House
[January 3, 1969-
January 3, 1983]
African American
Walter Fauntroy (D-DC)
92nd Congress
Elected by special election.
Delegate
[March 23, 1971-
January 3, 1991]
African American woman
Carol Moseley Braun (D-
103rd Congress

elected to the Senate
IL)
[January 3, 1993-
January 3, 1999]
African American
Roland Burris (D-IL)
111th Congress
Appointed to the seat
appointed to the Senate
[January 12, 2009-
vacated by President Obama,
November 29, 2010]
was not a candidate for
election to the unexpired
portion of the term.
African American
Tim Scott (R-SC)
113th Congress
Appointed January 2, 2013,
appointed to the Senate
[House-January 3,
to fil the vacancy caused by
to subsequently win a
2011, to January 2,
the resignation of James
special or regular
2013;
DeMint, subsequently elected
election; also first African
Senate-January 2, 2013 in a special election in 2014
American to Serve in the
to present]
and regular election in 2016.
House and Senate
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Congress First
Occurred
[total dates of
Related Information
First
Member
service]
(if applicable)
African American to win a Cory Booker (D-NJ)
113th Congress
Elected in a special election
Senate special election
[October 31, 2013-
on October 16, 2013, and
present]
reelected in 2014.
Source: Compiled by CRS.
African Americans Who Have Served in Party
Leadership Positions18
A number of African Americans in Congress, listed in Table 5, have held positions in their party’s
leadership.19 Al of these party leadership positions have been in the House. The first African
American Member to be elected to any party leadership position was Shirley Chisholm (D-NY),
who served as House Democratic Caucus Secretary in the 95th and 96th Congresses (1977-1980).
Table 5. Selected Congressional Party Leadership Positions Held by
African Americans
Position
Member
Congresses
House Assistant Democratic Leader
James Clyburn (D-SC)
112th-115th (2011-2018)
House Democratic Whip
James Clyburn (D-SC)
110th-111th, 116th (2001-2002;
2019-present)
Wil iam Herbert Gray III (D-PA)
101st-102nd (1989-1992)
House Senior Chief Deputy
John R. Lewis (D-GA)
110th, 113th-116th (2007-2008,
Democratic Whip
2013-2020)
Chief Deputy Democratic Whip
Sheila Jackson Lee (D-TX)
116th Congress (2019-present)
Keith El ison (D-MN)
113th-115th (2013-2018)
Terri Sewel (D-AL)
113th-116th (2013-present)
George Kenneth Butterfield Jr.
110th, 112th-116th (2007-2008,
(G.K.) (D-NC)
2011-present)
Maxine Waters (D-CA)
106th-110th, 112th (1999-2008,
2011-2012)
John R. Lewis (D-GA)
102nd-109th (1991-2006)
House Democratic Caucus Chair
Hakeem Jeffries (D-NY)
116th (2019-present)
James Clyburn (D-SC)
109th (2005-2006)
Wil iam Herbert Gray III (D-PA)
101st (1989-1990)

18 For additional information, refer to CRS Report RL30567, Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2019,
by Valerie Heitshusen, Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789 -2019, by Valerie Heitshusen.
19 U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, “Black Americans in Party Leadership Positions, 1977 -Present,”
http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Data/Black-Americans-in-Party-Leadership-
Positions/.
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Position
Member
Congresses
House Democratic Caucus Vice
James Clyburn (D-SC)
108th-109th (2003-2006)
Chair
House Democratic Caucus
Shirley Chisholm (D-NY)
95th-96th (1977-1980)
Secretarya


House Republican Conference
Julius Caesar Watts Jr. (J.C.) (R-
106th-107th (1999-2002)
Chair
OK)
Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/
BAIC/Historical-Data/Black-Americans-in-Party-Leadersh ip-Positions/; and CRS Report RL30567, Party Leaders in
the United States Congress, 1789-2019
, by Valerie Heitshusen.
Notes: Al party leadership positions held by African Americans have been in the House.
a. The title of this position changed from “Secretary” to “Vice Chair” with the 100 th Congress.
African Americans and Leadership of Congressional
Committees
As chair of the Senate Select Committee on the Levees of the Mississippi River (45th Congress),
Blanche K. Bruce was the first African American to chair any congressional committee. As chair
of the House Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments (81st Congress), Wil iam
L. Dawson was the first African American to chair a House committee. In total,
 23 African Americans have chaired a House committee;
 1 African American has chaired a Senate committee; and
 2 African American Representatives have chaired a joint committee.
These chairmanships include standing, special, and select committees. Some African Americans
have chaired multiple committees in the House.20
In the 116th Congress, four African American Representatives currently chair four different House
standing committees.21
Length of Service Records
Table 6. Longest Service by an African American in the House and Senate
Chamber
Member of Congress
Dates of Service
Length of Service
House
John Conyers Jr. (D-MI)
January 3, 1965-
52.96 years
December 5, 2017
Senate
Edward Brooke (R-MA)
January 3, 1967-January 3,
12.00 years
1979

20 For additional information, refer to the “Black Americans Who Have Chaired Congressional Committees in the U.S.
House, 1873-present” table of the Black Am ericans in Congress website at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-
Publications/BAIC/Historical-Data/Black-American-Chairs-of-Congressional-Committees/.
21 T his total does not include one African American House Committee Chairman who died in October 2019.
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Source: Calculations by CRS.
African American Women in Congress
A total of 47 African American women have served in Congress.22 Of these, 25 serve in the 116th
Congress (including 2 Delegates), a record number. The previous record was 22 (including 2
Delegates), which was reached at the end of the 115th Congress. The African American women
Members of the 116th Congress are listed in Table 7.
African American women comprise
 25 of the 131 women currently serving in the 116th Congress (19.1%) and
 25 of the 57 African Americans currently serving in the 116th Congress (43.9%).
Table 7. African American Women in the 116th Congress
(Al are House Members except for Sen. Kamala Harris)
Alma Adams
Val Demings (D-FL)
Sheila Jackson Lee
Lucy McBath (D-
Terri Sewel (D-AL)
(D-NC)
(D-TX)
GA)
Karen Bass (D-CA)
Marcia Fudge
Eddie Bernice
Gwen Moore
Lauren Underwood
(D-OH)
Johnson (D-TX)
(D-WI)
(D-IL)
Joyce Beatty
Sen. Kamala Harris
Robin Kel y (D-IL)
Ilhan Omar (D-MN) Maxine Waters (D-
(D-OH)
(D-CA)
CA)
Lisa Blunt
Jahana Hayes (D-
Brenda Lawrence
Stacey Plaskett (D-
Bonnie Watson
Rochester (D-DE)
CT)
(D-MI)
VI) [Delegate]
Coleman (D-NJ)
Yvette Clarke
Eleanor Holmes
Barbara Lee (D-CA) Ayana Pressley (D-
Frederica Wilson
(D-NY)
Norton (D-DC)
MA)
(D-FL)
[Delegate]
Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/
WIC/Historical-Data/Women-of-Color-in-Congress/.
Note: Sen. Kamala Harris is also Asian Pacific American.
Alphabetical Listing, Including Dates of Service and
Committee Assignments23
ADAMS, ALMA S.
Democrat; North Carolina, 12th District. Elected to the 113th Congress to fil
the vacancy caused by the resignation of Melvin L. Watt, and also elected to the 114th-116th
Congresses (served Nov. 4, 2014-present).

22 T his number includes one female Senator who is of African American and Asian ancestry. For additional
information, see U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, Black Am ericans in Congress, at
http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/.
23 Inclusion for this report is based on entry in U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, Black Americans in
Congress, at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/. It does not
include additional Members who might identify as African American, or as havin g African ancestry, but are not
included in this publication. See the “ Source Note” section for additional information.
Prior to the adoption of the Twentieth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, effective Oct ober 15, 1933, the terms of
Representatives and Senators began on March 4, in conformance with a resolution of the Continental Congress
implementing the Constitution (adopted Sept ember 13, 1788). T he Twentieth Amendment provides inter alia that the
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (114th-116th Congresses)
 H. Education and the Workforce/Education and Labor (114th-116th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (114th-115th Congresses)
 H. Financial Services (116th Congress)
ALLRED, COLIN. Democrat; Texas, 32nd District. Elected to the 116th Congress (served Jan. 3,
2019-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Foreign Affairs (116th Congress)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (116th Congress)
 H. Veterans’ Affairs (116th Congress)
BALLANCE, FRANK W., Jr. Democrat; North Carolina, 1st District. Elected to the 108th
Congress (served Jan. 7, 2003, until his resignation June 11, 2004).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (108th Congress)
 H. Smal Business (108th Congress)
BASS, KAREN. Democrat; California, 33rd (112th Congress) and 37th District (113th Congress-
present). Elected to the 112th-116th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2011-present). Chair of the
Congressional Black Caucus, 116th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Budget (112th Congress)
 H. Foreign Affairs (112th-116th Congresses)
 H. Judiciary (113th-116th Congresses)
BEATTY, JOYCE. Democrat; Ohio, 3rd District. Elected to the 113th-116th Congresses (served
Jan. 3, 2013-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Financial Services (113th-116th Congresses)
BISHOP, SANFORD DIXON, Jr. Democrat; Georgia, 2nd District. Elected to the 103rd-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 5, 1993-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (103rd-107th Congresses)

terms of Representatives and Senators shall commence at noon on January 3, in the year following their election. T he
first Congress affected by the T wentieth Amendment was the 74 th (1935-1937). Members elected to fill a vacancy are
sworn in and commence their terms as soon as possible, as do Senators appointed to fill a vacancy.
T he names and jurisdiction of House and Senate committees have changed many times over the years. In the interest of
brevity, this report does not identify all historical name changes. T he committee names listed are for the most part those
in effect at the time a Member served on the panel.
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
 H. Veterans’ Affairs (103rd-104th Congresses)
 H. Select Intel igence (105th-107th Congresses)
 H. Appropriations (108th-116th Congresses)
BLACKWELL, LUCIEN EDWARD. Democrat; Pennsylvania, 2nd District. Elected to the 102nd
Congress to fil the vacancy caused by the resignation of Wil iam Gray, and also elected to the
103rd Congress (served Nov. 11, 1991-Jan. 3, 1995).
Committee assignments:
 H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (102nd Congress)
 H. Public Works and Transportation (102nd-103rd Congresses)
 H. Budget (103rd Congress)
BLUNT ROCHESTER, LISA. Democrat; Delaware, At-Large. Elected to the 115th-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2017-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (115th Congress)
 H. Education and the Workforce (115th Congress)
 H. Energy and Commerce (116th Congress)
BOOKER, CORY ANTHONY. Democrat; New Jersey. Senator. Elected to the Senate in 2013 to
fil the vacancy caused by the death of Frank Lautenberg and subsequently elected to a full term
in 2014 (served October 31, 2013-present).
Committee assignments:
 S. Commerce, Science and Transportation (113th-114th Congress)
 S. Environment and Public Works (113th-116th Congresses)
 S. Homeland Security and Government Affairs (114th Congress)
 S. Foreign Relations (115th-116th Congresses)
 S. Smal Business and Entrepreneurship (113th-116th Congresses)
 S. Judiciary (115th-116th Congresses)
BROOKE, EDWARD WILLIAM, III. Republican; Massachusetts. Senator. Elected in 1966
(served Jan. 3, 1967-Jan. 3, 1979).
Committee assignments:
 S. Aeronautical and Space Sciences (90th Congress)
 S. Banking and Currency (90th-95th Congresses; ranking member, 95th Congress)
 S. Government Operations (90th Congress)
 S. Armed Services (91st Congress)
 S. Select Education Opportunity (91st-92nd Congresses)
 S. Appropriations (92nd-95th Congresses)
 S. Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs (92nd-95th Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 S. Special Aging (92nd-95th Congresses)
 S. Select Standards and Conduct (93rd-94th Congresses)
 Jt. Bicentennial Arrangements (94th Congress; vice-chair)
 Jt. Defense Production (94th-95th Congresses)
BROWN, ANTHONY GREGORY. Democrat; Maryland, 4th District. Elected to the 115th-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2017-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Armed Services (115th-116th Congresses)
 H. Ethics (115th-116th Congresses)
 H. Natural Resources (115th-116th Congresses)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (116th Congress)
BROWN, CORRINE. Democrat; Florida, 3rd District (103rd-112th Congresses), 5th District
(113th-114th Congress). Elected to the 103rd-114th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1993-Jan. 3, 2017).
Committee assignments:
 H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
 H. Public Works and Transportation (103rd Congress)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th-114th Congresses)
 H. Veterans’ Affairs (103rd-114th Congresses; ranking member, 114th Congress)
BRUCE, BLANCHE KELSO. Republican; Mississippi, Senator. Elected in 1874 (served March
4, 1875-March 3, 1881).
Committee assignments:
 S. Manufactures (44th Congress)
 S. Pensions (44th-45th Congresses)
 S. Education and Labor (44th-46th Congresses)
 S. Select Levees of the Mississippi River (chair, 45th-46th Congresses)
 S. Select To Investigate the Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company (chair, 46th
Congress)
BURKE, YVONNE BRATHWAITE. Democrat; California, 28th (94th-95th Congresses) and 37th
(93rd Congress) Districts. Elected to the 93rd-95th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1973-Jan. 3, 1979).
First female chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 94th-95th Congresses.
Committee assignments:
 H. Public Works (93rd Congress)
 H. Interior and Insular Affairs (93rd Congress)
 H. Appropriations (94th-95th Congresses)
 H. Select Committee on the House Beauty Shop (chair, 94th-95th Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

BURRIS, ROLAND. Democrat; Il inois. Senator. Appointed to the Senate in December 2008 to
fil vacancy caused by the resignation of Barack Obama, but was not seated until Jan. 12, 2009
(served Jan. 12, 2009-Nov. 29, 2010).
Committee assignments:
 S. Armed Services (111th Congress)
 S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (111th Congress)
 S. Veteran’s Affairs (111th Congress)
BUTTERFIELD, GEORGE KENNETH, Jr. (G.K.). Democrat; North Carolina, 1st District.
Elected to the 108th Congress to fil the vacancy caused by the resignation of Frank Bal ance, and
also elected to the 109th-116th Congresses (served July 20, 2004-present). Chair of the
Congressional Black Caucus, 114th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Smal Business (108th Congress)
 H. Agriculture (108th-109th Congresses)
 H. Armed Services (109th Congress)
 H. Energy and Commerce (110th-116th Congresses)
 H. Standards of Official Conduct (111th Congress)
 H. House Administration (116th Congress)
CAIN, RICHARD HARVEY. Republican; South Carolina, At-Large. Elected to the 43rd and 45th
Congresses (served March 4, 1873-March 3, 1875; March 4, 1877-March 3, 1879).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (43rd Congress)
 H. Private Land Claims (45th Congress)
CARSON, ANDRÉ. Democrat; Indiana, 7th District. Elected to the 110th Congress to fil the
vacancy caused by the death of his grandmother Julia Carson, and also elected to the 111th-116th
Congresses (served March 11, 2008-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Financial Services (110th-112th Congresses)
 H. Armed Services (113th Congress)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (113th-116th Congresses)
 H. Permanent Select Intel igence (114th-116th Congresses)
CARSON, JULIA. Democrat; Indiana, 10th District (105th-107th Congresses) and 7th District
(108th-110th Congresses). Elected to the 105th-110th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1997, until her
death Dec. 15, 2007).
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking and Financial Services/Financial Services (105th-110th Congresses)
 H. Veterans’ Affairs (105th-107th Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (108th-110th Congresses)
CHEATHAM, HENRY PLUMMER. Republican; North Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the
51st and 52nd Congresses (served March 4, 1889-March 3, 1893).
Committee assignments:
 H. Expenditures on Public Buildings (51st-52nd Congresses)
 H. Education (51st-52nd Congresses)
 H. Agriculture (52nd Congresses)
CHISHOLM, SHIRLEY ANITA. Democrat; New York, 12th District. Elected to the 91st-97th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1969-Jan. 3, 1983).
Committee assignments:
 H. Veterans’ Affairs (91st-92nd Congresses)
 H. Education and Labor (92nd-94th Congresses)
 H. Rules (95th-97th Congresses)
CHRISTENSEN, DONNA. Democrat; Delegate from the Virgin Islands. Elected to the 105th-
113th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1997-Jan. 3, 2015).
Committee assignments:
 H. Resources/Natural Resources (105th-112th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (105th-109th Congresses)
 H. Homeland Security (108th-110th Congresses; 112th Congress)
 H. Energy and Commerce (111th-113th Congresses)
CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSEN, DONNA and CHRISTIAN-GREEN, DONNA. See
CHRISTENSEN, DONNA.
CLARKE, HANSEN. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District. Elected to the 112th Congress (served
Jan. 3, 2011-Jan. 3, 2013).
Committee assignments:
 H. Homeland Security (112th Congress)
 H. Science, Space and Technology (112th Congress)
CLARKE, YVETTE. Democrat; New York, 11th District (110th-112th Congresses) and 9th District
(113th Congress-present). Elected to the 110th-116th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2007-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor (110th-111th Congresses)
 H. Homeland Security (110th-113th, 116th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (110th-114th Congresses)
 H. Ethics (113th-115th Congresses)
 H. Energy and Commerce (114th-116th Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

CLAY, WILLIAM LACY, Jr. Democrat; Missouri, 1st District. Elected to the 107th-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2001-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Financial Services (107th-116th Congresses)
 H. Government Reform/H. Oversight and Government Reform (107th-116th
Congresses)
 H. Natural Resources (115th-116th Congresses)
CLAY, WILLIAM LACY, Sr. Democrat; Missouri, 1st District. Elected to the 91st-106th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1969-Jan. 3, 2001).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor (91st-106th Congresses)
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (93rd -103rd Congresses; chair 102nd-103rd
Congresses)
 H. Select to Study the Committee System (96th Congress)
 H. House Administration (99th-103rd Congresses)
 Jt. Library (101st Congress)
CLAYTON, EVA. Democrat; North Carolina, 1st District. Elected to the 102nd Congress Nov. 3,
1992, to fil vacancy caused by death of Walter Jones; simultaneously elected to the 103rd
Congress; reelected to the 104th-107th Congresses (served Nov. 5, 1992-Jan. 3, 2003).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (103rd-107th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
 H. Budget (105th-107th Congresses)
CLEAVER, EMANUEL, II. Democrat; Missouri, 5th District. Elected to the 109th-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 4, 2005-present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 112th
Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Financial Services (109th-116th Congresses)
 H. Select Energy Independence and Global Warming (110th-111th Congresses)
 H. Homeland Security (111th and 116th Congresses)
 H. Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress (116th Congress)
CLYBURN, JAMES ENOS. Democrat; South Carolina, 6th District. Elected to the 103rd-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 5, 1993-present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 106th
Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Public Works and Transportation/Transportation and Infrastructure (103rd-
105th Congresses)
 H. Veterans’ Affairs (103rd-105th Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Smal Business (104th Congress)
 H. Appropriations (106th-109th Congresses)
 H. Select Subcommittee on the Coronavirus (chair, 116th Congress)
COLLINS, BARBARA-ROSE. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District (102nd Congress) and 15th
District (103rd-104th Congresses). Elected to the 102nd-104th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1991-Jan.
3, 1997).
Committee assignments:
 H. Public Works and Transportation (102nd-103rd Congresses)
 H. Science, Space and Technology (102nd Congress)
 H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
 H. Government Reform and Oversight (104th Congress)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th Congress)
 H. Select Children, Youth, and Families (102nd Congress)
COLLINS, CARDISS. Democrat; Il inois, 7th District. Elected to the 93rd Congress in a June 5,
1973, special election to fil vacancy caused by death of husband George W. Collins; reelected to
the 94th-104th Congresses (served June 7, 1973-Jan. 3, 1997). Chair of the Congressional Black
Caucus, 96th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Government Operations/Government Reform and Oversight (93rd-104th
Congresses)
 H. International Relations/Foreign Affairs (94th-96th Congresses)
 H. District of Columbia (95th Congress)
 H. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control (96th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Energy and Commerce/Commerce (97th-104th Congresses)
COLLINS, GEORGE WASHINGTON. Democrat; Il inois, 6th District. Elected to the 91st
Congress to fil vacancy caused by death of Daniel J. Ronan; simultaneously elected to the 92nd
Congress; reelected to the 93rd Congress (served Nov. 3, 1970, until his death Dec. 18, 1972,
before the seating of the 93rd Congress).
Committee assignments:
 H. Government Operations (91st-92nd Congresses)
 H. Public Works (92nd Congress)
CONYERS, JOHN, Jr. Democrat; Michigan, 1st District (89th-102nd Congresses); 14th District
(103rd-112th Congresses); 13th District (113th-115th Congresses). Elected to the 89th-115th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1965, until his resignation Dec. 5, 2017).
Committee assignments:
 H. Judiciary (89th-115th Congresses; chair, 110th-111th Congresses; ranking
member, 104th-109th, 112th-115th Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Government Operations (92nd-103rd Congresses; chair, 101st-103rd Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (100th-103rd Congresses)
COWAN, WILLIAM (MO). Democrat; Massachusetts. Senator. Appointed to the Senate in
2013 to fil the vacancy caused by the resignation of John F. Kerry (served Feb. 1, 2013- July 15,
2013).
Committee assignments:
 S. Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry (113th Congress)
 S. Commerce, Science and Transportation (113th Congress)
 S. Smal Business and Entrepreneurship (113th Congress)
CROCKETT, GEORGE WILLIAM, Jr. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District. Elected to the 96th
Congress to fil vacancy caused by the resignation of Charles C. Diggs Jr.; simultaneously elected
to the 97th Congress; reelected to the 98th-101st Congresses (served Nov. 4, 1980-Jan. 3, 1991).
Committee assignments:
 H. Foreign Affairs (96th-101st Congresses)
 H. Judiciary (97th-101st Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (97th Congress)
 H. Select Aging (97th-101st Congresses)
CUMMINGS, ELIJAH EUGENE. Democrat; Maryland, 7th District. Elected to the 104th
Congress to fil vacancy caused by the resignation of Kweisi Mfume; reelected to the 105th-116th
Congresses (served April 16, 1996, until his death, October 17, 2019). Chair of the Congressional
Black Caucus, 108th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Government Oversight and Government Reform/Government
Reform/Oversight and Reform (104th-115th Congresses; ranking member, 112th-
115th Congresses; chair, 116th Congress)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (110th-116th Congresses)
 H. Armed Services (110th Congress)
 Jt. Economic Committee (109th-114th Congresses)
 Select Terrorist Attack in Benghazi (114th Congress; ranking member)
DAVIS, ARTUR. Democrat; Alabama, 7th District. Elected to the 108th-111th Congresses (served
Jan. 7, 2003-Jan. 2, 2011).
Committee assignments:
 H. Budget (108th-109th Congresses)
 H. Financial Services (108th-109th Congresses)
 H. Judiciary (110th Congress)
 H. Ways and Means (110th-111th Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

DAVIS, DANNY K. Democrat; Il inois, 7th District. Elected to the 105th-116th Congresses (served
Jan. 7, 1997-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Smal Business (105th-109th Congresses)
 H. Government Oversight and Government Reform/Government Reform (105th-
113th Congresses)
 H. Education and the Workforce/Education and Labor (108th-110th Congresses)
 H. Ways and Means (111th, 113th-116th Congresses)
 H. Homeland Security (112th Congress)
DAWSON, WILLIAM LEVI. Democrat; Il inois, 1st District. Elected to the 78th-91st Congresses
(served Jan. 3, 1943, until his death Nov. 9, 1970).
Committee assignments:
 H. Expenditures in the Executive Departments (78th-82nd Congresses; chair, 81st-
82nd Congresses)
 H. Government Operations (83rd-91st Congresses; ranking member, 83rd
Congress; chair, 84th-91st Congresses)
 H. Coinage, Weights, and Measures (78th-79th Congresses)
 H. Invalid Pensions (78th-79th Congresses)
 H. Insular Affairs (78th-79th Congresses)
 H. Irrigation and Reclamation (78th-79th Congresses)
 H. Interior and Insular Affairs (82nd Congress)
 H. District of Columbia (84th-91st Congresses)
DE LARGE, ROBERT CARLOS. Republican; South Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 42nd
Congress (served March 4, 1871, until Jan. 24, 1873, when his seat was declared vacant after his
election was successful y contested by former Rep. Christopher Bowen).
Committee assignments:
 H. Manufactures (42nd Congress)
DELGADO, ANTONIO. Democrat; New York, 19th District. Elected to the 116th Congress
(served Jan. 3, 2019-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (116th Congress)
 H. Smal Business (116th Congress)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (116th Congress)
DELLUMS, RONALD V. Democrat; California, 7th District (92nd-93rd Congresses); 8th District
(94th-102nd Congresses); 9th District (103rd-105th Congresses). Elected to the 92nd-105th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1971, until his resignation Feb. 6, 1998). Chair of the Congressional
Black Caucus, 101st Congress.
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

Committee assignments:
 H. District of Columbia (96th-103rd Congresses; chair, 96th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Foreign Affairs (92nd Congress)
 H. Armed Services (93rd-103rd Congresses; chair, 103rd Congress)
 H. National Security (104th-105th Congresses; ranking member, 104th-105th
Congresses)
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (97th-98th Congresses)
 H. Select Intel igence (94th-102nd Congresses)
DEMINGS, VAL BUTLER. Democrat; Florida, 10th District. Elected to the 115th-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2017-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Homeland Security (115th Congress)
 H. Government Reform (115th Congress)
 H. Judiciary (115th-116th Congresses)
 H. Permanent Select Intel igence (116th Congress)
DE PRIEST, OSCAR STANTON. Republican; Il inois, 1st District. Elected to the 71st-73rd
Congresses (served March 4, 1929-March 3, 1935).
Committee assignments:
 H. Enrolled Bil s (71st-73rd Congresses)
 H. Invalid Pensions (71st-73rd Congresses)
 H. Indian Affairs (71st-73rd Congresses)
 H. Post Office and Post Roads (73rd Congress)
DIGGS, CHARLES COLES, Jr. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District. Elected to the 84th-96th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1955, until his resignation on June 3, 1980). First Chair of the
Congressional Black Caucus, 92nd Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Interior and Insular Affairs (84th-85th Congresses)
 H. Veterans’ Affairs (84th-85th Congresses)
 H. Foreign Affairs (86th-93rd Congresses)
 H. District of Columbia (88th-96th Congresses; chair, 93rd-95th Congresses)
DIXON, JULIAN CAREY. Democrat; California, 28th District (96th-102nd Congresses); 32nd
District (103rd-106th Congresses). Elected to 96th-107th Congresses, but died before the
commencement of the 107th Congress (served Jan. 3, 1979, until his death on Dec. 8, 2000). Chair
of the Congressional Black Caucus, 98th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Appropriations (96th-106th Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Standards of Official Conduct (98th-101st Congresses; chair, 99th-101st
Congresses)
 H. Select Intel igence (103rd-106th Congresses; ranking member, 106th Congress)
DYMALLY, MERVYN MALCOLM. Democrat; California, 31st District. Elected to the 97th-
102nd Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1981-Jan. 3, 1993). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus,
100th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. District of Columbia (97th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Foreign Affairs (97th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Science and Technology (97th-98th Congresses)
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (98th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Education and Labor (99th Congress)
EDWARDS, DONNA. Democrat; Maryland, 4th District. Elected to the 110th Congress in a June
17, 2008, special election to fil vacancy caused by the resignation of Albert Wynn; reelected to
the 111th-114th Congresses (served June 19, 2008-Jan. 3, 2017).
Committee assignments:
 H. Science and Technology/Science, Space and Technology (110th-114th
Congresses)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (110th-114th Congresses)
 H. Ethics (112th Congress)
ELLIOTT, ROBERT BROWN. Republican; South Carolina, 3rd District. Elected to the 42nd-
43rd Congresses (served March 4, 1871, until his resignation on Nov. 1, 1874).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor (42nd-43rd Congresses)
 H. Militia (43rd Congress)
ELLISON, KEITH. Democrat; Minnesota, 5th District. Elected to the 110th-115th Congresses
(served Jan. 4, 2007-Jan. 3, 2019).
Committee assignments:
 H. Financial Services (110th-115th Congresses)
 H. Judiciary (110th Congress)
 H. Foreign Affairs (111th Congress)
ESPY, ALPHONSO MICHAEL (MIKE). Democrat; Mississippi, 2nd District. Elected to the
100th-103rd Congresses (served Jan. 6, 1987, until his resignation on Jan. 25, 1993).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (100th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Budget (101st-102nd Congresses)
 H. Select Hunger (101st-102nd Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 Jt. Deficit Reduction (100th Congress)
EVANS, DWIGHT. Democrat; Pennsylvania, 2nd District. Elected to the 114th Congress to fil
vacancy caused by the resignation of Chaka Fattah; also elected to the 115th-116th Congresses
(served Nov. 8, 2016-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (115th Congress)
 H. Smal Business (115th-116th Congresses)
 H. Ways and Means (116th Congress)
EVANS, MELVIN HERBERT. Republican; Delegate from the U.S. Virgin Islands. Elected to
the 96th Congress (served Jan. 3, 1979-Jan. 3, 1981).
Committee assignments:
 H. Armed Services (96th Congress)
 H. Interior and Insular Affairs (96th Congress)
 H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (96th Congress)
FATTAH, CHAKA. Democrat. Pennsylvania, 2nd District. Elected to the 104th-114th Congresses
(served Jan. 3, 1995, until his resignation June 23, 2016).
Committee assignments:
 H. Government Reform and Oversight/Government Reform (104th-106th
Congresses)
 H. Education and the Workforce/Economic and Education (104th-106th
Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (104th Congress)
 H. Standards of Official Conduct (105th-106th Congresses)
 H. Administration (106th-107th Congresses)
 Jt. Printing (106th-107th Congresses)
 Appropriations (107th-114th Congresses)
FAUNTROY, WALTER EDWARD. Democrat; Delegate from the District of Columbia. Elected
to the 92nd Congress in a special election after the District of Columbia was authorized to elect a
delegate; reelected to the 93rd-101st Congresses (served April 19, 1971-Jan. 3, 1991). Chair of the
Congressional Black Caucus, 97th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. District of Columbia (92nd-101st Congresses)
 H. Banking and Currency/Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs (93rd-101st
Congresses)
 H. Select Assassinations (94th-95th Congresses)
 H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (98th-101st Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

FIELDS, CLEO. Democrat; Louisiana, 4th District. Elected to the 103rd-104th Congresses (served
Jan. 5, 1993-Jan. 3, 1997).
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (103rd-
104th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
FLAKE, FLOYD HAROLD. Democrat; New York, 6th District. Elected to the 100th-105th
Congresses (served Jan. 6, 1987, until his resignation on Nov. 15, 1997).
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (100th-
105th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (100th-105th Congresses)
 H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
 H. Select Children, Youth and Families (100th Congress)
 H. Select Hunger (100th-102nd Congresses)
FORD, HAROLD EUGENE, Sr. Democrat; Tennessee, 8th District (94th-97th Congresses); 9th
District (98th-104th Congresses). Elected to the 94th-104th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1975-Jan. 3,
1997).
Committee assignments:
 H. Veterans’ Affairs (94th Congress)
 H. Banking, Currency, and Housing (94th Congress)
 H. Ways and Means (94th-104th Congresses)
 H. Select Aging (94th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Select Assassinations (94th-95th Congresses)
FORD, HAROLD EUGENE, Jr. Democrat; Tennessee, 9th District. Elected to the 105th-109th
Congresses (served Jan. 7, 1997-Jan. 3, 2007).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and the Workforce (105th-107th Congresses)
 H. Government Reform and Oversight/Government Reform (105th-106th
Congresses)
 H. Financial Services (107th-109th Congresses)
 H. Budget (108th-109th Congresses)
FRANKS, GARY. Republican; Connecticut, 5th District. Elected to the 102nd-104th Congresses
(served Jan. 3, 1991-Jan. 3, 1997).
Committee assignments:
 H. Armed Services (102nd Congress)
 H. Smal Business (102nd Congress)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Select Aging (102nd Congress)
 H. Energy and Commerce (103rd Congress)
 H. Commerce (104th Congress)
FRAZER, VICTOR O. Independent; Delegate from the U.S. Virgin Islands. Elected to the 104th
Congress (served Jan. 3, 1995-Jan. 3, 1997).
Committee assignments:
 H. International Relations (104th Congress)
FUDGE, MARCIA F. Democrat; Ohio, 11th District. Elected to the 110th Congress in a Nov. 4,
2008, special election to fil vacancy caused by death of Stephanie Tubbs Jones; reelected to the
111th-116th Congresses (served Nov. 19, 2008-present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus,
113th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor/Education and the Workforce (111th Congress; 113th-
116th Congresses)
 H. Science and Technology/Science, Space and Technology (111th-112th
Congresses)
 H. Agriculture (112th-116th Congresses)
 H. House Administration (116th Congress)
GRAY, WILLIAM HERBERT III. Democrat; Pennsylvania, 2nd District. Elected to the 96th-
102nd Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1979, until his resignation on Sept. 11, 1991).
Committee assignments:
 H. Budget (96th, 98th-100th Congresses; chair, 99th-100th Congresses)
 H. District of Columbia (96th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Foreign Affairs (96th Congress)
 H. Appropriations (97th-102nd Congresses)
 H. House Administration (102nd Congress)
 Jt. Deficit Reduction (100th Congress)
GREEN, AL. Democrat; Texas, 9th District. Elected to the 109th-116th Congresses (served Jan. 4,
2005-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Financial Services (109th-116th Congresses)
 H. Science (109th Congress)
 H. Homeland Security (110th-111th, 116th Congresses)
 H. Foreign Affairs (111th Congress)
HALL, KATIE BEATRICE. Democrat; Indiana, 1st District. Elected to the 97th Congress in a
Nov. 2, 1982, special election to fil vacancy caused by death of Adam Benjamin Jr.; reelected to
the 98th Congress (served Nov. 29, 1982-Jan. 3, 1985).
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

Committee assignments:
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (98th Congress)
 H. Public Works and Transportation (98th Congress)
HARALSON, JEREMIAH. Republican; Alabama, 1st District. Elected to the 44th Congress.
(served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1877)
Committee assignments:
 H. Public Expenditures (44th Congress)
HARRIS, KAMALA DEVI. Democrat; California, Senator. Elected in 2016 (served Jan. 3,
2017-present).
Committee assignments:
 S. Budget (115th-116th Congresses)
 S. Environment and Public Works (115th Congress)
 S. Homeland Security (115th-116th Congresses)
 S. Judiciary (115th-116th Congresses)
 S. Select Intel igence (115th-116th Congresses)
HASTINGS, ALCEE LAMAR. Democrat; Florida, 20th District. Elected to the 103rd-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 5, 1993-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Foreign Affairs/International Relations (103rd-107th Congresses)
 H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (103rd Congress)
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
 H. Science (104th-105th Congresses)
 H. Select Intel igence (106th-111th Congresses)
 H. Rules (107th-116th Congresses)
 H. Standards of Official Conduct (110th Congress)
HAWKINS, AUGUSTUS FREEMAN (GUS). Democrat; California, 21st District (88th-93rd
Congresses); 29th (94th-101st Congresses). Elected to the 88th-101st Congresses (served from Jan.
3, 1963-Jan. 3, 1991).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor (88th-101st Congresses; chair, 98th-101st Congresses)
 H. House Administration (91st-98th Congresses; chair, 97th-98th Congresses)
 Jt. Printing (95th-98th Congresses; chair, 96th and 98th Congresses)
 Jt. Library (97th-98th Congresses; chair, 97th Congress)
 Jt. Economic (97th-101st Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

HAYES, CHARLES ARTHUR. Democrat; Il inois, 1st District. Elected to the 98th Congress in a
Aug. 23, 1983, special election to fil vacancy caused by the resignation of Harold Washington;
reelected to the 99th-102nd Congresses (served Aug. 23, 1983-Jan. 3, 1993).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor (98th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (98th-101st Congresses)
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (101st-102nd Congresses)
HAYES, JAHANA. Democrat; Connecticut, 5th District. Elected to the 116th Congress (served
Jan. 3, 2019-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (116th Congress)
 H. Education and Labor (116th Congress)
HILLIARD, EARL FREDERICK. Democrat; Alabama, 7th District. Elected to the 103rd-107th
Congresses (served Jan. 5, 1993-Jan. 3, 2003).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (103rd-107th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
 H. International Relations (105th-107th Congresses)
HORSFORD, STEVEN. Democrat; Nevada, 4th District. Elected to the 113th and 116th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2013-Jan. 3, 2015; Jan. 3, 2019-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Homeland Security (113th Congress)
 H. Natural Resources (113th, 116th Congresses)
 H. Oversight and Government Reform (113th Congress)
 H. Budget (116th Congress)
 H. Ways and Means (116th Congress)
HURD, WILLIAM BALLARD. Republican; Texas, 23rd District. Elected to the 114th-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2015-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Homeland Security (114th-115th Congresses)
 H. Oversight and Government Reform (114th-115th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (114th Congress)
 H. Permanent Select Intel igence (115th-116th Congresses)
 H. Appropriations (116th Congress)
HYMAN, JOHN ADAMS. Republican; North Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 44th Congress
(served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1977).
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

Committee assignments:
 H. Manufactures (44th Congress)
JACKSON, JESSE L., Jr. Democrat; Il inois, 2nd District. Elected to the 104th Congress in a
special election to fil the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mel Reynolds; reelected to the
105th-113th Congress, but declined to serve in the 113th Congress (served Dec. 14, 1995, until his
resignation Nov. 21, 2012).
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking and Financial Services (104th-105th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (104th-105th Congresses)
 H. Appropriations (106th-112th Congresses)
JACKSON LEE, SHEILA. Democrat; Texas, 18th District. Elected to the 104th-116th Congresses
(served Jan. 3, 1995-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Judiciary (104th-116th Congresses)
 H. Science (104th-109th Congresses)
 H. Homeland Security (108th-116th Congresses)
 H. Foreign Affairs (110th-111th Congresses)
 H. Budget (116th Congress)
JEFFERSON, WILLIAM JENNINGS. Democrat; Louisiana, 2nd District. Elected to the 102nd-
110th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1991-Jan. 3, 2009).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor (102nd Congress)
 H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (102nd Congress)
 H. District of Columbia (103rd Congress)
 H. Ways and Means (103rd, 105th-109th Congresses)
 H. National Security (104th Congress)
 H. House Oversight (104th Congress)
 H. Budget (109th Congress)
 H. Smal Business (110th Congress)
 Jt. Printing (104th Congress)
JEFFRIES, HAKEEM. Democrat; New York, 8th District. Elected to the 113th-116th Congresses
(served Jan. 3, 2013-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Budget (113th-116th Congresses)
 H. Education and the Workforce (114th Congress)
 H. Judiciary (113th-116th Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

JOHNSON, EDDIE BERNICE. Democrat; Texas, 30th District. Elected to the 103rd-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1993-present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 107th
Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Public Works and Transportation (103rd Congress)
 H. Science, Space, and Technology/Science and Technology (103rd-116th
Congresses; ranking member, 112th-115th Congresses; chair, 116th Congress)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th-116th Congresses)
JOHNSON, HENRY C. (HANK), Jr. Democrat; Georgia, 4th District. Elected to the 110th-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 4, 2007-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Armed Services (110th-114th Congresses)
 H. Judiciary (110th-116th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (110th Congress)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (115th-116th Congresses)
JONES, BRENDA. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District. Elected to the 115th Congress in a Nov. 6,
2018 special election to fil vacancy caused by resignation of John Conyers (served Nov. 29,
2018-Jan. 3, 2019).
No committee assignments listed.
JONES, STEPHANIE TUBBS. Democrat; Ohio, 11th District. Elected to the 106th-110th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1999, until her death on August 20, 2008).
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking and Financial Services (106th Congress)
 H. Financial Services (107th Congress)
 H. Smal Business (106th-107th Congresses)
 H. Standards of Official Conduct (107th-110th Congresses; chair, 110th Congress)
 H. Ways and Means (108th-110th Congresses)
JORDAN, BARBARA C. Democrat; Texas, 18th District. Elected to the 93rd-95th Congresses
(served Jan. 3, 1973-Jan. 3, 1979).
Committee assignments:
 H. Judiciary (93rd-95th Congresses)
 H. Government Operations (94th-95th Congresses)
KELLY, ROBIN. Democrat; Il inois, 2nd District. Elected to the 113th Congress in an April 9,
2013, special election to vacancy caused by resignation of Jesse Jackson Jr.; reelected to the
114th-116th Congresses (served April 11, 2013-present).
Committee assignments:
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Oversight and Government Reform/Oversight and Reform (113th-116th
Congresses)
 H. Science, Space, and Technology (113th Congress)
 H. Foreign Affairs (114th-115th Congresses)
 H. Energy and Commerce (116th Congress)
KILPATRICK, CAROLYN CHEEKS. Democrat; Michigan, 15th District (105th-107th
Congresses) and 13th District (108th-111th Congresses). Elected to the 105th-111th Congresses
(served Jan. 3, 1997-Jan. 3, 2011). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 110th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking and Financial Services (105th Congress)
 H. House Oversight (105th Congress)
 Jt. Library (105th Congress)
 H. Appropriations (106th-111th Congresses)
LANGSTON, JOHN MERCER. Republican; Virginia, 4th District. Elected to the 51st Congress
(served from September 23, 1890-March 3, 1891, after he successfully contested the election of
Edward Venable).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education (51st Congress)
LAWRENCE, BRENDA L. Democrat; Michigan, 14th District. Elected to the 114th-116th
Congress (served Jan. 3, 2015-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Oversight and Government Reform/Oversight and Reform (114th-116th
Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (114th Congress)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (115th Congress)
 H. Appropriations (116th Congress)
LAWSON, ALFRED, Jr. Democrat; Florida, 3rd District. Elected to the 115th-116th Congresses
(served Jan. 3, 2017-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (115th-116th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (115th Congress)
 H. Financial Services (116th Congress)
LEE, BARBARA. Democrat; California, 9th District (105th-112th Congresses); 13th District (113th
-116th Congresses). Elected to the 105th Congress in an April 7, 1998, special election to fil
vacancy caused by resignation of Ronald Del ums; reelected to the 106th-116th Congresses (served
April 20, 1998-present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 111th Congress.
Committee assignments:
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Banking and Financial Services (105th-106th Congresses)
 H. Financial Services (107th-109th Congresses)
 H. Science (105th Congress)
 H. International Relations/Foreign Affairs (107th-111th Congresses)
 H. Appropriations (110th-116th Congresses)
 H. Budget (113th-116th Congresses)
LELAND, GEORGE THOMAS (Mickey). Democrat; Texas, 18th District. Elected to the 96th-
101st Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1979, until his death Aug. 7, 1989). Chair of the Congressional
Black Caucus, 99th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. District of Columbia (96th-99th Congresses)
 H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce (96th-101st Congresses)
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (96th-101st Congresses)
 H. Select Hunger (98th-101st Congress; chair, 98th-101st Congresses)
 H. Select Children, Youth, and Families (98th Congress)
LEWIS, JOHN R. Democrat; Georgia, 5th District. Elected to the 100th-116th Congresses (served
Jan. 6, 1987, until his death July 17, 2020).
Committee assignments:
 H. Public Works and Transportation (100th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Interior and Insular Affairs (100th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Select Aging (101st-102nd Congresses)
 H. District of Columbia (103rd Congress)
 H. Ways and Means (103rd-116th Congresses)
 H. Budget (108th Congress)
 Jt. Taxation (115th Congress)
LONG, JEFFERSON FRANKLIN. Republican; Georgia, 4th District. Elected to the 41st
Congress after the House declared that Rep. Samuel Gove was not entitled to the seat (served Jan.
16, 1871-March 3, 1871).
No committee assignments listed.
LOVE, MIA B. Republican; Utah, 4th District. Elected to the 114th-115th Congresses (served Jan.
3, 2015-Jan. 3, 2019).
Committee assignment:
 H. Financial Services (114th-115th Congresses)
LYNCH, JOHN ROY. Republican; Mississippi, 6th District. Elected to the 43rd, 44th, and 47th
Congresses (served March 4, 1873-March 3, 1877 and April 29, 1882-March 3, 1883 after he
successfully contested the election of James Chalmers).
Committee assignments:
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Mines and Mining (43rd-44th Congresses)
 H. Militia (47th Congress)
 H. Education and Labor (47th Congress)
MAJETTE, DENISE L. Democrat; Georgia, 4th District. Elected to the 108th Congress (served
Jan. 3, 2003-Jan. 3, 2005).
Committee assignments:
 H. Budget (108th Congress)
 H. Education and the Workforce (108th Congress)
 H. Smal Business (108th Congress)
MCBATH, LUCY. Democrat; Georgia, 6th District. Elected to the 116th Congress (served Jan. 3,
2019-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Judiciary (116th Congress)
 H. Education and Labor (116th Congress)
MCEACHIN, ASTON DONALD. Democrat; Virginia, 4th District. Elected to the 115th-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2017-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Armed Services (115th Congress)
 H. Natural Resources (115th-116th Congresses)
 H. Energy and Commerce (116th Congress)
 H. Select Committee on the Climate Crisis (116th Congress)
MCKINNEY, CYNTHIA. Democrat; Georgia, 11th District (103rd-104th Congresses) and 4th
District (105th-107th Congress and 109th Congress). Elected to the 103rd-107th Congresses and to
the 109th Congress (served Jan. 3, 1993-Jan. 3, 2003; Jan. 3, 2005-Jan. 3, 2007).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (103rd-104th Congresses)
 H. Banking and Finance (104th-105th Congresses)
 H. Foreign Affairs/International Relations (103rd -107th Congresses)
 H. Armed Services/National Security (105th-107th Congresses; 109th Congress)
 H. Budget (109th Congress)
MEEK, CARRIE. Democrat; Florida, 17th District. Elected to the 103rd-107th Congresses (served
Jan. 3, 1993-Jan. 3, 2003).
Committee assignments:
 H. Appropriations (103rd Congress; 105th-107th Congresses)
 H. Budget (104th Congress)
 H. Government Reform and Oversight (104th Congress)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

MEEK, KENDRICK B. Democrat; Florida, 17th District. Elected to the 108th-111th Congresses
(served from Jan. 7, 2003-Jan. 3, 2011).
Committee assignments:
 H. Armed Services (108th-111th Congresses)
 H. Homeland Security (108th-109th Congresses)
 H. Ways and Means (110th-111th Congresses)
MEEKS, GREGORY W. Democrat; New York, 5th District. Elected to the 105th Congress in a
Feb. 3, 1998, special election to fil vacancy caused by the resignation of Floyd Flake; reelected
to 106th-116th Congresses (served Feb. 3, 1998-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking and Financial Services/Financial Services (105th-116th Congresses)
 H. International Relations/Foreign Affairs (106th-116th Congresses)
METCALFE, RALPH HAROLD. Democrat; Il inois, 1st District. Elected to the 92nd-95th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1971, until his death October 10, 1978).
Committee assignments:
 H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce (92nd-95th Congresses)
 H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (92nd-95th Congresses)
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (95th Congress)
MFUME, KWEISI. Democrat; Maryland, 7th District. Elected to the 100th-104th Congresses;
then elected to the 116th Congress in a special election on April 28, 2020, to fil vacancy caused
by the death of Elijah Cummings (Mfume served Jan. 6, 1987, until his resignation on Feb. 16,
1996; then again from May 5, 2020, to present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 103rd
Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (100th-
104th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (100th-104th and 116th Congresses)
 H. Education and Labor (101st Congress)
 H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (101st-102nd Congresses)
 Jt. Economic (102nd-104th Congresses)
 H. Standards of Official Conduct (103rd Congress)
 H. Select Hunger (100th Congress)
 H. Oversight and Reform (116th Congress)
MILLENDER-McDONALD, JUANITA. Democrat; California, 37th District. Elected to the
104th Congress in a March 26, 1996, special election to fil vacancy caused by resignation of
Walter Tucker; reelected to the 105th-110th Congresses (served April 16, 1996, until her death
April 22, 2007).
Committee assignments:
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Smal Business (104th-110th Congresses)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th-110th Congresses)
 H. Administration (108th-110th Congresses; ranking member, 109th Congress;
chair, 110th Congress)
 Jt. Library (108th-110th Congresses)
 Jt. Printing (109th-110th Congresses)
MILLER, THOMAS EZEKIEL. Republican; South Carolina, 7th District. Elected to the 51st
Congress (served Sept. 24, 1890-March 3, 1891, after successfully contesting the election of
Wil iam El iott).
Committee assignments:
 H. Library of Congress (51st Congress)
MITCHELL, ARTHUR WERGS. Democrat; Il inois, 1st District. Elected to the 74th-77th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1935-Jan. 3, 1943).
Committee assignments:
 H. Post Office and Post Roads (74th-77th Congresses)
MITCHELL, PARREN JAMES. Democrat; Maryland, 7th District. Elected to the 92nd-99th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1971-Jan. 3, 1987). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 95th
Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking and Currency/Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs (92nd-99th
Congresses)
 H. Select Smal Business (92nd-93rd Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (94th, 96th-99th Congresses; chair, 97th-99th Congresses)
 H. Budget (93rd-95th Congresses)
 Jt. Defense Production (94th-95th Congresses)
 Jt. Economic (95th-99th Congresses; vice chair, 95th Congress)
MOORE, GWENDOLYNNE (GWEN). Democrat; Wisconsin, 4th District. Elected to the 109th-
116th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2005-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Financial Services (109th-115th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (109th-111th Congresses)
 H. Budget (110th-114th Congresses)
 H. Ways and Means (116th Congress)
MOSELEY-BRAUN, CAROL. Democrat; Il inois, Senator. Elected in 1992 (served Jan. 3,
1993-Jan. 3, 1999).
Committee assignments:
 S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs (103rd-105th Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 S. Judiciary (103rd Congress)
 S. Smal Business (103rd Congress)
 S. Finance (104th-105th Congresses)
 S. Special Aging (104th-105th Congresses)
MURRAY, GEORGE WASHINGTON. Republican; South Carolina, 1st District. Elected to the
53rd-54th Congresses (served March 4, 1893-March 3, 1895, and June 4, 1896-March 3, 1897,
after successfully contesting the election).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education (53rd-54th Congresses)
 H. Expenditures in the Department of the Treasury (54th Congress)
NASH, CHARLES EDMUND. Republican; Louisiana, 6th District. Elected to the 44th Congress
(served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1877).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor (44th Congress)
NEGUSE, JOE. Democrat; Colorado, 2nd District. Elected to the 116th Congress (served Jan. 3,
2019-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Judiciary (116th Congress)
 H. Natural Resources (116th Congress)
 H. Select Committee on the Climate Crisis (116th Congress)
NIX, ROBERT NELSON CORNELIUS, Sr. Democrat; Pennsylvania, 4th District (85th-87th
Congresses); 2nd District (88th-95th Congresses). Elected to the 85th-95th Congresses (served June
4, 1958-Jan. 3, 1979).
Committee assignments:
 H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (85th-86th Congresses)
 H. Foreign Affairs (87th-93rd Congresses)
 H. International Relations (94th-95th Congresses)
 H. Veterans’ Affairs (85th-86th Congresses)
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (88th-95th Congresses; chair, 95th Congress)
 H. Select Standards and Conduct (89th Congress)
 H. Crime (91st Congress)
NORTON, ELEANOR HOLMES. Democrat; Delegate from the District of Columbia. Elected
to the 102nd-116th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1991-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. District of Columbia (102nd-103rd Congresses)
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (102nd-103rd Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Public Works and Transportation/Transportation and Infrastructure (102nd-
116th Congresses)
 Jt. Committee on the Organization of Congress (103rd Congress)
 H. Smal Business (104th Congress)
 H. Oversight and Government Reform/Government Reform/Oversight and
Reform (104th-116th Congresses)
 H. Homeland Security (108th-111th Congresses)
OBAMA, BARACK. Democrat; Il inois. Senator. Elected in 2004 (served Jan. 4, 2005, until his
resignation Nov. 16, 2008, after being elected President of the United States).
Committee assignments:
 S. Environment and Public Works (109th-110th Congresses)
 S. Foreign Relations (109th-110th Congresses)
 S. Veterans’ Affairs (109th-110th Congresses)
 S. Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (110th Congress)
 S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (110th Congress)
O’HARA, JAMES EDWARD. Republican; North Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 48th-49th
Congresses (served March 4, 1883-March 3, 1887).
Committee assignments:
 H. Mines and Mining (48th Congress)
 H. Expenditures on Public Buildings (49th Congress)
 H. Invalid Pensions (49th Congress)
OMAR, ILHAN. Democrat; Minnesota, 5th District. Elected to the 116th Congress (served Jan. 3,
2019-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Budget (116th Congress)
 H. Foreign Affairs (116th Congress)
 H. Education and Labor (116th Congress)
OWENS, MAJOR ROBERT ODELL. Democrat; New York, 11th District. Elected to the 98th-
110th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1983-Jan. 3, 2007).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor/Economic and Educational Opportunities/Education and
the Workforce (98th-109th Congresses)
 H. Government Operations/Reform and Oversight (98th-109th Congresses)
PAYNE, DONALD MILFORD, Sr. Democrat; New Jersey, 10th District. Elected to the 101st-
112th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1989, until his death March 6, 2012). Chair of the Congressional
Black Caucus, 104th Congress.
Committee assignments:
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Education and Labor/Economic and Educational Opportunities/Education and
the Workforce (101st-112th Congresses)
 H. Foreign Affairs/International Relations (101st-112th Congress)
 H. Government Operations (101st-103rd Congresses)
PAYNE, DONALD MILFORD, Jr. Democrat; New Jersey, 10th District. Elected to the 112th
Congress Nov. 6, 2012, to fil vacancy caused by death of his father Donald Payne Sr.;
simultaneously elected to the 113th Congress; reelected to the 114th-116th Congresses (served Nov.
6, 2012-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Homeland Security (113th-116th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (113th-114th Congresses)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (115th-116th Congresses)
PLASKETT, STACEY E. Democrat; Delegate from the U.S. Virgin Islands. Elected to the 114th-
116th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2015-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (114th-116th Congresses)
 H. Oversight and Government Reform/Oversight and Reform (114th-116th
Congresses)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (116th Congress)
POWELL, ADAM CLAYTON, Jr. Democrat; New York, 22nd District (79th-82nd Congresses);
16th District (83rd-87th Congresses); 18th District (88th-89th and 91st Congresses). Elected to the
79th-90th Congress, but was not seated in the 90th Congress; and to the 91st Congress (served Jan.
3, 1945-Jan. 3, 1967, and Jan. 3, 1969-Jan. 3, 1971).
Committee assignments:
 H. Indian Affairs (79th Congress)
 H. Invalid Pensions (79th Congress)
 H. Labor/Education and Labor (79th-89th and 91st Congresses; chair, 87th-89th
Congresses)
 H. Interior and Insular Affairs (84th-86th Congresses)
PRESSLEY, AYANNA. Democrat; Massachusetts, 7th District. Elected to the 116th Congress
(served Jan. 3, 2019-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Oversight and Reform (116th Congress)
 H. Financial Services (116th Congress)
RAINEY, JOSEPH HAYNE. Republican; South Carolina, 1st District. Elected to the 41st
Congress after the seat declared vacant, and to the 42nd-45th Congresses (served Dec. 12, 1870-
March 3, 1879).
Committee assignments:
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Freedmen’s Affairs (41st-42nd Congresses)
 H. Indian Affairs (43rd Congress)
 H. Invalid Pensions (44th-45th Congresses)
 H. Select Celebration of Proposed National Census of 1875 (43rd Congress)
RANGEL, CHARLES B. Democrat; New York, 18th District (92nd Congress); 19th District (93rd-
97th Congresses); 16th District (98th-102nd Congresses); 15th District (103rd-112th Congresses); 13th
District (113th-114th Congresses). Elected to the 92nd-114th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1971-Jan. 3,
2017). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 94th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Public Works (92nd Congress)
 H. Science and Astronautics (92nd Congress)
 H. Judiciary (92nd-93rd Congresses)
 H. District of Columbia (93rd Congress)
 H. Ways and Means (94th-114th Congresses; committee chair, 110th-111th
Congresses; ranking Member, 105th-109th Congresses)
 H. Select Crime (92nd-93rd Congresses)
 H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (94th-102nd Congresses; chair, 98th-102nd
Congresses)
 Jt. Taxation (104th-105th, 108th, 111th, and 114th Congresses; chair, 111th Congress)
RANSIER, ALONZO JACOB. Republican; South Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 43rd
Congress (served March 3, 1873-March 3, 1875).
Committee assignments:
 H. Manufactures (43rd Congress)
RAPIER, JAMES THOMAS. Republican; Alabama, 2nd District. Elected to the 43rd Congress
(served March 4, 1873-March 3, 1875).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor (43rd Congress)
REVELS, HIRAM RHODES. Republican; Mississippi, Senator. Elected in 1870 (served Feb.
23, 1870-March 3, 1871).
Committee assignments:
 S. Education and Labor (41st Congress)
 S. District of Columbia (41st Congress)
REYNOLDS, MEL. Democrat; Il inois, 2nd District. Elected to the 103rd-104th Congresses
(served Jan. 5, 1993, until his resignation October 1, 1995).
Committee assignments:
 H. Ways and Means (103rd Congress)
 H. Economic and Education Opportunities (104th Congress)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

RICHARDSON, LAURA. Democrat, California, 37th District. Elected to the 110th Congress in
an August 21, 2007, special election to fil vacancy caused by death of Juanita Mil ender-
McDonald; reelected to the 111th-112th Congresses (served Sept. 4, 2007, to Jan. 3, 2013).
Committee assignments:
 H. Science and Technology (110th Congress)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (110th-112th Congresses)
 H. Homeland Security (111th-112th Congresses)
RICHMOND, CEDRIC. Democrat; Louisiana, 2nd District. Elected to the 112th-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2011-present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 115th
Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Judiciary (113th-116th Congresses)
 H. Homeland Security (112th-116th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (112th Congress)
RUSH, BOBBY L. Democrat; Il inois, 1st District. Elected to the 103rd-116th Congresses (served
Jan. 4, 1993-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs (103rd Congress)
 H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
 H. Science, Space and Technology (103rd Congress)
 H. Commerce/Energy and Commerce (104th-116th Congresses)
SAVAGE, GUS. Democrat; Il inois. 2nd District. Elected to the 97th-102nd Congresses (served Jan.
3, 1981-Jan. 3, 1993).
Committee assignments:
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (97th Congress)
 H. Public Works and Transportation (97th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (97th-102nd Congresses)
SCOTT, DAVID. Democrat; Georgia, 13th District. Elected to the 108th-116th Congresses (served
Jan. 7, 2003-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (108th-116th Congresses)
 H. Financial Services (108th-116th Congresses)
 H. Foreign Affairs (111th Congress)
SCOTT, ROBERT C. “Bobby”. Democrat; Virginia, 3rd District. Elected to the 103rd-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 4, 1993-present).
Committee assignments:
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Education and Labor/Economic and Educational Opportunities/Education and
the Workforce (103rd-107th, 109th-116th Congresses; chair, 116th Congress)
 H. Judiciary (103rd-113th Congresses)
 H. Science, Space, and Technology (103rd Congress)
 H. Select U.S. National Security and Military/Commercial Concerns with the
People’s Republic of China (106th Congress)
 H. Budget (108th, 110th, 116th Congresses)
 H. Standards of Official Conduct (110th Congress)
 Jt. Select Solvency of Multiemployer Pension Plans (115th Congress)
SCOTT, TIM. Republican; South Carolina, 1st District, Senator. Elected to the 112th Congress
(served in House Jan. 3, 2011, until his resignation Jan. 2, 2013). Appointed to the Senate in
January 2013 to fil the vacancy caused by the resignation of Jim DeMint; reelected to the
remainder of the term in 2014 and to a full term in 2016 (served in Senate Jan. 3, 2013-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Rules (112th Congress)
 S. Armed Services (115th Congress)
 S. Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs (114th-116th Congresses)
 S. Commerce, Science and Transportation (113th Congress)
 S. Energy and Natural Resources (113th Congress)
 S. Finance (114th-116th Congresses)
 S. Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (113th-116th Congresses)
 S. Smal Business and Entrepreneurship (113th-116th Congresses)
 S. Special Aging (113th-116th Congresses)
SEWELL, TERRYCINA (“TERRI”). Democrat; Alabama, 7th District. Elected to the 112th-
116th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2011-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (112th Congress)
 H. Science, Space and Technology (112th Congress)
 H. Financial Services (113th-114th Congresses)
 H. Intel igence (113th-116th Congresses)
 H. Ways and Means (115th-116th Congresses)
SMALLS, ROBERT. Republican; South Carolina, 7th District. Elected to the 44th-45th and 47th-
49th Congresses (served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1879; July 19, 1992-March 3, 1883, after he
successfully contested the reelection of George Til man, and March 18, 1884-March 3, 1887,
after he was elected to fil the vacancy caused by the death of Edmund Mackey).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (44th, 47th Congresses)
 H. Militia (45th Congress)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Manufactures (48th Congress)
 H. War Claims (49th Congress)
STEWART, BENNETT MCVEY. Democrat; Il inois, 1st District. Elected to the 96th Congress.
(served Jan. 3, 1979-Jan. 3, 1981)
Committee assignments:
 H. Appropriations (96th Congress)
STOKES, LOUIS. Democrat; Ohio, 21st District (91st-102nd Congresses); 11th District (103rd-
105th Congresses). Elected to the 91st-105th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1969 to Jan. 3, 1999).
Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 93rd Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor (91st Congress)
 H. Internal Security (91st Congress)
 H. Appropriations (92nd-105th Congress)
 H. Budget (95th-96th Congresses)
 H. Standards of Official Conduct (96th-98th and 102nd Congresses; chair, 97th-98th
and 102nd Congresses)
 H. Select Assassinations (94th-95th Congresses; chair, 95th Congress)
 H. Select Intel igence (98th-100th Congresses)
 H. Select to Investigate Arms Transactions to Iran (100th Congress)
THOMPSON, BENNIE. Democrat; Mississippi, 2nd District. Elected to the 103rd Congress in an
April 13, 1993, special election to fil the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mike Espy;
reelected to the 104th-116th Congresses (served April 13, 1993-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (103rd-108th Congresses)
 H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (103rd Congress)
 H. Smal Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
 H. Budget (105th-107th Congresses)
 H. Homeland Security (108th-116th Congresses; chair 110th-111th Congresses;
ranking Member, 112th-115th Congresses; chair, 116th Congress)
TOWNS, EDOLPHUS. Democrat; New York, 11th District (98th-102nd Congresses); 10th District
(103rd-112th Congresses). Elected to the 98th-112th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1983-Jan. 23, 2013).
Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 102nd Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Government Operations/Government Reform and Oversight/Oversight and
Government Reform (98th-112th Congresses; chair, 111th Congress)
 H. Public Works and Transportation (98th-104th Congresses)
 H. Energy and Commerce/Commerce (101st-110th and 112th Congresses)
 H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (98th-102nd Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

TUCKER, WALTER R., III. Democrat; California, 37th District. Elected to the 103rd-104th
Congresses (served Jan. 5, 1993, until his resignation on December 15, 1995).
Committee assignments:
 H. Public Works and Transportation/Transportation and Infrastructure (103rd-
104th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
TURNER, BENJAMIN STERLING. Republican; Alabama, 1st District. Elected to the 42nd
Congress (served March 4, 1871-March 3, 1873).
Committee assignments:
 H. Invalid Pensions (42nd Congress)
UNDERWOOD, LAUREN. Democrat; Il inois, 14th District. Elected to the 116th Congress
(served Jan. 3, 2019-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Homeland Security (116th Congress)
 H. Veterans’ Affairs (116th Congress)
 H. Education and Labor (116th Congress)
VEASEY, MARC. Democrat; Texas, 33rd District. Elected to 113th-116th Congresses (served Jan.
3, 2015-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Armed Services (113th-115th Congresses)
 H. Science, Space and Technology (113th-115th Congresses)
 H. Energy and Commerce (116th Congress)
 H. Smal Business (116th Congress)
WALDON, ALTON R., Jr. Democrat; New York, 6th District. Elected to the 99th Congress in a
June 10, 1986, special election to fil the vacancy caused by the death of Joseph P. Addabbo
(served July 29, 1986-Jan. 3, 1987).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor (99th Congress)
WALLS, JOSIAH THOMAS. Republican; Florida, At-Large (42nd and 43rd Congresses); 2nd
District (44th Congress). Elected to the 42nd-44th Congresses (served March 4, 1871-Jan. 29, 1873,
when his election was successfully contested; March 4, 1873-March 3, 1875; and March 4, 1875-
April 19, 1876, when his election was successfully contested).
Committee assignments:
 H. Militia (42nd-43rd Congresses)
 H. Mileage (44th Congress)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

WASHINGTON, CRAIG ANTHONY. Democrat; Texas, 18th District. Elected to the 101st
Congress in a Dec. 9, 1989, special election to fil the vacancy caused by the death of Mickey
Leland; reelected to the 102nd-103rd Congresses (served Dec. 9, 1989-Jan. 3, 1995).
Committee assignments:
 H. Education and Labor (101st-102nd Congresses)
 H. Judiciary (101st-103rd Congresses)
 H. Energy and Commerce (103rd Congress)
 H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
 H. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control (102nd Congress)
WASHINGTON, HAROLD. Democrat; Il inois, 1st District. Elected to the 97th-98th Congresses
(served Jan. 3, 1981, until his resignation April 29, 1983).
Committee assignments:
 H. Government Operations (97th Congress)
 H. Education and Labor (97th-98th Congresses)
 H. Judiciary (97th-98th Congresses)
WATERS, MAXINE. Democrat; California, 29th District (102nd Congress), 35th District (103rd-
112th Congresses), and 43rd District (113th Congress-present). Elected to the 102nd-116th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1991-present). Chair, Congressional Black Caucus, 105th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial
Services/Financial Services (102nd-116th Congresses; ranking member, 113th-115th
Congresses; chair, 116th Congress)
 H. Veterans’ Affairs (102nd-104th Congresses)
 H. Smal Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
 H. Judiciary (105th-112th Congresses)
 H. Select Subcommittee on the Coronavirus (116th Congress)
WATSON, DIANE. Democrat; California, 32nd District (107th Congress) and 33rd District (108th-
111th Congresses). Elected to the 107th Congress in a June 5, 2001, special election to fil vacancy
caused by death of Julian Dixon; reelected to the 108th-111th Congresses (served June 7, 2001-Jan.
3, 2011).
Committee assignments:
 H. Government Reform/Oversight and Government Reform (107th-111th
Congresses)
 H. International Relations/Foreign Affairs (107th-111th Congresses)
WATSON COLEMAN, BONNIE. Democrat; New Jersey, 12th District. Elected to the 114th-
116th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2015-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Homeland Security (114th-116th Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

 H. Oversight and Government Reform (114th-115th Congresses)
 H. Appropriations (116th Congress)
WATT, MELVIN L. Democrat; North Carolina, 12th District. Elected to the 103rd-113th
Congresses (served Jan. 5, 1993, until his resignation Jan. 6, 2014). Chair of the Congressional
Black Caucus, 109th Congress.
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services/
Financial Services (103rd-113th Congresses)
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
 H. Judiciary (103rd-113th Congresses)
 Jt. Economic (107th-108th Congresses)
WATTS, JULIUS CAESAR, Jr. (J.C.) Republican; Oklahoma, 4th District. Elected to the 104th-
107th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1995-Jan. 3, 2003).
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking and Financial Services (104th Congress)
 H. National Security (104th-105th Congress)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (105th-106th Congresses)
 H. Armed Services (106th-107th Congresses)
WEST, ALLEN Republican; Florida, 22nd District. Elected to the 112th Congress (served Jan, 3,
2011-Jan. 3, 2013).
Committee assignments:
 H. Armed Services (112th Congress)
 H. Smal Business (112th Congress)
WHEAT, ALAN DUPREE. Democrat; Missouri, 5th District. Elected to the 98th-103rd
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1983-Jan. 3, 1995).
Committee assignments:
 H. District of Columbia (98th-103rd Congresses)
 H. Rules (98th-103rd Congresses)
 H. Select Children, Youth, and Families (98th-102nd Congresses)
 H. Select Hunger (101st-102nd Congresses)
WHITE, GEORGE HENRY. Republican; North Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 55th-56th
Congresses (served March 4, 1897-March 3, 1901).
Committee assignments:
 H. Agriculture (55th Congress)
 H. District of Columbia (55th-56th Congresses)
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African American Members of the U.S. Congress: 1870-2020

WILSON, FREDERICA. Democrat; Florida, 17th District (112th Congress), 24th District (113th
Congress-present). Elected to the 112th-116th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2011-present).
Committee assignments:
 H. Foreign Affairs (112th Congress)
 H. Science, Space and Technology (112th-113th Congresses)
 H. Education and the Workforce (114th-116th Congresses)
 H. Transportation and Infrastructure (115th-116th Congresses)
WYNN, ALBERT RUSSELL. Democrat; Maryland, 4th District. Elected to the 103rd-110th
Congresses (served Jan. 5, 1993-May 31, 2008).
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (103rd-
104th Congresses)
 H. Foreign Affairs/International Relations (103rd-104th Congresses)
 H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
 H. Commerce/Energy and Commerce (105th-110th Congresses)
YOUNG, ANDREW JACKSON, Jr. Democrat; Georgia, 5th District. Elected to the 93rd-95th
Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1973, until his resignation on Jan. 29, 1977).
Committee assignments:
 H. Banking, Currency and Housing (93rd Congress)
 H. Rules (94th Congress)

Author Information

Ida A. Brudnick
Jennifer E. Manning
Specialist on the Congress
Senior Research Librarian



Acknowledgments
This report was originally authored by Mildred Amer, formerly a specialist in American National
Government at CRS. Colleen J. Shogan, formerly Deputy Director and Senior Specialist at CRS, is a
former coauthor. Raymond T. Williams, former research assistant, provided research assistance for this
version. Sarah J. Eckman, Neal Arp II, and Erin Hemlin provided research assistance for prior versions.
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Disclaimer
This document was prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). CRS serves as nonpartisan
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under the direction of Congress. Information in a CRS Report should n ot be relied upon for purposes other
than public understanding of information that has been provided by CRS to Members of Congress in
connection with CRS’s institutional role. CRS Reports, as a work of the United States Government, are not
subject to copyright protection in the United States. Any CRS Report may be reproduced and distributed in
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Congressional Research Service
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