African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2018

In total, 153 African Americans have served in Congress. This total includes

143 African Americans (137 Representatives and 6 Delegates) elected only to the House of Representatives;

9 African Americans elected or appointed only to the Senate; and

1 African American who has served in both chambers.

The first African American Members, Senator Hiram Revels of Mississippi and Representative Joseph Rainey of South Carolina, both took the oath of office in 1870. These first two Members were among the 22 African American Members (2 in the Senate, 20 in the House) that began their service in the period of time after the Civil War but prior to the start of the 20th Century. After these first 22, the presence of African Americans in the Membership of Congress was not continuous and there were subsequent periods in both chambers with no African American Members.

Most recently, the 115th Congress began with the highest number of African American Members ever at the start of a Congress: 51 (46 Representatives, 2 Delegates, and 3 Senators).

Other information in this report includes

the total number of African Americans who have served in Congress by party and type of service;

the number of African Americans who have served in each Congress since 1870;

the number of African Americans who have served in the House and Senate by state, district, or territory;

the means of entry to Congress, including regular elections, special elections, and appointments;

the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) House Congressional Member Organization;

a listing of firsts for African Americans in Congress;

a listing of the African Americans who have served in leadership;

the records for length of service in the House and Senate; and

a listing of the African American women in the 115th Congress.

African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2018

April 26, 2018 (RL30378)
Jump to Main Text of Report

Contents

Summary

In total, 153 African Americans have served in Congress. This total includes

  • 143 African Americans (137 Representatives and 6 Delegates) elected only to the House of Representatives;
  • 9 African Americans elected or appointed only to the Senate; and
  • 1 African American who has served in both chambers.

The first African American Members, Senator Hiram Revels of Mississippi and Representative Joseph Rainey of South Carolina, both took the oath of office in 1870. These first two Members were among the 22 African American Members (2 in the Senate, 20 in the House) that began their service in the period of time after the Civil War but prior to the start of the 20th Century. After these first 22, the presence of African Americans in the Membership of Congress was not continuous and there were subsequent periods in both chambers with no African American Members.

Most recently, the 115th Congress began with the highest number of African American Members ever at the start of a Congress: 51 (46 Representatives, 2 Delegates, and 3 Senators).

Other information in this report includes

  • the total number of African Americans who have served in Congress by party and type of service;
  • the number of African Americans who have served in each Congress since 1870;
  • the number of African Americans who have served in the House and Senate by state, district, or territory;
  • the means of entry to Congress, including regular elections, special elections, and appointments;
  • the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) House Congressional Member Organization;
  • a listing of firsts for African Americans in Congress;
  • a listing of the African Americans who have served in leadership;
  • the records for length of service in the House and Senate; and
  • a listing of the African American women in the 115th Congress.


African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2018

Introduction

The 115th Congress began with 51 African Americans Members, the highest number ever at the beginning of a Congress. Summary statistics on the 50 currently serving African American Members in Congress include the following:

  • African Americans account for 9.0% of voting Members in the House and Senate (48 of 535);
  • African Americans account for 9.2% of total Members in the House and Senate (50 of 541, including the Delegates and Resident Commissioner);
  • African Americans account for 10.3% of voting Representatives in the House (45 of 435); and
  • African Americans account for 10.7% of total Members in the House (47 of 441, including the Delegates and Resident Commissioner).

Table 1 provides more detail on these African American Members across the 115th Congress.

Table 1. Number of African American Members in the 115th Congress

As of April 5, 2018

 

Total
African Americans

Senators

Representatives

Non-voting Members
in the Housea

House Subtotal (Representatives and Non-voting Members)

Total

50

3

45

2

47

Democrats

47

2

43

2

45

Republicans

3

1

2

0

2

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives.

Notes: The 115th Congress began with 51 African American Members. One Representative resigned on December 5, 2017. These numbers includes one Senator and one House Member who are of African American and Asian ancestry. In this report, these two Members counted as belonging to two ethnic groups. For additional information, see U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, Black Americans in Congress, at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/.

a. Non-voting Members may include Delegates and the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. None of the sources used for this report identified an African American Resident Commissioner. All data in this report on non-voting Members, therefore, refers to Delegates.

In addition to data for the 115th Congress, this report provides historical information. The report also includes an appendix with an alphabetical listing of African American Members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in Congress.

Information and data in this report is drawn from Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007, and the accompanying website maintained by the House Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives (http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/), the Biographical Directory of the American Congress (http://bioguide.congress.gov), various editions of the Congressional Directory, and a broad range of Congressional Quarterly Inc. and Leadership Directories Inc. publications.

Brief Overview of Studies on African Americans in Congress

Numerous studies of Congress have examined the role and impact of African Americans in Congress. Many of these studies relate to larger questions about the nature of representation or about Congress as an institution.1

Central to these studies have been questions about

  • descriptive representation (i.e., representation by those who share demographic characteristics with their constituents) and substantive representation (i.e., representation of policy preferences and a linkage to policy outcomes) in the representation of minority electoral and policy interests, as well as any linkage or tradeoffs between the two. While the former concentrates on election outcomes (e.g., percentages of congressional seats), the latter focuses on behaviors and actions once an elected official is in office.2
  • the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the impact of majority-minority districts in representing minority interests in a district, and the influence of majority-minority districts on electoral and policy preferences in surrounding districts.3 These studies have also examined recent court rulings.4
  • the relationship of minority Members of Congress with their constituents, including any impact on turnout, electoral competitiveness or strategies, the hiring of minority staff, communication styles, constituency service, and voter satisfaction and engagement.5
  • legislative activities and influence, including work in committees, floor speeches, bill introduction and passage, cosponsorship, coalition formation, career progression and seniority, and relations with congressional leadership.6
  • roll-call voting behavior, including voting cohesion compared to party or state delegations.7
  • positions on various domestic or international issues.8

African Americans in Congress Since 1870: Totals and in Each Congress

The first African American to serve in the Senate, Hiram Revels of Mississippi, was sworn in on February 23, 1870. The first African American to serve in the House, Joseph Rainey of South Carolina, was sworn in on December 12, 1870.

Both chambers subsequently had periods without any African American Members. The longest period for the House stretched from the 57th Congress (1901-1903) until the beginning of the 71st Congress (1929-1931), or 28 years. The longest period for the Senate stretched from the beginning of the 47th Congress (1881-1883) until the beginning of the 90th Congress (1967-1968), or 86 years.

African American membership in the House first reached ten Members during the 91st Congress (1969-1970), and voting membership first exceeded 5% during the 100th Congress (1987-1988). Another large increase occurred during the 103rd Congress (1993-1994), which was the first Congress after the redistricting that followed the 1990 U.S. Census.

The 115th Congress began with the highest number of African American Members ever for the start of a Congress: 51 (46 Representatives, 2 Delegates, and 3 Senators).9

Table 2 provides a summary of the 153 African Americans who have served in the House, Senate, and both chambers. Of these 153 Members, 22 began their service after the Civil War but prior to the start of the 20th Century (2 in the Senate, 20 in the House).

Table 2. African American Members of Congress by Type of Service and Party: Summary Statistics, 1870-Present

Including any Members who served only a portion of the Congress

 

Total

African Americans who have Served in Both Chambers

Senate Service
Only

House
Service
Only
(Representatives)

House
Service
Only
(Delegates)

House Service Only (Subtotal)

Total

153a

1

9

137

6a

143a

Democrats

122b

0

6

111

5b

116

Republicans

31

1

3

26

1

27

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives, "Black Americans in Congress," http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/.

Notes: These numbers include one Senator and two House Members who are of African American and Asian ancestry. In this report, these three Members are counted as belonging to two ethnic groups. For additional information, see U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, Black Americans in Congress, at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/.

a. The total number of African American Members of the House includes two Delegates from the District of Columbia and four Delegates from the U.S. Virgin Islands.

b. Includes one Independent who caucused with the Democrats in the 104th Congress.

Figure 1. Number of African Americans in Each Congress, 1870 to Present

Including any Members who served only a portion of the Congress

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives, 'Black Americans in Congress," http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/.

Notes: Delegates are included in the data. The figure also includes Members who served only a portion of the Congress (due, for example, to special elections, appointments to the Senate, deaths, and resignations) and so may not reflect the number serving at a given time within a Congress.

Table 3. Number of African American Members in Each Congress:
41st Congress to Present

Including any Members who served only a portion of the Congress

Congress

Reps

Non-Voting
Members
in the
House
(Delegates)w

House
Subtotal

(Voting & Non-Voting Members)

Senate

Total

(Voting Members)

Total
(Voting & Non-Voting Members)

41st (1869-1871)

2a

0

2

1b

3ab

3ab

42nd (1871-1873)

5c

0

5c

0

5c

5c

43rd (1873-1875)

7d

0

7

0

7

7

44th (1875-1877)

7e

0

7

1

8

8

45th (1877-1879)

3

0

3

1

4

4

46th (1879-1881)

0

0

0

1

1

1

47th (1881-1883)

2f

0

2

0

2

2

48th (1883-1885)

2g

0

2

0

2

2

49th (1885-1887)

2

0

2

0

2

2

50th (1887-1889)

0

0

0

0

0

0

51st (1889-1891)

3f

0

3

0

3

3

52nd (1891-1893)

1

0

1

0

1

1

53rd (1893-1895)

1

0

1

0

1

1

54th (1895-1897)

1h

0

1

0

1

1

55th (1897-1899)

1

0

1

0

1

1

56th (1899-1901)

1

0

1

0

1

1

57th (1901-1903)

0

0

0

0

0

0

58th (1903-1905)

0

0

0

0

0

0

59th (1905-1907)

0

0

0

0

0

0

60th (1907-1909)

0

0

0

0

0

0

61st (1909-1911)

0

0

0

0

0

0

62nd (1911-1913)

0

0

0

0

0

0

63rd (1913-1915)

0

0

0

0

0

0

64th (1915-1917)

0

0

0

0

0

0

65th (1917-1919)

0

0

0

0

0

0

66th (1919-1921)

0

0

0

0

0

0

67th (1921-1923)

0

0

0

0

0

0

68th (1923-1925)

0

0

0

0

0

0

69th (1925-1927)

0

0

0

0

0

0

70th (1927-1929)

0

0

0

0

0

0

71st (1929-1931)

1

0

1

0

1

1

72nd (1931-1933)

1

0

1

0

1

1

73rd (1933-1934)

1

0

1

0

1

1

74th (1935-1936)

1

0

1

0

1

1

75th (1937-1938)

1

0

1

0

1

1

76th (1939-1940)

1

0

1

0

1

1

77th (1941-1942)

1

0

1

0

1

1

78th (1943-1944)

1

0

1

0

1

1

79th (1945-1946)

2

0

2

0

2

2

80th (1947-1948)

2

0

2

0

2

2

81st (1949-1950)

2

0

2

0

2

2

82nd (1951-1952)

2

0

2

0

2

2

83rd (1953-1954)

2

0

2

0

2

2

84th (1955-1956)

3

0

3

0

3

3

85th (1957-1958)

4g

0

4

0

4

4

86th (1959-1960)

4

0

4

0

4

4

87th (1961-1962)

4

0

4

0

4

4

88th (1963-1964)

5

0

5

0

5

5

89th (1965-1966)

6

0

6

0

6

6

90th (1967-1968)

6i

0

6

1

7

7

91st (1969-1970)

10j

0

10

1

11

11

92nd (1971-1972)

12j

1g

13

1

13

14

93rd (1973-1974)

15g

1

16

1

16

17

94th (1975-1976)

16

1

17

1

17

18

95th (1977-1978)

16k

1

17

1

17

18

96th (1979-1980)

16l

2

18

0

16

18

97th (1981-1982)

18g

1

19

0

18

19

98th (1983-1984)

21l

1

22

0

21

22

99th (1985-1986)

20g

1

21

0

20

21

100th (1987-1988)

22

1

23

0

22

23

101st (1989-1990)

24m

1

25

0

24

25

102nd (1991-1992)

27dn

1

28

0

27

28

103rd (1993-1994)

39dg

1

40

1

40

41

104th (1995-1996)

41o

2

43

1

42

44

105th (1997-1998)

39p

2

41

1

40

42

106th (1999-2000)

37j

2

39

0

37

39

107th (2001-2002)

37g

2

39

0

37

39

108th (2003-2004)

38l

2

40

0

38

40

109th (2005-2006)

40

2

42

1

41

43

110th (2007-2008)

44q

2

46

1r

45

47

111th (2009-2010)

39

2

41

1s

40

42

112th (2011-2012)

43t

2

45

0

43

45

113th (2013-2014)

42u

2

44

3v

45

47

114th (2015-2016)

45l

2

47

2

47

49

115th (2017-2018)

46d

2

48

3

49

51

Source: CRS summary, based on http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/ and the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress: 1774-Present, http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp.

Notes:

Three columns include numbers for the House: (1) the number of African American Representatives, (2) the number of African American non-voting Members (Delegates and Resident Commissioner), and (3) the total number of African Americans in the House.

Totals are provided for (1) the number of African Americans in the House and Senate, not including non-voting Members; and (2) the number of African Americans in the House and Senate, including non-voting Members.

For simplification, Congresses are listed in two-year increments. Pursuant to the 20th Amendment to the Constitution, which was ratified January 23, 1933, "the terms of Senators and Representatives [shall end] at noon on the 3rd day of January." For specific dates, see "Dates of Sessions of the Congress, present-1789," at http://www.senate.gov/reference/Sessions/sessionDates.htm.

The numbers include Members who served only a portion of the Congress and so may not reflect the number serving at any given time within a Congress.

Service for less than the entirety of a Congress is noted below:

a. Includes two House Members who were elected by special election (serving from December 12, 1870 and January 16, 1871, respectively).

b. Includes one Senator who presented his credentials upon the readmission of Mississippi and served from February 23, 1870.

c. Includes two Representatives who served until their elections were contested.

d. Includes one House Member who resigned.

e. Includes one House Member who served until their election was contested.

f. Includes two Representatives who successfully contested an election and served for a portion of the Congress.

g. Includes one House Member who was elected to fill a vacancy.

h. Includes one Representative who successfully contested an election and served for a portion of the Congress.

i. Includes one Representative excluded from membership in the 90th Congress pursuant to H.Res. 278. This same person was subsequently elected by special election to fill the vacancy caused by his exclusion, though he did not appear to be sworn in.

j. Includes one House Member who died.

k. Includes one House Member who died and one House Member who resigned.

l. Includes one House Member who resigned and one House Member who was elected to fill a vacancy.

m. Includes one House Member who was elected to fill a vacancy and one House Member who died.

n. Includes two House Members who were elected to fill a vacancy.

o. Includes three House Members who resigned and four House Members who were elected to fill a vacancy.

p. Includes two House Members who resigned and two House members who were elected to fill a vacancy.

q. Includes four Members who were elected to fill a vacancy, three Members who died, and one Member who resigned.

r. President Barack Obama served in the Senate in the 110th Congress until his resignation on November 16, 2008.

s. Includes one Senator who was appointed to fill a vacancy.

t. Includes one Member who died, one who was elected to fill a vacancy, one who resigned, and one who was appointed to the Senate and resigned from the House on January 2, 2013.

u. Includes three House Members who were elected to fill a vacancy and one House Member who resigned.

v. Includes one Senator who was appointed to fill a vacancy (February 1, 2013) and one Senator who was elected to fill a vacancy (October 31, 2013).

w. Non-voting Members may include Delegates and the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. None of the sources used for this report identified an African American Resident Commissioner. All data in this report on non-voting Members, therefore, refers to Delegates.

Figure 2. Number of African Americans in the House and Senate by State, District, or Territory, 1870-Present

Including any Members who served only a portion of the Congress

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives, 'Black Americans in Congress," http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/.

Notes: 153 African Americans have served in Congress. One African American who has served in both the House and Senate, from South Carolina, is included in both House and Senate tallies in this figure. Delegates are included in the data. The figure also includes Members who served only a portion of the Congress (due, for example, to special elections, appointments to the Senate, deaths, and resignations).

How African Americans Enter Congress: Regular Elections, Special Elections, and Appointments

Article I, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution requires that all Members of the House of Representatives must be "chosen every second Year by the People of the several States."

Therefore, all 144 of the African Americans who have served in the House entered office through election, even those who entered after a seat became open during a Congress.

By contrast, the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution, which was ratified in 1913, gives state legislatures the option to empower governors to fill congressional Senate vacancies by temporary appointment. The Seventeenth Amendment also provides for direct elections of Senators by the "people" of a state. Previously, Senators were elected by legislative selection rather than through the direct elections by which Representatives to Congress were elected.10

Of the 10 African Americans who have served in the Senate,

  • two were elected prior to the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution;
  • four initially entered Senate service by winning a regular election;
  • one initially entered Senate service by winning a special election and was subsequently reelected; and
  • three were appointed. Of these three, one was a candidate for reelection and served in more than one Congress.

Figure 3. African Americans' Initial Entrance to the Senate: Regular Elections, Special Elections, and Appointments to Unexpired Terms

Inclusive through January 3, 2018

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives, "Black Americans in Congress," http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/ and the "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress," http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp.

The Congressional Black Caucus (CBC): A Congressional Member Organization

In 1971, the 13 African Americans then serving in the House established the Congressional Black Caucus.

In the 115th Congress, the CBC11 is one of more than 470 registered congressional member organizations (CMOs) in the House.12 House CMOs are required to register with the Committee on House Administration. CMOs do not receive separate funding, and they have not since a change in the Rules of the House adopted for the 104th Congress.13 Members may use their Members' Representational Allowance (MRA) to support staff, including shared staff, assigned to CMO duties.14 Members, rather than the CMO, remain the employing authority, and the CMO is not an independent entity. The committee's Members' Congressional Handbook lists a number of additional regulations related to the staffing and funding of CMOs.15

CMOs are not required to register in the Senate. As in the House, informal congressional groups or organizations do not receive separate funding.

The CBC CMO is distinct from the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, which was established in 1976 and is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization.16

African American Firsts in Congress

Table 4. List of Firsts by an African American in Congress

Including Member, dates, and related information

First

Member

Congress First Occurred
[total dates of service]

Related Information
(if applicable)

African American Member of Congress, also first African American Member of the Senate

Hiram Rhodes Revels (R-MS)

41st Congress [February 23, 1870- March 3, 1871]

On January 20, 1870, he was chosen by the Mississippi legislature to take the seat previously held by Albert G. Brown, who withdrew from the Senate on January 12, 1861, after Mississippi seceded from the Union.

African American Member of the House

Joseph H. Rainey (R-SC)

41st Congress [December 12, 1870-March 3, 1879]

Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the action of the House of Representatives in declaring the seat of B. Franklin Whittemore vacant.

African American Member of the Senate to serve a full term

Blanche K. Bruce (R-MS)

44th Congress
[March 4, 1875-March 3, 1881]

 

Senate Committee Chair

Blanche K. Bruce (R-MS)

45th Congress

[Mar 5, 1877- Mar 3, 1879]

Senate Select Committee on the Levees of the Mississippi River

House Committee Chair

William L. Dawson (D-IL)

81st Congress

[January 18, 1949-January 3, 1953; January 13, 1955-November 9, 1970]

House Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments

Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus

Charles Diggs (D-MI)

84th Congress

[January 3, 1955-June 3, 1980]

 

African American elected to the Senate after passage of the Seventeenth Amendment (providing for direct election of Senators)

Edward Brooke (R-MA)

90th Congress
[January 3, 1967- January 3, 1979]

 

African American woman elected to the House

Shirley Chisholm (D-NY)

91st Congress
[January 3, 1969-January 3, 1983]

 

African American Delegate

Walter Fauntroy (D-DC)

92nd Congress
[March 23, 1971-January 3, 1991]

Elected by special election

African American woman elected to the Senate

Carol Moseley Braun (D-IL)

103rd Congress [January 3, 1993- January 3, 1999]

 

African American appointed to the Senate

Roland Burris (D-IL)

111th Congress
[January 12, 2009- November 29, 2010]

Appointed to the seat vacated by President Obama, was not a candidate for election to the unexpired portion of the term

African American appointed to the Senate to subsequently win a special or regular election, also first African American to Serve in the House and Senate

Tim Scott (R-SC)

113th Congress
[House-January 3, 2011, to January 2, 2013;
Senate-January 2, 2013 to present]

Appointed January 2, 2013, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of James DeMint, subsequently elected in a special election in 2014 and regular election in 2016

African American to win a Senate special election

Cory Booker (D-NJ)

113th Congress
[October 31, 2013-present]

Elected in a special election on October 16, 2013 and reelected in 2014

Source: Compiled by CRS.

African Americans Who Have Served in Party Leadership Positions17

A number of African Americans in Congress, listed in Table 5, have held positions in their party's leadership.18 All of these party leadership positions have been in the House. The first African American Member to be elected to any party leadership position was Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), who served as House Democratic Caucus Secretary in the 95th and 96th Congresses (1977-1980).

Table 5. Selected Congressional Party Leadership Positions Held by African Americans

Position

Member

Congresses

House Assistant Democratic Leader

James Clyburn (D-SC)

112th-115th (2011-present)

House Democratic Whip

James Clyburn (D-SC)

William Herbert Gray III (D-PA)

110th-111th (2001-2002)

101st-102nd (1989-1992)

House Senior Chief Deputy Democratic Whip

John R. Lewis (D-GA)

110th, 113th-115th (2007-2008, 2013-present)

Chief Deputy Democratic Whip

Keith Ellison (D-MN)

Terri Sewell (D-AL)

George Kenneth Butterfield, Jr. (G.K.) (D-NC)

Maxine Waters (D-CA)

John R. Lewis (D-GA)

113th-115th (2013-present)

113th-115th (2013-present)

110th, 112th -115th (2007-2008, 2011-present)

106th-110th, 112th (1999-2008, 2011-2012)

102nd-109th (1991-2006)

House Democratic Caucus Chair

James Clyburn (D-SC)

William Herbert Gray III (D-PA)

109th (2005-2006)

101st (1989-1990)

House Democratic Caucus Vice Chair

James Clyburn (D-SC)

108th -109th (2003-2006)

House Democratic Caucus Secretarya

Shirley Chisholm (D-NY)

95th-96th (1977-1980)

House Republican Conference Chair

Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. (J.C.) (R-OK)

106th -107th (1999-2002)

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Data/Black-Americans-in-Party-Leadership-Positions/ and CRS Report RL30567, Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2017, by [author name scrubbed].

Notes: All party leadership positions held by African Americans have been in the House.

a. The title of this position changed from "Secretary" to "Vice Chair" with the 100th Congress.

African Americans and Leadership of Congressional Committees

As chair of the Senate Select Committee on the Levees of the Mississippi River (45th Congress), Blanche K. Bruce was the first African American to chair any congressional committee. As chair of the House Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments (81st Congress), William L. Dawson was the first African American to chair a House committee. In total,

  • 19 African Americans have chaired a House committee;
  • 1 African American has chaired a Senate committee; and
  • 2 African American Representatives have chaired a joint committee.

These chairmanships include standing, special, and select committees. Some African Americans have chaired multiple committees in the House.19

Length of Service Records

Table 6. Longest Service by an African American in the House and Senate

Chamber

Member of Congress

Dates of Service

Length of Service

House

John Conyers Jr. (D-MI)

January 3, 1965-December 5, 2017

52.96 years

Senate

Edward Brooke (R-MA)

January 3, 1967-January 3, 1979

12.00 years

Source: Calculations by CRS.

African American Women in Congress

A total of 41 African American women have served in Congress.20 Of these, 21 serve in the 115th Congress (including two delegates), a record. The previous record was 20 (including 2 delegates), which was reached at the end of the 114th Congress. The African American women Members of the 115th Congress are listed in Table 7.

African American women comprise

  • 21 of the 111 women currently serving in the 115th Congress (18.9%), and
  • 21 of the 50 African Americans currently serving in the 115th Congress (42%).

Table 7. African American Women in the 115th Congress

All are House Members except for Sen. Kamala Harris

Alma Adams (D-NC)

Val Demings (D-FL)

Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX)

Gwen Moore (D-WI)

Frederica Wilson (D-FL)

Karen Bass (D-CA)

Marcia Fudge (D-OH)

Robin Kelly (D-IL)

Stacey Plaskett (D-VI) [Delegate]

 

Joyce Beatty (D-OH)

Sen. Kamala Harris (D-CA)

Brenda Lawrence (D-MI)

Terri Sewell (D-AL)

 

Lisa Blunt Rochester (D-DE)

Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-DC) [Delegate]

Barbara Lee (D-CA)

Maxine Waters (D-CA)

 

Yvette Clarke (D-NY)

Sheila Jackson Lee (D-TX)

Mia Love (R-UT)

Bonnie Watson Coleman (D-NJ)

 

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/WIC/Historical-Data/Women-of-Color-in-Congress/.

Note: Sen. Kamala Harris is also Asian Pacific American.

Alphabetical Listing, Including Dates of Service and Committee Assignments21

ADAMS, ALMA S. Democrat; North Carolina, 12th District. Elected to the 113th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Melvin L. Watt, and also elected to the 114th-115th Congresses. (served Nov. 4, 2014-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (114th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Education and the Workforce (114th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (114th-115th Congresses)

BALLANCE, FRANK W., Jr. Democrat; North Carolina,1st District. Elected to the 108th Congress. (served Jan. 7, 2003 until his resignation June 11, 2004)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (108th Congress)
  • H. Small Business (108th Congress)

BASS, KAREN. Democrat; California, 33rd (112th Congress) and 37th District (113th Congress- present). Elected to the 112th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2011-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Budget (112th Congress)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (112th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Judiciary (113th-115th Congresses)

BEATTY, JOYCE. Democrat; Ohio, 3rd District. Elected to the 113th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2013-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Financial Services (113th-115th Congresses)

BISHOP, SANFORD DIXON, Jr. Democrat; Georgia, 2nd District. Elected to the 103rd -115th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993- present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (103rd-107th Congresses)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
  • H. Veterans' Affairs (103rd-104th Congresses)
  • H. Select Intelligence (105th-107th Congresses)
  • H. Appropriations (108th-115th Congresses)

BLACKWELL, LUCIEN EDWARD. Democrat; Pennsylvania, 2nd District. Elected to the 102nd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of William Gray, and also elected to the 103rd Congress (served Nov. 11, 1991-Jan. 3, 1995)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (102nd Congress)
  • H. Public Works and Transportation (102nd-103rd Congresses)
  • H. Budget (103rd Congress)

BLUNT ROCHESTER, LISA. Democrat; Delaware, At-Large. Elected to the 115th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2017-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (115th Congress)
  • H. Education and the Workforce (115th Congress)

BOOKER, CORY ANTHONY. Democrat; New Jersey. Senator. Elected to the Senate in 2013 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Frank Lautenberg and subsequently elected to a full term in 2014. (served October 31, 2013-present).

Committee assignments:

  • S. Commerce, Science and Transportation (113th-114th Congress)
  • S. Environment and Public Works (113th-115th Congresses)
  • S. Homeland Security and Government Affairs (114th Congress)
  • S. Foreign Relations (115th Congress)
  • S. Small Business and Entrepreneurship (113th-115th Congresses)
  • S. Judiciary (115th Congress)

BROOKE, EDWARD WILLIAM, III. Republican; Massachusetts. Senator. Elected in 1966 (served January 3, 1967-Jan. 3, 1979)

Committee assignments:

  • S. Aeronautical and Space Sciences (90th Congress)
  • S. Banking and Currency (90th-95th Congresses; ranking member, 95th Congress)
  • S. Government Operations (90th Congress)
  • S. Armed Services (91st Congress)
  • S. Select Education Opportunity (91st-92nd Congresses)
  • S. Appropriations (92nd-95th Congresses)
  • S. Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs (92nd-95th Congresses)
  • S. Special Aging (92nd-95th Congresses)
  • S. Select Standards and Conduct (93rd-94th Congresses)
  • Jt. Bicentennial Arrangements (94th Congress; vice-chair)
  • Jt. Defense Production (94th-95th Congresses)

BROWN, ANTHONY GREGORY. Democrat; Maryland, 4th District. Elected to the 115th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2017-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Armed Services (115th Congress)
  • H. Ethics (115th Congress)
  • H. Natural Resources (115th Congress)

BROWN, CORRINE. Democrat; Florida, 3rd District (103rd-112th Congresses), 5th District (113th-114th Congress). Elected to the 103rd-114th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1993-Jan. 3, 2017)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
  • H. Public Works and Transportation (103rd Congress)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th-114th Congresses)
  • H. Veterans' Affairs (103rd-114th Congresses; ranking member, 114th Congress)

BRUCE, BLANCHE KELSO. Republican; Mississippi, Senator. Elected in 1874 (served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1881)

Committee assignments:

  • S. Manufactures (44th Congress)
  • S. Pensions (44th-45th Congresses)
  • S. Education and Labor (44th-46th Congresses)
  • S. Select Levees of the Mississippi River (chairman, 45th-46th Congresses)
  • S. Select To Investigate the Freedman's Savings and Trust Company

(46th Congress; chair)

BURKE, YVONNE BRATHWAITE. Democrat; California, 28th (94th-95th Congresses) and 37th (93rd Congress) Districts. Elected to the 93rd-95th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1973 - Jan. 3, 1979). First female chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 94th- 95th Congresses.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Public Works (93rd Congress)
  • H. Interior and Insular Affairs (93rd Congress)
  • H. Appropriations (94th-95th Congresses)
  • H. Select Committee on the House Beauty Shop (chair, 94th-95th Congresses)

BURRIS, ROLAND. Democrat; Illinois. Senator. Appointed to the Senate in December 2008 to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Barack Obama, but was not seated until Jan. 12, 2009. (served Jan. 12, 2009-Nov. 29, 2010).

Committee assignments:

  • S. Armed Services (111th Congress)
  • S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (111th Congress)
  • S. Veteran's Affairs (111th Congress)

BUTTERFIELD, GEORGE KENNETH, Jr. (G.K.). Democrat; North Carolina,1st District. Elected to the 108th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Frank Ballance, and also elected to the 109th-115th Congresses. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 114th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Small Business (108th Congress)
  • H. Agriculture (108th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Armed Services (109th Congress)
  • H. Energy and Commerce (110th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Standards of Official Conduct (111th Congress)

CAIN, RICHARD HARVEY. Republican; South Carolina, At-Large. Elected to the 43rd and 45th Congresses. (served March 4, 1873-March 3, 1875; March 4, 1877-March 3, 1879)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (43rd Congress)
  • H. Private Land Claims (45th Congress)

CARSON, ANDRÉ. Democrat; Indiana, 7th District. Elected to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of his grandmother Julia Carson, and also elected to the 111th-115th Congresses. (served March 11, 2008-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Financial Services (110th-112th Congresses)
  • H. Armed Services (113th Congress)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (113th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Permanent Select Intelligence (114th-115th Congresses)

CARSON, JULIA. Democrat; Indiana, 10th District (105th-107th Congresses) and 7th District (108th-110th Congresses). Elected to the 105th-110th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1997 until her death Dec. 15, 2007)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking and Financial Services/Financial Services (105th-110th Congresses)
  • H. Veterans' Affairs (105th-107th Congresses)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (108th-110th Congresses)

CHEATHAM, HENRY PLUMMER. Republican; North Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 51st and 52nd Congresses (served March 4, 1889-March 3, 1893)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Expenditures on Public Buildings (51st-52nd Congresses)
  • H. Education (51st-52nd Congresses)
  • H. Agriculture (52nd Congresses)

CHISHOLM, SHIRLEY ANITA. Democrat; New York, 12th District. Elected to the 91st-97th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1969-Jan. 3, 1983)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Veterans' Affairs (91st-92nd Congresses)
  • H. Education and Labor (92nd-94th Congresses)
  • H. Rules (95th-97th Congresses)

CHRISTENSEN, DONNA. Democrat; Delegate from the Virgin Islands. Elected to the 105th-113th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1997-Jan. 3, 2015)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Resources/Natural Resources (105th-112th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (105th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Homeland Security (108th-110th Congresses; 112th Congress)
  • H. Energy and Commerce (111th-113th Congresses)

CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSEN, DONNA and CHRISTIAN-GREEN, DONNA. See CHRISTENSEN, DONNA.

CLARKE, HANSEN. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District. Elected to the 112th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2011-Jan. 3, 2013)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Homeland Security (112th Congress)
  • H. Science, Space and Technology (112th Congress)

CLARKE, YVETTE. Democrat; New York, 11th District (110th-112th Congresses) and 9th District (113th Congress-present). Elected to the 110th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2007-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor (110th-111th Congresses)
  • H. Homeland Security (110th-113th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (110th-114th Congresses)
  • H. Ethics (113th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Energy and Commerce (114th-115th Congresses)

CLAY, WILLIAM LACY, Jr. Democrat; Missouri, 1st District. Elected to the 107th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2001-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Financial Services (107th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Government Reform/H. Oversight and Government Reform (107th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Natural Resources (115th Congress)

CLAY, WILLIAM LACY, Sr. Democrat; Missouri, 1st District. Elected to the 91st-106th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1969-Jan. 3, 2001)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor (91st-106th Congresses)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (93rd -103rd Congresses; chair 102nd-103rd Congresses)
  • H. Select to Study the Committee System (96th Congress)
  • H. House Administration (99th-103rd Congresses)
  • Jt. Library (101st Congress)

CLAYTON, EVA. Democrat; North Carolina, 1st District. Elected to the 102nd Congress Nov. 3, 1992, to fill vacancy caused by death of Walter Jones; simultaneously elected to the 103rd Congress; reelected to the 104th-107th Congresses. (served Nov. 5, 1992-Jan. 3, 2003)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (103rd-107th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
  • H. Budget (105th-107th Congresses)

CLEAVER, EMANUEL, II. Democrat, Missouri, 5th District. Elected to the 109th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 4, 2005-present) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 112th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Financial Services (109th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Select Energy Independence and Global Warming (110th-111th Congresses)
  • H. Homeland Security (111th Congress)

CLYBURN, JAMES ENOS. Democrat, South Carolina. 6th District. Elected to the 103rd-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993-present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 106th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Public Works and Transportation/Transportation and Infrastructure (103rd-105th Congresses)
  • H. Veterans' Affairs (103rd-105th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (104th Congress)
  • H. Appropriations (106th-109th Congresses)

COLLINS, BARBARA-ROSE. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District (102nd Congress) and 15th District (103rd -104th Congresses). Elected to the 102nd-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1991-Jan. 3, 1997)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Public Works and Transportation (102nd-103rd Congresses)
  • H. Science, Space and Technology (102nd Congress)
  • H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
  • H. Government Reform and Oversight (104th Congress)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th Congress)
  • H. Select Children, Youth, and Families (102nd Congress)

COLLINS, CARDISS. Democrat; Illinois, 7th District. Elected to the 93rd Congress in a June 5, 1973, special election to fill vacancy caused by death of husband George W. Collins; reelected to the 94th-104th Congresses (served June 7, 1973-Jan. 3, 1997). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 96th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Government Operations/Government Reform and Oversight (93rd-104th Congresses)
  • H. International Relations/Foreign Affairs (94th-96th Congresses)
  • H. District of Columbia (95th Congress)
  • H. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control (96th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Energy and Commerce/Commerce (97th-104th Congresses)

COLLINS, GEORGE WASHINGTON. Democrat; Illinois, 6th District. Elected to the 91st Congress to fill vacancy caused by death of Daniel J. Ronan; simultaneously elected to the 92nd Congress; reelected to the 93rd Congress. (served Nov. 3, 1970 until his death Dec. 18, 1972, before the seating of the 93rd Congress)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Government Operations (91st-92nd Congresses)
  • H. Public Works (92nd Congress)

CONYERS, JOHN, Jr. Democrat; Michigan, 1st District (89th-102nd Congresses); 14th District (103rd-112th Congresses); 13th District (113th-115th Congresses). Elected to the 89th-115th Congresses (served January 3, 1965 until his resignation December 5, 2017)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Judiciary (89th-115th Congresses; chair, 110th-111th Congresses; ranking member, 104th-109th, 112th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Government Operations (92nd-103rd Congresses; chair, 101st-103rd Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (100th-103rd Congresses)

COWAN, WILLIAM (MO). Democrat; Massachusetts. Senator. Appointed to the Senate in 2013 to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John F. Kerry. (served Feb. 1, 2013- July 15, 2013)

Committee assignments:

  • S. Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry (113th Congress)
  • S. Commerce, Science and Transportation (113th Congress)
  • S. Small Business and Entrepreneurship (113th Congress)

CROCKETT, GEORGE WILLIAM, Jr. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District. Elected to the 96th Congress to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Charles C. Diggs, Jr.; simultaneously elected to the 97th Congress; reelected to the 98th-101st Congresses. (served Nov. 4, 1980-Jan. 3, 1991)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Foreign Affairs (96th-101st Congresses)
  • H. Judiciary (97th-101st Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (97th Congress)
  • H. Select Aging (97th-101st Congresses)

CUMMINGS, ELIJAH EUGENE. Democrat; Maryland, 7th District. Elected to the 104th Congress to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Kweisi Mfume; reelected to the 105th-115th Congresses. (served April 16, 1996-present) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 108th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Government Oversight and Government Reform/Government Reform (104th- 115th Congresses; ranking member, 112th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (110th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Armed Services (110th Congress)
  • Jt. Economic Committee (109th -114th Congresses)
  • Select Terrorist Attack in Benghazi (114th Congress; ranking member)

DAVIS, ARTUR. Democrat; Alabama, 7th District. Elected to the 108th-111th Congresses. (served Jan. 7, 2003-Jan. 2, 2001).

Committee assignments:

  • H. Budget (108th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Financial Services (108th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Judiciary (110th Congress)
  • H. Ways and Means (110th-111th Congresses)

DAVIS, DANNY K. Democrat; Illinois, 7th District. Elected to the 105th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 7, 1997-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Small Business (105th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Government Oversight and Government Reform/Government Reform (105th-113th Congresses)
  • H. Education and the Workforce/Education and Labor (108th-110th Congresses)
  • H. Ways and Means (111th, 113th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Homeland Security (112th Congress)

DAWSON, WILLIAM LEVI. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 78th-91st Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1943 until his death Nov. 9, 1970)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Expenditures in the Executive Departments (78th-82nd Congresses; chair 81st-82nd Congresses)
  • H. Government Operations (83rd-91st Congresses; ranking member, 83rd Congress; committee chair, 84th-91st Congresses)
  • H. Coinage, Weights, and Measures (78th-79th Congresses)
  • H. Invalid Pensions (78th-79th Congresses)
  • H. Insular Affairs (78th-79th Congresses)
  • H. Irrigation and Reclamation (78th-79th Congresses)
  • H. Interior and Insular Affairs (82nd Congress)
  • H. District of Columbia (84th-91st Congresses)

DE LARGE, ROBERT CARLOS. Republican; South Carolina, 2nd District, Elected to the 42nd Congress. (served March 4, 1871 until Jan. 24, 1873, when his seat was declared vacant after his election was successfully contested by former Rep. Christopher Bowen)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Manufactures (42nd Congress)

DELLUMS, RONALD V. Democrat; California, 7th District (92nd-93rd Congresses); 8th District (94th-102nd Congresses); 9th District (103rd-105th Congresses). Elected to the 92nd-105th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1971 until his resignation Feb. 6, 1998). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 101st Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. District of Columbia (96th-103rd Congresses; chair; 96th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (92nd Congress)
  • H. Armed Services (93rd-103rd Congresses; chair, 103rd Congress)
  • H. National Security (104th-105th Congresses; ranking member, 104th-105th Congresses)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (97th-98th Congresses)
  • H. Select Intelligence (94th-102nd Congresses)

DEMINGS, VAL. Democrat; Florida, 10th District. Elected to the 115th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2017-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Homeland Security (115th Congress)
  • H. Government Reform (115th Congress)
  • H. Judiciary (115th Congress)

DE PRIEST, OSCAR STANTON. Republican; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 71st-73rd Congresses. (served March 4, 1929-March 3, 1935)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Enrolled Bills (71st-73rd Congresses)
  • H. Invalid Pensions (71st-73rd Congresses)
  • H. Indian Affairs (71st-73rd Congresses)
  • H. Post Office and Post Roads (73rd Congress)

DIGGS, CHARLES COLES, Jr. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District. Elected to the 84th-96th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1955 until his resignation on June 3, 1980). First Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 92nd Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Interior and Insular Affairs (84th-85th Congresses)
  • H. Veterans' Affairs (84th-85th Congresses)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (86th-93rd Congresses)
  • H. District of Columbia (88th-96th Congresses; chair, 93rd-95th Congresses)

DIXON, JULIAN CAREY. Democrat; California, 28th District (96th-102nd Congresses); 32nd District (103rd-106th Congresses). Elected to 96th-107th Congresses, but died before the commencement of the 107th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 1979 until his death on Dec. 8, 2000). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 98th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Appropriations (96th-106th Congresses)
  • H. Standards of Official Conduct (98th-101st Congresses; chair, 99th-101st Congresses)
  • H. Select Intelligence (103rd-106th Congresses; ranking member, 106th Congress)

DYMALLY, MERVYN MALCOLM. Democrat; California, 31st District. Elected to the 97th-102nd Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1981-Jan. 3, 1993). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 110th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. District of Columbia (97th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (97th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Science and Technology (97th-98th Congresses)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (98th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Education and Labor (99th Congress)

EDWARDS, DONNA. Democrat; Maryland, 4th District. Elected to the 110th Congress in a June 17, 2008, special election to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Albert Wynn; reelected to the 111th-114th Congresses. (served June 19, 2008-Jan. 3, 2017)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Science and Technology/Science, Space and Technology (110th-114th Congresses)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (110th-114th Congresses)
  • H. Ethics (112th Congress)

ELLIOTT, ROBERT BROWN. Republican; South Carolina, 3rd District. Elected to the 42nd-43rd Congresses. (served March 4, 1871 until his resignation on Nov. 1, 1874)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor (42nd-43rd Congresses)
  • H. Militia (43rd Congress)

ELLISON, KEITH. Democrat; Minnesota, 5th District. Elected to the 110th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 4, 2007-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Financial Services (110th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Judiciary (110th Congress)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (111th Congress)

ESPY, ALPHONSO MICHAEL (MIKE). Democrat; Mississippi, 2nd District. Elected to the 100th-103rd Congresses. (served Jan. 6, 1987 until his resignation on Jan. 25, 1993)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (100th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Budget (101st-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Select Hunger (101st-102nd Congresses)
  • Jt. Deficit Reduction (100th Congress)

EVANS, DWIGHT. Democrat; Pennsylvania, 2nd District. Elected to the 114th Congress to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Chaka Fattah; simultaneously elected to the 115th Congress. (served Nov. 8, 2016-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (115th Congress)
  • H. Small Business (115th Congress)

EVANS, MELVIN HERBERT. Republican; Delegate from the U.S. Virgin Islands. Elected to the 96th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 1979-Jan. 3, 1981)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Armed Services (96th Congress)
  • H. Interior and Insular Affairs (96th Congress)
  • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (96th Congress)

FATTAH, CHAKA. Democrat. Pennsylvania, 2nd District. Elected to the 104th-114th Congresses.(served Jan. 3, 1995 until his resignation June 23, 2016)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Government Reform and Oversight/Government Reform (104th-106th Congresses)
  • H. Economic and Education Opportunities (104th Congress)
  • H. Education and the Workforce (105th-106th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (104th Congress)
  • H. Standards of Official Conduct (105th-106th Congresses)
  • H. Administration (106th-107th Congresses)
  • Jt. Printing (106th-107th Congresses)
  • Appropriations (107th-114th Congresses)

FAUNTROY, WALTER EDWARD. Democrat; Delegate from the District of Columbia. Elected to the 92nd Congress in a special election after the District of Columbia was authorized to elect a delegate; reelected to the 93rd-101st Congresses. (served April 19, 1971-Jan. 3, 1991).Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 97th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. District of Columbia (92nd-101st Congresses)
  • H. Banking and Currency/Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs (93rd-101st Congresses)
  • H. Select Assassinations (94th-95th Congresses)
  • H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (98th-101st Congresses)

FIELDS, CLEO. Democrat; Louisiana, 4th District. Elected to the 103rd-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993-Jan. 3, 1997)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (103rd-104th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (103rd-104th Congresses)

FLAKE, FLOYD HAROLD. Democrat; New York, 6th District. Elected to the 100th-105th Congresses. (served Jan. 6, 1987 until his resignation on Nov. 15, 1997)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (100th-105th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (100th-105th Congresses)
  • H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
  • H. Select Children, Youth and Families (100th Congress)
  • H. Select Hunger (100th-102nd Congresses)

FORD, HAROLD EUGENE, SR. Democrat; Tennessee, 8th District (94th-97th Congresses); 9th District (98th-104th Congresses). Elected to the 94th-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1975-Jan. 3, 1997)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Veterans' Affairs (94th Congress)
  • H. Banking, Currency, and Housing (94th Congress)
  • H. Ways and Means (94th-104th Congresses)
  • H. Select Aging (94th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Select Assassinations (94th-95th Congresses)

FORD, HAROLD EUGENE, Jr. Democrat; Tennessee, 9th District. Elected to the 105th-109th Congresses. (served Jan. 7, 1997-Jan. 3, 2007)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and the Workforce (105th-107th Congresses)
  • H. Government Reform and Oversight/Government Reform (105th-106th Congresses)
  • H. Financial Services (107th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Budget (108th-109th Congresses)

FRANKS, GARY. Republican; Connecticut, 5th District. Elected to the 102nd-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1991-Jan. 3, 1997)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Armed Services (102nd Congress)
  • H. Small Business (102nd Congress)
  • H. Energy and Commerce (103rd Congress)

FRAZER, VICTOR O. Independent; Delegate from the U.S. Virgin Islands. Elected to the 104th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 1995-Jan. 3, 1997)

Committee assignments:

  • H. International Relations (104th Congress)

FUDGE, MARCIA F. Democrat; Ohio, 11th District. Elected to the 110th Congress in a Nov. 4, 2008, special election to fill vacancy caused by death of Stephanie Tubbs Jones; reelected to the 111th-115th Congresses. (served Nov. 19, 2008-present) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 113th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor/Education and the Workforce (111th Congress; 113th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Science and Technology/Science, Space and Technology (111th-112th Congresses)
  • H. Agriculture (112th-115th Congresses)

GRAY, WILLIAM HERBERT III. Democrat; Pennsylvania, 2nd District. Elected to the 96th-102nd Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1979 until his resignation on Sept. 11, 1991)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Budget (96th, 98th-100th Congresses; chair, 99th-100th Congresses)
  • H. District of Columbia (96th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (96th Congress)
  • H. Appropriations (97th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. House Administration (102nd Congress)
  • Jt. Deficit Reduction (100th Congress)

GREEN, AL. Democrat; Texas, 9th District. Elected to the 109th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 4, 2005-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Financial Services (109th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Science (109th Congress)
  • H. Homeland Security (110th-111th Congresses)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (111th Congresses)

HALL, KATIE BEATRICE. Democrat; Indiana, 1st District. Elected to the 97th Congress in a Nov. 2, 1982, special election to fill vacancy caused by death of Adam Benjamin Jr.; reelected to the 98th Congress. (served Nov. 29, 1982-Jan. 3, 1985)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (98th Congress)
  • H. Public Works and Transportation (98th Congress)

HARALSON, JEREMIAH. Republican; Alabama, 1st District. Elected to the 44th Congress. (served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1877)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Public Expenditures (44th Congress)

HARRIS, KAMALA DEVI. Democrat; California, Senator. Elected in 2016. (served Jan. 3, 2017-present)

Committee assignments:

  • S. Budget (115th Congress)
  • S. Environment and Public Works (115th Congress)
  • S. Homeland Security (115th Congress)
  • S. Judiciary (115th Congress)
  • S. Select Intelligence (115th Congress)

HASTINGS, ALCEE LAMAR. Democrat; Florida, 20th District. Elected to the 103rd-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Foreign Affairs/International Relations (103rd-107th Congress)
  • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (103rd Congress)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
  • H. Science (104th-105th Congresses)
  • H. Select Intelligence (106th-111th Congresses)
  • H. Rules (107th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Standards of Official Conduct (110th Congress)

HAWKINS, AUGUSTUS FREEMAN (GUS). Democrat; California, 21st District (88th-93rd Congresses); 29th (94th-101st Congresses). Elected to the 88th-101st Congresses. (served from Jan. 3, 1963-Jan. 3, 1991)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor (88th-101st Congresses; chair, 98th-101st Congresses)
  • H. House Administration (91st-98th Congresses; chair, 97th-98th Congresses)
  • Jt. Printing (95th-98th Congresses; chair, 96th and 98th Congresses)
  • Jt. Library (97th-98th Congresses; chair, 97thCongress)
  • Jt. Economic (97th-101st Congresses)

HAYES, CHARLES ARTHUR. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 98th Congress in a Aug. 23, 1983 special election to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Harold Washington; reelected to the 99th-102nd Congresses. (served Aug. 23, 1983-Jan. 3, 1993)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor (98th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (98th-101st Congresses)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (101st-102nd Congresses)

HILLIARD, EARL FREDERICK. Democrat; Alabama, 7th District. Elected to the 103rd-107th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993-Jan. 3, 2003)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (103rd-107th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
  • H. International Relations (105th-107th Congresses)

HORSFORD, STEVEN. Democrat; Nevada, 4th District. Elected to the 113th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2013-Jan. 3, 2015)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Homeland Security (113th Congress)
  • H. Natural Resources (113th Congress)
  • H. Oversight and Government Reform (113th Congress)

HURD, WILLIAM BALLARD. Republican; Texas, 23rd District. Elected to the 114th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2015-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Homeland Security (114th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Oversight and Government Reform (114th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (114th Congress)
  • H. Permanent Select Intelligence (115th Congress)

HYMAN, JOHN ADAMS. Republican; North Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 44th Congress. (served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1977)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Manufactures (44th Congress)

JACKSON, JESSE L., Jr. Democrat; Illinois, 2nd District. Elected to the 104th Congress in a special election to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mel Reynolds; reelected to the 105th-113th Congress, but declined to serve in the 113th Congress (served Dec. 14, 1995 until his resignation Nov. 21, 2012)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking and Financial Services (104th-105th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (104th-105th Congresses)
  • H. Appropriations (106th-112th Congresses)

JACKSON LEE, SHEILA. Democrat; Texas, 18th District. Elected to the 104th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1995-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Judiciary (104th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Science (104th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Homeland Security (108th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (110th-111th Congresses)

JEFFERSON, WILLIAM JENNINGS. Democrat; Louisiana, 2nd District. Elected to the 102nd-110th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1991-Jan. 3, 2009)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor (102nd Congress)
  • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (102nd Congress)
  • H. District of Columbia (103rd Congress)
  • H. Ways and Means (103rd, 105th-109th Congresses)
  • H. National Security (104th Congress)
  • H. House Oversight (104th Congress)
  • H. Budget (109th Congress)
  • H. Small Business (110th Congress)
  • Jt. Printing (104th Congress)

JEFFRIES, HAKEEM. Democrat; New York, 8th District, Elected to the 113th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2013-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Budget (113th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Education and the Workforce (114th Congress)
  • H. Judiciary (113th-115th Congresses)

JOHNSON, EDDIE BERNICE. Democrat; Texas, 30th District. Elected to the 103rd-115th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1993-present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 107th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Public Works and Transportation (103rd Congress)
  • H. Science, Space, and Technology / Science / Science and Technology (103rd-115th Congresses; ranking member, 112th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th-115th Congresses)

JOHNSON, HENRY C. (HANK), Jr. Democrat; Georgia, 4th District. Elected to the 110th-115th Congresses (served Jan. 4, 2007-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Armed Services (110th-114th Congresses)
  • H. Judiciary (110th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (110th Congress)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (115th Congress)

JONES, STEPHANIE TUBBS. Democrat; Ohio, 11th District. Elected to the 106th-110th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1999 until her death on August 20, 2008)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking and Financial Services (106th Congress)
  • H. Financial Services (107th Congress)
  • H. Small Business (106th-107th Congresses)
  • H. Standards of Official Conduct (107th-110th Congresses; chair, 110th Congress)
  • H. Ways and Means (108th-110th Congresses)

JORDAN, BARBARA C. Democrat; Texas, 18th District. Elected to the 93rd-95th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1973-Jan. 3, 1979)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Judiciary (93rd-95th Congresses)
  • H. Government Operations (94th-95th Congresses)

KELLY, ROBIN. Democrat; Illinois, 2nd District. Elected to the 113th Congress in an April 9, 2013, special election to vacancy caused by resignation of Jesse Jackson Jr.; reelected to the 114th-115th Congresses. (served April 11, 2013-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Oversight and Government Reform (113th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Science, Space, and Technology (113th Congress)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (114th-115th Congresses)

KILPATRICK, CAROLYN CHEEKS. Democrat; Michigan, 15th District (105th-107th Congresses) and 13th District (108th-111th Congresses). Elected to the 105th-111th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1997-Jan. 3, 2011). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 110th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking and Financial Services (105th Congress)
  • H. House Oversight (105th Congress)
  • Jt. Library (105th Congress)
  • H. Appropriations (106th-111th Congresses)

LANGSTON, JOHN MERCER. Republican; Virginia, 4th District. Elected to the 51st Congress. (served from September 23, 1890-March 3, 1891, after he successfully contested the election of Edward Venable)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education (51st Congress)

LAWRENCE, BRENDA L. Democrat; Michigan, 14th District. Elected to the 114th-115th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2015-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Oversight and Government Reform (114th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (114th Congress)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (115th Congress)

LAWSON, ALFRED, Jr. Democrat; Florida, 3rd District. Elected to the 115th Congress (served Jan. 3, 2017-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (115th Congress)
  • H. Small Business (115th Congress)

LEE, BARBARA. Democrat; California, 9th District. Elected to the 105th Congress in an April 7, 1998, special election to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Ronald Dellums; reelected to the 106th-115th Congresses. (served April 20, 1998-present) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 111th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking and Financial Services (105th-106th Congresses)
  • H. Financial Services (107th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Science (105th Congress)
  • H. International Relations (107th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (110th-111th Congresses)
  • H. Appropriations (110th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Budget (113th-115th Congresses)

LELAND, GEORGE THOMAS (Mickey). Democrat; Texas, 18th District. Elected to the 96th-101st Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1979 until his death Aug. 7, 1989). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 99th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. District of Columbia (96th-99th Congresses)
  • H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce (96th-101st Congresses)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (96th-101st Congresses)
  • H. Select Hunger (98th-101st Congress; chair, 98th-101st Congresses)
  • H. Select Children, Youth, and Families (98th Congress)

LEWIS, JOHN R. Democrat; Georgia, 5th District. Elected to the 100th-115th Congresses (served Jan. 6, 1987-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Public Works and Transportation (100th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Interior and Insular Affairs (100th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Select Aging (101st-102nd Congresses)
  • H. District of Columbia (103rd Congress)
  • H. Ways and Means (103rd-115th Congresses)
  • H. Budget (108th Congress)
  • Jt. Taxation (115th Congress)

LONG, JEFFERSON FRANKLIN. Republican; Georgia, 4th District. Elected to the 41st Congress after the House declared that Rep. Samuel Gove was not entitled to the seat. (served Jan. 16, 1871-March 3, 1871)

Committee assignments:

None

LOVE, MIA B. Republican; Utah, 4th District. Elected to the 114th-115th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2015-present)

Committee assignment:

  • H. Financial Services (114th-115th Congresses)

LYNCH, JOHN ROY. Republican; Mississippi, 6th District. Elected to the 43rd, 44th and 47th Congresses. (served March 4, 1873-March 3, 1877 and April 29, 1882-March 3, 1883 after he successfully contested the election of James Chalmers)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Mines and Mining (43rd-44th Congresses)
  • H. Militia (47th Congress)
  • H. Education and Labor (47th Congress)

MAJETTE, DENISE L. Democrat; Georgia, 4th District. Elected to the 108th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2003-Jan. 3, 2005)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Budget (108th Congress)
  • H. Education and the Workforce (108th Congress)
  • H. Small Business (108th Congress)

MCEACHIN, ASTON DONALD. Democrat; Virginia, 4th District. Elected to the 115th Congress (served Jan. 3, 2017-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Armed Services (115th Congress)
  • H. Natural Resources (115th Congress)

MCKINNEY, CYNTHIA. Democrat; Georgia, 11th District (103rd-104th Congresses) and 4th District (105th-107th Congress and 109th Congress). Elected to the 103rd-107th Congresses and to the 109th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 1993-Jan. 3, 2003; Jan. 3, 2005-Jan. 3, 2007)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (103rd-104th Congresses)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (103rd Congress)
  • H. Banking and Finance (104th-105th Congresses)
  • H. International Relations (104th-107th Congresses)
  • H. National Security (105th Congress)
  • H. Armed Services (106th-107th Congresses; 109th Congress)
  • H. Budget (109th Congress)

MEEK, CARRIE. Democrat; Florida, 17th District. Elected to the 103rd-107th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1993-Jan. 3, 2003)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Appropriations (103rd Congress; 105th-107th Congresses)
  • H. Budget (104th Congress)
  • H. Government Reform and Oversight (104th Congress)

MEEK, KENDRICK B. Democrat; Florida, 17th District. Elected to the 108th-111th Congresses. (served from Jan. 7, 2003-Jan. 3, 2011)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Armed Services (108th-111th Congresses)
  • H. Homeland Security (108th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Ways and Means (110th-111th Congresses)

MEEKS, GREGORY W. Democrat; New York, 5th District. Elected to the 105th Congress in a Feb. 3, 1998 special election to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Floyd Flake; reelected to 106th-115th Congresses. (served Feb. 3, 1998-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking and Financial Services/Financial Services (105th-115th Congresses)
  • H. International Relations/Foreign Affairs (106th-115th Congresses)

METCALFE, RALPH HAROLD. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 92nd-95th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1971 until his death October 10, 1978)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce (92nd-95th Congresses)
  • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (92nd-95th Congresses)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (95th Congress)

MFUME, KWEISI. Democrat; Maryland, 7th District. Elected to the 100th-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 6, 1987 until his resignation on Feb. 16, 1996). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 103rd Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (100th-104th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (100th-104th Congresses)
  • H. Education and Labor (101st Congress)
  • H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (101st-102nd Congresses)
  • Jt. Economic (102nd-104th Congresses)
  • H. Standards of Official Conduct (103rd Congress)
  • H. Select Hunger (100th Congress)

MILLENDER-McDONALD, JUANITA. Democrat; California, 37th District. Elected to the 104th Congress in a March 26, 1996, special election to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Walter Tucker; reelected to the 105th-110th Congresses. (served April 16, 1996 until her death April 22, 2007)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Small Business (104th-110th Congresses)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th-110th Congresses)
  • H. Administration (108th-110th Congresses; ranking member, 109th Congress; chair, 110th Congress)
  • Jt. Library (108th-110th Congresses)
  • Jt. Printing (109th-110th Congresses)

MILLER, THOMAS EZEKIEL. Republican; South Carolina, 7th District. Elected to the 51st Congress. (served Sept. 24, 1890-March 3, 1891, after successfully contesting the election of William Elliott)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Library of Congress (51st Congress)

MITCHELL, ARTHUR WERGS. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 74th-77th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1935-Jan. 3, 1943)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Post Office and Post Roads (74th-77th Congresses)

MITCHELL, PARREN JAMES. Democrat; Maryland, 7th District. Elected to the 92nd-99th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1971-Jan. 3, 1987) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 95th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking and Currency/Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs (92nd -99th Congresses)
  • H. Select Small Business (92nd -93rd Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (94th, 96th -99th Congresses; chair, 97th-99th Congresses)
  • H. Budget (93rd -95th Congresses)
  • Jt. Defense Production (94th-95th Congresses)
  • Jt. Economic (95th-99th Congresses; vice chair, 95th Congress)

MOORE, GWENDOLYNNE (GWEN). Democrat; Wisconsin, 4th District. Elected to the 109th- 115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2005-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Financial Services (109th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (109th-111th Congresses)
  • H. Budget (110th-114th Congresses)

MOSELEY-BRAUN, CAROL. Democrat; Illinois, Senator. Elected in 1992. (served Jan. 3, 1993-Jan. 3, 1999)

Committee assignments:

  • S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs (103rd-105th Congresses)
  • S. Judiciary (103rd Congress)
  • S. Small Business (103rd Congress)
  • S. Finance (104th-105th Congresses)
  • S. Special Aging (104th-105th Congresses)

MURRAY, GEORGE WASHINGTON. Republican; South Carolina, 1st District. Elected to the 53rd-54th Congresses. (served March 4, 1893-March 3, 1895 and June 4, 1896-March 3, 1897, after successfully contesting the election)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education (53rd -54th Congresses)
  • H. Expenditures in the Department of the Treasury (54th Congress)

NASH, CHARLES EDMUND. Republican; Louisiana, 6th District. Elected to the 44th Congress. (served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1877)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor (44th Congress)

NIX, ROBERT NELSON CORNELIUS, Sr. Democrat; Pennsylvania, 4th District (85th-87th Congresses); 2nd District (88th-95th Congresses). Elected to the 85th-95th Congresses (served June 4, 1958-Jan. 3, 1979)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (85th-86th Congresses)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (87th-93rd Congresses)
  • H. International Relations (94th-95th Congresses)
  • H. Veterans' Affairs (85th-86th Congresses)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (88th-95th Congresses; chair, 95th Congress)
  • H. Select Standards and Conduct (89th Congress)
  • H. Crime (91st Congress)

NORTON, ELEANOR HOLMES. Democrat; Delegate from the District of Columbia. Elected to the 102nd-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1991-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. District of Columbia (102nd-103rd Congresses)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (102nd-103rd Congresses)
  • H. Public Works and Transportation (102nd-103rd Congresses)
  • Jt. Committee on the Organization of Congress (103rd Congress)
  • H. Small Business (104th Congress)
  • H. Oversight and Government Reform/Government Reform (104th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Homeland Security (108th-111th Congresses)

OBAMA, BARACK. Democrat; Illinois. Senator. Elected in 2004. (served Jan. 4, 2005 until his resignation Nov. 16, 2008 after being elected President of the United States)

Committee assignments:

  • S. Environment and Public Works (109th-110th Congresses)
  • S. Foreign Relations (109th-110th Congresses)
  • S. Veterans' Affairs (109th-110th Congresses)
  • S. Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (110th Congress)
  • S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (110th Congress)

O'HARA, JAMES EDWARD. Republican; North Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 48th-49th Congresses. (served March 4, 1883-March 3, 1887)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Mines and Mining (48th Congress)
  • H. Expenditures on Public Buildings (49th Congress)
  • H. Invalid Pensions (49th Congress)

OWENS, MAJOR ROBERT ODELL. Democrat; New York, 11th District. Elected to the 98th-110th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1983-Jan. 3, 2007)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor/Economic and Educational Opportunities/Education and the Workforce (98th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Government Operations/Reform and Oversight (98th-109th Congresses)

PAYNE, DONALD MILFORD, Sr. Democrat; New Jersey, 10th District. Elected to the 101st-112th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1989 until his death March 6, 2012) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 104th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor/Economic and Educational Opportunities/Education and the Workforce (101st-112th Congresses)
  • H. Foreign Affairs/International Relations (101st-112th Congress)
  • H. Government Operations (101st-103rd Congresses)

PAYNE, DONALD MILFORD, Jr. Democrat; New Jersey; 10th District. Elected to the 112th Congress Nov. 6, 2012, to fill vacancy caused by death of his father Donald Payne, Sr.; simultaneously elected to the 113th Congress; reelected to the 114th-115th Congresses. (served Nov. 6, 2012-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Homeland Security (113th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (113th-114th Congresses)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (115th Congress)

PLASKETT, STACEY E. Democrat; Delegate from the U.S. Virgin Islands. Elected to the 114th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2015-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (114th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Oversight and Government Reform (114th-115th Congresses)

POWELL, ADAM CLAYTON, Jr. Democrat; New York, 22nd District (79th-82nd Congresses); 16th District (83rd-87th Congresses); 18th District (88th-89th and 91st Congresses). Elected to the 79th-90th Congress, but was not seated in the 90th Congress; and to the 91st Congress. (served Jan. 3, 1945-Jan. 3, 1967 and Jan. 3, 1969-Jan. 3, 1971)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Indian Affairs (79th Congress)
  • H. Invalid Pensions (79th Congress)
  • H. Labor/Education and Labor (79th-89th and 91st Congresses; chair, 87th-89th Congresses)
  • H. Interior and Insular Affairs (84th-86th Congresses)

RAINEY, JOSEPH HAYNE. Republican; South Carolina, 1st District. Elected to the 41st Congress after the seat declared vacant, and to the 42nd-45th Congresses. (served Dec. 12, 1870- March 3, 1879)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Freedmen's Affairs (41st-42nd Congresses)
  • H. Indian Affairs (43rd Congress)
  • H. Invalid Pensions (44th-45th Congresses)
  • H. Select Celebration of Proposed National Census of 1875 (43rd Congress)

RANGEL, CHARLES B. Democrat; New York, 18th District (92nd Congress); 19th District (93rd-97th Congresses); 16th District (98th-102nd Congresses); 15th District (103rd-112th Congresses); 13th District (113th-114th Congresses). Elected to the 92nd-114th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1971-Jan. 3, 2017) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 94th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Public Works (92nd Congress)
  • H. Science and Astronautics (92nd Congress)
  • H. Judiciary (92nd-93rd Congresses)
  • H. District of Columbia (93rd Congress)
  • H. Ways and Means (94th-114th Congresses; committee chair, 110th-111th Congresses; ranking Member, 105th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Select Crime (92nd-93rd Congresses)
  • H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (94th-102nd Congresses; chair, 98th-102nd Congresses)
  • Jt. Taxation (104th-105th, 108th, 111th, and 114th Congresses; chair, 111th Congress)

RANSIER, ALONZO JACOB. Republican; South Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 43rd Congress. (served March 3, 1873-March 3, 1875)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Manufactures (43rd Congress)

RAPIER, JAMES THOMAS. Republican; Alabama, 2nd District. Elected to the 43rd Congress (served March 4, 1873-March 3, 1875)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor (43rd Congress)

REVELS, HIRAM RHODES. Republican; Mississippi, Senator. Elected in 1870 (served Feb. 23, 1870-March 3, 1871)

Committee assignments:

  • S. Education and Labor (41st Congress)
  • S. District of Columbia (41st Congress)

REYNOLDS, MEL. Democrat; Illinois, 2nd District. Elected to the 103rd-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993 until his resignation October 1, 1995)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Ways and Means (103rd Congress)
  • H. Economic and Education Opportunities (104th Congress)

RICHARDSON, LAURA. Democrat, California, 37th District. Elected to the 110th Congress in an August 21, 2007, special election to fill vacancy caused by death of Juanita Millender-McDonald; reelected to the 111th-112th Congresses. (served Sept. 4, 2007 to Jan. 3, 2013)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Science and Technology (110th Congress)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (110th-112th Congresses)
  • H. Homeland Security (111th-112th Congresses)

RICHMOND, CEDRIC. Democrat; Louisiana, 2nd District. Elected to the 112th-115th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2011-present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 115th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Judiciary (113th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Homeland Security (112th-115th Congress)
  • H. Small Business (112th Congress)

RUSH, BOBBY L. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 103rd-115th Congresses (served Jan. 4, 1993-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs (103rd Congress)
  • H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
  • H. Science, Space and Technology (103rd Congress)
  • H. Commerce/Energy and Commerce (104th-115th Congresses)

SAVAGE, GUS. Democrat; Illinois. 2nd District. Elected to the 97th-102nd Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1981-Jan. 3, 1993)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (97th Congress)
  • H. Public Works and Transportation (97th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (97th-102nd Congresses)

SCOTT, DAVID. Democrat; Georgia, 13th District. Elected to the 108th- 115th Congresses (served Jan. 7, 2003-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (108th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Financial Services (108th-115th Congress)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (111th Congress)

SCOTT, ROBERT C. Democrat; Virginia, 3rd District. Elected to the 103rd-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 4, 1993-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor/Economic and Educational Opportunities/Education and the Workforce (103rd-107th, 109th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Judiciary (103rd-113th Congresses)
  • H. Science, Space, and Technology (103rd Congress)
  • H. Select U.S. National Security and Military/Commercial Concerns with the People's Republic of China (106th Congress)
  • H. Budget (108th, 110th Congresses)
  • H. Standards of Official Conduct (110th Congress)
  • Jt. Select Solvency of Multiemployer Pension Plans (115th Congress)

SCOTT, TIM. Republican; South Carolina, 1st District. Senator. Elected to the 112th Congress (served in House Jan. 3, 2011 until his resignation Jan. 2, 2013) Appointed to the Senate in January 2013 to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Jim DeMint; reelected to the remainder of the term in 2014 and to a full term in 2016. (served in Senate January 3, 2013-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Rules (112th Congress)
  • S. Armed Services (115th Congress)
  • S. Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs (114th-115th Congresses)
  • S. Commerce, Science and Transportation (113th Congress)
  • S. Energy and Natural Resources (113th Congress)
  • S. Finance (114th-115th Congresses)
  • S. Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (113th-115th Congresses)
  • S. Small Business and Entrepreneurship (113th-114th Congresses)
  • S. Special Aging (113th-115th Congresses)

SEWELL, TERRYCINA ("TERRI"). Democrat; Alabama, 7th District. Elected to the 112th- 115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2011-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (112th Congress)
  • H. Science, Space and Technology (112th Congress)
  • H. Financial Services (113th-114th Congresses)
  • H. Intelligence (113th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Ways and Means (115th Congress)

SMALLS, ROBERT. Republican; South Carolina, 7th District. Elected to the 44th-45th and 47th-49th Congresses. (served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1879; July 19, 1992-March 3, 1883, after he successfully contested the reelection of George Tillman, and March 18, 1884-March 3, 1887, after he was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Edmund Mackey)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (44th, 47th Congresses)
  • H. Militia (45th Congress)
  • H. Manufactures (48th Congress)
  • H. War Claims (49th Congress)

STEWART, BENNETT MCVEY. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 96th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 1979-Jan. 3, 1981)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Appropriations (96th Congress)

STOKES, LOUIS. Democrat; Ohio, 21st District (91st-102nd Congresses); 11th District (103rd-105th Congresses). Elected to the 91st-105th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1969 to Jan. 3, 1999) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 93rd Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor (91st Congress)
  • H. Internal Security (91st Congress)
  • H. Appropriations (92nd-105th Congress)
  • H. Budget (95th-96th Congresses)
  • H. Standards of Official Conduct (96th-98th and 102nd Congresses; chair, 97th-98th and 102nd Congresses)
  • H. Select Assassinations (94th-95th Congresses; chair, 95th Congress)
  • H. Select Intelligence (98th-100th Congresses)
  • H. Select to Investigate Arms Transactions to Iran (100th Congress)

THOMPSON, BENNIE. Democrat; Mississippi, 2nd District. Elected to the 103rd Congress in an April 13, 1993 special election to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mike Espy. (served April 13, 1993-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (103rd-108th Congresses)
  • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (103rd Congress)
  • H. Small Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
  • H. Budget (105th-107th Congresses)
  • H. Homeland Security (108th-115th Congresses; chair 110th-111th Congresses; ranking Member, 112th-115th Congress)

TOWNS, EDOLPHUS. Democrat; New York, 11th District (98th-102nd Congresses); 10th District (103rd-112th Congresses). Elected to the 98th-112th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1983-Jan. 23, 2013) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 102nd Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Government Operations/Government Reform and Oversight/Oversight and Government Reform (98th-112th Congresses; chair, 111th Congress)
  • H. Public Works and Transportation (98th-104th Congresses)
  • H. Energy and Commerce/Commerce (101st-110th and 112th Congresses)
  • H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (98th-102nd Congresses)

TUCKER, WALTER R., III. Democrat; California, 37th District. Elected to the 103rd-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993 until his resignation on December 15, 1995)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Public Works and Transportation/Transportation and Infrastructure (103rd- 104th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (103rd-104th Congresses)

TURNER, BENJAMIN STERLING. Republican; Alabama, 1st District. Elected to the 42nd Congress. (served March 4, 1871-March 3, 1873)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Invalid Pensions (42nd Congress)

VEASEY, MARC. Democrat; Texas, 33rd District. Elected to 113th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2015-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Armed Services (113th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Science, Space and Technology (113th -115th Congresses)

WALDON, ALTON R., Jr. Democrat; New York, 6th District. Elected to the 99th Congress in a June 10, 1986 special election to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Joseph P. Addabbo (served July 29, 1986-Jan. 3, 1987)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor (99th Congress)

WALLS, JOSIAH THOMAS. Republican; Florida, At-Large (42nd and 43rd Congresses); 2nd District (44th Congress). Elected to the 42nd-44th Congresses (served March 4, 1871-Jan. 29, 1873, when his election was successfully contested; March 4, 1873-March 3, 1875; and March 4, 1875-April 19, 1876, when his election was successfully contested)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Militia (42nd-43rd Congresses)
  • H. Mileage (44th Congress)

WASHINGTON, CRAIG ANTHONY. Democrat; Texas, 18th District. Elected to the 101st Congress in a Dec. 9, 1989 special election to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mickey Leland; reelected to the 102nd-103rd Congresses (served Dec. 9, 1989-Jan. 3, 1995)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Education and Labor (101st-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Judiciary (101st-103rd Congresses)
  • H. Energy and Commerce (103rd Congress)
  • H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
  • H. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control (102nd Congress)

WASHINGTON, HAROLD. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 97th-98th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1981 until his resignation April 29, 1983)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Government Operations (97th Congress)
  • H. Education and Labor (97th-98th Congresses)
  • H. Judiciary (97th-98th Congresses)

WATERS, MAXINE. Democrat; California, 29th District (102nd Congress), 35th District (103rd- 112th Congresses) and 43rd District (113th Congress-present). Elected to the 102nd-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1991-present) Chair, Congressional Black Caucus, 105th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (102nd-106th Congresses)
  • H. Financial Services (107th-115th Congresses; ranking member, 113th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Veterans' Affairs (102nd-104th Congresses)
  • H. Small Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
  • H. Judiciary (105th-112th Congresses)

WATSON, DIANE. Democrat; California, 32nd District (107th Congress) and 33rd District (108th- 111th Congresses). Elected to the 107th Congress in a June 5, 2001, special election to fill vacancy caused by death of Julian Dixon; reelected to the 108th-111th Congresses. (served June 7, 2001-Jan. 3, 2011)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Government Reform/Oversight and Government Reform (107th-111th Congresses)
  • H. International Relations (107th-109th Congresses)
  • H. Foreign Affairs (110th-111th Congresses)

WATSON COLEMAN, BONNIE. Democrat; New Jersey, 12th District. Elected to the 114th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2015-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Homeland Security (114th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Oversight and Government Reform (114th-115th Congresses)

WATT, MELVIN L. Democrat; North Carolina, 12th District. Elected to the 103rd-113th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993 until his resignation Jan. 6, 2014) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 109th Congress.

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services/ Financial Services (103rd-113th Congresses)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
  • H. Judiciary (103rd-113th Congresses)
  • Jt. Economic (107th-108th Congresses)

WATTS, JULIUS CAESAR, Jr. (J.C.) Republican; Oklahoma, 4th District. Elected to the 104th-107th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1995-Jan. 3, 2003)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking and Financial Services (104th Congress)
  • H. National Security (104th-105th Congress)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (105th-106th Congresses)
  • H. Armed Services (106th-107th Congresses)

WEST, ALLEN Republican; Florida, 22nd District. Elected to the 112th Congress (served Jan, 3, 2011-Jan. 3,2013)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Armed Services (112th Congress)
  • H. Small Business (112th Congress)

WHEAT, ALAN DUPREE. Democrat; Missouri, 5th District. Elected to the 98th-103rd Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1983-Jan. 3, 1995)

Committee assignments:

  • H. District of Columbia (98th-103rd Congresses)
  • H. Rules (98th-103rd Congresses)
  • H. Select Children, Youth, and Families (98th-102nd Congresses)
  • H. Select Hunger (101st-102nd Congresses)

WHITE, GEORGE HENRY. Republican; North Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 55th-56th Congresses. (served March 4, 1897-March 3, 1901)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Agriculture (55th Congress)
  • H. District of Columbia (55th-56th Congresses)

WILSON, FREDERICA. Democrat; Florida, 17th District (112th Congress), 24th District (113th Congress-present). Elected to the 112th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2011-present)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Foreign Affairs (112th Congress)
  • H. Science, Space and Technology (112th-113th Congresses)
  • H. Education and the Workforce (114th-115th Congresses)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (115th Congress)

WYNN, ALBERT RUSSELL. Democrat; Maryland, 4th District. Elected to the 103rd-110th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993-May 31, 2008)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (103rd-104th Congresses)
  • H. Foreign Affairs/International Relations (103rd-104th Congresses)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
  • H. Commerce/Energy and Commerce (105th-110th Congresses)

YOUNG, ANDREW JACKSON, Jr. Democrat; Georgia, 5th District. Elected to the 93rd-95th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1973 until his resignation on Jan. 29, 1977)

Committee assignments:

  • H. Banking, Currency and Housing (93rd Congress)
  • H. Rules (94th Congress)

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Specialist on the Congress ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])
[author name scrubbed], Information Research Specialist ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Acknowledgments

This report was originally authored by [author name scrubbed], formerly a specialist in American National Government at CRS. [author name scrubbed], formerly Deputy Director and Senior Specialist at CRS, was a former coauthor. [author name scrubbed], research assistant, provided research assistance for this version. [author name scrubbed], Neal Arp II, Erin Hemlin provided research assistance for prior versions.

Footnotes

1.

The idea of "representation," including its forms and variations, has long been debated among political scientists and political theorists. For a discussion, see Hanna F. Pitkin, The Concept of Representation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1967).

2.

For example: David Lublin, The Paradox of Representation: Racial Gerrymandering and Minority Interests in Congress (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997); Kenny J. Whitby, The Color of Representation: Congressional Behavior and Black Interests (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997); David T. Canon, "Electoral systems and the representation of minority interests in legislatures," Legislative Studies Quarterly, vol. 24:331-85 (1999); David T. Canon, Race, Redistricting, and Representation: The Unintended Consequences of Black Majority Districts (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999); Carol M. Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests, Enlarged Edition (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, Inc., 2006); Daniel C. Bowen and Christopher J. Clark, "Revisiting Descriptive Representation in Congress: Assessing the Effect of Race on the Constituent–Legislator Relationship," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 67, No. 3 (September 2014), pp. 695-707; and Shane A. Gleason and Christopher T. Stout, "Who is Empowering Who: Exploring the Causal Relationship Between Descriptive Representation and Black Empowerment," Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 45, No. 7 (October 2014), pp. 635-659.

3.

For example: Charles Cameron, David Epstein, and Sharon O'Halloran, "Do majority-minority districts maximize substantive black representation in Congress?" American Political Science Review, vol. 90:794-812, 1996); David Lublin, "Racial Redistricting and African-American Representation: A Critique of 'Do Majority-Minority Districts Maximize Substantive Black Representation in Congress?'" The American Political Science Review, vol. 93, No. 1 (Mar., 1999), pp. 183-186; Vincent L. Hutchings, Harwood K. McClerking, and Guy-Uriel Charles, "Congressional Representation of Black Interests: Recognizing the Importance of Stability," Journal of Politics, vol. 66, no. 2 (2004), pp. 450-68.

4.

See, for example, CRS Report R44798, Congressional Redistricting Law: Background and Recent Court Rulings, by [author name scrubbed] and CRS Report R44199, Congressional Redistricting: Legal and Constitutional Issues, by [author name scrubbed].

5.

For example: Claudine Gay, "Spirals of Trust: The Effect of Descriptive Representation on the Relationship Between Citizens and their Government," American Journal of Political Science, vol. 46: 717 (2002); Richard F. Fenno, Going Home: Black Representatives and Their Constituencies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003); John D. Griffin and Michael Keane, "Descriptive Representation and the Composition of African American Turnout," American Journal of Political Science, vol. 50, no. 4 (Oct., 2006), pp. 998-1012; Christian R. Grose, Maurice Mangum and Christopher Martin, "Race, Political Empowerment, and Constituency Service: Descriptive Representation and the Hiring of African-American Congressional Staff," Polity, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Oct., 2007), pp. 449-478; Claudine Gay, "Legislating without Constraints: The Effect of Minority Districting on Legislator'' Responsiveness to Constituency Preferences," The Journal of Politics, Vol. 69, No. 2 (May, 2007), pp. 442-456; Kenny J. Whitby, "The Effect of Black Descriptive Representation on Black Electoral Turnout in the 2004 Elections," Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 88, No. 4 (December 2007), pp. 1010-1023; Thomas L. Brunell, Christopher J. Anderson and Rachel K. Cremona, "Descriptive Representation, District Demography, and Attitudes toward Congress among African Americans," Legislative Studies Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 2 (May, 2008) pp. 223-244; Whose Black Politics? Cases in Post-Racial Black Leadership, ed. Andra Gillespie (New York: Routledge, 2010); Phillip J. Ardoin, "Why Don't You Tweet? The Congressional Black Caucus' Social Media Gap," Race, Gender, and Class, Vol. 20, No. 1-2 (2013), pp. 130-140; and Bernard L. Fraga, "Candidates or Districts? Reevaluating the Role of Race in Voter Turnout," American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 60, No. 1 (January 2016), pp. 97-122.

6.

For example: Kerry L. Haynie, "African Americans and the New Politics of Inclusion," in Congress Reconsidered, ed. Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 8th ed. (Washington: CQ Press, 2005), pp. 395-409; Scott A. Frisch and Sean Q. Kelly, Committee Assignment Politics in the U.S. House of Representatives (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2006); Katrina L. Gamble, "Black Political Representation: An Examination of Legislative Activity within U. S. House Committees," Legislative Studies Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Aug., 2007), pp. 421-447; Franklin G. Mixon Jr. and Amanda C. Pagels, "Are Congressional Black Caucus Members More Reliable? Loyalty Screening and Committee Assignments of Newly Elected Legislators," The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 66, No. 2 (Apr., 2007), pp. 413-432; Katrina L. Gamble, "Black Voice: Deliberation in the United States Congress," Polity, Vol. 43, No. 3 (July 2011), pp. 291-312; Michael S. Rocca, Gabriel R. Sanchez and Jason L. Morin, "The Institutional Mobility of Minority Members of Congress," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 64, No. 4 (December 2011), pp. 897-909; John D. Griffin and Michael Keane, "Are African Americans Effectively Represented in Congress?" Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 64, No. 1 (March 2011), pp. 145-156; Gbemende Johnson, Bruce I. Oppenheimer and Jennifer L. Selin, "The House as a Stepping Stone to the Senate: Why Do So Few African American House Members Run?" American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 56, No. 2 (April 2012), pp. 387-399; and, Stella M. Rouse, Michele L. Swers, and Michael D. Parrott, "Gender, Race, and Coalition Building: Agenda Setting as a Mechanism for Collaboration Among Minority Groups in Congress," Paper delivered for presentation at the American Political Science Association Meeting (2013).

7.

For example: Charles E. Jones, "United We Stand, Divided We Fall: An Analysis of the Congressional Black Caucus' Voting Behavior, 1975-1980," Phylon, Vol. 48, No. 1 (1st Qtr., 1987), pp. 26-37; Roxanne L. Gile, Charles E. Jones, "Congressional Racial Solidarity: Exploring Congressional Black Caucus Voting Cohesion, 1971-1990," Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 25, No. 5 (May, 1995), pp. 622-641; Neil Pinney and George Serra, "The Congressional Black Caucus and Vote Cohesion: Placing the Caucus within House Voting Patterns," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 52, No. 3 (Sept., 1999), pp. 583-608; Michael S. Rocca, Gabriel R. Sanchez and Ron Nikora, "The Role of Personal Attributes in African American Roll-Call Voting Behavior in Congress," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Jun., 2009), pp. 408-414.

8.

For example: Edward O. Erhagbe, "The Congressional Black Caucus and United States Policy Toward Africa:1971-1990," Transafrican Journal of History, Vol. 24 (1995), pp. 84-96; Joseph Uscinski, Michael S. Rocca, Gabriel R. Sanchez and Marina Brenden, "Congress and Foreign Policy: Congressional Action on the Darfur Genocide," PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 42, No. 3 (July 2009), pp. 489-496; Michael D. Minta and Valeria Sinclair-Chapman, "Diversity in Political Institutions and Congressional Responsiveness to Minority Interests," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 66, No. 1 (March 2013), pp. 127-140.

9.

One Representative has since resigned.

10.

For information on the Seventeenth Amendment, see https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/amendments-11-27#toc-amendment-xvii and http://www.crs.gov/conan/details/?mode=topic&doc=Amendment17.xml&t=1&c=1.

11.

For information on the CBC CMO, see https://cbc.house.gov/. For additional historical information, see http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Essays/Permanent-Interest/Congressional-Black-Caucus/.

12.

Number includes CMOs listed as of February 5, 2018. For a list of CMOs in the 115th Congress, see https://cha.house.gov/sites/republicans.cha.house.gov/files/assets/115CMOList%282.5.18%29.pdf.

13.

H.Res. 6 (104th Congress), Section 222. These groups were previously referred to as Legislative Service Organizations (LSOs).

14.

Rules of the House adopted for the 114th and 115th Congress made changes to the accounting of CMOs (H.Res. 5, Section 3(p), 114th Congress; H.Res. 5, Section (3)(n), 115th Congress) by allowing a "Member of the House of Representatives and an eligible Congressional Member Organization [to] enter into an agreement" to allow for a transfer of funds from the MRA to a "dedicated account in the House of Representatives which is administered by the Organization," subject to regulations adopted by the Committee on House Administration.

15.

For information, see https://cha.house.gov/handbooks/members-congressional-handbook#Members-Handbook-Organizations-CMO.

16.

For information, see https://www.cbcfinc.org/.

17.

For additional information, refer to CRS Report RL30567, Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2017, by [author name scrubbed].

18.

U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, "Black Americans in Party Leadership Positions, 1977-Present," http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Data/Black-Americans-in-Party-Leadership-Positions/.

19.

For additional information, refer to the "Black Americans Who Have Chaired Congressional Committees in the U.S. House, 1873-present" table of the Black Americans in Congress website at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Data/Black-American-Chairs-of-Congressional-Committees/.

20.

This number includes one female Senator who is of African American and Asian ancestry. For additional information, see U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, Black Americans in Congress, at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/.

21.

Prior to the adoption of the Twentieth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, effective Oct. 15, 1933, the terms of Representatives and Senators began on March 4, in conformance with a resolution of the Continental Congress implementing the Constitution (adopted Sept. 13, 1788). The Twentieth Amendment provides inter alia that the terms of Representatives and Senators shall commence at noon on January 3, in the year following their election. The first Congress affected by the Twentieth Amendment was the 74th (1935-1937). Members elected to fill a vacancy are sworn in and commence their terms as soon as possible, as do Senators appointed to fill a vacancy.

The names and jurisdiction of House and Senate committees have changed many times over the years. In the interest of brevity, this report does not identify all historical name changes. The committee names listed are for the most part those in effect at the time a Member served on the panel.