Order Code RL30378 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001 Updated July 12, 2001 Mildred L. Amer Specialist in American National Government Government and Finance Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Black Members of the United States Congress: 17892001 Summary Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. The first black Member of Congress was Hiram Rhodes Revels (R-MS) who served in the Senate in the 41st Congress (1870). The first black Member of the House was Joseph H. Rainey (R-SC). He also served in the 41st Congress. Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), elected to the 91st through 97th Congresses (1969-1983), was the first black woman in Congress. Since that time, 20 other black women have been elected, including Senator Carol Moseley-Braun (D-IL, 1993-1999), who was the first black woman, as well as first black Democrat, elected to the Senate. The majority of the black Members have been Democrats. There have been 80 black Democrats and 27 black Republicans. The black Members of Congress have served on all major committees. Sixteen have served as committee chairmen, 15 in the House and one in the Senate. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Alphabetical Listing of Black Members, Selected Biographical Information, and Committee Assignments During Their Tenure in Office . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 List of Tables Table 1. Black Members of Congress—Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2. Black Members of Congress— House of Representatives . . . . . . . . . Table 3. Number and Names of Black Members of Congress By Congress . . . Table 4. Number and Names of Black Members of Congress By State . . . . . . Table 5. Number of Black Members in the U.S. Congress, 41st-107th Congresses (1870-2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 36 41 50 53 Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001 Introduction In 210 years of congressional history, 107 black Americans have been elected to the U.S. Congress: 103 to the House and four to the Senate.1 Of these, 21 have been women. Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. There were 39 black Members of the 106th Congress, all in the House; 40 in the 105th Congress, 39 in the House and one in the Senate; and a record number of 41 in the 104th Congress: 40 in the House and one in the Senate.2 The largest number of black Members elected as freshmen was 17 in the 103rd Congress. Sixteen were elected to the House and one, Carol Moseley-Braun (D-IL, 1993-1999), was elected to the Senate. Senator Moseley-Braun was also the first black woman and black Democrat to serve in the Senate. The first black Member of Congress was Hiram Rhodes Revels (R-MS) who served in the Senate in the 41st Congress (1870). He also has the distinction of being the first black Member of the Senate and the first black Member of Congress from Mississippi. Joseph H. Rainey (R-SC) was the first black Member of the House of Representatives. He also served in the 41st Congress. Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), elected to the 91st through the 97th Congresses (1969-83), was the first black woman to serve in Congress. Edward Brooke (R-MA) was the first black person elected to the Senate after the passage of the Twelfth Amendment which provided for the direct election of Senators. He served in the 90th through the 95th Congresses (1967-1979). The majority of the black Members of Congress have been Democrats. There have been 80 black Democrats and 27 black Republicans. All of the black Democrats have been elected in the 20th Century. There have been five black Republicans elected to Congress in this century, four in the House and one in the Senate. 1 Includes three Delegates from the U.S. Virgin Islands and two from the District of Columbia. 2 A record number of 43 black Members was elected to the House of Representatives in the 104th Congress. Only 40, however, actually served at any one time. Representative Mel Reynolds (D-IL) resigned in October 1995, and was replaced by Representative Jesse Jackson, Jr. (D-IL); Representative Walter Tucker (D-CA) resigned in December 1995 and was replaced by Representative Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA); and Representative Kweisi Mfume (D-MD) resigned in February 1996 and was replaced by Representative Elijah Cummings (D-MD). CRS-2 John Conyers, Jr. (D-MI) holds the record for longevity of service by a black Member (36 years). He was first elected to the 89th Congress and has served since January 3, 1965. A record number of 15 black women serve in the House in the 107th Congress. A total of 22 black women have served in Congress. The first was Representative Shirley Chisholm (D-NY, 1969-1983). Senator Carol Moseley-Braun (D-IL, 19931999) is only black woman to have served in the Senate. The black female Members of the 107th Congress include Representatives Maxine Waters (D-CA), Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-DC), Carrie Meek (D-FL), Corinne Brown (D-FL), Cynthia McKinney (D-FL), Eva Clayton (D-NC), Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX), Sheila Jackson Lee (D-TX), Barbara Lee (D-CA), Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA), Julia Carson (D-IN), Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick (D-MI), Donna ChristianChristiensen (D-VI), Stephanie Tubbs Jones (D-OH), and Diane Watson (D-CA). Other black women Members were Cardiss Collins (D-IL, 1973-1997), Barbara-Rose Collins (D-MI, 1991-1997), Yvonne Brathwaite Burke (D-CA, 1973-1979), Katie Hall (D-IN, 1982-1985), and Barbara Jordan (D-TX, 1973-1979). Two incumbent black Members are the sons of former Members: Representative Harold Ford, Jr. (D-TN, 1997- ), the son of former Representative Harold Ford Sr. (D-TN, 1975-1997), and Representative Wm. Lacy Clay (D-MO, 2001- ), the son of Representative William L. Clay, Sr. (D-MO, 1969-2001). One former black Member, Representative Cardiss Collins (D-IL, 1973-1997) was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband, Representative George Collins (D-IL, 19701972). Representative George White (R-NC, 1897-1901) was the brother-in-law of Representative Henry Cheatham (R-NC, 1889-1893). In addition to Cardiss Collins, 17 other black Members were first elected to fill vacancies in the House. These include Representatives George Collins (D-IL), Eva Clayton (NC), Katie Hall (D-IN), Robert Nix, Sr. (D-PA); Charles Hayes (D-IL), Bennett Stewart (D-IL), George W. Crockett, Jr. (D-MI), Lucien Blackwell (D-PA), Edolphus Towns (D-NY), Jesse Jackson, Jr. (D-IL), Elijah Cummings (D-MD), Barbara Lee (D-CA), Craig Washington (D-TX), Bennie Thompson (D-MS), Alton Waldon, Jr. (D-NY), Gregory Meeks (D-NY), Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA), and Diane Watson (D-CA). All but Representatives Stewart, Walden, and Watson have been subsequently elected to additional terms.3 The black Members of the Congress have served on all major committees. Fifteen, all Representatives, have chaired congressional committees. These include Representatives Yvonne B. Burke (D-CA, 1973-1979), William L. Clay (D-MO, 1969-2001 ), John Conyers, Jr. (D-MI, 1965- ), William L. Dawson (D-IL, 19431970), Ronald V. Dellums (D-CA, 1971-1998), Charles C. Diggs, Jr. (D-MI, 19551980), Julian Dixon (D-CA, 1979- ), William H. Gray, III (D-PA, 1979-1991), Augustus F. Hawkins (D-CA, 1963-1991), George T. (Mickey) Leland (D-TX, 19791989), Parren J. Mitchell (D-MD, 1971-1987), Robert N.C. Nix, Sr. (D-PA, 19581979), Adam Clayton Powell (D-NY, 1945-1967, 1969-1971), Charles B. Rangel (DNY, 1971- ), and Louis Stokes (D-OH, 1969-1999). 3 Rep. Watson was sworn in on June 7, 2001, and has not yet stood for reelection. CRS-3 This report provides information on black Members of Congress including the dates they were first elected, the Congresses in which they served, the committees on which they served, and, where relevant, an indication of the committees they have chaired. In addition, four tables summarize information about black Members. Tables 1 and 2 list selected data about each black Member. Table 3 presents the number and names of black Members by Congress. Table 4 presents the same information by state. Table 5 shows the changing number of black Members serving in Congress since 1870, when the first black Member was elected. Most of the data presented are from the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 [http://bioguide.congress.gov]; various editions of the Congressional Directory; a broad range of Congressional Quarterly publications; and the Congressional Yellowbook, Winter 2001, published by Leadership Directories, Inc. Information on the committee assignments of the black Members in the 107th Congress was obtained from various editions of the Congressional Record; calls to some Members’ offices; and List of Standing Committees and Select Committees and Their Subcommittees of the House of Representatives Together with the Joint Committees of the Congress with an Alphabetical List of Members and Their Committee Assignments, One Hundred Seventh Congress, prepared under the direction of Jeff Trandahl, Clerk of the House of Representatives, April 30, 2001 [http://clerkweb.house.gov/107/oal/.php3mbrcmtee/mbrcmtee/htm]. House committee assignments for the 107th Congress reflect the name change of two Committees. The Banking and Financial Services Committee was renamed the Financial Services Committee, and the Commerce Committee was renamed the Energy and Commerce Committee. House committee assignments for the 106th Congress reflect the name change of the Committee on House Oversight back to the Committee on House Administration, the Committee on National Security back to the Committee on Armed Services, and the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight to the Committee on Government Reform. CRS-4 Alphabetical Listing of Black Members, Selected Biographical Information, and Committee Assignments During Their Tenure in Office BISHOP, SANFORD D., a Representative from Georgia. Born on Feb. 4, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Select Intelligence Congress 103rd-107th 103rd 103rd-104th 105th-107th BLACKWELL, LUCIEN E., a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on Aug. 1, 1931. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. William Gray; reelected to the 103rd Congress; served from Nov. 11, 1991, to Jan. 3, 1995. Committee Assignments H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. Public Works and Transportation H. Budget Congress 102nd 102nd-103rd 103rd BROOKE, EDWARD W., a Senator from Massachusetts. Born on Oct. 26, 1919. Elected as a Republican in 1966 and served in the 90th through 95th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1967, to Jan. 3, 1979. First black Member of Congress from Massachusetts. Committee Assignments S. Aeronautical and Space Sciences S. Banking and Currency S. Government Operations S. Armed Services S. Select Equal Education Opportunity S. Appropriations S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs S. Special Aging S. Select Standards and Conduct Jt. Bicentennial Arrangements Jt. Defense Production Congress 90th 90th-91st 90th 91st 91st-92nd 92nd-95th 92nd-95th 92nd-95th 93rd-94th 94th 94th-95th CRS-5 BROWN, CORRINE, a Representative from Florida. Born on Nov. 11, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Government Operations H. Public Works and Transportation H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Transportation and Infrastructure Congress 103rd 103rd 103rd-107th 104th-107th BRUCE, BLANCHE K., a Senator from Mississippi. Born on March 1, 1841, died on March 17, 1898. Elected as a Republican in 1874 and served in the 44th through 46th Congresses; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1881. Committee Assignments S. Manufactures S. Pensions S. Education and Labor S. Select Mississippi River Congress 44th 44th-45th 44th-46th 45th-46th BURKE, YVONNE B., a Representative from California. Born on Oct. 5, 1932. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 95th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1973, to Jan. 3, 1979. First woman chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 94th Congress (1976). Committee Assignments H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Public Works H. Appropriations H. Select Assassinations H. Select Beauty Shop Congress 93rd 93rd 94th-95th 94th-95th 94th-95th (Committee Chair, 94th-95th) CAIN, RICHARD H., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on April 12, 1825, died on Jan. 18, 1887. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd and 45th Congresses; served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875, and from March 4, 1877, to March 3, 1879. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Private Land Claims Congress 43rd 45th CRS-6 CARSON, JULIA, a Representative from Indiana. Born on July 8, 1938. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since January 9, 1997. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. Veterans’ Affairs Congress 105th-107th 105th-107th CHEATHAM, HENRY P., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on Dec. 27, 1857, died on Nov. 29, 1935. Elected as a Republican to the 51st and 52nd Congresses; served from March 4, 1889, to March 3, 1893. Committee Assignments H. Expenditures on Public Buildings H. Education H. Agriculture Congress 51st-52nd 51st-52nd 52nd CHISHOLM, SHIRLEY A., a Representative from New York. Born on Nov. 30, 1924. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st through 97th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1969, to Jan. 3, 1983. First black woman elected to Congress and first black female presidential candidate (1972). Secretary of the Democratic Caucus in the 96th Congress (1977-1979). Committee Assignments H. Veterans' Affairs H. Education and Labor H. Rules Congress 91st-92nd 92nd-94th 95th-97th CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSEN, DONNA M., a Delegate from the Virgin Islands. Born on September 19, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th Congress through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 7, 1997. First woman elected from the Virgin Islands and first woman doctor in Congress. Committee Assignments H. Resources H. Small Business Congress 105th-107th 106th -107th CHRISTIAN-GREEN, DONNA. See CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSEN, DONNA. CLAY, WILLIAM L., a Representative from Missouri. Born on April 30, 1931. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st through 106th Congresses, served from Jan. 3, 1969, to Jan. 3, 2001. First black Member of Congress from Missouri. CRS-7 CLAY, WILLIAM L.—Continued Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Education and the Workforce H. Economic and Educational Opportunities H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Select to Study the Committee System H. House Administration H. Jt. Library Congress 91st-103rd 105th-106th 104th 93rd-103rd (Committee Chair, 102nd-103rd) 96th 99th-103rd 101st CLAY, WM. Lacy, Jr., a Representative from Missouri. Born on July 27, 1956; succeeded his father, William Clay. Elected as a Democrat to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 2001. Committee Assignments H. Financial Services H. Government Reform Congress 107th 107th CLAYTON, EVA M., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on Sept. 16, 1934. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Walter Jones, reelected to the 103rd through 107th Congresses; has served since Nov. 5, 1992. Co-chair of the House Democratic Policy Committee in the 104th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Small Business H. Budget Congress 103rd-107th 103rd 105th-107th CLYBURN, JAMES E., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on July 21, 1940. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Public Works and Transportation H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Small Business H. Appropriations Congress 103rd 103rd-105th 104th-105th 104th 106th-107th CRS-8 COLLINS, BARBARA-ROSE, a Representative from Michigan. Born on April 13, 1939. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 104th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1991, to Jan. 3, 1997. Committee Assignments H. Public Works and Transportation H. Transportation and Infrastructure Congress 102nd-103rd 104th H. Government Operations H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Science, Space, and Technology H. Select Children, Youth, and Families 103rd 104th 102nd-103rd 102nd 102nd COLLINS, CARDISS, a Representative from Illinois. Born on September 24, 1931. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 104th Congresses, served from June 7, 1973, to Jan. 3, 1997. She was first elected to succeed her husband, Rep. George Collins. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus during the 96th Congress, 1979-1980. Committee Assignments H. Government Operations H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Public Works H. International Relations H. Foreign Affairs H. District of Columbia H. Energy and Commerce H. Commerce H. Select Population H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control Congress 93rd-103rd 104th 93rd 94th-95th 96th 95th 97th-103rd 104th 95th 96th-102nd COLLINS, GEORGE W., a Representative from Illinois. Born on March 5, 1926, died on Dec. 8, 1972. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st Congress to fill the vacancy by the death of Rep. Daniel Ronan, reelected to the 92nd and 93rd Congresses; served from Nov. 16, 1970, to Dec. 8, 1972. He was succeeded by his wife, Cardiss Collins. Committee Assignments H. Government Operations H. Public Works Congress 91st-92nd 92nd CRS-9 CONYERS, JOHN Jr., a Representative from Michigan. Born on May 16, 1929. Elected as a Democrat to the 89th through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 1965. Committee Assignments H. Judiciary H. Government Operations H. Small Business Congress 89th-107th 92nd-103rd, (Committee Chair, 101st-103rd) 100th-103rd CROCKETT, GEORGE W., a Representative from Michigan. Born on Aug. 10, 1909. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Charles Diggs, reelected to the 97th through 101st Congresses; served from Nov. 12, 1980, to Jan 3, 1991. Committee Assignments H. Foreign Affairs H. Judiciary H. Small Business H. Select Aging Congress 96th-101st 97th-101st 97th 97th-101st CUMMINGS, ELIJAH E., a Representative from Maryland. Born on Jan. 18, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Kweisi Mfume; reelected to the 105th through 107th Congresses; has served since April 25, 1996. Committee Assignments H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Government Reform Congress 104th-105th 104th-107th 106th-107th DAVIS, DANNY K., a Representative from Illinois. Born on Sept. 6, 1941. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th-106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 7, 1997. Committee Assignments H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Small Business H. Government Reform Congress 105th 105th- 107th 106th-107th CRS-10 DAWSON, WILLIAM L., a Representative from Illinois. Born on April 26, 1886, died on Nov. 9, 1970. Elected as a Democrat to the 78th through 91st Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1943, to Nov. 9, 1970. Committee Assignments H. Expenditures in the Executive Departments H. Government Operations H. Coinage, Weights, and Measures H. Invalid Pensions H. Insular Affairs H. Irrigation and Reclamation H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. District of Columbia Congress 78th-82nd (Committee Chair, 81st, 82nd ) 83rd-91st (Committee Chair, 84th-91st) 78th-79th 78th-79th 78th-79th 78th-79th 82nd 84th-91st DeLARGE, ROBERT C., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on March 15, 1842, died on Feb. 14, 1874. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd Congress; served from March 4, 1871, until Jan. 24, 1873, when his seat was declared vacant after his election was successfully contested. Committee Assignment H. Manufactures Congress 42nd DELLUMS, RONALD V., a Representative from California. Born on Nov. 25, 1935. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 105th Congresses, served from Jan. 3, 1971, until Feb. 6, 1998, when he resigned from the House. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus during the 101st Congress, 1989-1990. Committee Assignments H. District of Columbia H. Foreign Affairs H. Armed Services H. National Security H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Select Intelligence Congress 92nd-103rd (Committee Chair, 96th-102nd) 92nd 93rd-103rd (Committee Chair, 103rd) 104th-105th 97th-98th 94th-102nd CRS-11 DePRIEST, OSCAR S., a Representative from Illinois. Born on March 9, 1871, died on May 12, 1951. Elected as a Republican to the 71st through 73rd Congresses; served from March 4, 1929, to March 3, 1935. First black Member of Congress from Illinois. Committee Assignments H. Enrolled Bills H. Invalid Pensions H. Indian Affairs H. Post Office and Post Roads Congress 71st-73rd 71st-73rd 71st-73rd 73rd DIGGS, CHARLES C., Jr., a Representative from Michigan. Born on Dec. 2, 1922, died on Aug. 24 1998. Elected as a Democrat to the 84th through 96th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1955, until his resignation on June 3, 1980. First black Member of Congress from Michigan and first chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 92nd Congress, 1971-1972. Committee Assignments H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Foreign Affairs H. International Relations H. District of Columbia, Congress 84th-85th 84th-85th 86th-93rd 94th-96th 88th-96th (Committee Chair, 93rd-95th) DIXON, JULIAN C., a Representative from California. Born on Aug. 8, 1934; died on Dec. 8, 2000. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress, but died before the commencement of the 107th Congress; served since Jan. 3, 1979, until his death. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus during the 98th Congress, 1983-1984. Committee Assignments H. Appropriations H. Standards of Official Conduct H. Select Intelligence Congress 96th-106th 98th-101st (Committee Chair, 99th-101st) 103rd-106th DYMALLY, MERVYN M., a Representative from California. Born on May 12, 1926. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th through 102nd Congresses, served from Jan. 3, 1981, to Jan. 3, 1993. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus during the 100th Congress, 1987-1988. CRS-12 DYMALLY, MERVYN M.—Continued Committee Assignments H. District of Columbia H. Foreign Affairs H. Science and Technology H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Education and Labor Congress 97th-102nd 97th-102nd 97th-98th 98th-102nd 99th ELLIOTT, ROBERT B., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on Aug. 11, 1842, died on Aug. 9, 1884. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd and 43rd Congresses; served from March 4, 1871, until his resignation Nov. 1, 1874. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Militia Congress 42nd-43rd 43rd ESPY, ALBERT MICHAEL (MIKE), a Representative from Mississippi. Born on Nov. 28, 1953. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 103rd Congresses. Served from Jan. 6, 1987, to Jan. 25, 1993, when he resigned to become Secretary of Agriculture. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Budget H. Select Hunger Jt. Deficit Reduction Congress 100th-102nd 101st-102nd 101st-102nd 100th EVANS, MELVYN H., a Delegate from the Virgin Islands. Born on Aug. 7, 1917, died on Nov. 27, 1984. Elected as a Republican to the 96th Congress; served from Jan. 3, 1979, to Jan. 3, 1981. First black Member of Congress from the Virgin Islands and first black physician to serve in Congress. Committee Assignments H. Armed Services H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries Congress 96th 96th 96th FATTAH, CHAKA, a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on Nov. 21, 1956. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th through 106th Congresses; reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 1995. CRS-13 FATTAH, CHAKA —Continued Committee Assignments H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Economic and Educational Opportunities H. Education and the Workforce H. Small Business H. Standards of Official Conduct H. Administration H. Government Reform Jt. Printing H. Appropriations Congress 104th-105th 104th 105th-106th 104th 105th-106th 106th-107th 106th 106th -107th 107th FAUNTROY, WALTER E., a Delegate from the District of Columbia. Born on Feb. 6, 1933. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd Congress in a special election after the District of Columbia was authorized to elect a delegate to Congress, reelected to the 93rd through 101st Congresses; served from April 19, 1971, to Jan. 3, 1991. First black Member of Congress from the District of Columbia. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus during the 97th Congress, 1981-1982. Committee Assignments H. District of Columbia H. Banking and Currency H. Banking, Currency, and Housing H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Select Assassinations H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control Congress 92nd-101st 93rd 94th 95th-101st 94th-95th 98th-101st FIELDS, CLEO, a Representative from Louisiana. Born on Nov. 22, 1962. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd and 104th Congresses; served from Jan. 5, 1993, to Jan. 3, 1997. At 30, he was the youngest Member of the 103rd Congress. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Banking and Financial Services H. Small Business Congress 103rd 104th 103rd-104th FLAKE, FLOYD H., a Representative from New York. Born on Jan. 30, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 105th Congresses; served from Jan. 6, 1987, to Nov. 15, 1997, when he resigned from the House. CRS-14 FLAKE, FLOYD H.—Continued Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Banking and Financial Services H. Small Business H. Government Operations H. Select Children, Youth, and Families H. Select Hunger Congress 100th-103rd 104th-105th 100th-105th 103rd 100th 100th-102nd FORD, HAROLD E., Sr., a Representative from Tennessee. Born on May 20, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 94th through 104th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1975, to Jan. 3, 1997. First black Member of Congress from Tennessee. Succeeded by his son, Harold Ford, Jr. Committee Assignments H. Veterans' Affairs H. Banking, Currency, and Housing H. Ways and Means H. Select Aging H. Select Assassinations Congress 94th, 1st 94th, 1st 94th-104th 94th-102nd 94th-95th FORD, HAROLD E., Jr., a Representative from Tennessee. Born on May 11, 1970. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th -106th Congresses; reelected to the 107th Congress, has served since Jan. 7, 1997. At 27, he was the youngest Member of the 105th Congress. Succeeded his father, Harold E. Ford, Sr. Committee Assignments H. Education and the Workforce H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Government Reform H. Financial Services Congress 105th-107th 105th 106th 107th FRANKS, GARY A., a Representative from Connecticut. Born on Feb. 9, 1953. Elected as a Republican to the 102nd Congress through 104th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1991, to Jan. 3, 1997. First black Member of Congress from Connecticut. CRS-15 FRANKS, GARY A.—Continued Committee Assignments H. Armed Services H. Small Business H. Energy and Commerce H. Commerce H. Select Committee on Aging Congress 102nd 102nd 103rd 104th 102nd FRAZER, VICTOR O., a Delegate from the U.S.Virgin Islands. Born on May 24, 1943. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress; served from Jan. 3, 1995, to Jan. 3, 1997. Committee Assignments H. International Relations Congress 104th GRAY, WILLIAM H., III, a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on Aug. 20, 1941. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th through 102nd Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1979, to Sept. 11, 1991, when he resigned to become president of the United Negro College Fund. Served as chairman of the House Democratic Caucus and later as Majority Whip in the 101st Congress. Committee Assignments H. Budget H. District of Columbia H. Foreign Affairs H. Appropriations H. House Administration Jt. Deficit Reduction Congress 96th, 98th-100th (Committee Chair, 99th-100th) 96th-102nd 96th 97th-102nd 102nd 100th HALL, KATIE B., a Representative from Indiana. Born on April 3, 1938. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Rep. Adam Benjamin, reelected to the 98th Congress; served from Nov. 29, 1982, to Jan. 3, 1985. First black Member of Congress from Indiana. Committee Assignments H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Public Works and Transportation Congress 98th 98th CRS-16 HARALSON, JEREMIAH, a Representative from Alabama. Born on April 1, 1846, died in 1916. Elected as a Republican to the 44th Congress; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1877. Committee Assignments H. Public Expenditures Congress 44th HASTINGS, ALCEE L., a Representative from Florida. Born on Sept. 5, 1936. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Foreign Affairs H. International Relations H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Science H. Select Intelligence H. Rules Congress 103rd 104th-107th 103rd 103rd 104th-105th 106th-107th 107th HAWKINS, AUGUSTUS F., a Representative from California. Born on Aug. 31, 1907. Elected as a Democrat to the 88th through 101st Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1963, to Jan. 3, 1991. First black Member of Congress from California. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. House Administration Jt. Committee on Printing Jt. Committee on the Library Jt. Economic Congress 88th-101st (Committee Chairman, 98th, 2nd sess. - 101st) 91st-98th (Committee Chairman, 97th 98th, 2nd sess.) 95th-98th (Committee Chairman, 96th, 98th) 97th-98th (Committee Chairman, 97th) 97th-101st CRS-17 HAYES, CHARLES A., a Representative from Illinois. Born on Feb. 17, 1918, died on April 8, 1997. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Harold Washington, reelected to the 99th through 102nd Congresses; served from Sept. 12, 1983, to Jan. 3, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Small Business H. Post Office and Civil Service Congress 98th-102nd 98th-101st 101st-102nd HILLIARD, EARL F., a Representative from Alabama. Born on April 9, 1942. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Small Business H. International Relations Congress 103rd-107th 103rd-104th 105th-107th HYMAN, JOHN ADAMS, a Representative from North Carolina. Born on July 23, 1840, died on Sept. 14, 1891. Elected as a Republican to the 44th Congress; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1877. First black Member of Congress from North Carolina. Committee Assignments H. Manufactures Congress 44th JACKSON, JESSE L., JR., a Representative from Illinois. Born on March 11, 1965. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Mel Reynolds, reelected to the 105th through 107th Congresses; has served since December 14, 1995. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. Small Business H. Appropriations Congress 104th-105th 105th 106th-107th CRS-18 JACKSON LEE, SHEILA, a Representative from Texas. Born on Jan. 12, 1950. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 1995. Committee Assignments H. Judiciary H. Science Congress 104th-107th 104th-107th JEFFERSON, WILLIAM J., a Representative from Louisiana. Born on March 14, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 1991. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. District of Columbia H. Ways and Means H. National Security H. House Oversight Jt. Printing Congress 102nd 102nd 103rd 103rd, 105th-107th 104th 104th 104th JOHNSON, EDDIE BERNICE, a Representative from Texas. Born on Dec. 3, 1935. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 5, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 107th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Public Works and Transportation H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Science, Space and Technology H. Science Congress 103rd 104th-107th 103rd 104th-107th JONES, STEPHANIE TUBBS, a Representative from Ohio. Born on Sept. 10, 1949. Elected as a Democrat to the 106th Congress, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 1999.. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. Financial Services H. Small Business H. Committee on Standards of Official Conduct Congress 106th 107th 106th 107th CRS-19 JORDAN, BARBARA C., a Representative from Texas. Born on Feb. 21, 1936, died on Jan. 17, 1996. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 95th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1973, to Jan. 3, 1979. First black Member of Congress from Texas. Committee Assignments H. Judiciary H. Government Operations Congress 93rd-95th 94th-95th KILPATRICK, CAROLYN CHEEKS, a Representative from Michigan. Born on June 25, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 7, 1997. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. House Oversight Jt. Committee on the Library H. Appropriations Congress 105th 105th 105th 106th-107th LANGSTON, JOHN M., a Representative from Virginia. Born on Dec. 14, 1829, died on Nov. 15, 1897. Elected as a Republican to the 51st Congress; served from Sept. 23, 1890, to March 3, 1891, after he successfully contested the election of Edward Venable. First black Member of Congress from Virginia. Committee Assignments H. Education Congress 51st LEE, BARBARA, a Representative from California. Born on July 16, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Ronald Dellums, reelected to the 106th -107th Congresses; has served since April 20, 1998. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. Financial Services H. Science H. International Relations Congress 105th-106th 107th 105th 106th-107th CRS-20 LELAND, GEORGE T. (MICKEY), a Representative from Texas. Born on Nov. 27, 1944, died on Aug. 7, 1989. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th through 101st Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1979, to Aug. 7, 1989. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus during the 99th Congress, 1985-1986. Committee Assignments H. District of Columbia H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Select Hunger H. Select Children, Youth, and Families Congress 96th-99th 96th-101st 96th-101st 98th-101st (Committee Chairman, 98th101st) 98th LEWIS, JOHN L., a Representative from Georgia. Born on Feb. 19, 1940. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 106th Congresses; reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 6, 1987. A Democratic chief deputy whip in the 102nd-107th Congresses. Committee Assignments H. Public Works and Transportation H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Select Aging H. District of Columbia H. Ways and Means Congress 100th-102nd 100th-102nd 101st-102nd 103rd 103rd-107th LONG, JEFFERSON F., a Representative from Georgia. Born on March 3, 1836, died on Feb. 5, 1900. Elected as a Republican to the 41st Congress after the House declared that Samuel Gove was not entitled to his seat; served from Jan. 16, 1871, to March 3, 1871. First black Member of Congress from Georgia. Committee Assignments None Congress — LYNCH, JOHN R., a Representative from Mississippi. Born on Sept. 10, 1846, died on Nov. 2, 1939. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd, 44th, and 47th Congresses; served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1877, and from April 29, 1882, to March 3, 1883, after he successfully contested the election of Rep. James Chalmers. At 26, he was the youngest Member of the 43rd Congress. First black Member of the House of Representatives from Mississippi CRS-21 LYNCH, JOHN R.—Continued Committee Assignments H. Mines and Mining H. Militia H. Education and Labor Congress 43rd-44th 47th 47th McKINNEY, CYNTHIA A., a Representative from Georgia. Born on March 17, 1955. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Foreign Affairs H. International Relations H. Banking and Financial Services H. National Security H. Armed Services Congress 103rd 103rd 104th-107th 104th-105th 105th 106th-107th MEEK, CARRIE P., a Representative from Florida. Born on April 29, 1926. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Appropriations H. Budget H. Government Reform and Oversight Congress 103rd, 105th-107th 104th 104th MEEKS, GREGORY, a Representative from New York. Born on Sept. 25, 1953. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Floyd Flake, reelected to the 106th-107th Congresses; has served since Feb. 5, 1998. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. Financial Services H. International Relations Congress 105th-106th 107th 106th-107th METCALFE, RALPH H., a Representative from Illinois. Born on May 30, 1910, died on Oct. 10, 1978. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 95th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1971, to Oct. 10, 1978. CRS-22 METCALFE, RALPH H.—Continued Committee Assignments H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. Post Office and Civil Service Congress 92nd-95th 92nd-95th 95th MFUME, KWEISI, a Representative from Maryland. Born on Oct. 24, 1948. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 104th Congresses; served from Jan. 6, 1987, to Feb. 16, 1996, when he resigned to become Executive Director of the NAACP. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 103rd Congress, 1993-1994. Served as a co-chair of the Democratic Policy Committee in the 104th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Banking and Financial Services H. Small Business H. Education and Labor H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control Jt. Economic H. Standards of Official Conduct H. Select Hunger Congress 100th-103rd 104th 100th-104th 101st 101st-102nd 102nd-104th 103rd 100th MILLENDER-McDONALD, JUANITA, a Representatives from California. Born on Sept. 7, 1938. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Walter Tucker; reelected to the 105th through 107th Congresses; has served since April 16, 1996. Committee Assignments H. Small Business H. Transportation and Infrastructure Congress 104th-107th 104th-107th MILLER, THOMAS E., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on June 17, 1849, died on April 8, 1936. Elected as a Republican to the 51st Congress; served from Sept. 24, 1890 to March 3, 1891, when he successfully contested the election of William Elliott. Committee Assignments H. Library of Congress Congress 51st CRS-23 MITCHELL, ARTHUR W., a Representative from Illinois. Born on Dec. 22, 1883, died on May 9, 1968. Elected as a Democrat to the 74th through 77th Congresses; served from Jan 3, 1935, to Jan. 3, 1943. First black Democrat elected to Congress. Committee Assignments H. Post Office and Post Roads Congress 74th-77th MITCHELL, PARREN J., a Representative from Maryland. Born on April 29, 1922. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 99th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1971, to Jan. 3, 1987. First black Member of Congress from Maryland. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus during the 95th Congress, 19771978. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Currency H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Select Small Business H. Budget H. Small Business Jt. Defense Production Jt. Economic Congress 92nd-93rd 94th-99th 92nd-93rd 93rd-95th 94th, 96th-99th (Committee Chair, 97th-99th) 94th-95th 95th-99th MOSELEY-BRAUN, CAROL, a Senator from Illinois. Born on Aug. 16, 1947. Elected as a Democrat in 1992 and served in the 103rd through 105th Congresses from Jan. 5, 1993, to Jan. 3, 1999. She was the first black woman and black Democrat to serve in the Senate. Committee Assignments S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs S. Judiciary S. Small Business S. Finance S. Special Aging Congress 103rd-105th 103rd 103rd 104th-105th 104th-105th MURRAY, GEORGE W., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on Sept. 22, 1853, died on April 21, 1926. Elected as a Republican to the 53rd and 54th Congresses; served from March 4, 1893, to March 3, 1895, and from June 4, 1896, to March 3, 1897 (successfully contested an election). CRS-24 MURRAY, GEORGE W.—Continued Committee Assignments H. Education H. Expenditures in the Treasury Department Congress 53rd-54th 54th NASH, CHARLES E., a Representative from Louisiana. Born on May 23, 1844, died on June 21, 1913. Elected as a Republican to the 44th Congress; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1877. First black Member of Congress from Louisiana. Committee Assignment H. Education and Labor Congress 44th NIX, ROBERT N.C., Sr., a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on Aug. 9, 1905, died on June 22, 1987. Elected as a Democrat to the 85th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Earl Chudoff, reelected to the 86th through 95th Congresses; served from June 4, 1958, to Jan. 3, 1979. First black Member of Congress from Pennsylvania. Committee Assignments H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. Foreign Affairs H. International Relations H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Select Standards and Conduct H. Crime Congress 85th-86th 87th-93rd 94th-95th 85th-86th 88th-95th (Committee Chair, 95th) 89th 91st NORTON, ELEANOR HOLMES, a Delegate from the District of Columbia. Born on June 13, 1937. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 1991. CRS-25 NORTON, ELEANOR HOLMES—Continued Committee Assignments H. District of Columbia H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Public Works and Transportation H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Small Business Jt. Committee on the Organization of Congress H. Government Reform Congress 102nd-103rd 102nd-103rd 102nd-103rd 104th-107th 104th-105th 104th 102nd-103rd 106th-107th O’HARA, JAMES E., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on Feb. 26, 1844, died on Sept. 15, 1905. Elected as a Republican to the 48th and 49th Congresses; served from March 4, 1883, to March 3, 1887. Committee Assignments H. Mines and Mining H. Expenditures on Public Buildings H. Invalid Pensions Congress 48th 49th 49th OWENS, MAJOR R., a Representative from New York. Born on June 28, 1936. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 1983. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Economic and Educational Opportunities H. Government Operations H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Education and the Workforce H. Government Reform Congress 98th-103rd 104th 98th-103rd 104th-105th 105th-107th 106th-107th PAYNE, DONALD M., a Representative from New Jersey. Born on July 16, 1934. Elected as a Democrat to the 101st through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 1989. First black Member of Congress from New Jersey. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 104th Congress. CRS-26 PAYNE, DONALD M.—Continued Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Economic and Educational Opportunities H. Education and the Workforce H. Foreign Affairs H. Government Operations H. International Relations Congress 101st-103rd 104th 105th-107th 101st-103rd 101st-103rd 104th-107th POWELL, ADAM CLAYTON, a Representative from New York. Born on Nov. 29, 1908, died on April 4, 1972. Elected as a Democrat to the 79th through 90th Congresses, but was not seated in the 90th Congress (excluded from that Congress on Mar. 1, 1967). He served from Jan. 3, 1945, to Jan. 3, 1967. In April 1967, he was reelected in a special election to the seat from which he had been excluded, but he did not attempt to take the oath of office. He was reelected to the 91st Congress and served from Jan. 3, 1969, to Jan. 3, 1971. First black Member of Congress from New York. Committee Assignments H. Indian Affairs H. Invalid Pensions H. Labor H. Education and Labor H. Interior and Insular Affairs Congress 79th 79th 79th 80th-89th, 91st (Committee Chair, 87th-89th) 84th-86th RAINEY, JOSEPH H., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on June 21, 1832, died on Aug. 2, 1887. Elected as a Republican to the 41st Congress when the House declared the seat of Benjamin Whittemore vacant, reelected to the 42nd through 45th Congresses; served from Dec. 12, 1870, to March 3, 1879. He was the first black Member of the House of Representatives as well as the first black Member of Congress from South Carolina. Committee Assignments H. Freedmen’s Affairs H. Indian Affairs H. Invalid Pensions H. Select Celebration of Proposed National Census of 1875 Congress 41st-42nd 43rd 44th-45th 43rd CRS-27 RANGEL, CHARLES B., a Representative from New York. Born on June 11, 1930. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 1971. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus during the 94th Congress, 1975. Committee Assignments H. Public Works H. Science and Astronautics H. Judiciary H. District of Columbia H. Ways and Means H. Select Crime H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control Jt. Taxation Congress 92nd 92nd 92nd-93rd 93rd 94th-107th 92nd-93rd 94th-102nd (Committee Chairman, 98th102nd) 104th-105th RANSIER, ALONZO J., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on Jan. 3, 1834, died on Aug. 17, 1882. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd Congress; served from March 3, 1873, to March 3, 1875. Committee Assignments H. Manufactures Congress 43rd RAPIER, JAMES T., a Representative from Alabama. Born on Nov. 13, 1837, died on May 31, 1883. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd Congress; served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875. Committee Assignment H. Education and Labor Congress 43rd REVELS, HIRAM R., a Senator from Mississippi. Born on Sept. 27, 1827, died on Jan. 16, 1901. Elected as a Republican in 1870 and served in the 41st Congress after Mississippi was readmitted to the union; served from Feb. 25, 1870, to March 3, 1871. He was the first black Member of the U.S. Congress, the first black Republican elected to Congress, and the first black Member of Congress from Mississippi. Committee Assignments S. Education and Labor S. District of Columbia Congress 41st 41st CRS-28 REYNOLDS, MELVIN J., a Representative from Illinois. Born on Jan. 8, 1952. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd and 104th Congresses; served from Jan. 5, 1993, until his resignation on Oct. 1, 1995. Committee Assignment H. Ways and Means H. Economic and Educational Opportunities Congress 103rd 104th RUSH, BOBBY L., a Representative from Illinois. Born on Nov. 23, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Government Operations H. Science, Space, and Technology H. Commerce H. Energy and Commerce Congress 103rd 103rd 103rd 104th-106th 107th SAVAGE, GUS, a Representative from Illinois. Born on Oct. 30, 1925. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th through 102nd Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1981, to Jan. 3, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Public Works and Transportation H. Small Business Congress 97th 97th-102nd 97th-102nd SCOTT, ROBERT C., a Representative from Virginia. Born on April 30, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Judiciary H. Science, Space, and Technology H. Economic and Educational Opportunities H. Education and the Workforce H. U.S. National Security and Military Commercial Concerns with the People’s Republic of China Congress 103rd 103rd-107th 103rd 104th 105th-107th 106th CRS-29 SMALLS, ROBERT, a Representative from South Carolina. Born on April 5, 1839, died on Feb. 22, 1915. Elected as a Republican to the 44th, 45th, and 47th through 49th Congresses. He served from March 4, 1875, to Mar. 3, 1879; from July 19, 1882, to March 3, 1883, after he successfully contested the election of George Tillman, and from March 18, 1884, to March 3, 1887, after he was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Edmund Mackey Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Militia H. Manufactures H. War Claims Congress 44th, 47th 45th 48th 49th STEWART, BENNETT M., a Representative from Illinois. Born on Aug. 6, 1912, died April 26, 1988. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th Congress; served from Jan. 3, 1979, to Jan. 3, 1981. Committee Assignment H. Appropriations Congress 96th STOKES, LOUIS, a Representative from Ohio. Born on Feb. 23, 1925. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st through 105th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1969, to Jan. 3, 1999. First black Member of Congress from Ohio. Served as chair of the Congressional black Caucus during the 92nd and 93rd Congresses, 1972-1974. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Internal Security H. Appropriations H. Budget H. Standards of Official Conduct H. Select Assassinations H. Select Intelligence H. Select to Investigate Arms Transactions to Iran Congress 91st 91st 92nd-105th 95th-96th 96th-98th, 102nd (Committee Chairman, 97th98th, 102nd) 94th-95th (Committee Chairman, 95th) 98th-100th 100th THOMPSON, BENNIE G., a Representative from Mississippi. Born on Jan. 28, 1948. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Mike Espy to become Secretary of Agriculture, reelected to the 104th through 107th Congresses; has served since April 20, 1993. CRS-30 THOMPSON, BENNIE G.—Continued Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. Small Business H. Budget Congress 103rd-107th 103rd 103rd-104th 105th-107th TOWNS, EDOLPHUS, a Representative from New York. Born on July 21, 1934. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 1983. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 102nd Congress, 1991-1992. Committee Assignments H. Government Operations H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Government Reform H. Public Works and Transportation H. Energy and Commerce H. Commerce H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control Congress 98th-103rd 104th-105th 106th-107th 98th-104th 101st-103rd, 107th 104th-106th 98th-102nd TUCKER, WALTER R., a Representative from California. Born on May 28, 1957. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd and 104th Congresses; served from Jan. 5, 1993, until his resignation on Dec. 15, 1995. Committee Assignments H. Public Works and Transportation H. Small Business H. Transportation and Infrastructure Congress 103rd 103rd-104th 104th TURNER, BENJAMIN S., a Representative from Alabama. Born on March 17, 1825, died on March 21, 1894. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd Congress; served from March 4, 1871, to March 3, 1873. First black Member of Congress from Alabama. Committee Assignment H. Invalid Pensions Congress 42nd WALDON, ALTON R., Jr., a Representative from New York. Born on Dec. 21, 1936. Elected as a Democrat to the 99th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Rep. Joseph Addabo; served from July 29, 1986, to Jan. 3, 1987. CRS-31 WALDON, ALTON R., Jr.—Continued Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Small Business Congress 99th 99th WALLS, JOSIAH T., a Representative from Florida. Born on Dec. 30, 1842, died on May 5, 1905. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd through 44th Congresses; served from March 4, 1871, to Jan. 29, 1873 (when his election was successfully contested); from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875; and from March 4, 1875, to April 19, 1876 (when his election was successfully contested). First black Member of Congress from Florida. Committee Assignments H. Militia H. Mileage Congress 42nd-43rd 44th WASHINGTON, CRAIG A., a Representative from Texas. Born on Oct. 12, 1941. Elected as a Democrat to the 101st Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Rep. Mickey Leland, reelected to the 102nd and 103rd Congresses; served from Dec. 9, 1989, to Jan. 3, 1995. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Judiciary H. Energy and Commerce H. Government Operations H. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control Congress 101st-102nd 101st-103rd 103rd 103rd 102nd WASHINGTON, HAROLD D., a Representative from Illinois. Born on April 15, 1922, died on Nov. 25, 1987. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th and 98th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1981, to April 29, 1983, when he resigned to become Mayor of Chicago, Illinois. Committee Assignments H. Government Operations H. Education and Labor H. Judiciary Congress 97th 97th-98th 97th-98th WATERS, MAXINE, a Representative from California. Born on Aug. 31, 1938. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the CRS-32 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 1991. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 105th Congress, vice chair of the Democratic Steering Committee in the 105th-107th Congresses, and a Democratic chief deputy whip in the 106th107th Congresses. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Banking and Financial Services H. Financial Services H. Veterans Affairs H. Small Business H. Judiciary Congress 102nd-103rd 104th-106th 107th 102nd-104th 103rd-104th 105th-107th WATSON, DIANE E., a Representative from California. Born on Nov. 12, 1933. Elected as a Democrat to the 107th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Julian Dixon; has served since June 7, 2001. Committee Assignments H. International Relations H. Government Reform Congress 107th 107th WATT, MELVIN L., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on Aug. 26, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Banking and Financial Services H. Financial Services H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Judiciary Jt. Economic Congress 103rd 104th-106th 107th 103rd 103rd-106th 107th WATTS, J.C., Jr., a Representative from Oklahoma. Born on Nov. 18, 1957. Elected as a Republican to the 104th through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 3, 1995. First black Member of Congress from Oklahoma. Chair of the House Republican Conference in the 106th-107th Congresses. CRS-33 WATTS, J.C., Jr.—Continued Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. National Security H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Armed Services Congress 104th 104th-105th 105th-106th 106th-107th WHEAT, ALAN D., a Representative from Missouri. Born on Oct. 16, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th through 103rd Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1983, to Jan. 3, 1995. Committee Assignments H. District of Columbia H. Rules H. Select Children, Youth, and Families H. Select Hunger Congress 98th-103rd 98th-103rd 98th-102nd 101st-102nd WHITE, GEORGE H., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on Dec. 18, 1852, died on Dec. 28, 1918. Elected as a Republican to the 55th and 56th Congresses; served from March 4, 1897, to March 3, 1901. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. District of Columbia Congress 55th 55th-56th WYNN, ALBERT R., a Representative from Maryland. Born on Sept. 10, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 106th Congresses, reelected to the 107th Congress; has served since Jan. 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Banking and Financial Services H. Foreign Affairs H. Post Office and Civil Service H. International Relations H. Commerce H. Energy and Commerce Congress 103rd 104th 103rd 103rd 104th 105th-106th 107th CRS-34 YOUNG, ANDREW, a Representative from Georgia. Born on March 12, 1932. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 95th Congresses; served from Jan. 3, 1973, to Jan. 29, 1977, when he resigned to become U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. Elected Mayor of Atlanta, Georgia, in 1981. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Currency, and Housing H. Rules Congress 93rd 94th CRS-35 Table 1. Black Members of Congress—Senate Name a Congress(es) Years State Party Brooke, Edward W. 90th-95th 1967-1979 MA Rep. Bruce, Blanche K. 44th-46th 1875-1881 MS Rep. Moseley-Braun, Carol 103rd- 1993- IL Dem. Revels, Hiram R.a 41st 1870-1871 MS Rep. Seated after Mississippi was readmitted to the Union on February 23, 1870; first black Member of Congress. CRS-36 Table 2. Black Members of Congress— House of Representatives Name Congress(es) Years State District* Party 1993- GA 2nd Dem. 1991-1995 PA 2nd Dem. 1993- FL 3rd Dem. Bishop, Sanford D. 103rd- Blackwell, Lucien E.a 102nd-103rd Brown, Corrine 103rd- Burke, Yvonne B. 93rd-95th 1973-1979 CA 28th Dem. Cain, Richard Harvey 43rd 45th 1873-1875 1877-1879 SC A.L. Rep. Carson, Julia 105th- 1997- IN 10th Dem. Cheatham, Henry P. 51st-52nd 1889-1893 NC 2nd Rep. Chisholm, Shirley A.b 91st-97th 1969-1983 NY 12th Dem. 1997- VI -- Dem. Christian-Christiansen, Donna 105thClay, William L., Sr. 91st- 1969-2001 MO 1st Dem. Clay, Wm. Lacy 107th 2001- MO 1st Dem. Clayton, Eva M.c 102nd- 1992- NC 1st Dem. Clyburn, James E. 103rd- 1993- SC 6th Dem. Collins, Barbara-Rose 102nd-104th 1991-1997 MI 15th Dem. Collins, Cardissd 93rd-104th 1973-1997 IL 7th Dem. Collins, George W.e 91st-92nd 1970-1972 IL 6th Dem. Conyers, John, Jr. 89th- 1965- MI 14th Dem. Crockett, George W.f 96th-101st 1980-1991 MI 13th Dem. Cummings, Elijah E.g 104th- 1996- MD 7th Dem. Davis, Danny K. 105th- 1997- IL 7th Dem. Dawson, William L.h 78th-91st 1943-1970 IL 1st Dem. DeLarge, Robert C.i 42nd 1871-1873 SC 2nd Rep. Dellums, Ronald V. 92nd-105th 1971-1998 CA 8th Dem. DePriest, Oscar S. 71st-73rd 1929-1935 IL 1st Rep. Diggs, Charles C., Jr.j 84th-96th 1955-1980 MI 13th Dem. Dixon, Julian C.k 96th-106th 1979-2000 CA 32nd Dem. Dymally, Mervyn M. 97th-102nd 1981-1993 CA 31st Dem. CRS-37 Name Congress(es) Years State District* Party Elliott, Robert B.l 42nd-43rd 1871-1874 SC 3rd Rep. Espy, Albert M. (Mike)m 100th-103rd 1987-1993 MS 2nd Dem. Evans, Melvin H. 96th 1979-1981 VI AL Rep. Fattah, Chaka 104th- 1995- PA 2nd Dem. Fauntroy, Walter E.n 92nd-101st 1971-1991 DC AL Dem. Fields, Cleo 103rd-104th 1993-1997 LA 4th Dem. Flake, Floyd H. 100th-105th 1987-1997 NY 6th Dem. Ford, Harold E., Jr. 105th- 1997- TN 9th Dem. Ford, Harold E., Sr. 94th-104th 1975-1997 TN 9th Dem. Franks, Gary A. 102nd-104th 1991-1997 CT 5th Rep. Frazer, Victor O. 104th 1995 VI AL Dem. Gray, William H. IIIo 96th-102nd 1979-1991 PA 2nd Dem. Hall, Katie B.p 97th-98th 1982-1985 IN 1st Dem. Haralson, Jeremiah 44th 1875-1877 AL 1st Rep. Hastings, Alcee L. 103rd- 1993- FL 23rd Dem. Hawkins, Augustus F. 88th-101st 1963-1991 CA 29th Dem. Hayes, Charles A. q 98th-102nd 1983-1993 IL 1st Dem. Hilliard, Earl F. 103rd- 1993- AL 7th Dem. Hyman, John Adams 44th 1875-1877 NC 2nd Rep. Jackson, Jesse L., Jr.r 104th- 1995- IL 2nd Dem. Jackson Lee, Sheila 104th- 1995- TX 18th Dem. Jefferson, William J. 102nd- 1991- LA 2nd Dem. Johnson, Eddie Bernice 103rd- 1993- TX 30th Dem. Jones, Stephanie Tubbs 106th- 1999- OH 11th Dem. Jordan, Barbara C. 93rd-95th 1973-1979 TX 18th Dem. Kilpatrick, Carolyn C. 105th- 1997- MI 15th Dem. Langston, John M.s 51st 1890-1891 VA 4th Rep. Lee, Barbarat 105th- 1998- CA 9th Dem. Leland, George T. (Mickey)u 96th-101st 1979-1989 TX 18th Dem. Lewis, John R. 100th- 1987- GA 5th Dem. CRS-38 Name Congress(es) Years State District* Party Long, Jefferson F.v 41st 1870-1871 GA 4th Rep. Lynch, John R.w 43rd-44th 47th 1873-1877 1882-1883 MS 7th Rep. McKinney, Cynthia A. 103rd- 1993- GA 4th Dem. Meek, Carrie P. 103rd- 1993- FL 17th Dem. Meeks, Gregoryx 105th- 1998- NY 6th Dem. Metcalfe, Ralph H.y 92nd-95th 1971-1978 IL 1st Dem. Mfume, Kweisiz 100th-104th 1987-1996 MD 7th Dem. Millender-McDonald, Juanitaaa 104th- 1996- CA 37th Dem. Miller, Thomas E.ab 51st 1890-1891 SC 7th Rep. Mitchell, Arthur W. 74th-77th 1935-1943 IL 1st Dem. Mitchell, Parren J. 92nd-99th 1971-1987 MD 7th Dem. Murray, George W.ac 53rd-54th 1893-1895 1896-1897 SC 7th Rep. Nash, Charles E. 44th 1875-1877 LA 6th Rep. Nix, R.N.C., Sr.ad 85th-95th 1958-1979 PA 2nd Dem. Norton, Eleanor Holmes 102nd- 1991- DC AL Dem. O’Hara, James E. 48th-49th 1883-1887 NC 2nd Rep. Owens, Major R. 98th- 1983- NY 11th Dem. Payne, Donald M. 101st- 1989- NJ 10th Dem. Powell, Adam C.ae 79th-89th 91st 1945-1967 1969-1971 NY 18th Dem. Rainey, Joseph H.af 41st-45th 1870-1879 SC 1st Rep. Rangel, Charles B. 92nd- 1971- NY 15th Dem. Ransier, Alonzo J. 43rd 1873-1875 SC 2nd Rep. Rapier, James T. 43rd 1873-1875 AL 2nd Rep. Reynolds, Melvin J. (Mel)ag 103rd-104th 1993-1995 IL 2nd Dem. Rush, Bobby L. 103rd- 1993- IL 1st Dem. Savage, Gus 97th-102nd 1981-1993 IL 2nd Dem. Scott, Robert C. 103rd- 1993- VA 3rd Dem. CRS-39 Name * Congress(es) Years State District* Party Smalls, Robertah 44th-45th 47th 48th-49th 1875-1879 1882-1883 1884-1887 SC 5th Rep. Stewart, Bennett M. 96th 1979-1981 IL 1st Dem. Stokes, Louis 91st-105th 1969-1999 OH 21st Dem. Thompson, Bennie G.ai 103rd- 1993- MS 2nd Dem. Towns, Edolphus 98th- 1983- NY 10th Dem. Tucker, Walter R.aj 103rd-104th 1993-1995 CA 37th Dem. Turner, Benjamin S. 42nd 1871-1873 AL 1st Rep. Waldon, Alton R., Jr.ak 99th 1986-1987 NY 6th Dem. Walls, Josiah T.al 42nd 43rd 44th 1871-1873 1873-1875 1875-1876 FL AL Rep. Washington, Craig A. am 101st-103rd 1989-1995 TX 18th Dem. Washington, Harold D.an 97th-98th 1981-1983 IL 1st Dem. Waters, Maxine 102nd- 1991- CA 35th Dem. Watson, Dianeao 107th - 2001- CA 32nd Dem. Watt, Melvin L. 103rd- 1993- NC 12th Dem. Watts, J.C., Jr. 104th- 1995- OK 4th Rep. Wheat, Alan D. 98th-103rd 1983-1995 MO 5th Dem. White, George H. 55th-58th 1897-1901 NC 2nd Rep. Wynn, Albert R. 103rd- 1993- MD 4th Dem. Young, Andrew J.ap 93rd-95th 1973-1977 GA 5th Dem. The number noted for a Member's congressional district is that which is now assigned to it or was assigned to it when he/she was last in Congress. a Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of William Gray; seated on Nov. 13, 1991. b First black woman elected to Congress and first black woman presidential candidate (1972). c Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Walter Jones; took office on Nov. 5, 1992. d Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband George W. Collins; seated on June 7, 1973. e Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Daniel J. Ronan; seated on Nov. 16, 1970. He was subsequently killed in an airplane crash on Dec. 8, 1972. f Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Charles C. Diggs, Jr., seated Nov. 12, 1980. g Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Kweisi Mfume; seated on April 25, 1996. h Died on Nov. 9, 1970. i Seat declared vacant on Jan. 24, 1873, after DeLarge’s election was successfully contested. j Resigned from office on June 3, 1980. k Died on Dec. 8, 2000. CRS-40 l Resigned from office, effective Nov. 1, 1874. Resigned from office on Jan. 25, 1993, to become Secretary of Agriculture. n Delegate from the District of Columbia. Elected in a special election and sworn in on April 19, 1971. o Resigned from office on Sept. 11, 1991. P Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Adam Benjamin; seated on Nov. 29, 1982. q Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Harold Washington; seated on Sept. 12, 1983. r Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mel Reynolds; seated on Dec. 14, 1995. s Successfully contested the election of Edward C. Venable and served from Sept. 23, 1890, to March 3, 1891. t Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Ronald Dellums; seated on April 20, 1998. u Died in a plane crash on Aug. 7, 1989, while in Ethiopia on a fact-finding tour investigating hunger among refugees. vu Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the House declaring that Samuel Grove was not entitled to his seat; served from Dec. 22, 1870, to March 3, 1871. v w Successfully contested the election of James R. Chalmers to the 47th Congress; served from April 29, 1882, to March 3, 1883. x Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Floyd Flake; seated on Feb. 5, 1998. y Died on Oct. 10, 1978. z Resigned from office on Feb. 16, 1996. aa Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Walter Tucker; seated on April 16, 1996. ab Successfully contested an election; served from Sept. 24, 1890, to March 3, 1891. ac Successfully contested an election; served from June 4, 1896, to March 3, 1897. ad First elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Earl Chudoff; seated on June 4, 1958. ae Elected to the 90th Congress, but excluded and not seated. Reelected to the seat vacated by his exclusion, but never took the oath of office. Reelected to the 91st Congress and seated. Defeated for renomination to the 92nd Congress in 1970. af First black Member of the U.S. House of Representatives. Elected to the 41st Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the House declaring the seat of Benjamin Whittemor vacant. Seated on Dec. 12, 1870. ag Resigned from office on Oct. 1, 1995. ah Successfully contested an election and seated in the 47th Congress on July 19, 1882. Subsequently elected to the 48th-49th Congresses; first elected to the 48th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Edmund Mackey; seated on March 18, 1884. ai Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mike Espy; seated April 20, 1993. aj Resigned from office on December 15, 1995. al ak Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Joseph Addabbo; seated July 29, 1986. al Served from March 4, 1871, until Jan. 29, 1873, when seat was lost to Silas L. Niblack who successfully challenged his election. Served from March 4, 1875, until April 19, 1876, when seat was lost to Jesse J. Finley who successfully challenged his election. am Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mickey Leland; seated Dec. 9, 1989. an Resigned on April 29, 1983, to become Mayor of Chicago, IL. ao Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Julian Dixon; seated June 7, 2001. ap Resigned his seat on Jan. 29, 1977, to become U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. m CRS-41 Table 3. Number and Names of Black Members of Congress By Congress No. Chamber Names 107th CONGRESS (2001-2003)a 39 House: Sanford Bishop Corrine Brown Julia Carson WM. Lacy Clay, Jr. Eva Clayton James Clyburn John Conyers Donna ChristianChristiansen Elijah Cummings Danny K. Davis Chaka Fattah Harold Ford, Jr. Alcee Hastings Earl Hilliard Jesse Jackson, Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee William Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Stephanie Tubbs Jones Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Barbara Lee John Lewis Cynthia McKinney Carrie Meek Gregory Meeks Juanita MillenderMcDonald Eleanor Holmes Norton Major Owens Donald Payne Charles Rangel Bobby Rush Robert Scott Bennie Thompson Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Diane Watson Mel Watt J.C. Watts, Jr. Al Wynn 106th CONGRESS (1999-2001) 39 House: Sanford Bishop Corrine Brown Julia Carson William Clay Eva Clayton James Clyburn John Conyers Donna ChristianChristiansen Elijah Cummings Danny K. Davis Julian Dixonb Chaka Fattah Harold Ford, Jr. Alcee Hastings Earl Hilliard Jesse Jackson, Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee William Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Stephanie Tubbs Jones Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Barbara Lee John Lewis Cynthia McKinney Carrie Meek Gregory Meeks Juanita MillenderMcDonald Eleanor Holmes Norton Major Owens Donald Payne Charles Rangel Bobby Rush Robert Scott Bennie Thompson Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Mel Watt J.C. Watts, Jr. Al Wynn CRS-42 No. Chamber Names 105th CONGRESS (1997-1999)c 39 House: Sanford Bishop Corrine Brown Julia Carson William Clay Eva Clayton James Clyburn John Conyers Donna M. ChristianGreen Elijah Cummings Danny K. Davis Ronald Dellumsd Julian Dixon Chaka Fattah 1 Senate: Carol Moseley-Braun Floyd Flakee Harold Ford, Jr. Alcee Hastings Earl Hilliard Jesse Jackson, Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee William Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Barbara Lee John Lewis Cynthia McKinney Carrie Meek Gregory Meeks Juanita MillenderMcDonald Eleanor Holmes Norton Major Owens Donald Payne Charles Rangel Bobby Rush Robert Scott Louis Stokes Bennie Thompson Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Mel Watt J.C. Watts, Jr. Al Wynn 104th CONGRESS (1995-1997)f 40 House: Sanford Bishop Corrine Brown William Clay Eva Clayton James Clyburn Barbara-Rose Collins Cardiss Collins John Conyers Elijah Cummings Ronald Dellums Julian Dixon Chaka Fattah Cleo Fields Floyd Flake Harold Ford, Sr. 1 Senate: Carol Moseley-Braun Gary Franks Victor Frazer Alcee Hastings Earl Hilliard Jesse Jackson, Jr. William Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Sheila Jackson Lee John Lewis Cynthia McKinney Carrie Meek Kweisi Mfumeg Juanita MillenderMcDonald Eleanor Holmes Norton Major Owens Donald Payne Charles Rangel Mel Reynoldsh Bobby Rush Robert Scott Louis Stokes Bennie Thompson Edolphus Towns Walter Tucker i Maxine Waters Mel Watt J.C. Watts, Jr. Al Wynn CRS-43 No. Chamber Names 103rd CONGRESS (1993-1995)j 39 House: Sanford Bishop Lucien Blackwell Corrine Brown William Clay Eva Clayton James Clyburn Barbara-Rose Collins Cardiss Collins John Conyers Ronald Dellums Julian Dixon Mike Espyk Cleo Fields Floyd Flake 1 Senate: Carol Moseley-Braun Harold Ford, Sr. Gary Franks Alcee Hastings Earl Hilliard William Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson John Lewis Cynthia McKinney Carrie Meek Kweisi Mfume Eleanor Holmes Norton Major Owens Donald Payne Charles Rangel Mel Reynolds Bobby Rush Robert Scott Louis Stokes Bennie Thompson Edolphus Towns Walter Tucker Craig Washington Maxine Waters Mel Watt Alan Wheat Al Wynn 102nd CONGRESS (1991-1993)l 27 House: Lucien Blackwell William Clay Eva Clayton Barbara-Rose Collins Cardiss Collins John Conyers Ronald Dellums Julian Dixon Mervyn Dymally Mike Espy Senate: None Floyd H. Flake Harold Ford, Sr. Gary Franks William Gray, III Charles Hayes William Jefferson John Lewis Kweisi Mfume Eleanor Norton Major Owens Donald Payne Charles Rangel Gus Savage Louis Stokes Edolphus Towns Craig Washington Maxine Waters Alan Wheat 101st CONGRESS (1989-1991)m 24 House: William Clay Cardiss Collins John Conyers George Crockett Ronald Dellums Julian Dixon Mervyn Dymally Mike Espy Walter Fauntroy Senate: None Floyd H. Flake Harold Ford, Sr. William Gray, III Augustus Hawkins Charles Hayes Mickey Leland John Lewis Kweisi Mfume Major Owens Donald Payne Charles Rangel Gus Savage Louis Stokes Edolphus Towns Craig Washington Alan Wheat CRS-44 No. Chamber Names 100th CONGRESS (1987-1989) 23 House: William Clay Cardiss Collins John Conyers George Crockett Ronald Dellums Julian Dixon Mervyn Dymally Mike Espy Walter Fauntroy Senate: None Floyd H. Flake Harold Ford, Sr. William Gray, III Augustus Hawkins Charles Hayes Mickey Leland John Lewis Kweisi Mfume Major Owens Charles Rangel Gus Savage Louis Stokes Edolphus Towns Alan Wheat 99th CONGRESS (1985-1987) 21 House: William Clay Cardiss Collins John Conyers George Crockett Ronald Dellums Julian Dixon Mervyn Dymally Senate: None Walter Fauntroy Harold Ford, Sr. William Gray, III Augustus Hawkins Charles Hayes Mickey Leland Parren Mitchell Major Owens Charles Rangel Gus Savage Louis Stokes Edolphus Towns Alton Waldon, Jr. Alan Wheat 98th CONGRESS (1983-1985)n 21 House: William Clay Cardiss Collins John Conyers George Crockett Ronald Dellums Julian Dixon Mervyn Dymally Walter Fauntroy Senate: None Harold Ford, Sr. William Gray, III Katie Hall Augustus Hawkins Charles Hayes Mickey Leland Parren Mitchell Major Owens Charles Rangel Gus Savage Louis Stokes Edolphus Towns Harold Washington Alan Wheat 97th CONGRESS (1981-1983) 19 House: Shirley Chisholm William Clay Cardiss Collins John Conyers George Crockett Ronald Dellums Julian Dixon Senate: None Mervyn Dymally Walter Fauntroy Harold Ford, Sr. William Gray, III Katie Hall Augustus Hawkins Mickey Leland Parren Mitchell Charles Rangel Gus Savage Louis Stokes Harold Washington CRS-45 No. Chamber Names 96th CONGRESS (1979-1981)o 17 House: Shirley Chisholm William Clay Cardiss Collins John Conyers George Crockett Ronald Dellums Senate: None Charles Diggs, Jr. Julian Dixon Melvin Evans Walter Fauntroy Harold Ford, Sr. William Gray, III Augustus Hawkins Mickey Leland Parren Mitchell Charles Rangel Bennett Stewart Louis Stokes 95th CONGRESS (1977-1979) 17 House: Yvonne Burke Shirley Chisholm William Clay Cardiss Collins John Conyers Ronald Dellums 1 Senate: Edward Brooke Charles Diggs, Jr. Walter Fauntroy Harold Ford, Sr. Augustus Hawkins Barbara Jordan Ralph Metcalfe Parren Mitchell Robert Nix Charles Rangel Louis Stokes Andrew Young 94th CONGRESS (1975-1977) 17 House: Yvonne Burke Shirley Chisholm William Clay Cardiss Collins John Conyers Ronald Dellums 1 Senate: Edward Brooke Charles Diggs, Jr. Walter Fauntroy Harold Ford, Sr. Augustus Hawkins Barbara Jordan Ralph Metcalfe Parren Mitchell Robert Nix Charles Rangel Louis Stokes Andrew Young 93rd CONGRESS (1973-1975) 16 House: Yvonne Burke Shirley Chisholm William Clay Cardiss Collins John Conyers Ronald Dellums 1 Senate: Edward Brooke Charles Diggs, Jr. Walter Fauntroy Augustus Hawkins Barbara Jordan Ralph Metcalfe Parren Mitchell Robert Nix Charles Rangel Louis Stokes Andrew Young 92nd CONGRESS (1971-1973) 13 House: Shirley Chisholm William Clay George Collins John Conyers Ronald Dellums 1 Senate: Edward Brooke Charles Diggs, Jr. Walter Fauntroy Augustus Hawkins Ralph Metcalfe Parren Mitchell Robert Nix Charles Rangel Louis Stokes CRS-46 No. Chamber Names 91st CONGRESS (1969-1971) 10 House: Shirley Chisholm William Clay George Collins Augustus Hawkins 1 Senate: Edward Brooke John Conyers William Dawson Charles Diggs, Jr. Robert Nix Adam Clayton Powell Louis Stokes 90th CONGRESS (1967-1969)p 5 House: John Conyers William Dawson 1 Senate: Edward Brooke Charles Diggs, Jr. Augustus Hawkins Robert Nix 89th CONGRESS (1965-1967) 6 House: John Conyers William Dawson Senate: None Charles Diggs, Jr. Augustus Hawkins Robert Nix Adam Clayton Powell 88th CONGRESS (1963-1965) 5 House: William Dawson Charles Diggs, Jr. Senate: None Augustus Hawkins Robert Nix Adam Clayton Powell 85th - 87th CONGRESSES (1957-1963) 4 House: William Dawson Charles Diggs, Jr. Senate: None Robert Nix Adam Clayton Powell 84th CONGRESS (1955-1957) 3 House: William Dawson Charles Diggs, Jr. 79th - 83rd CONGRESSES (1945-1955) 2 House: William Dawson Senate: None Adam Clayton Powell 78th CONGRESS (1943-1945) 1 House: William Dawson Senate: None 74th - 77th CONGRESSES (1935-1943) 1 House: Arthur Mitchell Senate: None Adam Clayton Powell CRS-47 No. Chamber Names 71st - 73rd CONGRESSES (1929-1935) 1 House: Oscar DePriest Senate: None 57th - 70th CONGRESSES (1901-1929) House: None Senate: None 55th - 56th CONGRESSES (1897-1901) 1 House: George White Senate: None 53rd - 54th CONGRESSES (1893-1897) 1 House: George Murray Senate: None 52nd CONGRESS (1891-1893) 1 House: Henry Cheatham Senate: None 51st CONGRESS (1889-1891) 3 House: Henry Cheatham Senate: None John Langston 50th CONGRESS (1887-1889) House: None Senate: None 48th - 49th CONGRESSES (1883-1887) 2 House: James O’Hara Senate: None Robert Smalls 47th CONGRESS (1881-1883) 2 House: John Lynch Senate: None Robert Smalls 46th CONGRESS (1879-1881) 1 House: None Senate: Blanche Bruce Thomas Miller CRS-48 No. Chamber Names 45th CONGRESS (1877-1879) 3 House: Richard Cain Joseph Rainey 1 Senate: Blanche Bruce Robert Smalls 44th CONGRESS (1875-1877) 7 House: Jeremiah Haralson John Hyman John Lynch 1 Senate: Blanche Bruce Charles Nash Joseph Rainey Robert Smalls Josiah Walls 43rd CONGRESS (1873-1875) 7 House: Richard Cain Robert Elliott John Lynch Senate: None Joseph Rainey Alonzo Ransier James Rapier Josiah Walls 42nd CONGRESS (1871-1873) 5 House: Robert DeLarge Robert Elliott Senate: None Joseph Rainey Benjamin Turner Josiah Walls 41st CONGRESS (1869-1871)q a 2 House: Jefferson Long 1 Senate: Hiram Revels Joseph Rainey Although 40 black individuals were elected to the House for the 107th Congress, 39 was the highest number to serve at any one time. Julian Dixon, who was reelected to the 107th Congress, died before the commencement of the Congress and was later replaced by Diane Watson. b Died on Dec. 8, 2000. c Although 41 individuals were elected to the House in the 105th Congress, 39 was the highest number to serve at any one time. Floyd Flake resigned and was replaced by Gregory Meeks, and Ron Dellums resigned and was replaced by Barbara Lee. d Resigned on Feb. 6, 1998. e Resigned on Nov. 15, 1997. f Although 43 black individuals were elected to the House in the 104th Congress, 40 was the highest number to serve at any one time. Mel Reynolds resigned and was replaced by Jesse Jackson Jr., Walter Tucker resigned and was replaced by Juanita Millender-McDonald, and Kweis Mfume resigned and was replaced by Elijah Cummings. g Resigned Feb. 16, 1996. h Resigned Oct. 1, 1995. i Resigned Dec. 15, 1995. J Although there were 40 black individuals elected to the House in the 103rd Congress, 39 was the largest number to serve at any one time as Bennie Thompson replaced Mike Espy. k Resigned Jan. 25, 1993, to become Secretary of Agriculture. l Although there were 28 black individuals elected to the House in the 102nd Congress, 27 was the largest number to serve at any one time as Lucien Blackwell replaced William Gray. m Although there were 25 black individuals elected to the House in the 101st Congress, 24 was the largest number to serve at any one time as Craig Washington replaced Mickey Leland. CRS-49 n Although there were 22 black Members elected to the House in the 98th Congress, 21 was the largest number to serve at one time during that Congress because Charles Hayes replaced Harold Washington. o Although there were 18 black Members elected to the House in the 96th Congress, 17 was the largest number to serve at one time during that Congress as George Crockett replaced Charles Diggs, Jr. P Adam Clayton Powell was elected to the 90th Congress, but never took his seat. q There were no black Members of the U.S. Congress until 1870, the 41st Congress, 2nd Session. CRS-50 Table 4. Number and Names of Black Members of Congress By State State Number Names Years of Service Alabama 4 Benjamin S. Turner James T. Rapier Jeremiah Haralson Earl F. Hilliard 1871-1873 1873-1875 1875-1877 1993- California 10 Augustus F. Hawkins Ronald V. Dellums Yvonne B. Burke Julian C. Dixon Mervyn M. Dymally Maxine Waters Walter R. Tucker Juanita Millender-McDonald Barbara Lee Diane Watson 1963-1991 1971-1998 1973-1979 1979-2000 1981-1993 19911993-1995 199619982001- Connecticut 1 Gary A. Franks 1991-1997 District of Columbia 2 Walter E. Fauntroy Eleanor Holmes Norton 1971-1991 1991- Florida 4 Josiah T. Walls Carrie P. Meek Corrine Brown Alcee L. Hastings 1871-1876 199319931993- Georgia 5 Jefferson F. Long Andrew J. Young John R. Lewis Sanford D. Bishop Cynthia A. McKinney 1870-1871 1973-1977 198719931993- Illinois 15 Oscar S. DePriest Arthur W. Mitchell William L. Dawson Danny K. Davis George W. Collins Ralph H. Metcalfe Cardiss Collins Bennett M. Stewart Gus Savage Harold D. Washington Charles A. Hayes Carol Moseley-Braun1 Melvin (Mel) J. Reynolds Bobby L. Rush Jesse L. Jackson, Jr. 1929-1935 1935-1943 1943-1970 19971970-1972 1971-1978 1973-1997 1979-1981 1981-1993 1981-1983 1983-1993 1993-1999 1993-1995 19931995- Indiana 2 Katie B. Hall Julia Carson 1982-1985 1997- CRS-51 State Number Names Years of Service Louisiana 3 Charles E. Nash William J. Jefferson Cleo Fields 1875-1877 19911993-1997 Maryland 4 Parren J. Mitchell Kweisi Mfume Albert R. Wynn Elijah E. Cummings 1971-1987 1987-1996 19931996- Massachusetts 1 Edward W. Brookea 1967-1979 Michigan 5 Charles C. Diggs, Jr. John Conyers George W. Crockett Barbara-Rose Collins Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick 1955-1980 19651980-1991 1991-1997 1997- Mississippi 5 Hiram R. Revels1 John R. Lynch Blanche K. Bruce1 Albert M. (Mike) Espy Bennie G. Thompson 1870-1871 1873-1877 1882-1883 1875-1881 1987-1993 1993- Missouri 3 William L. Clay, Sr. Alan D. Wheat Wm. Lacy Clay 1969-2001 1983-1995 2001- New Jersey 1 Donald M. Payne 1989- North Carolina 6 John A. Hyman James E. O’Hara Henry P. Cheatham George H. White Eva M. Clayton Melvin L. Watt 1875-1877 1883-1887 1889-1893 1897-1901 19921993- New York 8 Adam Clayton Powell Shirley A. Chisholm Charles B. Rangel Major R. Owens Edolphus Towns Alton R. Waldon, Jr. Floyd H. Flake Gregory Meeks 1945-1967 1969-1971 1969-1983 1971198319831986-1987 1987-1997 1998- Ohio 2 Louis Stokes Stephanie Tubbs Jones 1969-1999 1999- Oklahoma 1 J.C. Watts, Jr. 1995- CRS-52 State Number Names Pennsylvania 4 Robert N.C. Nix, Sr. William H. Gray, III Lucien E. Blackwell Chaka Fattah 1958-1979 1979-1991 1991-1995 1995- South Carolina 9 Joseph H. Rainey Robert C. DeLarge Robert B. Elliott Richard H. Cain James E. Clyburn 1870-1879 1871-1873 1871-1874 1873-1875 1877-1879 1873-1875 1875-1879 1882-1883 1884-1887 1890-1891 1893-1895 1896-1897 1993- Alonzo J. Ransier Robert Smalls Thomas E. Miller George W. Murray a Years of Service Tennessee 2 Harold E. Ford, Sr. Harold E. Ford, Jr. 1975-1997 1997- Texas 5 Barbara C. Jordan George T. (Mickey) Leland Craig A. Washington Eddie Bernice Johnson Sheila Jackson Lee 1973-1979 1979-1989 1991-1995 19931995- Virginia 2 John M. Langston Robert C. Scott 1890-1891 1993- Virgin Islands 3 Melvin H. Evans Victor O. Frazer Donna M. ChristianChristiansen 1979-1981 1995-1997 1997- Served in the Senate. CRS-53 Table 5. Number of Black Members in the U.S. Congress, 41st-107th Congresses (1870-2001) Congress Year Total Black Members of Congress Black Members of House Black Members of Senate 41st 1869-1871 3 2 1 42nd 1871-1873 5 5 - 43rd 1873-1875 7 7 - 44th 1875-1877 8 7 1 45th 1877-1879 4 3 1 46th 1879-1881 1 - 1 47th 1881-1883 2 2 - 48th 1883-1885 2 2 - 49th 1885-1887 2 2 - 50th 1887-1889 - - - 51st 1889-1891 3 3 - 52nd 1891-1893 1 1 - 53rd 1893-1895 1 1 - 54th 1895-1897 1 1 - 55th 1897-1899 1 1 - 56th 1899-1901 1 1 - 57th 1901-1903 - - - 58th 1903-1905 - - - 59th 1905-1907 - - - 60th 1907-1909 - - - 61st 1909-1911 - - - 62nd 1911-1913 - - - 63rd 1913-1915 - - - 64th 1915-1917 - - - 65th 1917-1919 - - - 66th 1919-1921 - - - 67th 1921-1923 - - - CRS-54 Congress Year Total Black Members of Congress Black Members of House Black Members of Senate 68th 1923-1925 - - - 69th 1925-1927 - - - 70th 1927-1929 - - - 71st 1929-1931 1 1 - 72nd 1931-1933 1 1 - 73rd 1933-1935 1 1 - 74th 1935-1937 1 1 - 75th 1937-1939 1 1 - 76th 1939-1941 1 1 - 77th 1941-1943 1 1 - 78th 1943-1945 1 1 - 79th 1945-1947 2 2 - 80th 1947-1949 2 2 - 81st 1949-1951 2 2 - 82nd 1951-1953 2 2 - 83rd 1953-1955 2 2 - 84th 1955-1957 3 3 - 85th 1957-1959 4 4 - 86th 1959-1961 4 4 - 87th 1961-1963 4 4 - 88th 1963-1965 5 5 - 89th 1965-1967 6 6 - 90th 1967-1969 6 5 1 91st 1969-1971 11 10 1 92nd 1971-1973 14 13 1 93rd 1973-1975 17 16 1 94th 1975-1977 18 17 1 95th 1977-1979 18 17 1 96th 1979-1981 17 17 - CRS-55 Congress Year Total Black Members of Congress Black Members of House Black Members of Senate 97th 1981-1983 19 19 - 98th 1983-1985 21 21 - 99th 1985-1987 21 21 - 100th 1987-1989 23 23 - 101st 1989-1991 24 24 - 102nd 1991-1993 27 27 - 103rd 1993-1995 40 39 1 104th 1995-1997 41 39 1 105th 1997-1999 40 39 1 106th 1999-2001 39 39 0 107th 2001-2003 39 39 0