African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Jennifer E. Manning Information Research Specialist Colleen J. Shogan Senior Specialist in Government and Finance March 6, 2012 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL30378 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Summary There are 43 African American Members serving in the 112th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. There have been 132 African American Members of Congress: 126 have been elected to the House; 5 have been elected to the Senate; and 1 has been appointed to the Senate. There have been 103 Democrats, 100 in the House and 3 in the Senate; and 29 Republicans, 26 in the House and 3 in the Senate. The number of African American Members has steadily increased since the first African Americans entered Congress in 1870. There were fewer than 10 Members until the 91st Congress (1969-1971). In the 98th Congress (1983-1985), the number surpassed 20 for the first time and then jumped to 40 in the 103rd Congress (1993-1995). Since the 106th Congress (1999-2001), the number has remained between 39 and 44 serving at any one time. The first African American Member of Congress was Hiram Rhodes Revels (R-MS), who served in the Senate in the 41st Congress (served 1870-1871). The first African American Member of the House was Joseph H. Rainey (R-SC), who also served in the 41st Congress. Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), elected to the 91st through 97th Congresses (1969-1983), was the first African American woman in Congress. Since that time, 30 other African American women have been elected, including Senator Carol Moseley-Braun (D-IL, 1993-1999), who is the only African American woman, as well as the first African American Democrat, elected to the Senate. Representative John Conyers, Jr. (D-MI, 1965-present), the current chair of the House Judiciary Committee, holds the record for length of service by an African American Member (46 years). He was first elected to the 89th Congress (1965-1967) and has served since January 3, 1965. Representative James E. Clyburn (D-SC, 1993-present) and former Representatives William H. Gray III (D-PA, 1979-1991) and J.C. Watts (R-OK, 1995-2003) have been elected to the highest leadership positions held by African American Members of Congress. Representative Clyburn, the House Assistant Democratic leader in the 112th Congress, served as the House majority whip in the 110th and 111th Congresses and as vice chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the 108th and 109th Congresses. Representative Gray was chair of the House Democratic Caucus in 1989 (101st Congress). Later in that Congress, when a vacancy occurred, he was elected House majority whip, a position he held until his resignation from Congress in September 1991 (102nd Congress). Representative Watts served as chair of the House Republican Conference in the 106th-107th Congresses (1997-2001). Twenty African Americans have served as committee chairs, 19 in the House and 1 in the Senate. The Congressional Black Caucus (CBC), whose origins date back to 1969, currently has 43 members. Over its 40-year history, the CBC has been one of the most influential caucuses in Congress. This report will be updated as needed. Congressional Research Service African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1 Historical Overview of African Americans in Congress ........................................................... 1 African American Firsts in Congress......................................................................................... 4 Length of Service ...................................................................................................................... 4 How African Americans Enter Congress................................................................................... 4 African American Members in Leadership Positions ...................................................................... 5 Congressional Black Caucus (CBC)................................................................................................ 5 Martin Luther King Jr. Day ....................................................................................................... 8 Ending Apartheid in South Africa ............................................................................................. 8 Humanitarian Aid to Haiti ......................................................................................................... 9 Tables and Data.............................................................................................................................. 10 Alphabetical Listing of African American Members, Selected Biographical Information, and Committee Assignments During Their Tenure in Office ..................................................... 11 Figures Figure 1. Trends in the Number of African Americans in Congress, 41st Congress (18701871) to Present ............................................................................................................................ 2 Figure 2. African Americans in Congress....................................................................................... 3 Tables Table 1. Number and Names of African American Members of Congress, by Congress............. 47 Table 2. African American Members of Congress, 41st Congress to Present, by State or Territory ...................................................................................................................................... 58 Table 3. Number of African American Members in the U.S. Congress, 41st Congress to Present ........................................................................................................................................ 61 Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 64 Acknowledgments ......................................................................................................................... 64 Congressional Research Service African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Introduction One hundred thirty-two African Americans have served in the U.S. Congress: 126 in the House and 6 in the Senate.1 Of these, 31 have been women. A record 43 African American Members (all in the House, including two delegates) serve in the 112th Congress. All but 2 are Democrats and 15 are women. No African Americans have served in both houses of Congress. The majority of African American Members of Congress (103) have been Democrats; 29 have been Republicans. Five others, all Democrats, have served as Delegates to the House. All of the Democrats have been elected in the 20th and 21st centuries. Twenty-two African American Republicans served in the 19th century House, five in the 20th century (four in the House and one in the Senate), and one was reelected to a single term in the 21st century before retiring. Two others have been elected to the House in the 21st century. Historical Overview of African Americans in Congress Excluding delegates, African Americans currently hold 41 (9.4%) of the 435 voting seats in the House of Representatives in the 112th Congress. Including delegates, African Americans currently hold 43 seats in the House of Representatives, totaling 9.8% of the entire House.2 No African Americans serve in the Senate in the 112th Congress. 1 Includes three Delegates from the U.S. Virgin Islands and two from the District of Columbia. For an in-depth look at African Americans in Congress, refer to U.S. Congress, House, Office of History and Preservation, Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007 (Washington: GPO, 2008), http://baic.house.gov . 2 44 African Americans were elected to the House at the beginning of the 112th Congress; one African American Member died in March 2012. Congressional Research Service 1 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Figure 1. Trends in the Number of African Americans in Congress, 41st Congress (1870-1871) to Present 45 Number of African Americans (House and Senate) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Congress Source: Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007 (Washington: GPO, 2008), http://baic.house.gov, supplemented by CRS. Note: Delegates are not included in the data. As Figure 1 shows, the number of African Americans serving in Congress stayed below 10 until the 91st Congress (1969-1971), when those in the House doubled, growing from 5 to 10 in one Congress. The number of African-American Senators remained at 1. Subsequently, the number of African American Members steadily increased. In the 98th Congress (1983-1985), the number surpassed 20 for the first time and in the 103rd Congress (1993-1995) reached 40. Since the 106th Congress (1999-2001), the number has remained between 39 and 44 at any one time. Congressional Research Service 2 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Figure 2. African Americans in Congress Source: Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007 (Washington: GPO, 2008), http://baic.house.gov, supplemented by CRS. Figures compiled by CRS. Notes: Delegates are not included in the data. African Americans did not serve in Congress until the 41st Congress (1869-1871) when two were elected to the House and a third, Hiram Rhodes Revels (R-MS), was elected to the Senate by the Mississippi state legislature.3 This was during the Reconstruction period following the Civil War (1865-1877). Of particular significance is the fact that “all of the 17 African-American Members between 1870 and 1887 came from the new Reconstruction governments in the former Confederacy.”4 No African Americans served in Congress from the 57th Congress (1901-1903) until the 71st Congress (1929-1931), when one Member was elected to the House. This was in part because (1) the congressional focus on racial equality had faded; (2) the slow disintegration of the Republican-dominated Reconstruction governments had a detrimental effect on the rights of black voters, and those seeking political office were vulnerable to Democratic state governments controlled by former Confederates and their sympathizers; (3) a variety of impediments such as the poll tax and educational tests prevented African Americans from voting; and (4) some state legislatures attempted to gerrymander congressional districts to restrict the election of African Americans.5 Despite increases in the number of African Americans serving in Congress, especially since the 91st Congress (1969-1971), Figure 2 shows that 1.1% of Members in the United States history have been African Americans. Figure 2 shows the current composition of the 112th Congress with 7.9% voting African American Members. 3 This was prior to the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1913 that provided for the direct election of Senators. 4 U .S. Congress, House, Office of History and Preservation, Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 22; and http://baic.house.gov. 5 Ibid., pp. 152-159. Congressional Research Service 3 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 African American Firsts in Congress The first African American Member of Congress was Hiram Rhodes Revels (R-MS), who served in the Senate in the 41st Congress (1870-1871). He also has the distinction of being the first African American Member of the Senate and the first African American Member of Congress from Mississippi. On January 20, 1870, he was chosen by the Mississippi legislature to take the seat previously held by Albert G. Brown, who withdrew from the Senate on January 12, 1861, after Mississippi seceded from the Union. Senator Blanche K. Bruce (R-MS, 1875-1881) was the first African American Senator to serve a full Senate term of six years. Joseph H. Rainey (R-SC, 1870-1879) was the first African American Member of the House of Representatives, beginning service, like Senator Revels, in the 41st Congress. Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), elected to the 91st through 97th Congresses (1969-1983), was the first African American woman to serve in Congress. Edward Brooke (R-MA) was the first African American elected to the Senate after passage of the Seventeenth Amendment, which provided for the direct election of Senators. He served in the 90th through 95th Congresses (1967-1979). Carol Moseley-Braun (D-IL, 1993-1999) is the only African American woman, as well as the first African American Democrat, to serve in the Senate. President Barack Obama was the first African American male Democrat to serve in the Senate. He served as a Senator from Illinois from 2005 until his resignation on November 16, 2008, after he was elected President of the United States. Senator Roland Burris (D-IL, 2009-present), who was appointed to the seat vacated by President Obama, is the first African American appointed to the Senate. Representative Walter Fauntroy (DDC, 1971-1991) was the first African American delegate to serve in Congress. Representative Charles Diggs (D-MI, 1955-1980) was the first chair of the Congressional Black Caucus. As chair of the Senate Select Committee to Investigate Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company (46th Congress), Blanche K. Bruce (R-MS) was the first African American to chair a congressional committee. As chair of the House Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments (81st Congress), William L. Dawson (D-IL, 1943-1970) was the first African American to chair a House committee. Length of Service John Conyers Jr. (D-MI), the current chair of the House Judiciary Committee, has served longer than any other African American Member of Congress. Representative Conyers has served since 1965. Edward Brooke (R-MA, 1967-1979) holds the record for Senate service by an African American. How African Americans Enter Congress Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution requires that all Members of the House of Representatives must be “chosen every second Year by the People of the several States.” Therefore, all Representatives enter office through election, even those who enter after a seat becomes open during a Congress. By contrast, the Seventeenth Amendment gives state legislatures the option to empower governors to fill Senate vacancies by temporary appointment. Congressional Research Service 4 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 All 126 of the African Americans who have served in the House have been elected, as well as all but one of the six African American Senators. The lone exception is Senator Roland Burris (D-IL, 2009-2010). African American Members in Leadership Positions Representative James E. Clyburn (D-SC, 1993-present), the House assistant minority leader in the 112th Congress, served as the House majority whip in the 110th-111th Congresses, and as vice chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the 108th and 109th Congresses. Former Representatives William H. Gray III (D-PA, 1979-1991) and J.C. Watts (R-OK, 1995-2003) were also elected members of the House leadership. Representative Gray was chair of the House Democratic Caucus in 1989 (101st Congress). Later in that Congress, when a vacancy occurred, he was elected House majority whip, a position he held until his resignation from Congress in September 1991 (102nd Congress). Representative Watts served as chair of the House Republican Conference in the 106th-107th Congresses (1997-2003). Representative John Lewis (D-GA, 1987-present), the Democratic senior chief deputy whip in the 110th-112th Congresses, served as a Democratic chief deputy whip in the 102nd-109th Congresses (1991-2007). Representative Maxine Waters (D-CA, 1991-present) has served as a Democratic chief deputy whip since the 106th Congress, and Representative G.K. Butterfield (D-NC, 2004present) has served as a Democratic chief deputy whip since the 110th Congress. Former Representative Shirley Chisholm (D-NY, 1969-1983) served as secretary to the Democratic Caucus in the 96th Congress (1977-1979). Nineteen African American Representatives and one Senator have chaired congressional committees, including four in the House in the 111th Congress and a record five in the 110th Congress. No African Americans serve as committee chairs in the 112th Congress. The other African American committee chairs were Senator Blanche Bruce (R-MS, 1875-1881) and Representatives Yvonne B. Burke (D-CA, 1973-1979); William L. Clay Sr. (D-MO, 19692001); William L. Dawson (D-IL, 1943-1970); Ronald V. Dellums (D-CA, 1971-1998); Charles C. Diggs Jr. (D-MI, 1955-1980); Julian Dixon (D-CA, 1979-2000); William H. Gray III (D-PA, 1979-1991); Augustus F. Hawkins (D-CA, 1963-1991); George T. (Mickey) Leland (D-TX, 19791989); Parren J. Mitchell (D-MD, 1971-1987); Robert N.C. Nix Sr. (D-PA, 1958-1979); Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (D-NY, 1945-1967, 1969-1971); Louis Stokes (D-OH, 1969-1999); Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA, 1996-2007); and Stephanie Tubbs Jones (D-OH, 1999-2008).6 Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) The Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) traces its origins to the start of the 91st Congress in January 1969 when Representative Charles Diggs (MI) brought together the other African American Members of the House to form the Democratic Select Committee.7 As the Select 6 For more information, refer to “Black Americans Who Have Chaired Congressional Committees, 1870 to Present” at the Black Americans in Congress website at http://baic.house.gov/historical-data/congressional-committee-chairs.html 7 James Stuart Olson, “Congressional Black Caucus,” in Historical Dictionary of the 1970s, ed. James Stuart Olson (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999), p. 103; and Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, Inc., (continued...) Congressional Research Service 5 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee expanded its legislative goals and activities during 1970, it reorganized into a more formal organization, the Congressional Black Caucus, with 13 members at the start of the 92nd Congress in 1971. The CBC became only the fifth Member organization to exist in Congress.8 Since the 92nd Congress, all African American Members except three have joined the CBC. Currently, there are 42 members of the Congressional Black Caucus, comprising all the African American Members of Congress except one. It is chaired by Representative Emanuel Cleaver (MO).9 Three main factors contributed to the founding of the CBC: greater African American participation in electoral politics following passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, a perceived African American leadership vacuum due to the deaths or marginalization of many civil rights leaders in the late 1960s, and perceived inattention to issues of concern to African Americans by the Nixon Administration.10 Although the number of African American legislators increased during the 1968 and 1970 congressional elections, the African American community was still proportionally underrepresented in Congress. According to the CBC, its founding members “believed that a black caucus in Congress, speaking with a single voice, would provide political influence and visibility far beyond their numbers.”11 In addition to serving as a voice for the African American community, the Congressional Black Caucus has also addressed issues of concern to the poor and other underrepresented minority groups, both in the United States and abroad. This broader scope is reflected in the original mission of the CBC: “to promote the public welfare through legislation designed to meet the needs of millions of neglected citizens.”12 In domestic policy, the CBC has supported efforts to improve access and quality of education and health care, reduce unemployment, protect voting rights, and provide better housing and childcare for the poor and working class. In foreign policy, the CBC generally supports international human rights and focuses on issues where current U.S. policy may conflict with professed American values of liberty and equality.13 This was shown in the CBC stance against apartheid in South Africa, its push for humanitarian aid and refugee assistance for Haiti, and the continual efforts of some CBC members to urge Congress to consider the concerns of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).14 Historically, the CBC has used (...continued) “Origins and the History of the Congressional Black Caucus,” at http://www.cbcfinc.org/cbc/html. 8 CRS Report R40683, Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation, by Robert Jay Dilger. 9 For more information about the current CBC members, see Congressional Black Caucus, “CBC Members,” at http://www.house.gov/cleaver/cbc/members.html. 10 Carol M. Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2006), p. 37; and Charles E. Jones, “An Overview of the Congressional Black Caucus,” in Readings in American Political Issues, ed. Franklin D. Jones, et al., (Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1987), p. 233. 11 Congressional Black Caucus, “History & Agenda,” at http://thecongressionalblackcaucus.lee.house.gov/ history_details.html. 12 Ibid. 13 Raymond W. Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy (New York: Novinka Books, 2003), pp. 14-15. 14 Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress, pp. 11-12. Congressional Research Service 6 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 both informal and formal strategies to influence foreign policy, varying from organizing protests and boycotts to conducting special hearings, writing letters, and introducing legislation.15 At times, the CBC plays an oppositional role, both within Congress and the established party structure. One scholar has argued that within Congress, the CBC serves “not only as an interest group for blacks but also as a labor union for its members.”16 In 1974, for example, House leadership agreed to put one black Member on each major committee at the urging of the CBC.17 The CBC also often issues declarations of its policy agenda, distinct from either party’s agenda. This was reflected by some of the earliest caucus efforts, beginning with a February 1970 letter to President Richard Nixon addressing issues facing black and impoverished Americans and the presentation of 61 policy recommendations to the President concerning domestic and foreign policy matters at a meeting on March 25, 1971.18 Another example is the CBC alternative federal budget, which has been presented to Congress annually since 1981.19 The caucus also plays a symbolic role for the African American community. Some scholars have argued that the caucus is more effective as a social and community organization than it is a political or legislative institution.20 Evidence also indicates that in recent years CBC members may use the organization’s increased size and influence within the House to ascend to party and committee leadership positions.21 As Members of the House and Senate, CBC members held the highest national elected office positions of any African Americans until the 2008 presidential election of former CBC member Barack Obama. The CBC Foundation (CBCF) sponsors a number of leadership development programs, internships, fellowships, and scholarships to encourage the next generation of African American leaders.22 In Congress, CBC members regularly celebrate the accomplishments of African Americans and minorities, by introducing resolutions to commemorate African American and minority leaders as well as civil rights activists.23 15 Michael L. Clemons, “Conceptualizing the Foreign Affairs Participation of African Americans,” in African Americans in Global Affairs: Contemporary Perspectives, ed. Michael L. Clemons, (Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 2010), pp. 57-59. 16 Robert Singh, The Congressional Black Caucus: Racial Politics in the U.S. Congress (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 1998), p. xii. 17 Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress, p. 40. 18 Marguerite Ross Barnett, “The Congressional Black Caucus,” Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science, vol. 32, no. 1 (1975), p. 35. 19 Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, pp. 12-13; For information on recent CBC alternative budgets, see Office of Representative Bobby Scott, “Congressional Black Caucus FY2010 Budget Substitute Amendment”,” April 2009 press release, at http://www.bobbyscott.house.gov/index.php?option=com_content&task= view&id=380&Itemid=89. 20 Arthur B. Levy and Susan Stoudinger, “Sources of Voting Cues for the Congressional Black Caucus,” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 7 (1976), pp. 29-46. 21 Kareem Crayton, “The Changing Face of the Congressional Black Caucus,” Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal, vol. 19 (2009-2010), p. 494. 22 Members of the CBC established the non-profit and non-partisan Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, Inc. (CBCF) in 1976 to “advance the global black community by developing leaders, informing policy and educating the public.” In addition to leadership development programs, the CBCF conducts policy research on economic development, public health, and other pertinent issues for the black community. As a part of its public education goals, the CBCF also holds seminars on these topics, and launched an online archive (Avoice Online) to document the history of African Americans in Congress and the history of the CBC. See Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, Inc., “About CBCF,” at http://www.cbcfinc.org/about-cbcf.html. 23 Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress, p. 17. Congressional Research Service 7 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Three noteworthy legislative initiatives championed by the CBC include the establishment of Martin Luther King Jr. Day, sanctions on South Africa to pressure an end to apartheid, and humanitarian assistance to Haiti.24 The subsequent section describes the CBC’s role in these legislative endeavors. Martin Luther King Jr. Day The bill to establish a federal holiday to honor Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on November 3, 1983.25 Representative John Conyers (MI) introduced the first Martin Luther King Jr. holiday bill on April 8, 1968, four days after King’s assassination. After its founding in 1971, the CBC became a strong advocate for a Martin Luther King Jr. holiday, frequently participating in demonstrations, orchestrating petition drives, and introducing legislation. In 1971, Congress received a petition signed by 6 million Americans in support of the King holiday, and Representative Conyers and Representative Shirley Chisholm (NY), another CBC member, reintroduced King holiday legislation during every subsequent session of Congress until the holiday became law. On January 15, 1981, musician Stevie Wonder, with the support of the CBC, sponsored a march, rally, and benefit concert in Washington, DC, to celebrate what would have been King’s 52nd birthday and to raise awareness about the King holiday legislation.26 On August 27, 1983, more than 200,000 people gathered for a civil rights march at the Lincoln Memorial to commemorate the 20th anniversary of King’s march on Washington.27 The attention to King’s legacy, coupled with political protests and the spread of local and state King holiday legislation, made 1983 an opportune time for enactment of the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday. The successful 1983 legislation was introduced by CBC member Representative Katie Hall on July 29, passing the House by a vote of 338-90 on August 2 and the Senate by a vote of 78-22 on October 19, and was signed into law on November 2.28 Ending Apartheid in South Africa The CBC began to address apartheid during the 1970s because it felt that the executive branch had not made ending discrimination in South Africa a priority.29 Between 1972 and 1986, 24 Sources detailing CBC involvement with the Martin Luther King, Jr., Holiday Bill, include Avoice Online, “The Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday Bill,” at http://www.avoiceonline.org/mlk/timeline.html; Jones, “An Overview of the Congressional Black Caucus,” p. 236; and Singh, The Congressional Black Caucus: Racial Politics in the U.S. Congress, pp. 95-96. For CBC efforts to end apartheid in South Africa, see Avoice Online, “Anti-Apartheid,” at http://www.avoiceonline.org/aam/; Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, pp. 11-14, pp. 2630; and Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress, p. 12. Sources detailing CBC involvement with humanitarian aid and other policies regarding Haiti include Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, pp. 37-40; Singh, The Congressional Black Caucus: Racial Politics in the U.S. Congress,pp. 188-189; and Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress, pp. 236-237. 25 P.L. 98-144, 97 Stat. 917 (Nov. 3, 1983). 26 Avoice Online, “The Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday Bill,” http://www.avoiceonline.org/mlk/timeline.html. 27 John Herbers, “1983 March: Left Revives,” New York Times, August 29, 1983, at http://www.factiva.com. 28 Congressional Black Caucus, “1983 Legislative Achievements,” at http://www.avoiceonline.org/assets/txu-gwc-8498-f8-01/txu-gwc-84-98-f8-01.pdf; Avoice Online, “Origins of the CBC,” at http://www.avoiceonline.org/cbc/ history.html; and Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress, p. 132. 29 Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, p. 27. Congressional Research Service 8 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 members of the CBC introduced more than 15 bills seeking to end apartheid and racial discrimination practices in South Africa. As a result of the CBC’s Black Leadership Conference, the CBC helped establish TransAfrica in 1976, a foreign policy advocacy group designed to raise awareness about African and Caribbean issues. Besides endorsing legislative sanctions, TransAfrica and the CBC also lobbied corporations and universities to divest from South Africa. Through hearings, rallies, and protests in their home districts and in Washington, DC, CBC members increased attention on apartheid in South Africa.30 During the 1980s, public awareness and concern about apartheid grew as violence increased in South Africa. By the mid-1980s, the need to address apartheid in South Africa became more pressing and politically feasible. The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act (H.R. 4868), introduced by a CBC member, Representative William H. Gray (PA),31 included sanctions against South Africa that would not be eased until certain conditions, like the release of political prisoners, were met. The original sanctions in the bill included banning new investments in or loans to South Africa, prohibiting imports of uranium, steel, and coal imports, and removing airport landing rights for South African Airways. An amendment by another CBC member, Representative Ronald Dellums (CA), strengthened the sanctions to include a full trade embargo and complete divestment from South Africa.32 The bill was vetoed by President Ronald Reagan on September 26, 1986,33 but was overridden by a House vote of 313 to 83 on September 29, 1986, and by a Senate vote of 78 to 21 on October 2, 1986.34 Humanitarian Aid to Haiti In 1976, Representative Shirley Chisholm (NY) and Delegate Walter Fauntroy (DC) formed the Congressional Black Caucus Task Force on Haitian Refugees to pursue humane treatment and equal justice for refugees from Haiti entering the United States. The name of the caucus was changed to the Congressional Task Force on Haiti in 1981 as it adopted broader policy objectives regarding Haiti and also included members outside of the CBC.35 By 1985, it was clear that the 30-year dictatorial regime of Francois Duvalier and his son JeanClaude Duvalier was nearing its end. In 1986, the U.S. Embassy, working with the Roman Catholic Church and Haitian army, deposed President Jean-Claude Duvalier peacefully, and Haiti scheduled its first free election for November 29, 1987.36 In response to the efforts of the 30 For more information about the CBC and the formation of Transafrica, see Avoice Online, “Origins of the CBC,” at http://www.avoiceonline.org/cbc/history.html; and TransAfrica Forum, “Our History,” at http://www.transafricaforum.org/about-us/our-history. For more information regarding CBC opposition to South African apartheid, see Avoice Online, “Anti-Apartheid,” at http://www.avoiceonline.org/aam/. 31 P.L. 99-440, 100 Stat. 1086 (Oct. 2, 1986). 32 Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, pp. 26-30. 33 Pres. Ronald Reagan, “Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 – Veto Message from the President of the United States,” read in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 132, part 19 (September 29, 1986), pp. 27076-27077. 34 “Roll Call 425,” Congressional Record, vol. 132, part 19 (September 29, 1986), p. 27101; and “Roll Call 311,” Congressional Record, vol. 132, part 19 (October 2, 1986), p. 27859. 35 Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, p. 13. 36 Walter E. Fauntroy, “Haiti Doesn’t Need a Tarzan to Come Rescue It,” letter to the editor, New York Times, September 16, 1987. Congressional Research Service 9 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Congressional Task Force on Haiti, American aid to Haiti doubled from $50 million in 1986 to 37 $101 million in 1987, despite tight fiscal conditions. CBC activism for Haiti continued during the late 1980s and 1990s, as a series of military coups led to a difficult post-Duvalier transition period. After Haiti’s first democratic presidential election in December 1990, President Bertrand Aristide was overthrown in September 1991, eight months after taking office. Many in the CBC believed the only remedy for the escalating refugee crisis was to restore Aristide to office. Beginning in October 1993, the CBC asked President Bill Clinton to impose the strongest military sanctions available against Haiti or to conduct a military intervention. A letter sent to President Clinton on March 18, 1994, by the CBC and signed by all its members, stated that “The United States Haiti policy must be scrapped.” The CBC supported the U.S.- and U.N.-imposed sanctions on Haiti during May and June 1994, with some members advocating for even stronger sanctions. An envoy sent to Haiti on September 18, 1994, by President Clinton convinced Haiti’s military rulers to resign and to allow U.S. peacekeeping troops to enter the country and restore Aristide to the presidency.38 Concerned about the cost of the Haiti mission and the lack of a troop withdrawal date, Representative Gary Franks (CT), the only Republican member of the CBC, publicly opposed the Clinton Administration’s policy and blamed the CBC for the President’s decision, stating that a “majority of the Congressional Black Caucus wanted the United States to invade Haiti, and President Clinton caved in.” Others argue that Clinton and the CBC simply shared the same position and that the refugee situation constituted a vital American interest.39 Tables and Data This section of the report provides tabular information on African American Members of Congress, including the Congresses in which they served, the committees, on which they served, and an indication of the committees they chaired or co-chaired, or served as ranking Member. In addition, five tables summarize information about African American Members. Table 1 presents the number and names of African American Members by Congress. Table 2 presents the same information by state. Table 3 shows the changing number of African American Members serving in Congress since 1870, when the first Member was elected. Most of the data presented are drawn from the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov, various editions of the Congressional Directory, and a broad range of Congressional Quarterly Inc. and Leadership Directories Inc. publications. For additional information, refer to Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007, (Washington: GPO, 2008), http://baic.house.gov, written by the Office of History and Preservation in the House of Representatives.40 37 David Binder, “Washington Talk: Foreign Affairs; Haitians Gain Influential Following in America,” New York Times, September 23, 1987, p. A26. 38 Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, pp. 38-39. 39 Rep. Richard Gephardt et al., “Commending the President and the Special Delegation to Haiti, and Supporting the United States Armed Forces in Haiti,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 140, part 18 (September 19, 1994), pp. 24755-24768. 40 The Black Americans in Congress website, http://baic.house.gov, is updated for each Congress, despite the “2007” in (continued...) Congressional Research Service 10 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 For 112th Congress committee assignments, the sources are Official Alphabetical List of the Members with Committee Assignments in the 112th Congress (available online from the clerk’s website at http://clerk.house.gov/committee_info/oal.pdf). Note that the names and jurisdiction of House and Senate committees have changed several times over the years covered by this report. In the interest of brevity, this report does not identify all historical name changes. The committee names that are listed are those that were in effect at the time a particular Member served on a panel. Alphabetical Listing of African American Members, Selected Biographical Information, and Committee Assignments During Their Tenure in Office BALLANCE, FRANK W. Jr., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on February 15, 1942. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th Congress; served from January 7, 2003, until his resignation June 11, 2004. Committee Assignments Congress H. Agriculture 108th H. Small Business 108th BASS, KAREN, a Representative from California. Born on October 3, 1953. Elected as a Democrat to the 112th Congress; has served since January 3, 2011. Committee Assignments Congress H. Budget 112th H. Foreign Affairs 112th BISHOP, SANFORD D. Jr., a Representative from Georgia. Born on February 4, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993. Committee Assignments Congress H. Agriculture 103rd-107th H. Post Office and Civil Service 103rd H. Veterans’ Affairs 103rd-104th H. Select Intelligence 105th-107th H. Appropriations 108th-112th (...continued) the title. Congressional Research Service 11 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 BLACKWELL, LUCIEN E., a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on August 1, 1931; died on January 24, 2003. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative William Gray; reelected to the 103rd Congress; served from November 11, 1991, to January 3, 1995. Committee Assignments Congress H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries 102nd H. Public Works and Transportation 102nd-103rd H. Budget 103rd BROOKE, EDWARD W., a Senator from Massachusetts. Born on October 26, 1919. Elected as a Republican to two six-year terms beginning with the 90th Congress and served through the 95th Congress, from January 3, 1967, to January 3, 1979. First African American Member of Congress from Massachusetts. Committee Assignments Congress S. Aeronautical and Space Sciences 90th S. Banking and Currency (ranking Member, 95th) 90th-91st S. Government Operations 90th S. Armed Services 91st S. Select Equal Education Opportunity 91st-92nd S. Appropriations 92nd-95th S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs 92nd-95th S. Special Aging 92nd-95th S. Select Standards and Conduct 93rd-94th Jt. Bicentennial Arrangements (vice-chair, 94th) 94th Jt. Defense Production 94th-95th BROWN, CORRINE, a Representative from Florida. Born on November 11, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993. Committee Assignments Congress H. Government Operations 103rd H. Public Works and Transportation 103rd H. Veterans’ Affairs 103rd-112th H. Transportation and Infrastructure 104th-112th Congressional Research Service 12 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 BRUCE, BLANCHE K., a Senator from Mississippi. Born on March 1, 1841; died on March 17, 1898. Elected as a Republican to a six-year term beginning with the 44th Congress and served through the 46th Congress, from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1881. Committee Assignments Congress S. Manufactures 44th S. Pensions 44th-45th S. Education and Labor 44th-46th S. Select Mississippi River 45th-46th S. Select To Investigate the Freedman’s 46th Savings and Trust Company (committee chair, 46th) BURKE, YVONNE BRAITHWAITE, a Representative from California. Born on October 5, 1932. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 95th Congresses; served from January 3, 1973, to January 3, 1979. First female chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 94th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Interior and Insular Affairs 93rd H. Public Works 93rd H. Appropriations 94th-95th H. Select Assassinations 94th-95th H. Select Beauty Shop (committee chair, 94th-95th) 94th-95th BURRIS, ROLAND, a Senator from Illinois. Born on August 3, 1937. Appointed as a Democrat to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of President Barack Obama; appointed on December 31, 2008, to the 110th Congress, but not seated until January 15, 2009, in the 111th Congress. Served from January 15, 2009, to November 29, 2010. Committee Assignments Congress S. Armed Services 111th S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 111th S. Veteran’s Affairs 111th BUTTERFIELD, G.K., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on April 27, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Frank Ballance; reelected to the 109th-112th Congresses, has served since July 21, 2004; a chief deputy Democratic whip in the 110th and 112th Congresses. Committee Assignments Congress H. Small Business 108th H. Agriculture 108th-109th Congressional Research Service 13 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Armed Services 109th H. Energy and Commerce 110th-112th H. Standards of Official Conduct 111th CAIN, RICHARD H., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on April 12, 1825; died on January 18, 1887. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd and 45th Congresses; served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875, and from March 4, 1877, to March 3, 1879. Committee Assignments Congress H. Agriculture 43rd H. Private Land Claims 45th CARSON, ANDRÉ, a Representative from Indiana. Born on October 16, 1974. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of his grandmother, Julia Carson; reelected to the 111th-112th Congresses; has served since March 13, 2008. Committee Assignments Congress H. Financial Services 110th-112th CARSON, JULIA M., a Representative from Indiana. Born on July 8, 1938; died in office December 15, 2007. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 110th Congresses; served from January 9, 1997, to December 15, 2007. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking and Financial Services 105th-106th H. Financial Services 107th-110th H. Veterans’ Affairs 105th-107th H. Transportation and Infrastructure 108th-110th CHEATHAM, HENRY P., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on December 27, 1857; died on November 29, 1935. Elected as a Republican to the 51st and 52nd Congresses; served from March 4, 1889, to March 3, 1893. Committee Assignments Congress H. Expenditures on Public Buildings 51st-52nd H. Education 51st-52nd H. Agriculture 52nd Congressional Research Service 14 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 CHISHOLM, SHIRLEY A., a Representative from New York. Born on November 30, 1924; died on January 1, 2005. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st through 97th Congresses; served from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 1983. First African American woman elected to Congress and first African American female presidential candidate, 1972. Secretary of the Democratic Caucus in the 96th Congress, 1977-1979. Committee Assignments Congress H. Veterans’ Affairs 91st-92nd H. Education and Labor 92nd-94th H. Rules 95th-97th CHRISTENSEN, DONNA M., a Delegate from the Virgin Islands. Born on September 19, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th Congress through 112th Congresses; has served since January 7, 1997. First woman elected from the Virgin Islands. Committee Assignments Congress H. Resources / H. Natural Resources 105th-112th (1st session) H. Small Business 106th-109th H. Homeland Security 108th-110th, 112th (1st session) H. Energy and Commerce 111th-112th CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSEN, DONNA and CHRISTIAN-GREEN, DONNA. See CHRISTENSEN, DONNA. CLARKE, HANSEN H., a Representative from Michigan. Born on March 2, 1957. Elected as a Democrat to 112th Congress; has served since January 3, 2011. Committee Assignments Congress H. Homeland Security 112th H. Science, Space and Technology 112th CLARKE, YVETTE D., a Representative from New York. Born on November 21, 1964. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 4, 2007. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor 110th-111th H. Homeland Security 110th-112th H. Small Business 110th-112th Congressional Research Service 15 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 CLAY, WILLIAM L. Sr., a Representative from Missouri. Born on April 30, 1931. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st through 106th Congresses; served from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 2001. Succeeded by his son, Representative William Lacy Clay Jr. First African American Member of Congress from Missouri. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor / Education and the Workforce (ranking Member, 104th-106th) 91st-103rd, 105th -106th H. Economic and Educational Opportunities 104th H. Post Office and Civil Service (committee chair, 102nd-103rd) 93rd-103rd H. Select to Study the Committee System 96th H. House Administration 99th-103rd H. Jt. Library 101st CLAY, WILLIAM LACY Jr., a Representative from Missouri. Born on July 27, 1956; succeeded his father, Representative William L. Clay Sr. Elected as a Democrat to the 107th-112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 2001. Committee Assignments Congress H. Financial Services 107th-112th H. Government Reform 107th-109th H. Oversight and Government Reform 110th-112th CLAYTON, EVA M., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on September 16, 1934. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Walter Jones; reelected to the 103rd through 107th Congresses; served from November 5, 1992, to January 3, 2003. Co-chair of the House Democratic Policy Committee in the 104th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Agriculture 103rd-107th H. Small Business 103rd H. Budget 105th-107th CLEAVER, EMANUEL II, a Representative from Missouri. Born on October 26, 1944. Elected as Democrat to the 109th-112th Congresses; has served since January 4, 2005. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 112th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Financial Services 109th-112th H. Energy Independence and Global Warming 110th-111th H. Homeland Security 111th Congressional Research Service 16 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 CLYBURN, JAMES E., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on July 21, 1940. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 106th Congress. Vice chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the 108th-109th Congresses; House majority whip in the 110th and 111th Congresses; Assistant Democratic Leader, 112th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Public Works and Transportation 103rd H. Veterans’ Affairs 103rd-105th H. Transportation and Infrastructure 104th-105th H. Small Business 104th H. Appropriations 106th-109th COLLINS, BARBARA-ROSE, a Representative from Michigan. Born on April 13, 1939. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 104th Congresses; served from January 3, 1991, to January 3, 1997. Committee Assignments Congress H. Public Works and Transportation 102nd-103rd H. Transportation and Infrastructure 104th H. Government Operations / H. Government Reform and Oversight 103rd -104th H. Post Office and Civil Service 102nd-103rd H. Science, Space, and Technology 102nd H. Select Children, Youth, and Families 102nd COLLINS, CARDISS, a Representative from Illinois. Born on September 24, 1931. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 104th Congresses; served from June 7, 1973, to January 3, 1997. First elected to succeed her husband, Representative George Collins. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 96th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Government Operations / H. Government Reform and Oversight 93rd-104rd (ranking Member, 104th) H. Public Works 93rd H. International Relations 94th-95th H. Foreign Affairs 96th H. District of Columbia 95th H. Energy and Commerce 97th-103rd H. Commerce 104th H. Select Population 95th H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control 96th-102nd Congressional Research Service 17 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 COLLINS, GEORGE W., a Representative from Illinois. Born on March 5, 1926; died on December 8, 1972, in an airplane crash. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st Congress to fill the vacancy by the death of Representative Daniel Ronan; reelected to the 92nd and 93rd Congresses; served from November 16, 1970, to December 8, 1972. Succeeded by his wife, Representative Cardiss Collins. Committee Assignments Congress H. Government Operations 91st-92nd H. Public Works 92nd CONYERS, JOHN Jr., a Representative from Michigan. Born on May 16, 1929. Elected as a Democrat to the 89th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1965. Committee Assignments Congress H. Judiciary (committee chair, 110th-111th; ranking Member, 104th-109th, 112th ) 89th-112th H. Government Operations (committee chair, 101st-103rd) 92nd-103rd H. Small Business 100th-103rd CROCKETT, GEORGE W., a Representative from Michigan. Born on August 10, 1909; died on September 7, 1997. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Charles Diggs; reelected to the 97th through 101st Congresses; served from November 12, 1980, to January 3, 1991. Committee Assignments Congress H. Foreign Affairs 96th-101st H. Judiciary 97th-101st H. Small Business 97th H. Select Aging 97th-101st CUMMINGS, ELIJAH E., a Representative from Maryland. Born on January 18, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Kweisi Mfume; reelected to the 105th through 112th Congresses; has served since April 25, 1996. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 108th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform 104th-109th H. Oversight and Government Reform (ranking Member, 112th ) 110th-112th H. Transportation and Infrastructure 110th-112th H. Armed Services 110th Jt. Economic Committee 109th-112th Congressional Research Service 18 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 DAVIS, ARTUR, a Representative from Alabama. Born on October 9, 1967. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th through 111th Congresses; served from January 7, 2003, to January 3, 2011. Committee Assignments Congress H. Budget 108th-109th H. Financial Services 108th- 109th H. Judiciary 110th H. Ways and Means 110th-111th DAVIS, DANNY K., a Representative from Illinois. Born on September 6, 1941. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 7, 1997. Committee Assignments Congress H. Small Business 105th-109th H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform 105th-109th H. Oversight and Government Reform 110th-112th H. Education and the Workforce 108th-109th H. Education and Labor 110th H. Ways and Means 111th H. Homeland Security 112th DAWSON, WILLIAM L., a Representative from Illinois. Born on April 26, 1886; died in office November 9, 1970. Elected as a Democrat to the 78th through 91st Congresses; served from January 3, 1943, to November 9, 1970. Committee Assignments Congress H. Expenditures in the Executive Departments (committee chair, 81st, 82nd ) 78th-82nd H. Government Operations (ranking Member, 83rd; committee chair, 84th-91st) 83rd-91st H. Coinage, Weights, and Measures 78th-79th H. Invalid Pensions 78th-79th H. Insular Affairs 78th-79th H. Irrigation and Reclamation 78th-79th H. Interior and Insular Affairs 82nd H. District of Columbia 84th-91st DeLARGE, ROBERT C., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on March 15, 1842; died on February 14, 1874. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd Congress; served from March 4, 1871, until January 24, 1873, when his seat was declared vacant after his election was successfully contested by former Representative Christopher C. Bowen. Congressional Research Service 19 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignment Congress H. Manufactures 42nd DELLUMS, RONALD V., a Representative from California. Born on November 25, 1935. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 105th Congresses; served from January 3, 1971, until February 6, 1998, when he resigned from the House. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 101st Congress. Elected mayor of Oakland in 2006. Committee Assignments Congress H. District of Columbia (committee chair, 96th-102nd) 92nd-103rd H. Foreign Affairs 92nd H. Armed Services (committee chair, 103rd) 93rd-103rd H. National Security (ranking Member, 104th-105th) 104th-105th H. Post Office and Civil Service 97th-98th H. Select Intelligence 94th-102nd DePRIEST, OSCAR S., a Representative from Illinois. Born on March 9, 1871; died on May 12, 1951. Elected as a Republican to the 71st through 73rd Congresses; served from March 4, 1929, to March 3, 1935. First African American Member of Congress from Illinois. Committee Assignments Congress H. Enrolled Bills 71st-73rd H. Invalid Pensions 71st-73rd H. Indian Affairs 71st-73rd H. Post Office and Post Roads 73rd DIGGS, CHARLES C. Jr., a Representative from Michigan. Born on December 2, 1922; died on August 24, 1998. Elected as a Democrat to the 84th through 96th Congresses; served from January 3, 1955, until his resignation on June 3, 1980. First African American Member of Congress from Michigan and first chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 92nd Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Interior and Insular Affairs 84th-85th H. Veterans’ Affairs 84th-85th H. Foreign Affairs 86th-93rd H. International Relations 94th-96th H. District of Columbia (committee chair, 93rd-95th) 88th-96th Congressional Research Service 20 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 DIXON, JULIAN C., a Representative from California. Born on August 8, 1934; died on December 8, 2000. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th through 106th Congresses; reelected to the 107th Congress, but died before the commencement of the 107th Congress; served from January 3, 1979, until his death. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 98th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Appropriations 96th-106th H. Standards of Official Conduct (committee chair, 99th-101st) 98th-101st H. Select Intelligence (ranking Member, 106th) 103rd-106th DYMALLY, MERVYN M., a Representative from California. Born on May 12, 1926. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th through 102nd Congresses; served from January 3, 1981, to January 3, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 100th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. District of Columbia 97th-102nd H. Foreign Affairs 97th-102nd H. Science and Technology 97th-98th H. Post Office and Civil Service 98th-102nd H. Education and Labor 99th EDWARDS, DONNA F., a Representative from Maryland. Born on June 28, 1958. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Albert Wynn; reelected to the 111th and 112th Congresses; has served since June 19, 2008. Committee Assignments Congress H. Science and Technology / H. Science, Space and Technology 110th-112th H. Transportation and Infrastructure 110t h -112th H. Ethics 112th ELLIOTT, ROBERT B., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on August 11, 1842; died on August 9, 1884. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd and 43rd Congresses; served from March 4, 1871, until his resignation on November 1, 1874. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor 42nd-43rd H. Militia 43rd Congressional Research Service 21 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 ELLISON, KEITH, a Representative from Minnesota. Born on August 4, 1963. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 4, 2007. First African American Member of Congress from Minnesota. First Muslim Member of Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Financial Services 110th-112th H. Judiciary 110th H. Foreign Affairs 111th ESPY, ALBERT MICHAEL (MIKE), a Representative from Mississippi. Born on November 28, 1953. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 103rd Congresses. Served from January 6, 1987, to January 25, 1993, when he resigned to become secretary of agriculture. Committee Assignments Congress H. Agriculture 100th-102nd H. Budget 101st-102nd H. Select Hunger 101st-102nd Jt. Deficit Reduction 100th EVANS, MELVYN H., a Delegate from the Virgin Islands. Born on August 7, 1917; died on November 27, 1984. Elected as a Republican to the 96th Congress; served from January 3, 1979, to January 3, 1981. First African American Delegate from the Virgin Islands. Committee Assignments Congress H. Armed Services 96th H. Interior and Insular Affairs 96th H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries 96th FATTAH, CHAKA, a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on November 21, 1956. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1995. Committee Assignments Congress H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform 104th-106th H. Economic and Educational Opportunities 104th H. Education and the Workforce 105th-106th H. Small Business 104th H. Standards of Official Conduct 105th-106th H. Administration 106th-107th Jt. Printing 106th-107th H. Appropriations 107th-112th Congressional Research Service 22 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 FAUNTROY, WALTER E., a Delegate from the District of Columbia. Born on February 6, 1933. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd Congress in a special election after the District of Columbia was authorized to elect a delegate to Congress; reelected to the 93rd through 101st Congresses; served from April 19, 1971, to January 3, 1991. First African American Delegate from the District of Columbia. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 97th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. District of Columbia 92nd-101st H. Banking and Currency / H. Banking, Currency, and Housing 93rd -94th H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 95th-101st H. Select Assassinations 94th-95th H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control 98th-101st FIELDS, CLEO, a Representative from Louisiana. Born on November 22, 1962. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd and 104th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 1997. At age 30, he was the youngest Member of the 103rd Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 103rd H. Banking and Financial Services 104th H. Small Business 103rd-104th FLAKE, FLOYD H., a Representative from New York. Born on January 30, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 105th Congresses; served from January 6, 1987, to November 15, 1997, when he resigned from the House. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 100th-103rd H. Banking and Financial Services 104th-105th H. Small Business 100th-105th H. Government Operations 103rd H. Select Children, Youth, and Families 100th H. Select Hunger 100th-102nd FORD, HAROLD E. Sr., a Representative from Tennessee. Born on May 20, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 94th through 104th Congresses; served from January 3, 1975, to January 3, 1997. First African American Member of Congress from Tennessee. Succeeded by his son, Harold E. Ford Jr. Committee Assignments Congress H. Veterans’ Affairs 94th Congressional Research Service 23 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking, Currency, and Housing 94th H. Ways and Means 94th-104th H. Select Aging 94th-102nd H. Select Assassinations 94th-95th FORD, HAROLD E. Jr., a Representative from Tennessee. Born on May 11, 1970. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 109th Congresses; served from January 7, 1997, to January 3, 2007. At age 26, he was the youngest Member of the 105th Congress. Succeeded his father, Harold E. Ford Sr. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and the Workforce 105th-107th H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform 105th-106th H. Financial Services 107th-109th H. Budget 108th-109th FRANKS, GARY A., a Representative from Connecticut. Born on February 9, 1953. Elected as a Republican to the 102nd through 104th Congresses; served from January 3, 1991, to January 3, 1997. First African American Member of Congress from Connecticut. Committee Assignments Congress H. Armed Services 102nd H. Small Business 102nd H. Energy and Commerce 103rd H. Commerce 104th H. Select Committee on Aging 102nd FRAZER, VICTOR O., a Delegate from the U.S. Virgin Islands. Born on May 24, 1943. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress; served from January 3, 1995, to January 3, 1997. Committee Assignments Congress H. International Relations 104th FUDGE, MARCIA L., a representative from Ohio. Born on October 29, 1952. Elected as Democrat to the 111th Congress and also to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Stephanie Tubbs Jones; reelected to the 112th Congress; has served since November 19, 2008. Congressional Research Service 24 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor 111th H. Science and Technology / H. Science, Space and Technology 111th-112th H. Agriculture 112th GRAY, WILLIAM H. III, a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on August 20, 1941. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th through 102nd Congresses; served from January 3, 1979, to September 11, 1991, when he resigned to become president of the United Negro College Fund. Chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the First Session of the 101st Congress; later in that Congress House Democratic whip (through the First Session of the 102nd Congress). Committee Assignments Congress H. Budget (committee chair, 99th-100th) 96th, 98th-100th H. District of Columbia 96th-102nd H. Foreign Affairs 96th H. Appropriations 97th-102nd H. House Administration 102nd Jt. Deficit Reduction 100th GREEN, AL, a Representative from Texas. Born on September 1, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 109th through the 112th Congress; has served since January 4, 2005. Committee Assignments Congress H. Financial Services 109th-112th H. Science 109th H. Homeland Security 110th-111th H. Foreign Affairs 111th HALL, KATIE B., a Representative from Indiana. Born on April 3, 1938. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Adam Benjamin; reelected to the 98th Congress; served from November 29, 1982, to January 3, 1985. First African American Member of Congress from Indiana. Committee Assignments Congress H. Post Office and Civil Service 98th H. Public Works and Transportation 98th HARALSON, JEREMIAH, a Representative from Alabama. Born on April 1, 1846, died in 1916. Elected as a Republican to the 44th Congress; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1877. Congressional Research Service 25 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Public Expenditures 44th HASTINGS, ALCEE L., a Representative from Florida. Born on September 5, 1936. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993. Committee Assignments Congress H. Foreign Affairs 103rd H. International Relations 104th-107th H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries 103rd H. Post Office and Civil Service 103rd H. Science 104th-105th H. Select Intelligence 106th-111th H. Rules 107th-112th H. Standards of Official Conduct 110th HAWKINS, AUGUSTUS F., a Representative from California. Born on August 31, 1907; died on November 10, 2007. Elected as a Democrat to the 88th through 101st Congresses; served from January 3, 1963, to January 3, 1991. First African American Member of Congress from California. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor (committee chair, 98th, 2nd sess. 101st) 88th-101st H. House Administration (committee chair, 97th- 98th, 2nd sess.) 91st-98th Jt. Committee on Printing (committee chair, 96th, 98th) 95th-98th Jt. Committee on the Library (committee chair, 97th) 97th-98th Jt. Economic 97th-101st HAYES, CHARLES A., a Representative from Illinois. Born on February 17, 1918; died on April 8, 1997. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Harold Washington; reelected to the 99th through 102nd Congresses; served from September 12, 1983, to January 3, 1993. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor 98th-102nd H. Small Business 98th-101st H. Post Office and Civil Service 101st-102nd HILLIARD, EARL F., a Representative from Alabama. Born on April 9, 1942. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 107th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 2003. Congressional Research Service 26 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Agriculture 103rd-107th H. Small Business 103rd-104th H. International Relations 105th-107th HYMAN, JOHN ADAMS, a Representative from North Carolina. Born on July 23, 1840; died on September 14, 1891. Elected as a Republican to the 44th Congress; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1877. First African American Member of Congress from North Carolina. Committee Assignments Congress H. Manufactures 44th JACKSON, JESSE L. Jr., a Representative from Illinois. Born on March 11, 1965. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Melvin Reynolds; reelected to the 105th through 112th Congresses; has served since December 14, 1995. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking and Financial Services 104th-105th H. Small Business 105th H. Appropriations 106th-112th JACKSON LEE, SHEILA, a Representative from Texas. Born on January 12, 1950. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1995. Committee Assignments Congress H. Judiciary 104th-112th H. Science 104th-109th H. Homeland Security 108th-112th H. Foreign Affairs 110th-111th JEFFERSON, WILLIAM J., a Representative from Louisiana. Born on March 14, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 110th Congresses; served from January 3, 1991, to January 3, 2009. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor 102nd H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries 102nd H. District of Columbia 103rd Congressional Research Service 27 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Ways and Means 103rd, 105th-109th H. National Security 104th H. House Oversight 104th H. Budget 109th H. Small Business 110th Jt. Printing 104th JOHNSON, EDDIE BERNICE, a Representative from Texas. Born on December 3, 1935. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 107th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Public Works and Transportation 103rd H. Transportation and Infrastructure 104th-111th H. Science, Space, and Technology / H. Science and Technology/ H. Science 103rd -112th (ranking Member, 112th) JOHNSON, HENRY C. (HANK) Jr., a Representative from Georgia. Born on October 2, 1954. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 4, 2007. Committee Assignments Congress H. Armed Services 110th-112th H. Judiciary 110th-112th H. Small Business 110th JONES, STEPHANIE TUBBS, a Representative from Ohio. Born on September 10, 1949; died in office August 20, 2008. Elected as a Democrat to the 106th through 110th Congresses; served from January 3, 1999, to August 20, 2008. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking and Financial Services 106th H. Financial Services 107th H. Small Business 106th H. Standards of Official Conduct (committee chair, 110th ) 107th-110th H. Ways and Means 108th-110th JORDAN, BARBARA C., a Representative from Texas. Born on February 21, 1936; died on January 17, 1996. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 95th Congresses; served from January 3, 1973, to January 3, 1979. First African American Member of Congress from Texas. Congressional Research Service 28 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Judiciary 93rd-95th H. Government Operations 94th-95th KILPATRICK, CAROLYN CHEEKS, a Representative from Michigan. Born on June 25, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 111th Congresses; served from January 7, 1997, to January 3, 2011. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 110th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking and Financial Services 105th H. House Oversight 105th Jt. Committee on the Library 105th H. Appropriations 106th-111th LANGSTON, JOHN M., a Representative from Virginia. Born on December 14, 1829; died on November 15, 1897. Elected as a Republican to the 51st Congress; served from September 23, 1890, to March 3, 1891, after he successfully contested the election of Edward Venable. First African American Member of Congress from Virginia. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education 51st LEE, BARBARA, a Representative from California. Born on July 16, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Ronald Dellums; reelected to the 106th through 112th Congresses; has served since April 20, 1998. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 111th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking and Financial Services 105th-106th H. Financial Services 107th-109th H. Science 105th H. International Relations 106th-109th H. Appropriations 110th -112th H. Foreign Affairs 111th Congressional Research Service 29 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 LELAND, GEORGE T. (MICKEY), a Representative from Texas. Born on November 27, 1944; died in a airplane crash on August 7, 1989, while touring Ethiopian refugee camps. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th through 101st Congresses; served from January 3, 1979, to August 7, 1989. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 99th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. District of Columbia 96th-99th H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce 96th-101st H. Post Office and Civil Service 96th-101st H. Select Hunger (committee chair, 98th-101st) 98th-101st H. Select Children, Youth, and Families 98th LEWIS, JOHN R., a Representative from Georgia. Born on February 19, 1940. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 6, 1987. A Democratic chief deputy whip in the 102nd through 109th Congresses; senior chief deputy Democratic whip in the 110th through 112th Congresses. Committee Assignments Congress H. Public Works and Transportation 100th-102nd H. Interior and Insular Affairs 100th-102nd H. Select Aging 101st-102nd H. District of Columbia 103rd H. Ways and Means 103rd-112th H. Budget 108th LONG, JEFFERSON F., a Representative from Georgia. Born on March 3, 1836; died on February 5, 1900. Elected as a Republican to the 41st Congress after the House declared that Representative Samuel Gove was not entitled to his seat; served from January 16, 1871, to March 3, 1871. First African American Member of Congress from Georgia. Committee Assignments Congress None — Congressional Research Service 30 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 LYNCH, JOHN R., a Representative from Mississippi. Born on September 10, 1847; died on November 2, 1939. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd, 44th, and 47th Congresses; served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1877, and from April 29, 1882, to March 3, 1883, after he successfully contested the election of Representative James Chalmers. At age 26, he was the youngest Member of the 43rd Congress. First African American Member of the House of Representatives from Mississippi. Committee Assignments Congress H. Mines and Mining 43rd-44th H. Militia 47th H. Education and Labor 47th MAJETTE, DENISE L., a Representative from Georgia. Born on May 18, 1955. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th Congress; served from January 7, 2003, to January 3, 2005. Committee Assignments Congress H. Budget 108th H. Education and the Workforce 108th H. Small Business 108th McKINNEY, CYNTHIA A., a Representative from Georgia. Born on March 17, 1955. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 107th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 2003; elected to the 109th Congress; served from January 4, 2005, to January 3, 2007. Committee Assignments Congress H. Agriculture 103rd H. Foreign Affairs 103rd H. International Relations 104th-107th H. Banking and Financial Services 104th-105th H. National Security 105th H. Armed Services 106th-107th, 109th H. Budget 109th MEEK, CARRIE P., a Representative from Florida. Born on April 29, 1926. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 107th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 2003. Succeeded by her son, Representative Kendrick Meek. Committee Assignments Congress H. Appropriations 103rd, 105th-107th H. Budget 104th H. Government Reform and Oversight 104th Congressional Research Service 31 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 MEEK, KENDRICK, a Representative from Florida. Born on September 6, 1966. Elected to the 108th through 111th Congresses; served from January 7, 2003, to January 3, 2011. Succeeded his mother, Representative Carrie Meek. Committee Assignments Congress H. Armed Services 108th-110th H. Homeland Security 108th-109th H. Ways and Means 110th-111th MEEKS, GREGORY, a Representative from New York. Born on September 25, 1953. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Floyd Flake; reelected to the 106th through 112th Congresses; has served since February 5, 1998. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking and Financial Services 105th-106th H. Financial Services 107th-112th H. International Relations 106th-109th H. Foreign Affairs 110th-112th METCALFE, RALPH H., a Representative from Illinois. Born on May 30, 1910; died on October 10, 1978. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 95th Congresses; served from January 3, 1971, to October 10, 1978. Committee Assignments Congress H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce 92nd-95th H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries 92nd-95th H. Post Office and Civil Service 95th MFUME, KWEISI, a Representative from Maryland. Born on October 24, 1948. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 104th Congresses; served from January 6, 1987, to February 16, 1996, when he resigned to become executive director of the NAACP. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 103rd Congress. Co-chair of the Democratic Policy Committee in the 104th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 100th-103rd H. Banking and Financial Services 104th H. Small Business 100th-104th H. Education and Labor 101st H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control 101st-102nd Jt. Economic 102nd-104th Congressional Research Service 32 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Standards of Official Conduct 103rd H. Select Hunger 100th MILLENDER-McDONALD, JUANITA, a Representative from California. Born on September 7, 1938; died in office on April 22, 2007. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Walter Tucker; reelected to the 105th through 110th Congresses; served from April 16, 1996, to April 22, 2007. Committee Assignments Congress H. Small Business 104th-110th H. Transportation and Infrastructure 104th-109th H. Administration (committee chair, 110th,1st sess.; ranking Member 109th) 108th-110th Jt. Library (committee chair, 110th,1st session) 108th, 110th Jt. Printing (committee chair, 110th, 1st sess.) 110th MILLER, THOMAS E., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on June 17, 1849; died on April 8, 1936. Elected as a Republican to the 51st Congress, when he successfully contested the election of William Elliott; served from September 24, 1890, to March 3, 1891. Committee Assignments Congress H. Library of Congress 51st MITCHELL, ARTHUR W., a Representative from Illinois. Born on December 22, 1883; died on May 9, 1968. Elected as a Democrat to the 74th through 77th Congresses; served from January 3, 1935, to January 3, 1943. First African American Democrat elected to Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Post Office and Post Roads 74th-77th Congressional Research Service 33 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 MITCHELL, PARREN J., a Representative from Maryland. Born on April 29, 1922; died May 28, 2007. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 99th Congresses; served from January 3, 1971, to January 3, 1987. First African American Member of Congress from Maryland. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 95th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking and Currency 92nd-93rd H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 94th-99th H. Select Small Business 92nd-93rd H. Small Business (committee chair, 97th-99th) 94th, 96th-99th H. Budget 93rd-95th Jt. Defense Production 94th-95th Jt. Economic (vice chair, 95th) 95th-99th MOORE, GWEN, a Representative from Wisconsin. Born on April 18, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 109th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 4, 2005. First African American Member of Congress from Wisconsin. Committee Assignments Congress H. Financial Services 109th-112th H. Small Business 109th-110th H. Budget 110th-112th MOSELEY-BRAUN, CAROL, a Senator from Illinois. Born on August 16, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to a six-year term beginning with the 103rd Congress and served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 1999. First African American woman and African American Democrat to serve in the Senate. Ambassador to New Zealand from 1999-2001; candidate for U.S. President in 2004. Committee Assignments Congress S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs 103rd-105th S. Judiciary 103rd S. Small Business 103rd S. Finance 104th-105th S. Special Aging 104th-105th Congressional Research Service 34 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 MURRAY, GEORGE W., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on September 22, 1853; died on April 21, 1926. Elected as a Republican to the 53rd and 54th Congresses; served from March 4, 1893, to March 3, 1895, and from June 4, 1896, to March 3, 1897 (successfully contested an election). Committee Assignments Congress H. Education 53rd-54th H. Expenditures in the Treasury Department 54th NASH, CHARLES E., a Representative from Louisiana. Born on May 23, 1844; died on June 21, 1913. Elected as a Republican to the 44th Congress; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1877. First African American Member of Congress from Louisiana. Committee Assignment Congress H. Education and Labor 44th NIX, ROBERT N.C. Sr., a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on August 9, 1905; died on June 22, 1987. Elected as a Democrat to the 85th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Earl Chudoff; reelected to the 86th through 95th Congresses; served from June 4, 1958, to January 3, 1979. First African American Member of Congress from Pennsylvania. Committee Assignments Congress H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries 85th-86th H. Foreign Affairs 87th-93rd H. International Relations 94th-95th H. Veterans’ Affairs 85th-86th H. Post Office and Civil Service (committee chair, 95th) 88th-95th H. Select Standards and Conduct 89th H. Crime 91st NORTON, ELEANOR HOLMES, a Delegate from the District of Columbia. Born on June 13, 1937. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1991. Committee Assignments Congress H. District of Columbia 102nd-103rd H. Post Office and Civil Service 102nd-103rd H. Public Works and Transportation 102nd-103rd H. Transportation and Infrastructure 104th-112th H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform 104th-109th Congressional Research Service 35 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Oversight and Government Reform 110th-112th H. Small Business 104th Jt. Committee on the Organization of Congress 102nd-103rd H. Homeland Security 108th-111th OBAMA, BARACK, a Senator from Illinois. Born on August 4, 1961. Elected as a Democrat to a six-year term beginning with the 109th Congress; served from January 4, 2005, until November 16, 2008, when he resigned after being elected first African American President of the United States. Committee Assignments Congress S. Environment and Public Works 109th-110th S. Foreign Relations 109th-110th S. Veterans’ Affairs 109th-110th S. Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions 110th S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 110th O’HARA, JAMES E., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on February 26, 1844; died on September 15, 1905. Elected as a Republican to the 48th and 49th Congresses; served from March 4, 1883, to March 3, 1887. Committee Assignments Congress H. Mines and Mining 48th H. Expenditures on Public Buildings 49th H. Invalid Pensions 49th OWENS, MAJOR R., a Representative from New York. Born on June 28, 1936. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th through 110th Congresses; served from January 3, 1983, to January 3, 2007. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor / H. Education and the Workforce 98th-103rd,, 105th-109th H. Economic and Educational Opportunities 104th H. Government Operations 98th-103rd H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform 104th-109th PAYNE, DONALD M., a Representative from New Jersey. Born on July 16, 1934; died in office on March 6, 2012. Elected as a Democrat to the 101st through 112th Congresses; served from Congressional Research Service 36 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 January 3, 1989, to March 6, 2012. First African American Member of Congress from New Jersey. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 104th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor / H. Education and the Workforce 101st-103rd, 105th-109th , 111th-112th H. Economic and Educational Opportunities 104th H. Foreign Affairs 101st-103rd, 111th -112th H. International Relations 104th-109th H. Government Operations 101st-103rd POWELL, ADAM CLAYTON Jr., a Representative from New York. Born on November 29, 1908; died on April 4, 1972. Elected as a Democrat to the 79th through 90th Congresses, but was not seated in the 90th Congress (excluded from that Congress on March 1, 1967). He served from January 3, 1945, to January 3, 1967. In April 1967, he was reelected in a special election to the seat from which he had been excluded, but he did not attempt to take the oath of office. He was reelected to the 91st Congress and served from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 1971. First African American Member of Congress from New York. Committee Assignments Congress H. Indian Affairs 79th H. Invalid Pensions 79th H. Labor 79th H. Education and Labor (committee chair, 87th-89th) 80th-89th, 91st H. Interior and Insular Affairs 84th-86th RAINEY, JOSEPH H., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on June 21, 1832; died on August 2, 1887. Elected as a Republican to the 41st Congress when the House declared the seat of Representative Benjamin Whittemore vacant; reelected to the 42nd through 45th Congresses; served from December 12, 1870, to March 3, 1879. First African American Member of the House of Representatives and first African American Member of Congress from South Carolina. Committee Assignments Congress H. Freedmen’s Affairs 41st-42nd H. Indian Affairs 43rd H. Invalid Pensions 44th-45th H. Select Celebration of Proposed National Census of 1875 43rd RANGEL, CHARLES B., a Representative from New York. Born on June 11, 1930. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1971. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 94th Congress. Congressional Research Service 37 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Public Works 92nd H. Science and Astronautics 92nd H. Judiciary 92nd-93rd H. District of Columbia 93rd H. Ways and Means (committee chair, 110th and 111th; ranking Member, 105th-109th) 94th-112th H. Select Crime 92nd-93rd H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (committee chair, 98th-102nd) 94th-102nd Jt. Taxation 104th-105th , 111th RANSIER, ALONZO J., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on January 3, 1834; died on August 17, 1882. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd Congress; served from March 3, 1873, to March 3, 1875. Committee Assignments Congress H. Manufactures 43rd RAPIER, JAMES T., a Representative from Alabama. Born on November 13, 1837; died on May 31, 1883. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd Congress; served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875. Committee Assignment Congress H. Education and Labor 43rd REVELS, HIRAM RHODES, a Senator from Mississippi. Born on September 27, 1827; died on January 16, 1901. Elected as a Republican to the 41st Congress after Mississippi was readmitted to the union, and served from February 25, 1870, to March 3, 1871. First African American Member of Congress; first African American Senator; first African American Republican elected to Congress; first African American Member of Congress from Mississippi. Committee Assignments Congress S. Education and Labor 41st S. District of Columbia 41st REYNOLDS, MELVIN J., a Representative from Illinois. Born on January 8, 1952. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd and 104th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, until his resignation on October 1, 1995. Congressional Research Service 38 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Ways and Means 103rd H. Economic and Educational Opportunities 104th RICHARDSON, LAURA, a Representative from California. Born on April 14, 1962. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Juanita Millender-McDonald; reelected to the 111th and 112th Congresses; has served since September 4, 2007. Committee Assignments Congress H. Science and Technology 110th H. Transportation and Infrastructure 110th-112th H. Homeland Security 111th-112th RICHMOND, CEDRIC L, a Representative from Louisiana. Born on September 13, 1973. Elected as a Democrat to the 112th Congress; has served since January 3, 2011. Committee Assignments Congress H. Homeland Security 112th H. Small Business 112th RUSH, BOBBY L., a Representative from Illinois. Born on November 23, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 103rd H. Government Operations 103rd H. Science, Space, and Technology 103rd H. Commerce 104th-106th H. Energy and Commerce 107th-112th SAVAGE, GUS, a Representative from Illinois. Born on October 30, 1925. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th through 102nd Congresses; served from January 3, 1981, to January 3, 1993. Committee Assignments Congress H. Post Office and Civil Service 97th H. Public Works and Transportation 97th-102nd H. Small Business 97th-102nd Congressional Research Service 39 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 SCOTT, DAVID, a Representative from Georgia. Born on June 27, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th-112th Congresses; has served since January 7, 2003. Committee Assignments Congress H. Agriculture 108th-112th H. Financial Services 108th-112th H. Foreign Affairs 111th H. Standards of Official Conduct 110th SCOTT, ROBERT C., a Representative from Virginia. Born on April 30, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor 103rd, 110th-112th H. Economic and Educational Opportunities 104th H. Education and the Workforce 105th-107th, 109th H. Judiciary 103rd-112th H. Science, Space, and Technology 103rd H. Select U.S. National …Concerns with the People’s Republic of China 106th H. Budget 108th, 110th-111th SCOTT, TIM E., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on September 19, 1965. Elected as a Republican to the 112th Congress; has served since January 3, 2011. An assistant majority whip, 112th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Rules 112th SEWELL, TERRYCINA “TERRI”, a Representative from Alabama. Born on January 1, 1965. Elected as a Democrat to the 112th Congress; has served since January 3, 2011. A senior Democratic whip, 112th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Agriculture 112th H. Science, Space and Technology 112th SMALLS, ROBERT, a Representative from South Carolina. Born on April 5, 1839; died on February 22, 1915. Elected as a Republican to the 44th, 45th, and 47th through 49th Congresses. He served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1879; from July 19, 1882, to March 3, 1883, after he successfully contested the reelection of Representative George Tillman; and from March 18, Congressional Research Service 40 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 1884, to March 3, 1887, after he was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Edmund Mackey. Committee Assignments Congress H. Agriculture 44th, 47th H. Militia 45th H. Manufactures 48th H. War Claims 49th STEWART, BENNETT M., a Representative from Illinois. Born on August 6, 1912; died on April 26, 1988. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th Congress; served from January 3, 1979, to January 3, 1981. Committee Assignment Congress H. Appropriations 96th STOKES, LOUIS, a Representative from Ohio. Born on February 23, 1925. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st through 105th Congresses; served from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 1999. First African American Member of Congress from Ohio. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 92nd and 93rd Congresses. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor 91st H. Internal Security 91st H. Appropriations 92nd-105th H. Budget 95th-96th H. Standards of Official Conduct (committee chair, 97th-98th, 102nd) 96th-98th, 102nd H. Select Assassinations (committee chair, 95th) 94th-95th H. Select Intelligence 98th-100th H. Select to Investigate Arms Transactions to Iran 100th THOMPSON, BENNIE G., a Representative from Mississippi. Born on January 28, 1948. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by resignation of Representative Mike Espy; reelected to the 104th through 112th Congresses; has served since April 20, 1993. Committee Assignments Congress H. Agriculture 103rd-108th H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries 103rd H. Small Business 103rd-104th H. Budget 105th-107th Congressional Research Service 41 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Homeland Security (committee chair, 110th and 111th; ranking Member, 112th) 108th-112th TOWNS, EDOLPHUS, a Representative from New York. Born on July 21, 1934. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1983. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 102nd Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Government Operations 98th-103rd H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform 104th-109th H. Oversight and Government Reform (committee chair, 111th) 110th-112th H. Public Works and Transportation 98th-104th H. Energy and Commerce 101st-103rd, 107th-110th, 112th H. Commerce 104th-106th H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control 98th-102nd TUCKER, WALTER R. III, a Representative from California. Born on May 28, 1957. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd and 104th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, until his resignation on December 15, 1995. Committee Assignments Congress H. Public Works and Transportation 103rd H. Small Business 103rd-104th H. Transportation and Infrastructure 104th TURNER, BENJAMIN S., a Representative from Alabama. Born on March 17, 1825; died on March 21, 1894. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd Congress; served from March 4, 1871, to March 3, 1873. First African American Member of Congress from Alabama. Committee Assignment Congress H. Invalid Pensions 42nd WALDON, ALTON R. Jr., a Representative from New York. Born on December 21, 1936. Elected as a Democrat to the 99th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Joseph Addabbo; served from July 29, 1986, to January 3, 1987. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor 99th Congressional Research Service 42 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Small Business 99th WALLS, JOSIAH T., a Representative from Florida. Born on December 30, 1842; died on May 5, 1905. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd through 44th Congresses; served from March 4, 1871, to January 29, 1873 (when his election was successfully contested); from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875; and from March 4, 1875, to April 19, 1876 (when his election was successfully contested). First African American Member of Congress from Florida. Committee Assignments Congress H. Militia 42nd-43rd H. Mileage 44th WASHINGTON, CRAIG A., a Representative from Texas. Born on October 12, 1941. Elected as a Democrat to the 101st Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Mickey Leland; reelected to the 102nd and 103rd Congresses; served from December 9, 1989, to January 3, 1995. Committee Assignments Congress H. Education and Labor 101st-102nd H. Judiciary 101st-103rd H. Energy and Commerce 103rd H. Government Operations 103rd H. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control 102nd WASHINGTON, HAROLD D., a Representative from Illinois. Born on April 15, 1922; died on November 25, 1987. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th and 98th Congresses; served from January 3, 1981, to April 29, 1983, when he resigned to become mayor of Chicago. Committee Assignments Congress H. Government Operations 97th H. Education and Labor 97th-98th H. Judiciary 97th-98th Congressional Research Service 43 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 WATERS, MAXINE, a Representative from California. Born on August 31, 1938. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 112th Congresses, has served since January 3, 1991. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 105th Congress; vice chair of the Democratic Steering Committee in the 105th through 108th Congresses; a Democratic chief deputy whip in the 106th through 112th Congresses. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 102nd-103rd H. Banking and Financial Services 104th-106th H. Financial Services 107th-112th H. Veterans Affairs 102nd-104th H. Small Business 103rd-104th H. Judiciary 105th-112th WATSON, DIANE E., a Representative from California. Born on November 12, 1933. Elected as a Democrat to the 107th Congress to fill vacancy caused by the death of Representative Julian Dixon; reelected to the 108th-111th Congresses; served from June 7, 2001, to January 3, 2011. U.S. ambassador to Micronesia from 1999 to 2001. Committee Assignments Congress H. International Relations 107th-109th H. Foreign Affairs 110th-111th H. Government Reform / H. Oversight and Government Reform 107th-111th WATT, MELVIN L., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on August 26, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 109th Congress. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 103rd H. Banking and Financial Services 104th-106th H. Financial Services 107th-112th H. Post Office and Civil Service 103rd H. Judiciary 103rd-112th Jt. Economic 107th-108th Congressional Research Service 44 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 WATTS, J.C. Jr., a Representative from Oklahoma. Born on November 18, 1957. Elected as a Republican to the 104th through 107th Congresses; served from January 3, 1995, to January 3, 2003. First African American Member of Congress from Oklahoma. Chair of the House Republican Conference in the 106th through 107th Congresses. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking and Financial Services 104th H. National Security 104th-105th H. Transportation and Infrastructure 105th-106th H. Armed Services 106th-107th WEST, ALLEN B., a Representative from Florida. Born on February 7, 1961. Elected as a Republican to the 112th Congress; served from January 3, 2011, to present. Committee Assignments Congress H. Armed Services 112th H. Small Business 112th WHEAT, ALAN D., a Representative from Missouri. Born on October 16, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th through 103rd Congresses; served from January 3, 1983, to January 3, 1995. Committee Assignments Congress H. District of Columbia 98th-103rd H. Rules 98th-103rd H. Select Children, Youth, and Families 98th-102nd H. Select Hunger 101st-102nd WHITE, GEORGE H., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on December 18, 1852; died on December 28, 1918. Elected as a Republican to the 55th and 56th Congresses; served from March 4, 1897, to March 3, 1901. Committee Assignments Congress H. Agriculture 55th H. District of Columbia 55th-56th WILSON, FREDERICA S., a Representative from Florida. Born on November 5, 1942. Elected as a Democrat to the 112th Congress; has served since January 3, 2011. Committee Assignments Congress H. Foreign Affairs 112th Congressional Research Service 45 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Committee Assignments Congress H. Science, Space and Technology 112th WYNN, ALBERT R., a Representative from Maryland. Born on September 10, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 110th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to May 31, 2008. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 103rd H. Banking and Financial Services 104th H. Foreign Affairs 103rd H. International Relations 104th H. Post Office and Civil Service 103rd H. Commerce 105th-106th H. Energy and Commerce 107th-110th YOUNG, ANDREW, a Representative from Georgia. Born on March 12, 1932. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 95th Congresses; served from January 3, 1973, to January 29, 1977, when he resigned to become U.S. ambassador to the United Nations. Committee Assignments Congress H. Banking, Currency, and Housing 93rd H. Rules 94th Congressional Research Service 46 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Table 1. Number and Names of African American Members of Congress, by Congress No.a Chamber Namesb 112th Congress (2011-2013) 44c 0 House Karen Bass Chaka Fattah Cedric L. Richmond Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Marcia L. Fudge Bobby L. Rush Corrine Brown Al Green David Scott G.K. Butterfield Alcee L. Hastings Robert C. Scott André Carson Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Tim E. Scott Donna Christensen Sheila Jackson Lee Terrycina “Terri” Sewell Hansen H. Clarke Eddie Bernice Johnson Bennie G. Thompson Yvette D. Clarke Henry (Hank) Johnson Edolphus Towns William Lacy Clay Jr. Barbara Lee Maxine Waters Emanuel Cleaver II John Lewis Melvin L. Watt James E. Clyburn Gregory W. Meeks Allen B. West John Conyers Jr. Gwen Moore Frederica S. Wilson Elijah E. Cummings Eleanor Holmes Norton Danny K. Davis Donald M. Payne Donna F. Edwards Charles B. Rangel Keith Ellison Laura Richardson Senate 111th Congress (2009-2011) 41 House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Chaka Fattah Gwen Moore Corrine Brown Marcia L. Fudge Eleanor Holmes Norton G.K. Butterfield Al Green Donald M. Payne André Carson Alcee L. Hastings Charles B. Rangel Donna Christensen Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Laura Richardson Yvette D. Clarke Sheila Jackson Lee Bobby L. Rush William Lacy Clay Jr. Eddie Bernice Johnson David Scott Emanuel Cleaver II Henry (Hank) Johnson Robert C. Scott James E. Clyburn Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Bennie G. Thompson John Conyers Jr. Elijah E. Cummings Artur Davis Danny K. Davis Donna F. Edwards Barbara Lee John Lewis Kendrick Meek Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Diane E. Watson Melvin L. Watt Gregory W. Meeks Keith Ellison 1 Senate Roland Burris Congressional Research Service 47 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 No.a Chamber Namesb 110th Congress (2007-2009) 42d House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Chaka Fattah Corrine Brown Marcia L. Fudge G.K. Butterfield Al Green André Carson Alcee L. Hastings Julia M. Carson Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Donna ChristianChristensen Sheila Jackson Lee Yvette D. Clarke William Lacy Clay Jr. Emanuel Cleaver II James E. Clyburn William J. Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Henry (Hank) Johnson Stephanie Tubbs Jones Juanita MillenderMcDonald Gwen Moore Eleanor Holmes Norton Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Laura Richardson Bobby L. Rush David Scott Robert C. Scott Bennie G. Thompson John Conyers Jr. Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Elijah E. Cummings Barbara Lee Maxine Waters Artur Davis John Lewis Diane E. Watson Danny K. Davis Kendrick Meek Melvin L. Watt Donna F. Edwards Gregory W. Meeks Albert R. Wynn Edolphus Towns Keith Ellison 1 Senate Barack Obama 109th Congress (2005-2007) 42 House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Major R. Owens Corrine Brown Sheila Jackson Lee Donald M. Payne G.K. Butterfield William J. Jefferson Charles B. Rangel Julia M. Carson Eddie Bernice Johnson Bobby L. Rush Donna ChristianChristensen Stephanie Tubbs Jones David Scott Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Robert C. Scott William Lacy Clay Jr. Emanuel Cleaver II Barbara Lee James E. Clyburn John Lewis John Conyers Jr. Cynthia McKinney Elijah E. Cummings Kendrick Meek Artur Davis Gregory W. Meeks Danny K. Davis Juanita MillenderMcDonald Chaka Fattah Harold E. Ford Jr. Al Green Bennie G. Thompson Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Diane E. Watson Melvin L. Watt Albert R. Wynn Gwen Moore Eleanor Holmes Norton Alcee L. Hastings Congressional Research Service 48 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 No.a 1 Chamber Senate Namesb Barack Obama 108th Congress (2003-2005) 39e House Frank W. Ballance Jr. Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Major R. Owens Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee Donald M. Payne G.K. Butterfield William J. Jefferson Charles B. Rangel Corrine Brown Eddie Bernice Johnson Bobby L. Rush Andre Carson Stephanie Tubbs Jones David Scott Julia M. Carson Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Robert C. Scott Donna ChristianChristensen Barbara Lee William Lacy Clay Jr. John Lewis James E. Clyburn Denise Majette John Conyers Jr. Kendrick Meek Elijah E. Cummings Gregory W. Meeks Artur Davis Juanita MillenderMcDonald Danny K. Davis Chaka Fattah Bennie G. Thompson Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Diane E. Watson Melvin L. Watt Albert R. Wynn Eleanor Holmes Norton Harold E. Ford Jr. Alcee L. Hastings Senate None 107th Congress (2001-2003) 39f House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Major R. Owens Corrine Brown Sheila Jackson Lee Donald M. Payne Julia Carson William J. Jefferson Charles B. Rangel Donna ChristianChristensen Eddie Bernice Johnson Bobby L. Rush Stephanie Tubbs Jones Robert C. Scott Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Bennie G. Thompson Eva M. Clayton James E. Clyburn Barbara Lee John Conyers Jr. John Lewis Elijah E. Cummings Cynthia A. McKinney Danny K. Davis Carrie P. Meek Chaka Fattah Gregory W. Meeks Harold E. Ford Jr. Juanita MillenderMcDonald William Lacy Clay Jr. Alcee L. Hastings Earl Hilliard Senate Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Diane E. Watson Melvin L. Watt J.C. Watts Jr. Albert R. Wynn Eleanor Holmes Norton None Congressional Research Service 49 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 No.a Chamber Namesb 106th Congress (1999-2001) 39 House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Alcee L. Hastings Corrine Brown Earl Hilliard Julia M. Carson Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee Donna ChristianChristensen William L. Clay Sr. Eva M. Clayton William J. Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Stephanie Tubbs Jones Juanita MillenderMcDonald Eleanor Holmes Norton Major R. Owens Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Bobby L. Rush Robert C. Scott James E. Clyburn Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick John Conyers Jr. Barbara Lee Edolphus Towns Elijah Cummings John Lewis Maxine Waters Danny K. Davis Cynthia A. McKinney Melvin L. Watt Julian C. Dixon Carrie P. Meek J.C. Watts Jr. Chaka Fattah Gregory W. Meeks Albert R. Wynn Bennie G. Thompson Harold E. Ford Jr. Senate None 105th Congress (1997-1999) 39g House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Floyd Flake Corrine Brown Harold E. Ford Jr. Julia M. Carson Alcee L. Hastings Donna M. ChristianGreen Earl Hilliard William L. Clay Sr. Eva M. Clayton James E. Clyburn John Conyers Jr. 1 Senate Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee William J. Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Juanita MillenderMcDonald Eleanor Holmes Norton Major R. Owens Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Bobby Rush Robert Scott Louis Stokes Elijah Cummings Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Danny K. Davis Barbara Lee Edolphus Towns Ronald V. Dellums John Lewis Maxine Waters Julian C. Dixon Cynthia A. McKinney Melvin L. Watt Chaka Fattah Carrie P. Meek J.C. Watts Jr. Gregory W. Meeks Albert R. Wynn Bennie G. Thompson Carol Moseley-Braun 104th Congress (1995-1997) 40h House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Gary Franks Donald M. Payne Corrine Brown Victor Frazer Charles B. Rangel William L. Clay Sr. Alcee L. Hastings Melvin J. Reynolds Congressional Research Service 50 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 No.a Chamber Namesb Eva M. Clayton Earl F. Hilliard Bobby L. Rush James E. Clyburn Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Robert Scott Barbara-Rose Collins William J. Jefferson Louis Stokes Cardiss Collins Eddie Bernice Johnson Bennie G. Thompson John Conyers Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee Edolphus Towns Elijah E. Cummings John Lewis Walter Tucker Ronald V. Dellums Cynthia A. McKinney Maxine Waters Julian C. Dixon Carrie P. Meek Melvin L. Watt Chaka Fattah Kweisi Mfume J.C. Watts Jr. Cleo Fields Juanita MillenderMcDonald Albert R. Wynn Floyd H. Flake Harold E. Ford Sr. Eleanor Holmes Norton Major R. Owens 1 Senate Carol Moseley-Braun 103rd Congress (1993-1995) 39i 1 House Senate Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Harold E. Ford Sr. Melvin J. Reynolds Lucien Blackwell Gary Franks Bobby L. Rush Corrine Brown Earl F. Hilliard Robert Scott William L. Clay Sr. Alcee L. Hastings Louis Stokes Eva M. Clayton William J. Jefferson Bennie G. Thompson James E. Clyburn Eddie Bernice Johnson Edolphus Towns Barbara-Rose Collins John Lewis Walter Tucker Cardiss Collins Cynthia A. McKinney Craig Washington John Conyers Jr. Carrie P. Meek Maxine Waters Ronald V. Dellums Kweisi Mfume Melvin L. Watt Julian C. Dixon Eleanor Holmes Norton Alan D. Wheat Mike Espy Major R. Owens Albert R. Wynn Cleo Fields Donald M. Payne Floyd H. Flake Charles B. Rangel Carol Moseley-Braun 102nd Congress (1991-1993) 27j House Lucien Blackwell Floyd H. Flake Donald M. Payne William L. Clay Sr. Harold E. Ford Sr. Charles B. Rangel Eva M. Clayton Gary Franks Gus Savage Barbara-Rose Collins William H. Gray III Louis Stokes Cardiss Collins Charles A. Hayes Edolphus Towns John Conyers Jr. William J. Jefferson Craig A. Washington Congressional Research Service 51 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 No.a Chamber Senate Namesb Ronald V. Dellums John Lewis Maxine Waters Julian C. Dixon Kweisi Mfume Alan D. Wheat Mervyn M. Dymally Eleanor Holmes Norton Mike Espy Major R. Owens None 101st Congress (1989-1991) 24k House Senate William L. Clay Sr. Floyd H. Flake Donald M. Payne Cardiss Collins Harold E. Ford Sr. Charles B. Rangel John Conyers Jr. William H. Gray III Gus Savage George Crockett Augustus F. Hawkins Louis Stokes Ronald V. Dellums Charles A. Hayes Edolphus Towns Julian C. Dixon Mickey Leland Craig A. Washington Mervyn M. Dymally John Lewis Alan D. Wheat Mike Espy Kweisi Mfume Walter E. Fauntroy Major R. Owens None 100th Congress (1987-1989) 23 House Senate William L. Clay Sr. Floyd H. Flake Charles B. Rangel Cardiss Collins Harold E. Ford Sr. Gus Savage John Conyers Jr. William H. Gray III Louis Stokes George W. Crockett Augustus F. Hawkins Edolphus Towns Ronald V. Dellums Charles A. Hayes Alan D. Wheat Julian C. Dixon Mickey Leland Mervyn M. Dymally John Lewis Mike Espy Kweisi Mfume Walter E. Fauntroy Major R. Owens None 99th Congress (1985-1987) 21 House Senate William L. Clay Sr. Walter E. Fauntroy Major R. Owens Cardiss Collins Harold E. Ford Sr. Charles B. Rangel John Conyers Jr. William H. Gray III Gus Savage George W. Crockett Augustus F. Hawkins Louis Stokes Ronald V. Dellums Charles A. Hayes Edolphus Towns Julian C. Dixon Mickey Leland Alton Waldon Jr. Mervyn M. Dymally Parren J. Mitchell Alan D. Wheat None Congressional Research Service 52 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 No.a Chamber Namesb 98th Congress (1983-1985) 21l House Senate William L. Clay Sr. Harold E. Ford Sr. Charles B. Rangel Cardiss Collins William H. Gray III Gus Savage John Conyers Jr. Katie Hall Louis Stokes George W. Crockett Augustus F. Hawkins Edolphus Towns Ronald V. Dellums Charles A. Hayes Harold D. Washington Julian C. Dixon Mickey Leland Alan D. Wheat Mervyn M. Dymally Parren J. Mitchell Walter E. Fauntroy Major R. Owens None 97th Congress (1981-1983) 19 House Senate Shirley A. Chisholm Mervyn M. Dymally Parren J. Mitchell William L. Clay Sr. Walter E. Fauntroy Charles R. Rangel Cardiss Collins Harold E. Ford Sr. Gus Savage John Conyers Jr. William H. Gray III Louis Stokes George W. Crockett Katie B. Hall Harold D. Washington Ronald V. Dellums Augustus F. Hawkins Julian C. Dixon Mickey Leland None 96th Congress (1979-1981) 17m House Senate Shirley A. Chisholm Charles C. Diggs Jr. Augustus F. Hawkins William L. Clay Sr. Julian C. Dixon Mickey Leland Cardiss Collins Melvin H. Evans Parren J. Mitchell John Conyers Jr. Walter E. Fauntroy Charles B. Rangel George W. Crockett Harold E. Ford Sr. Bennett M. Stewart Ronald V. Dellums William H. Gray III Louis Stokes None 95th Congress (1977-1979) 17 1 House Senate Yvonne B. Burke Charles C. Diggs Jr. Parren J. Mitchell Shirley A. Chisholm Walter E. Fauntroy Robert N.C. Nix Sr. William L. Clay Sr. Harold E. Ford Sr. Charles B. Rangel Cardiss Collins Augustus F. Hawkins Louis Stokes John Conyers Jr. Barbara C. Jordan Andrew J. Young Ronald V. Dellums Ralph H. Metcalfe Edward W. Brooke 94th Congress (1975-1977) 17 House Yvonne B. Burke Congressional Research Service Charles C. Diggs Jr. Parren J. Mitchell 53 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 No.a 1 Chamber Senate Namesb Shirley A. Chisholm Walter E. Fauntroy Robert N.C. Nix Sr. William L. Clay Sr. Harold E. Ford Sr. Charles B. Rangel Cardiss Collins Augustus F. Hawkins Louis Stokes John Conyers Jr. Barbara C. Jordan Andrew J. Young Ronald V. Dellums Ralph W. Metcalfe Edward W. Brooke 93rd Congress (1973-1975) 16 1 House Senate Yvonne B. Burke Charles C. Diggs Jr. Robert N.C. Nix Sr. Shirley A. Chisholm Walter E. Fauntroy Charles B. Rangel William L. Clay Sr. Augustus F. Hawkins Louis Stokes Cardiss Collins Barbara C. Jordan Andrew J. Young John Conyers Jr. Ralph H. Metcalfe Ronald V. Dellums Parren J. Mitchell Edward W. Brooke 92nd Congress (1971-1973) 13 1 House Senate Shirley A. Chisholm Charles C. Diggs Jr. Robert N.C. Nix Sr. William L. Clay Sr. Walter E. Fauntroy Charles B. Rangel George W. Collins Augustus F. Hawkins Louis Stokes John Conyers Jr. Ralph H. Metcalfe Ronald V. Dellums Parren J. Mitchell Edward W. Brooke 91st Congress (1969-1971) 10 1 House Senate Shirley A. Chisholm John Conyers Jr. Adam C. Powell Jr. William L. Clay Sr. William L. Dawson Louis Stokes George W. Collins Charles C. Diggs Jr. Augustus F. Hawkins Robert N.C. Nix Edward W. Brooke 90th Congress (1967-1969) 5n 1 House Senate John Conyers Jr. Charles C. Diggs Jr. William L. Dawson Augustus F. Hawkins Robert N.C. Nix Sr. Edward W. Brooke 89th Congress (1965-1967) 6 House Senate John Conyers Jr. Charles Diggs Jr. Robert N.C. Nix Sr. William L. Dawson Augustus F. Hawkins Adam Clayton Powell Jr. None 88th Congress (1963-1965) 5 House: William L. Dawson Congressional Research Service Augustus F. Hawkins Adam C. Powell Jr. 54 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 No.a Chamber Namesb Charles C. Diggs Jr. Senate Robert N.C. Nix Sr. None 85th - 87th Congresses (1957-1963) 4 House Senate William L. Dawson Robert N.C. Nix Sr. Charles C. Diggs Jr. Adam C. Powell Jr. None 84th Congress (1955-1957) 3 House William L. Dawson Charles C. Diggs Jr. Adam C. Powell Jr. 79th - 83rd Congresses (1945-1955) 2 House William L. Dawson Senate None Adam C. Powell Jr. 78th Congress (1943-1945) 1 House William L. Dawson Senate None 74th - 77th Congresses (1935-1943) 1 House Arthur W. Mitchell Senate None 71st - 73rd Congresses (1929-1935) 1 House Oscar S. DePriest Senate None 57th - 70th Congresses (1901-1929) House None Senate None 55th - 56th Congresses (1897-1901) 1 House George H. White Senate None 53rd - 54th Congresses (1893-1897) 1 House George W. Murray Senate None 52nd Congress (1891-1893) 1 House Henry P. Cheatham Senate None 51st Congress (1889-1891) 3 House Henry P. Cheatham Senate None John M. Langston Thomas E. Miller 50th Congress (1887-1889) House None Congressional Research Service 55 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 No.a Chamber Senate Namesb None 48th - 49th Congresses (1883-1887) 2 House James E. O’Hara Senate None Robert Smalls 47th Congress (1881-1883) 2 House John R. Lynch Senate None Robert Smalls 46th Congress (1879-1881) 1 House None Senate Blanche K. Bruce 45th Congress (1877-1879) 3 House Richard H. Cain 1 Senate Blanche K. Bruce Joseph H. Rainey Robert Smalls 44th Congress (1875-1877) 7 House 1 Senate Jeremiah Haralson Charles E. Nash John A. Hyman Joseph H. Rainey John R. Lynch Robert Smalls Josiah T. Walls Blanche K. Bruce 43rd Congress (1873-1875) 7 House Senate Richard H. Cain Joseph H. Rainey Robert B. Elliott Alonzo J. Ransier John R. Lynch James T. Rapier Josiah T. Walls None 42nd Congress (1871-1873) 5 House Senate Robert C. DeLarge Joseph H. Rainey Robert B. Elliott Benjamin S. Turner Josiah T. Walls None 41st Congress (1869-1871)o 2 1 House Jefferson F. Long Senate Revelsp Hiram R. Joseph H. Rainey a. Unless otherwise specified, number given is the largest number of African Americans serving at any one time during each Congress. b. For specific dates of service, please see each individual Member’s biographical entry in this report. c. 44 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 112th Congress; Rep. Donald Payne died in March 2012. d. Although 46 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 110th Congress, 42 was the highest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Laura Richardson filled the seat vacated by the death of Rep. Juanita Millender-McDonald; Rep. André Carson filled the seat vacated by the death of his Congressional Research Service 56 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 grandmother, Rep. Julia Carson; Rep. Donna Edwards filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Albert Wynn; and Rep. Marcia Fudge filled the seat vacated by the death of Rep. Stephanie Tubbs Jones. e. Although 40 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 108th Congress, 39 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. G.K. Butterfield filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Frank Ballance. f. Although 40 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 107th Congress, 39 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Julian Dixon was reelected to the 107th Congress but died on Dec. 8, 2000, before the Congress commenced; his seat was filled by Rep. Diane Watson. g. Although 41 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 105th Congress, 39 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep Gregory Meeks filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Floyd Flake, and Rep. Barbara Lee filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Ron Dellums. h. Although 43 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 104th Congress, 40 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr. filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Mel Reynolds; Rep. Juanita Millender-McDonald filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Walter Tucker; and Rep. Elijah Cummings filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Kweisi Mfume. i. Although 40 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 103rd Congress, 39 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Bennie Thompson filled the seat vacated by Rep. Mike Espy, who resigned to serve as Secretary of Agriculture. j. Although 28 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 102nd Congress, 27 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Lucien Blackwell filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. William H. Gray III. k. Although 25 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 101st Congress, 24 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Craig Washington filled the seat vacated by the death of Rep. Mickey Leland. l. Although 22 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 98th Congress, 21 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Charles Hayes filled the seat vacated by Rep. Harold Washington, who resigned to serve as Mayor of Chicago. m. Although 18 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 96th Congress, 17 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. George Crockett filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Charles Diggs Jr. n. Rep. Adam Clayton Powell Jr. was reelected to the House in the 90th Congress, but was excluded and not seated. He was then reelected to the seat vacated by his exclusion but never took the oath of office. o. There were no African American Members of Congress until 1870, the 41st Congress, 2nd session. p. Seated after Mississippi was readmitted to the Union on February 23, 1870; first African American Member of Congress. Congressional Research Service 57 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Table 2. African American Members of Congress, 41st Congress to Present, by State or Territory Alabama (6 African-American Members) Artur Davis Earl F. Hilliard Terrycina “Terri” Sewell Jeremiah Haralson James T. Rapier Benjamin S. Turner California (12 African-American Members) Karen Bass Mervyn M. Dymally Laura Richardson Yvonne Braithwaite Burke Augustus F. Hawkins Walter R. Tucker Ronald V. Dellums Barbara Lee Maxine Waters Julian C. Dixon Juanita Millender-McDonald Diane E. Watson Connecticut (1 African-American Member) Gary A. Franks District of Columbia (2 African-American Members) Walter E. Fauntroy Eleanor Holmes Norton Florida (7 African-American Members) Corrine Brown Kendrick Meek Alcee L. Hastings Josiah T. Walls Carrie P. Meek Allen B. West Frederica Wilson Georgia (8 African-American Members) Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Jefferson F. Long David Scott Henry C. (Hank) Johnson Jr. Denise L. Majette Andrew J. Young John R. Lewis Cynthia A. McKinney Illinois (17 African-American Members) Roland Burrisa Charles A. Hayes Melvin J. Reynolds Cardiss Collins Jesse L. Jackson, Jr. Bobby L. Rush George W. Collins Ralph H. Metcalfe Gus Savage Danny K. Davis Arthur W. Mitchell Bennett M. Stewart William L. Dawson Carol Moseley-Brauna Harold D. Washington Oscar S. DePriest Barack Obamaa Indiana (3 African-American Members) André Carson Julia Carson Katie B. Hall Louisiana (4 African-American Members) Cleo Fields Charles E. Nash Cedric L. Richmond William J. Jefferson Maryland (5 African-American Members) Elijah E. Cummings Parren J. Mitchell Donna Edwards Kweisi Mfume Albert R. Wynn Massachusetts (1 African-American Member) Congressional Research Service 58 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Edward W. Brookea Michigan (6 African-American Members) Hansen H. Clarke John Conyers Jr. Charles C. Diggs Jr. Barbara-Rose Collins George W. Crockett Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Minnesota (1 African-American Member) Keith Ellison Mississippi (5 African-American Members) Blanche K. Brucea John R. Lynch Albert M. (Mike) Espy Hiram Rhodes Revelsa Bennie G. Thompson Missouri (4 African-American Members) William Lacy Clay Jr. Emanuel Cleaver II Alan D. Wheat William L. Clay Sr. New Jersey (1 African-American Member) Donald M. Payne New York (9 African-American Members) Shirley A. Chisholm Gregory Meeks Charles B. Rangel Yvette D. Clarke Major R. Owens Edolphus Towns Floyd H. Flake Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Alton R. Waldon Jr. North Carolina (8 African-American Members) Frank W. Ballance Jr. Eva M. Clayton Melvin L. Watt G.K. Butterfield John A. Hyman George H. White Henry P. Cheatham James E. O’Hara Ohio (3 African-American Members) Marcia L. Fudge Stephanie Tubbs Jones Louis Stokes Oklahoma (1 African-American Member) J.C. Watts Jr. Pennsylvania (4 African-American Members) Lucien E. Blackwell William H. Gray III Robert N.C. Nix Sr. Chaka Fattah South Carolina (10 African-American Members) Richard H. Cain Thomas E. Miller Tim Scott James E. Clyburn George W. Murray Robert Smalls Robert C. DeLarge Joseph H. Rainey Robert B. Elliott Alonzo J. Ransier Tennessee (2 African-American Members) Harold E. Ford Jr. Congressional Research Service Harold E. Ford Sr. 59 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Texas (6 African-American Members) Al Green Eddie Bernice Johnson George T. (Mickey) Leland Sheila Jackson Lee Barbara C. Jordan Craig A. Washington Virginia (2 African-American Members) John M. Langston Robert C. Scott Virgin Islands (3 African-American Members) Donna M. Christensen Melvin H. Evans Victor O. Frazer Wisconsin (1 African-American Member) Gwen Moore a. Serves/served in the Senate. Congressional Research Service 60 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Table 3. Number of African American Members in the U.S. Congress, 41st Congress to Present Total African American Members of Congress African American Members of Housea African American Members of Senateb 18691871 3 2 1 42nd 18711873 5 5 – 43rd 18731875 7 7 – 44th 18751877 8 7 1 45th 18771879 4 3 1 46th 18791881 1 – 1 47th 18811883 2 2 – 48th 18831885 2 2 – 49th 18851887 2 2 – 50th 18871889 – - – 51st 18891891 3 3 – 52nd 18911893 1 1 – 53rd 18931895 1 1 – 54th 18951897 1 1 – 55th 18971899 1 1 – 56th 18991901 1 1 – 57th 19011903 – – – 58th 19031905 – – – 59th 19051907 – – – 60th 19071909 – – – 61st 19091911 – – – Congress Year 41st Congressional Research Service 61 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Total African American Members of Congress African American Members of Housea African American Members of Senateb 19111913 – – – 63rd 19131915 – – – 64th 19151917 – – – 65th 19171919 – – – 66th 19191921 – – – 67th 19211923 – – – 68th 19231925 – – – 69th 19251927 – – – 70th 19271929 – – – 71st 19291931 1 1 – 72nd 19311933 1 1 – 73rd 19331935 1 1 – 74th 19351937 1 1 – 75th 19371939 1 1 – 76th 19391941 1 1 – 77th 19411943 1 1 – 78th 19431945 1 1 – 79th 19451947 2 2 – 80th 19471949 2 2 – 81st 19491951 2 2 – 82nd 19511953 2 2 – 83rd 19531955 2 2 – Congress Year 62nd Congressional Research Service 62 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Total African American Members of Congress African American Members of Housea African American Members of Senateb 19551957 3 3 – 85th 19571959 4 4 – 86th 19591961 4 4 – 87th 19611963 4 4 – 88th 19631965 5 5 – 89th 19651967 6 6 – 90th 19671969 6 5 1 91st 19691971 11 10 1 92nd 19711973 14 13 1 93rd 19731975 17 16 1 94th 19751977 18 17 1 95th 19771979 18 17 1 96th 19791981 17 17 – 97th 19811983 19 19 – 98th 19831985 21 21 – 99th 19851987 21 21 – 100th 19871989 23 23 – 101st 19891991 24 24 – 102nd 19911993 27 27 – 103rd 19931995 40 39 1 104th 19951997 41 40 1 105th 19971999 40 39 1 Congress Year 84th Congressional Research Service 63 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012 Total African American Members of Congress African American Members of Housea African American Members of Senateb 19992001 39 39 0 107th 20012003 39 39 0 108th 20032005 39 39 0 109th 20052007 43 42 1 110th 20072009 42b 42 1c 111th 20092011 42 41 1 112th 20112013 44 44 0 Congress Year 106th a. The numbers here reflect the highest number of African American Members, including Delegates, to serve in the House at any one time during a Congress. For example, a record number of 47 African American Members were elected to the 110th Congress, but only 43 served at any one time during the Congress. b. The numbers here reflect the highest number of African American Members to serve in the Senate at any one time during a Congress. c. President Barack Obama served in the Senate in the 110th Congress until his resignation on Nov. 16, 2008. Author Contact Information Jennifer E. Manning Information Research Specialist jmanning@crs.loc.gov, 7-7565 Colleen J. Shogan Senior Specialist in Government and Finance cshogan@crs.loc.gov, 7-8231 Acknowledgments This report was originally authored by Mildred Amer, formerly a specialist in American National Government at CRS. Sarah J. Eckman authored the Congressional Black Caucus section of this report. Neal Arp II and Erin Hemlin provided research assistance and graphics support. Jared Nagel provided graphics support. Congressional Research Service 64