Order Code RL30378 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2008 Updated July 23, 2008 Mildred L. Amer Specialist in American National Government Government and Finance Division African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2008 Summary There are 43 African-American Members serving in the 110th Congress: 42 in the House of Representatives, one in the Senate. There have been 123 African American Members of Congress: 118 elected to the House and five to the Senate. There have been 96 Democrats: 94 in the House, two in the Senate; and 27 Republicans: 24 in the House, three in the Senate. A record 43 African American Members also served in the 109th Congress: 42 in the House, one in the Senate. The number of African American Members has steadily increased since the first African American Members entered Congress in 1870. There were fewer than 10 Members until the 91st Congress (1969-1971). In the 98th Congress (1983-1985), the number surpassed 20 for the first time and then jumped to 40 in the 103rd Congress (1993-1995). Since the 106th Congress (19992001), the number has remained between 39 and 43 serving at any one time. The first African American Member of Congress was Hiram Rhodes Revels (RMS), who served in the Senate in the 41st Congress (1870). The first African American Member of the House was Joseph H. Rainey (R-SC), who also served in the 41st Congress. Representative John Conyers Jr. (D-MI, 1965-present), the current chair of the House Judiciary Committee, has served longer than any other African American Member of Congress. Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), elected to the 91st through 97th Congresses (19691983), was the first African American woman in Congress. Since that time, 25 other African American women have been elected, including Senator Carol Moseley-Braun (D-IL, 1993-1999), who is the only African American woman, as well as the first African American Democrat, elected to the Senate. Representatives James E. Clyburn (D-SC, 1993-present) and former Representatives William H. Gray III (D-PA, 1979-1991) and J.C. Watts (R-OK, 1995-2003) have been elected to the highest leadership positions held by African American Members of Congress. Representative Clyburn, the House majority whip in the 110th Congress, served as vice chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the 108th and 109th Congresses. Representative Gray was chair of the House Democratic Caucus in 1989 (101st Congress). Later in that Congress, when a vacancy occurred, he was elected House majority whip, a position he held until his resignation from Congress in September 1991 (102nd Congress). Representative Watts served as chair of the House Republican Conference in the 106th-107th Congresses (1997-2001). African American Members of Congress have served on standing and select committees. Nineteen have served as committee chair, 18 in the House and one in the Senate. This report will be updated as needed. Contents Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Female Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Oldest and Youngest African American Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 African American Members in Leadership Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Tables and Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alphabetical Listing of African American Members, Selected Biographical Information, and Committee Assignments During Their Tenure in Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 List of Tables Table 1. African American Members of Congress — Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Table 2. African American Members of Congress — House of Representatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Table 3. Number and Names of African American Members of Congress, by Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Table 4. Number and Names of African American Members of Congress, by State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Table 5. Number of African American Members in the U.S. Congress, 41st-110th Congresses (1870-2008) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2008 Background One hundred twenty-three African Americans have been elected to the U.S. Congress: 118 to the House and five to the Senate.1 Of these, 27 have been women. There are 43 African American Members serving in the 110th Congress, 42 in the House of Representatives and one in the Senate, the same number as the record 43 African American Members who served in the 109th Congress. All are Democrats.2 The number of African American Members has steadily increased since the first African Americans entered Congress in 1870. There were fewer than 10 Members until the 91st Congress (1969-1971). In the 98th Congress (1983-1985), the number surpassed 20 for the first time and then jumped to 40 in the 103rd Congress (19931995). Since the 106th Congress (1999-2001), the number has remained between 39 and 43 at any one time. The largest number of African American Members elected as freshmen was 17 in the 103rd Congress. Sixteen were elected to the House, and one, Carol MoseleyBraun (D-IL, 1993-1999), was elected to the Senate. Senator Moseley-Braun, who is the only African American woman to serve in the Senate, also was the first African American Democrat to serve in the Senate.3 1 Includes three Delegates from the U.S. Virgin Islands and two from the District of Columbia. 2 A record 46 different African American Members have served in the 110th Congress (45 in the House and one in the Senate). However, only 43 (42 in the House and one in the Senate) have served at any one time. Representative Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA) died on Apr. 22, 2007, and was replaced by Representative Laura Richardson (D-CA) on Sept. 4, 2007; Rep. Julia Carson (D-IN) died on Dec. 15, 2007, and was replaced by her grandson, Rep. André Carson on Mar. 13, 2008; and Rep. Al Wynn resigned on May 31, 2008, and was replaced by Rep. Donna Edwards on June 19, 2008. The previous record number was in the 104th Congress (1995-1997) when 43 African American Members was elected to the House of Representatives. Only 40, however, actually served at any one time. Rep. Melvin Reynolds (D-IL) resigned in Oct. 1995 and was replaced by Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr. (D-IL); Rep. Walter Tucker (D-CA) resigned in Dec. 1995 and was replaced by Rep. Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA); and Rep. Kweisi Mfume (D-MD) resigned in Feb. 1996 and was replaced by Rep. Elijah Cummings (D-MD). 3 Senator Barack Obama (D-IL) is the first African American male Democrat to serve in the Senate. CRS-2 The majority of African American Members of Congress (96) have been Democrats; 27 have been Republicans. All the African American Democrats have been elected in the 20th and 21st centuries. Five African American Republican men were elected to Congress in the 20th century, four to the House and one to the Senate. One of them was reelected to one term in the 21st century before retiring from Congress. All other African American Republican Members served in the 19th century. The first African American Member of Congress was Hiram Rhodes Revels (RMS), who served in the Senate in the 41st Congress (1870). He also has the distinction of being the first African American Member of the Senate and the first African American Member of Congress from Mississippi. On January 20, 1870, he was chosen by the Mississippi legislature to fill the unexpired term in the U. S. Senate of former Confederate President Jefferson Davis.4 Senator Blanche K. Bruce (R-MS, 1875-1881) was the first African American Senator to serve a full Senate term of six years. Joseph H. Rainey (R-SC, 1869-1878) was the first African American Member of the House of Representatives, beginning service, like Senator Revels, in the 41st Congress. Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), elected to the 91st through 97th Congresses (1969-1983), was the first African American woman to serve in Congress. Edward Brooke (R-MA) was the first African American person elected to the Senate after passage of the Seventeenth Amendment, which provided for the direct election of Senators. He served in the 90th through 95th Congresses (1967-1979). John Conyers Jr. (D-MI) holds the record for length of service by a African American Member (43 years). He was first elected to the 89th Congress and has served since January 3, 1965. Twenty-two African American Members have first been elected to fill vacancies in the House. They include Bennie Thompson (D-MS, 1993-present); Jesse Jackson Jr. (D-IL, 1995-present); Elijah Cummings (D-MD, 1996-present); Barbara Lee (DCA, 1998-present); Gregory Meeks (D-NY, 1998-present); Diane Watson (D-CA, 2001-present); G.K. Butterfield (D-NC, 2004-present); Laura Richardson (D-CA, 2007-present); André Carson (D-IN, 2008-present; and Donna Edwards (D-MD, 2008-present). Representative Cardiss Collins (D-IL, 1973-1997), was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband, Representative George Collins (DIL, 1970-1972). The other former Members were Robert N.C. Nix Sr. (D-PA, 19581979); George Collins (D-IL, 1970-1972); Bennett Stewart (D-IL, 1979-1981); George W. Crockett Jr. (D-MI, 1980-1991); Katie Hall (D-IN, 1982-1985); Charles Hayes (D-IL, 1983-1993); Alton Waldon Jr. (D-NY, 1986-1987); Lucien Blackwell (D-PA, 1991-1995); Craig Washington (D-TX, 1989-1995); Representatives Eva Clayton (D-NC, 1992-2003); and Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA. 1996-2007). 4 Bruce A. Ragsdale and Joel D. Treese, Black Americans in Congress, 1870-1989 (Washington: GPO, 1990), p. 130. CRS-3 All of these Members, except Representatives Stewart and Waldon, were subsequently elected to additional terms.5 Female Members Fourteen African American women serve in the 110th Congress, all in the House.6 A record number of 15 African American women served in the 107th Congress, all in the House. A total of 27 African American women have served in Congress. The first African American female Member was Representative Shirley Chisholm (D-NY, 1969-1983). Senator Carol Moseley-Braun (D-IL, 1993-1999) is the only African American woman to have served in the Senate. The African American female Members of the 110th Congress are Delegates Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-DC) and Donna Christian-Christensen (D-VI) and Representatives Maxine Waters (D-CA); Corinne Brown (D-FL); Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX); Sheila Jackson Lee (D-TX); Barbara Lee (D-CA); Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick (DMI); Stephanie Tubbs Jones D-OH); Diane Watson (D-CA); Gwen Moore (D-WI); Yvette Clarke (D-NY); Laura Richardson (D-CA); and Donna Edwards (D-MD). The other African American female Members, in addition to Representative Chisholm, Senator Moseley-Braun, and currently serving Members, were Cardiss Collins (D-IL, 1973-1997); Barbara-Rose Collins (D-MI, 1991-1997); Yvonne Brathwaite Burke (D-CA, 1973-1979); Katie Hall (D-IN, 1982-1985); Barbara Jordan (D-TX, 1973-1979); Eva Clayton (D-NC, 1992-2003); Carrie Meek (D-FL, 1993-2003); Denise Majette (D-GA, 2003-2005); Cynthia McKinney (D-GA, 19932003, 2005-2007); Juanita Millender-McDonald (1996-2007); and Julia Carson (DIN, 1997-2007). Relationships Two African American Members of the 110th Congress are the sons of former Members: Representative William Lacy Clay Jr. (D-MO, 2001-present) is the son of former Representative William L. Clay Sr. (D-MO, 1969-2001), and Representative Kendrick Meek (D-FL, 2003-present) is the son of former Representative Carrie Meek (D-FL, 1993-2003). Representative André Carson (D-IN, 2008-present) is the grandson of former Representative Julia Carson (D-IN, 1997-2007). Former Representative Harold Ford Jr. (D-TN, 1997-2007) is the son of former Representative Harold Ford Sr. (D-TN, 1975-1997). These sons directly succeeded their parents. In addition, Representative Cardiss Collins (D-IL, 1973-1997) succeeded her husband, Representative George Collins (D-IL, 1970-1972). 5 Representatives Richardson, Carson, and Edwards’s first opportunity to stand for reelection will occur Nov. 4, 2008. 6 A record of 16 African American women, including the late Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA) and the late Julia Carson, were elected to the House in the110th Congress. However, 14 is the largest number to serve at any one time. CRS-4 Representative George White (R-NC, 1897-1901) was the brother-in-law of Representative Henry Cheatham (R-NC, 1889-1893). Oldest and Youngest African American Members The oldest African American Member to be elected to the House, Representative George Crockett (D-MI, 1980-1991), won his first election at 71. Representative Charles Hayes (D-IL, 1983-1993) was first elected at 65. At age 47, Senator Edward Brooke (R-MA, 1969-1979) became the oldest African American Senator elected to a first term. The youngest African American Member to be elected, Representative John Lynch (R-MS, 1873-1877, 1882-1883), was first elected at age 25. Representative Harold Ford Jr. (D-TN, 1997-2007) was first elected at age 26. At age 33, Senator Blanche Bruce (R-MS, 1875-1881) was the youngest African American Senator elected to a first term. African American Members in Leadership Positions Representative James E. Clyburn (D-SC, 1993-present), the House majority whip in the 110th Congress, served as vice chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the 108th and 109th Congresses. Former Representatives William H. Gray III (D-PA, 1979-1991) and J.C. Watts (R-OK, 1995-2003) were also elected members of the House leadership. Representative Gray was chair of the House Democratic Caucus in 1989 (101st Congress). Later in that Congress, when a vacancy occurred, he was elected House majority whip, a position he held until his resignation from Congress in September 1991 (102nd Congress). Representative Watts served as chair of the House Republican Conference in the 106th-107th Congresses (1997-2001). In addition, Representative John Lewis (D-GA, 1987-present), the senior chief deputy whip in the 110th Congress, served as a Democratic chief deputy whip in the 102nd -109th Congresses (1991-2007). Representative Maxine Waters (D-CA, 1991present) has served has a Democratic chief deputy whip since the 106th Congress, and Representative G.K. Butterfield (D-NC, 2004-present) began his service as a Democratic chief deputy whip in the 110th Congress. Former Representative Shirley Chisholm (D-NY, 1969-1983) served as secretary to the Democratic Caucus in the 96th Congress (1977-1979). Eighteen African American Representatives and one African American Senator have chaired congressional committees, including a record five in the 110th Congress.7 African American Members currently serving as chairs in the 110th Congress are Representatives John Conyers Jr. (D-MI, 1965-present), chair of House Judiciary Committee; Charles B. Rangel (D-NY, 1971-present), chair of the House Ways and Means Committee; Bennie G. Thompson (D-MS, 1993-present), chair of 7 A record five African American Members were elected House committee chairs at the beginning of the 110th Congress. However, Rep. Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA), chair of the Committee on House Administration, died on April 22, 2007. CRS-5 the House Homeland Security Committee; and Stephanie Tubbs Jones (D-OH, 1999present), chair of the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct. The other African American committee chairs were Senator Blanche Bruce (RMS, 1875-1881) and Representatives Yvonne B. Burke (D-CA, 1973-1979); William L. Clay Sr. (D-MO, 1969-2001); William L. Dawson (D-IL, 1943-1970); Ronald V. Dellums (D-CA, 1971-1998); Charles C. Diggs Jr. (D-MI, 1955-1980); Julian Dixon (D-CA, 1979-2000); William H. Gray III (D-PA, 1979-1991); Augustus F. Hawkins (D-CA, 1963-1991); George T. (Mickey) Leland (D-TX, 1979-1989); Parren J. Mitchell (D-MD, 1971-1987); Robert N.C. Nix Sr. (D-PA, 1958-1979); Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (D-NY, 1945-1967, 1969-1971); Louis Stokes (D-OH, 19691999); and Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA, 1996-2007). Tables and Data This part of the report provides tabular information on African American Members of Congress, including the Congresses in which they served, the committees on which they served, and, where relevant, an indication of the committees they chaired or co-chaired. In addition, five tables summarize information about African American Members. Tables 1 and 2 list selected data about each African American Member, with the first table listing Senators and the second listing Representatives. Table 3 presents the number and names of African American Members by Congress, organized by Congress. Table 4 presents the same information by state. Table 5 shows the changing number of African American Members serving in Congress since 1870, when the first African American Member was elected. Most of the data presented are drawn from the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, [http://bioguide.congress.gov], various editions of the Congressional Directory, and a broad range of Congressional Quarterly Inc. and Leadership Directories Inc. publications. For 110th Congress committee assignments, the sources are The Senate of the United States, Committee and Subcommittee Assignments for the One Hundred Tenth Congress, prepared under the direction of Nancy Erickson, secretary of the Senate, April 2, 2007 (available online from the Senate’s website at [http://www.senate.gov/general/committee_assignments/assignments.htm]); and List of Standing Committees and Select Committees and Their Subcommitees of the House of Representatives Together With Joint Committees, One Hundred Tenth Congress, prepared under the direction of Lorraine C. Miller, clerk of the House of Representatives, June 19, 2008 (available online from the clerk’s website at [http://clerk.house.gov/committee_info/oal.pdf]). Note that the names and jurisdiction of House and Senate committees have changed many times over the years covered by this report. In the interest of brevity, this report does not identify all historical name changes. The committee names that are listed are those that were in effect at the time a particular Member served on a panel. CRS-6 Alphabetical Listing of African American Members, Selected Biographical Information, and Committee Assignments During Their Tenure in Office BALLANCE, FRANK W. Jr., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on February 15, 1942. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th Congress; served from January 7, 2003, until his resignation June 11, 2004. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Small Business Congress 108th 108th BISHOP, SANFORD D. Jr., a Representative from Georgia. Born on February 4, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Select Intelligence H. Appropriations Congress 103rd-107th 103rd 103rd-104th 105th-107th 108th-110th BLACKWELL, LUCIEN E., a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on August 1, 1931. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative William Gray; reelected to the 103rd Congress; served from November 11, 1991, to January 3, 1995. Committee Assignments H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. Public Works and Transportation H. Budget Congress 102nd 102nd-103rd 103rd CRS-7 BROOKE, EDWARD W., a Senator from Massachusetts. Born on October 26, 1919. Elected as a Republican to two six-year terms beginning with the 90th Congress and served through the 95th Congress, from January 3, 1967, to January 3, 1979. First African American Member of Congress from Massachusetts. Committee Assignments S. Aeronautical and Space Sciences S. Banking and Currency S. Government Operations S. Armed Services S. Select Equal Education Opportunity S. Appropriations S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs S. Special Aging S. Select Standards and Conduct Jt. Bicentennial Arrangements Jt. Defense Production Congress 90th 90th-91st 90th 91st 91st-92nd 92nd-95th 92nd-95th 92nd-95th 93rd-94th 94th 94th-95th BROWN, CORRINE, a Representative from Florida. Born on November 11, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Government Operations H. Public Works and Transportation H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Transportation and Infrastructure Congress 103rd 103rd 103rd-110th 104th-110th BRUCE, BLANCHE K., a Senator from Mississippi. Born on March 1, 1841; died on March 17, 1898. Elected as a Republican to a six-year term beginning with the 44th Congress and served through the 46th Congress, from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1881. Committee Assignments S. Manufactures S. Pensions S. Education and Labor S. Select Mississippi River S. Select To Investigate the Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company Congress 44th 44th-45th 44th-46th 45th-46th 46th (committee chair) CRS-8 BURKE, YVONNE BRAITHWAITE, a Representative from California. Born on October 5, 1932. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 95th Congresses; served from January 3, 1973, to January 3, 1979. First female chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 94th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Public Works H. Appropriations H. Select Assassinations H. Select Beauty Shop Congress 93rd 93rd 94th-95th 94th-95th 94th-95th (committee chair, 94th-95th) BUTTERFIELD, G.K., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on April 27, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Frank Ballance; reelected to the 109th-110th Congresses, has served since July 21, 2004; a chief deputy Democratic whip in the 110th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Small Business H. Agriculture H. Armed Services H. Energy and Commerce Congress 108th 108th -109th 109th 110th CAIN, RICHARD H., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on April 12, 1825; died on January 18, 1887. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd and 45th Congresses; served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875, and from March 4, 1877, to March 3, 1879. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Private Land Claims Congress 43rd 45th CARSON, ANDRÉ, a Representative from Indiana. Born on October 16, 1974. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of his grandmother, Julia Carson; has served since March 13, 2008 Committee Assignments H. Financial Services . Congress 110th CRS-9 CARSON, JULIA M., a Representative from Indiana. Born on July 8, 1938; died on December 15, 2007. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 110th Congresses; served from January 9, 1997, to December 15, 2007. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. Financial Services H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Transportation and Infrastructure Congress 105th-106th 107th -110th 105th-107th 108th-110th CHEATHAM, HENRY P., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on December 27, 1857; died on November 29, 1935. Elected as a Republican to the 51st and 52nd Congresses; served from March 4, 1889, to March 3, 1893. Committee Assignments H. Expenditures on Public Buildings H. Education H. Agriculture Congress 51st-52nd 51st-52nd 52nd CHISHOLM, SHIRLEY A., a Representative from New York. Born on November 30, 1924; died on January 1, 2005. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st through 97th Congresses; served from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 1983. First African American woman elected to Congress and first African American female presidential candidate, 1972. Secretary of the Democratic Caucus in the 96th Congress, 1977-1979. Committee Assignments H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Education and Labor H. Rules Congress 91st-92nd 92nd-94th 95th-97th CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSEN, DONNA M., a Delegate from the Virgin Islands. Born on September 19, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th Congress through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 7, 1997. First woman elected from the Virgin Islands and first female doctor in Congress. Committee Assignments H. Resources H. Natural Resources H. Small Business H. Homeland Security Congress 105th-109th 110th 106th -109th 108th-110th CRS-10 CHRISTIAN-GREEN, DONNA. See CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSEN, DONNA. CLARKE, YVETTE D., a Representative from New York. Born on November 21, 1964. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th Congress; has served since January 4, 2007. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Homeland Security H. Small Business Congress 110th 110th 110th CLAY, WILLIAM L. Sr., a Representative from Missouri. Born on April 30, 1931. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st through 106th Congresses; served from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 2001. Succeeded by his son, Representative William Lacy Clay Jr. First African American Member of Congress from Missouri. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Education and the Workforce H. Economic and Educational Opportunities H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Select to Study the Committee System H. House Administration H. Jt. Library Congress 91st-103rd 105th-106th 104th 93rd-103rd (committee chair, 102nd-103rd) 96th 99th-103rd 101st CLAY, WILLIAM LACY Jr., a Representative from Missouri. Born on July 27, 1956; succeeded his father, Representative William L. Clay Sr. Elected as a Democrat to the 107th-109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 3, 2001. Committee Assignments H. Financial Services H. Government Reform H. Oversight and Government Reform Congress 107th -110th 107th -109th 110th CRS-11 CLAYTON, EVA M., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on September 16, 1934. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Walter Jones; reelected to the 103rd through 107th Congresses; served from November 5, 1992, to January 3, 2003. Co-chair of the House Democratic Policy Committee in the 104th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Small Business H. Budget Congress 103rd-107th 103rd 105th-107th CLEAVER, EMANUEL, a Representative from Missouri. Born on October 26, 1944. Elected as Democrat to the 109th Congress; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 4, 2005. Committee Assignments Congress H. Financial Services 109th-110th H. Energy Independence and Global Warming 110th CLYBURN, JAMES E., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on July 21, 1940. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 5, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 106th Congress. Vice chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the 108th-109th Congresses; House majority whip in the 110th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Public Works and Transportation H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Small Business H. Appropriations Congress 103rd 103rd-105th 104th-105th 104th 106th-109th COLLINS, BARBARA-ROSE, a Representative from Michigan. Born on April 13, 1939. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 104th Congresses; served from January 3, 1991, to January 3, 1997. Committee Assignments H. Public Works and Transportation H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Government Operations H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Science, Space, and Technology H. Select Children, Youth, and Families Congress 102nd-103rd 104th 103rd 104th 102nd-103rd 102nd 102nd CRS-12 COLLINS, CARDISS, a Representative from Illinois. Born on September 24, 1931. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 104th Congresses; served from June 7, 1973, to January 3, 1997. First elected to succeed her husband, Representative George Collins. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 96th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Government Operations H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Public Works H. International Relations H. Foreign Affairs H. District of Columbia H. Energy and Commerce H. Commerce H. Select Population H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control Congress 93rd-103rd 104th 93rd 94th-95th 96th 95th 97th-103rd 104th 95th 96th-102nd COLLINS, GEORGE W., a Representative from Illinois. Born on March 5, 1926; died on December 8, 1972. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st Congress to fill the vacancy by the death of Representative Daniel Ronan; reelected to the 92nd and 93rd Congresses; served from November 16, 1970, to December 8, 1972. Succeeded by his wife, Representative Cardiss Collins. Committee Assignments H. Government Operations H. Public Works Congress 91st-92nd 92nd CONYERS, JOHN Jr., a Representative from Michigan. Born on May 16, 1929. Elected as a Democrat to the 89th through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 3, 1965. Committee Assignments H. Judiciary H. Government Operations H. Small Business Congress 89th-110th (committee chair, 110th ) 92nd-103rd (committee chair, 101st-103rd) 100th-103rd CRS-13 CROCKETT, GEORGE W., a Representative from Michigan. Born on August 10, 1909; died on September 7, 1997. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Charles Diggs; reelected to the 97th through 101st Congresses; served from November 12, 1980, to January 3, 1991. Committee Assignments H. Foreign Affairs H. Judiciary H. Small Business H. Select Aging Congress 96th-101st 97th-101st 97th 97th-101st CUMMINGS, ELIJAH E., a Representative from Maryland. Born on January 18, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Kweisi Mfume; reelected to the 105th through 110th Congresses; has served since April 25, 1996. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 108th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Government Reform H. Oversight and Government Reform H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Armed Services Congress 104th-105th 106th-109th 110th 110th 110th DAVIS, ARTUR, a Representative from Alabama. Born on October 9, 1967. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 7, 2003. Committee Assignments H. Budget H. Financial Services H. Judiciary H. Ways and Means Congress 108th-109th 108th- 109th 110th 110th CRS-14 DAVIS, DANNY K., a Representative from Illinois. Born on September 6, 1941. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 7, 1997. Committee Assignments H. Small Business H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Government Reform H. Oversight and Government Reform H. Education and the Workforce H. Education and Labor Congress 105th- 109th 105th 106th-109th 110th 108th-109th 110th DAWSON, WILLIAM L., a Representative from Illinois. Born on April 26, 1886; died on November 9, 1970. Elected as a Democrat to the 78th through 91st Congresses; served from January 3, 1943, to November 9, 1970. Committee Assignments H. Expenditures in the Executive Departments H. Government Operations H. Coinage, Weights, and Measures H. Invalid Pensions H. Insular Affairs H. Irrigation and Reclamation H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. District of Columbia Congress 78th-82nd (committee chair, 81st, 82nd ) 83rd-91st (committee chair, 84th-91st) 78th-79th 78th-79th 78th-79th 78th-79th 82nd 84th-91st DeLARGE, ROBERT C., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on March 15, 1842; died on February 14, 1874. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd Congress; served from March 4, 1871, until January 24, 1873, when his seat was declared vacant after his election was successfully contested by former Representative Christopher C. Bowen. Committee Assignment H. Manufactures Congress 42nd CRS-15 DELLUMS, RONALD V., a Representative from California. Born on November 25, 1935. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 105th Congresses; served from January 3, 1971, until February 6, 1998, when he resigned from the House. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 101st Congress. Committee Assignments H. District of Columbia H. Foreign Affairs H. Armed Services H. National Security H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Select Intelligence Congress 92nd-103rd (committee chair, 96th-102nd) 92nd 93rd-103rd (committee chair, 103rd) 104th-105th 97th-98th 94th-102nd DePRIEST, OSCAR S., a Representative from Illinois. Born on March 9, 1871; died on May 12, 1951. Elected as a Republican to the 71st through 73rd Congresses; served from March 4, 1929, to March 3, 1935. First African American Member of Congress from Illinois. Committee Assignments H. Enrolled Bills H. Invalid Pensions H. Indian Affairs H. Post Office and Post Roads Congress 71st-73rd 71st-73rd 71st-73rd 73rd DIGGS, CHARLES C. Jr., a Representative from Michigan. Born on December 2, 1922; died on August 24, 1998. Elected as a Democrat to the 84th through 96th Congresses; served from January 3, 1955, until his resignation on June 3, 1980. First African American Member of Congress from Michigan and first chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 92nd Congress. Committee Assignments H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Foreign Affairs H. International Relations H. District of Columbia Congress 84th-85th 84th-85th 86th-93rd 94th-96th 88th-96th (committee chair, 93rd-95th) CRS-16 DIXON, JULIAN C., a Representative from California. Born on August 8, 1934; died on December 8, 2000. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th through 106th Congresses; reelected to the 107th Congress, but died before the commencement of the 107th Congress; served from January 3, 1979, until his death. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 98th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Appropriations H. Standards of Official Conduct H. Select Intelligence Congress 96th-106th 98th-101st (committee chair, 99th-101st) 103rd-106th DYMALLY, MERVYN M., a Representative from California. Born on May 12, 1926. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th through 102nd Congresses; served from January 3, 1981, to January 3, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 100th Congress. Committee Assignments H. District of Columbia H. Foreign Affairs H. Science and Technology H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Education and Labor Congress 97th-102nd 97th-102nd 97th-98th 98th-102nd 99th EDWARDS, DONNA, a Representative from Maryland. Born on June 28, 1958. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Albert Wynn; has served since June 19, 2008. Committee Assignments H. Science and Technology H. Transportation and Infrastructure Congress 110th 110th ELLIOTT, ROBERT B., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on August 11, 1842; died on August 9, 1884. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd and 43rd Congresses; served from March 4, 1871, until his resignation on November 1, 1874. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Militia Congress 42nd-43rd 43rd CRS-17 ELLISON, KEITH, a Representative from Minnesota. Born on August 4, 1963. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th Congress; has served since January 4, 2007. First African American Member of Congress from Minnesota. Committee Assignments H. Financial Services H. Judiciary Congress 110th 110th ESPY, ALBERT MICHAEL (MIKE), a Representative from Mississippi. Born on November 28, 1953. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 103rd Congresses. Served from January 6, 1987, to January 25, 1993, when he resigned to become secretary of agriculture. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Budget H. Select Hunger Jt. Deficit Reduction Congress 100th-102nd 101st-102nd 101st-102nd 100th EVANS, MELVYN H., a Delegate from the Virgin Islands. Born on August 7, 1917; died on November 27, 1984. Elected as a Republican to the 96th Congress; served from January 3, 1979, to January 3, 1981. First African American Delegate from the Virgin Islands and first African American physician to serve in Congress. Committee Assignments H. Armed Services H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries Congress 96th 96th 96th FATTAH, CHAKA, a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on November 21, 1956. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 3, 1995. Committee Assignments H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Government Reform H. Economic and Educational Opportunities H. Education and the Workforce H. Small Business H. Standards of Official Conduct H. Administration Jt. Printing H. Appropriations Congress 104th-105th 106th 104th 105th-106th 104th 105th-106th 106th-107th 106th -107th 107th-110th CRS-18 FAUNTROY, WALTER E., a Delegate from the District of Columbia. Born on February 6, 1933. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd Congress in a special election after the District of Columbia was authorized to elect a delegate to Congress; reelected to the 93rd through 101st Congresses; served from April 19, 1971, to January 3, 1991. First African American Delegate from the District of Columbia. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 97th Congress. Committee Assignments H. District of Columbia H. Banking and Currency H. Banking, Currency, and Housing H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Select Assassinations H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control Congress 92nd-101st 93rd 94th 95th-101st 94th-95th 98th-101st FIELDS, CLEO, a Representative from Louisiana. Born on November 22, 1962. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd and 104th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 1997. At age 30, he was the youngest Member of the 103rd Congress. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Banking and Financial Services H. Small Business Congress 103rd 104th 103rd-104th FLAKE, FLOYD H., a Representative from New York. Born on January 30, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 105th Congresses; served from January 6, 1987, to November 15, 1997, when he resigned from the House. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Banking and Financial Services H. Small Business H. Government Operations H. Select Children, Youth, and Families H. Select Hunger Congress 100th-103rd 104th-105th 100th-105th 103rd 100th 100th-102nd CRS-19 FORD, HAROLD E. Sr., a Representative from Tennessee. Born on May 20, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 94th through 104th Congresses; served from January 3, 1975, to January 3, 1997. First African American Member of Congress from Tennessee. Succeeded by his son, Harold E. Ford Jr. Committee Assignments H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Banking, Currency, and Housing H. Ways and Means H. Select Aging H. Select Assassinations Congress 94th, 1st 94th, 1st 94th-104th 94th-102nd 94th-95th FORD, HAROLD E. Jr., a Representative from Tennessee. Born on May 11, 1970. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 109th Congresses; served from January 7, 1997, to January 3, 2007. At age 26, he was the youngest Member of the 105th Congress. Succeeded his father, Harold E. Ford Sr. Committee Assignments H. Education and the Workforce H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Government Reform H. Financial Services H. Budget Congress 105th-107th 105th 106th 107th-109th 108th-109th FRANKS, GARY A., a Representative from Connecticut. Born on February 9, 1953. Elected as a Republican to the 102nd through 104th Congresses; served from January 3, 1991, to January 3, 1997. First African American Member of Congress from Connecticut. Committee Assignments H. Armed Services H. Small Business H. Energy and Commerce H. Commerce H. Select Committee on Aging Congress 102nd 102nd 103rd 104th 102nd FRAZER, VICTOR O., a Delegate from the U.S. Virgin Islands. Born on May 24, 1943. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress; served from January 3, 1995, to January 3, 1997. Committee Assignments H. International Relations Congress 104th CRS-20 GRAY, WILLIAM H. III, a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on August 20, 1941. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th through 102nd Congresses; served from January 3, 1979, to September 11, 1991, when he resigned to become president of the United Negro College Fund. Chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the First Session of the 101st Congress; later in that Congress House Democratic whip (through the First Session of the 102nd Congress). Committee Assignments H. Budget H. District of Columbia H. Foreign Affairs H. Appropriations H. House Administration Jt. Deficit Reduction Congress 96th, 98th-100th (committee chair, 99th-100th) 96th-102nd 96th 97th-102nd 102nd 100th GREEN, AL, a Representative from Texas. Born on September 1, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 109th Congress; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 4, 2005. Committee Assignments H. Financial Services H. Science H. Homeland Security Congress 109th-110th 109th 110th HALL, KATIE B., a Representative from Indiana. Born on April 3, 1938. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Adam Benjamin; reelected to the 98th Congress; served from November 29, 1982, to January 3, 1985. First African American Member of Congress from Indiana. Committee Assignments H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Public Works and Transportation Congress 98th 98th HARALSON, JEREMIAH, a Representative from Alabama. Born on April 1, 1846, died in 1916. Elected as a Republican to the 44th Congress; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1877. Committee Assignments H. Public Expenditures Congress 44th CRS-21 HASTINGS, ALCEE L., a Representative from Florida. Born on September 5, 1936. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Foreign Affairs H. International Relations H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Science H. Select Intelligence H. Rules H. Standards of Official Conduct Congress 103rd 104th-107th 103rd 103rd 104th-105th 106th-110th 107th-110th 110th HAWKINS, AUGUSTUS F., a Representative from California. Born on August 31, 1907; died on November 10, 2007. Elected as a Democrat to the 88th through 101st Congresses; served from January 3, 1963, to January 3, 1991. First African American Member of Congress from California. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. House Administration Jt. Committee on Printing Jt. Committee on the Library Jt. Economic Congress 88th-101st (committee chair, 98th, 2nd sess. - 101st) 91st-98th (committee chair, 97th - 98th, 2nd sess.) 95th-98th (committee chair, 96th, 98th) 97th-98th (committee chair, 97th) 97th-101st HAYES, CHARLES A., a Representative from Illinois. Born on February 17, 1918; died on April 8, 1997. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Harold Washington; reelected to the 99th through 102nd Congresses; served from September 12, 1983, to January 3, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Small Business H. Post Office and Civil Service Congress 98th-102nd 98th-101st 101st-102nd CRS-22 HILLIARD, EARL F., a Representative from Alabama. Born on April 9, 1942. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 106th Congresses; reelected to the 107th Congress; served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 2003. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Small Business H. International Relations Congress 103rd-107th 103rd-104th 105th-107th HYMAN, JOHN ADAMS, a Representative from North Carolina. Born on July 23, 1840; died on September 14, 1891. Elected as a Republican to the 44th Congress; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1877. First African American Member of Congress from North Carolina. Committee Assignments H. Manufactures Congress 44th JACKSON, JESSE L. Jr., a Representative from Illinois. Born on March 11, 1965. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Melvin Reynolds; reelected to the 105th through 110th Congresses; has served since December 14, 1995. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. Small Business H. Appropriations Congress 104th-105th 105th 106th-110th JACKSON LEE, SHEILA, a Representative from Texas. Born on January 12, 1950. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 3, 1995. Committee Assignments H. Judiciary H. Science H. Homeland Security H. Foreign Affairs Congress 104th-110th 104th-109th 108th-110th 110th CRS-23 JEFFERSON, WILLIAM J., a Representative from Louisiana. Born on March 14, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 3, 1991. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. District of Columbia H. Ways and Means H. National Security H. House Oversight H. Budget H. Small Business Jt. Printing Congress 102nd 102nd 103rd 103rd, 105th-109th 104th 104th 109th 110th 104th JOHNSON, EDDIE BERNICE, a Representative from Texas. Born on December 3, 1935. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 5, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 107th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Public Works and Transportation H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Science, Space, and Technology H. Science H. Science and Technology Congress 103rd 104th-110th 103rd 104th-109th 110th JOHNSON, HENRY C. (HANK) Jr., a Representative from Georgia. Born on October 2, 1954. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th Congress; has served since January 4, 2007. Committee Assignments H. Armed Services H. Judiciary H. Small Business Congress 110th 110th 110th CRS-24 JONES, STEPHANIE TUBBS, a Representative from Ohio. Born on September 10, 1949. Elected as a Democrat to the 106th through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 3, 1999. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. Financial Services H. Small Business H. Standards of Official Conduct H. Ways and Means Congress 106th 107th 106th 107th-110th (committee chair, 110th ) 108th-110th JORDAN, BARBARA C., a Representative from Texas. Born on February 21, 1936; died on January 17, 1996. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 95th Congresses; served from January 3, 1973, to January 3, 1979. First African American Member of Congress from Texas. Committee Assignments H. Judiciary H. Government Operations Congress 93rd-95th 94th-95th KILPATRICK, CAROLYN CHEEKS, a Representative from Michigan. Born on June 25, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 7, 1997. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 110th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. House Oversight Jt. Committee on the Library H. Appropriations Congress 105th 105th 105th 106th-110th LANGSTON, JOHN M., a Representative from Virginia. Born on December 14, 1829; died on November 15, 1897. Elected as a Republican to the 51st Congress; served from September 23, 1890, to March 3, 1891, after he successfully contested the election of Edward Venable. First African American Member of Congress from Virginia. Committee Assignments H. Education Congress 51st CRS-25 LEE, BARBARA, a Representative from California. Born on July 16, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Ronald Dellums; reelected to the 106th through 110th Congresses; has served since April 20, 1998. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. Financial Services H. Science H. International Relations H. Appropriations Congress 105th-106th 107th-109th 105th 106th-109th 110th LELAND, GEORGE T. (MICKEY), a Representative from Texas. Born on November 27, 1944; died on August 7, 1989. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th through 101st Congresses; served from January 3, 1979, to August 7, 1989. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 99th Congress. Committee Assignments H. District of Columbia H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Select Hunger H. Select Children, Youth, and Families Congress 96th-99th 96th-101st 96th-101st 98th-101st (committee chair, 98th-101st) 98th LEWIS, JOHN R., a Representative from Georgia. Born on February 19, 1940. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 6, 1987. A Democratic chief deputy whip in the 102nd through 109th Congresses; senior chief deputy majority whip in the 110th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Public Works and Transportation H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Select Aging H. District of Columbia H. Ways and Means H. Budget Congress 100th-102nd 100th-102nd 101st-102nd 103rd 103rd-110th 108th CRS-26 LONG, JEFFERSON F., a Representative from Georgia. Born on March 3, 1836; died on February 5, 1900. Elected as a Republican to the 41st Congress after the House declared that Representative Samuel Gove was not entitled to his seat; served from January 16, 1871, to March 3, 1871. First African American Member of Congress from Georgia. Committee Assignments None Congress — LYNCH, JOHN R., a Representative from Mississippi. Born on September 10, 1847; died on November 2, 1939. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd, 44th, and 47th Congresses; served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1877, and from April 29, 1882, to March 3, 1883, after he successfully contested the election of Representative James Chalmers. At age 26, he was the youngest Member of the 43rd Congress. First African American Member of the House of Representatives from Mississippi. Committee Assignments H. Mines and Mining H. Militia H. Education and Labor Congress 43rd-44th 47th 47th MAJETTE, DENISE L., a Representative from Georgia. Born on May 18, 1955. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th Congress; served from January 7, 2003, to January 3, 2005. Committee Assignments Congress H. Budget H. Education and the Workforce H. Small Business 108th 108th 108th McKINNEY, CYNTHIA A., a Representative from Georgia. Born on March 17, 1955. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 107th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 2003; elected to the 109th Congress; served from January 4, 2005, to January 3, 2007. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Foreign Affairs H. International Relations H. Banking and Financial Services H. National Security H. Armed Services H. Budget Congress 103rd 103rd 104th-107th 104th-105th 105th 106th-107th, 109th 109th CRS-27 MEEK, CARRIE P., a Representative from Florida. Born on April 29, 1926. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 107th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 2003. Succeeded by her son, Representative Kendrick Meek. Committee Assignments H. Appropriations H. Budget H. Government Reform and Oversight Congress 103rd, 105th-107th 104th 104th MEEK, KENDRICK, a Representative from Florida. Born on September 6, 1966. Elected to the 108th through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 7, 2003. Succeeded his mother, Representative Carrie Meek. Committee Assignments H. Armed Services H. Homeland Security H. Ways and Means Congress 108th -110th 108th -109th 110th MEEKS, GREGORY, a Representative from New York. Born on September 25, 1953. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Floyd Flake; reelected to the 106th through 110th Congresses; has served since February 5, 1998. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. Financial Services H. International Relations H. Foreign Affairs Congress 105th-106th 107th-110th 106th-109th 110th METCALFE, RALPH H., a Representative from Illinois. Born on May 30, 1910; died on October 10, 1978. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 95th Congresses; served from January 3, 1971, to October 10, 1978. Committee Assignments H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. Post Office and Civil Service Congress 92nd-95th 92nd-95th 95th CRS-28 MFUME, KWEISI, a Representative from Maryland. Born on October 24, 1948. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 104th Congresses; served from January 6, 1987, to February 16, 1996, when he resigned to become executive director of the NAACP. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 103rd Congress. Co-chair of the Democratic Policy Committee in the 104th Congress, 1995-1996. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Banking and Financial Services H. Small Business H. Education and Labor H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control Jt. Economic H. Standards of Official Conduct H. Select Hunger Congress 100th-103rd 104th 100th-104th 101st 101st-102nd 102nd-104th 103rd 100th MILLENDER-McDONALD, JUANITA, a Representative from California. Born on September 7, 1938; died on April 22, 2007. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Walter Tucker; reelected to the 105th through 110th Congresses; served from April 16, 1996, to April 22, 2007. Committee Assignments H. Small Business H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Administration Jt. Library Jt. Printing Congress 104th-110th 104th-119th 108th-110th (committee chair, 110th, 1st sess.) 108th, 110th 110th (committee chair, 110th, 1st session) 110th (committee chair, 110th, 1st sess.) MILLER, THOMAS E., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on June 17, 1849; died on April 8, 1936. Elected as a Republican to the 51st Congress; served from September 24, 1890, to March 3, 1891, when he successfully contested the election of William Elliott. Committee Assignments H. Library of Congress Congress 51st CRS-29 MITCHELL, ARTHUR W., a Representative from Illinois. Born on December 22, 1883; died on May 9, 1968. Elected as a Democrat to the 74th through 77th Congresses; served from January 3, 1935, to January 3, 1943. First African American Democrat elected to Congress. Committee Assignments H. Post Office and Post Roads Congress 74th-77th MITCHELL, PARREN J., a Representative from Maryland. Born on April 29, 1922; died May 28, 2007. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 99th Congresses; served from January 3, 1971, to January 3, 1987. First African American Member of Congress from Maryland. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 95th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Currency H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Select Small Business H. Small Business H. Budget Jt. Defense Production Jt. Economic Congress 92nd-93rd 94th-99th 92nd-93rd 94th, 96th-99th (committee chair, 97th-99th) 93rd -95th 94th-95th 95th-99th MOORE, GWEN, a Representative from Wisconsin. Born on April 18, 1951. Elected as Democrat to the 109th Congress; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 4, 2005. First African American Member of Congress from Wisconsin. Committee Assignments H. Financial Services H. Small Business H. Budget Congress 109th-110th 109th -110th 110th CRS-30 MOSELEY-BRAUN, CAROL, a Senator from Illinois. Born on August 16, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to a six-year term beginning with the 103rd Congress and served through the 105th Congress, from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 1999. First African American woman and African American Democrat to serve in the Senate. Ambassador to New Zealand from 1999-2001; candidate for U.S. President in 2004. Committee Assignments S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs S. Judiciary S. Small Business S. Finance S. Special Aging Congress 103rd-105th 103rd 103rd 104th-105th 104th-105th MURRAY, GEORGE W., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on September 22, 1853; died on April 21, 1926. Elected as a Republican to the 53rd and 54th Congresses; served from March 4, 1893, to March 3, 1895, and from June 4, 1896, to March 3, 1897 (successfully contested an election). Committee Assignments H. Education H. Expenditures in the Treasury Department Congress 53rd-54th 54th NASH, CHARLES E., a Representative from Louisiana. Born on May 23, 1844; died on June 21, 1913. Elected as a Republican to the 44th Congress; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1877. First African American Member of Congress from Louisiana. Committee Assignment H. Education and Labor Congress 44th CRS-31 NIX, ROBERT N.C. Sr., a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on August 9, 1905; died on June 22, 1987. Elected as a Democrat to the 85th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Earl Chudoff; reelected to the 86th through 95th Congresses; served from June 4, 1958, to January 3, 1979. First African American Member of Congress from Pennsylvania. Committee Assignments H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. Foreign Affairs H. International Relations H. Veterans’ Affairs H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Select Standards and Conduct H. Crime Congress 85th-86th 87th-93rd 94th-95th 85th-86th 88th-95th (committee chair, 95th) 89th 91st NORTON, ELEANOR HOLMES, a Delegate from the District of Columbia. Born on June 13, 1937. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 3, 1991. Committee Assignments H. District of Columbia H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Public Works and Transportation H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Government Reform H. Oversight and Government Reform H. Small Business Jt. Committee on the Organization of Congress H. Homeland Security Congress 102nd-103rd 102nd-103rd 102nd-103rd 104th-110th 104th -105th 106th-109th 110th 104th 102nd-103r 108th-110th OBAMA, BARACK, a Senator from Illinois. Born on August 4, 1961. Elected as a Democrat to a six-year term beginning with the 109th Congress; has served since January 4, 2005. First African American presidential nominee from a major political party as well as first African American male Democrat elected to the Senate. Committee Assignments S. Environment and Public Works S. Foreign Relations S. Veterans’ Affairs S. Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Congress 109th -110th 109th -110th 109th -110th 110th 110th CRS-32 O’HARA, JAMES E., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on February 26, 1844; died on September 15, 1905. Elected as a Republican to the 48th and 49th Congresses; served from March 4, 1883, to March 3, 1887. Committee Assignments H. Mines and Mining H. Expenditures on Public Buildings H. Invalid Pensions Congress 48th 49th 49th OWENS, MAJOR R., a Representative from New York. Born on June 28, 1936. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th through 110th Congresses; served from January 3, 1983, to January 3, 2007. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Economic and Educational Opportunities H. Education and the Workforce H. Government Operations H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Government Reform Congress 98th-103rd 104th 105th-109th 98th-103rd 104th-105th 106th-109th PAYNE, DONALD M., a Representative from New Jersey. Born on July 16, 1934. Elected as a Democrat to the 101st through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 3, 1989. First African American Member of Congress from New Jersey. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 104th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Economic and Educational Opportunities H. Education and the Workforce H. Foreign Affairs H. International Relations H. Government Operations Congress 101st-103rd, 110th 104th 105th-109th 101st-103rd, 110th 104th-109th 101st-103rd CRS-33 POWELL, ADAM CLAYTON Jr., a Representative from New York. Born on November 29, 1908; died on April 4, 1972. Elected as a Democrat to the 79th through 90th Congresses, but was not seated in the 90th Congress (excluded from that Congress on March 1, 1967). He served from January 3, 1945, to January 3, 1967. In April 1967, he was reelected in a special election to the seat from which he had been excluded, but he did not attempt to take the oath of office. He was reelected to the 91st Congress and served from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 1971. First African American Member of Congress from New York. Committee Assignments H. Indian Affairs H. Invalid Pensions H. Labor H. Education and Labor H. Interior and Insular Affairs Congress 79th 79th 79th 80th-89th, 91st (committee chair, 87th-89th) 84th-86th RAINEY, JOSEPH H., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on June 21, 1832; died on August 2, 1887. Elected as a Republican to the 41st Congress when the House declared the seat of Representative Benjamin Whittemore vacant; reelected to the 42nd through 45th Congresses; served from December 12, 1870, to March 3, 1879. First African American Member of the House of Representatives and first African American Member of Congress from South Carolina. Committee Assignments H. Freedmen’s Affairs H. Indian Affairs H. Invalid Pensions H. Select Celebration of Proposed National Census of 1875 Congress 41st-42nd 43rd 44th-45th 43rd CRS-34 RANGEL, CHARLES B., a Representative from New York. Born on June 11, 1930. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 109th Congresses; reelected t o t h e 110th Congress; has served since January 3, 1971. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 94th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Public Works H. Science and Astronautics H. Judiciary H. District of Columbia H. Ways and Means H. Select Crime H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control Jt. Taxation Congress 92nd 92nd 92nd-93rd 93rd 94th-110th (committee chair, 110th Congress) 92nd-93rd 94th-102nd (committee chair, 98th-102nd) 104th-105th RANSIER, ALONZO J., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on January 3, 1834; died on August 17, 1882. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd Congress; served from March 3, 1873, to March 3, 1875. Committee Assignments H. Manufactures Congress 43rd RAPIER, JAMES T., a Representative from Alabama. Born on November 13, 1837; died on May 31, 1883. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd Congress; served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875. Committee Assignment H. Education and Labor Congress 43rd REVELS, HIRAM RHODES, a Senator from Mississippi. Born on September 27, 1827; died on January 16, 1901. Elected as a Republican to the 41st Congress after Mississippi was readmitted to the union, and served from February 25, 1870, to March 3, 1871. First African American Member of Congress; first African American Senator; first African American Republican elected to Congress; first African American Member of Congress from Mississippi. Committee Assignments S. Education and Labor S. District of Columbia Congress 41st 41st CRS-35 REYNOLDS, MELVIN J., a Representative from Illinois. Born on January 8, 1952. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd and 104th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, until his resignation on October 1, 1995. Committee Assignments H. Ways and Means H. Economic and Educational Opportunities Congress 103rd 104th RICHARDSON, LAURA., a Representative from California. Born on April 14, 1962. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Juanita Millender-McDonald; has served since September 4, 2007. Committee Assignments H. Science and Technology H. Transportation and Infrastructure Congress 110th 110th RUSH, BOBBY L., a Representative from Illinois. Born on November 23, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Government Operations H. Science, Space, and Technology H. Commerce H. Energy and Commerce Congress 103rd 103rd 103rd 104th-106th 107th-110th SAVAGE, GUS, a Representative from Illinois. Born on October 30, 1925. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th through 102nd Congresses; served from January 3, 1981, to January 3, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Public Works and Transportation H. Small Business Congress 97th 97th-102nd 97th-102nd CRS-36 SCOTT, DAVID, a Representative from Georgia. Born on June 27, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th-109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 7, 2003. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Financial Services H. Foreign Affairs Congress 108th -110th 108th- 110th 110th SCOTT, ROBERT C., a Representative from Virginia. Born on April 30, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 5, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Economic and Educational Opportunities H. Education and the Workforce H. Judiciary H. Science, Space, and Technology H. Select U.S. National Security and Military/ Commercial Concerns with the People’s Republic of China H. Budget Congress 103rd, 110th 104th 105th-107th, 109th 103rd-110th 103rd 106th 108th, 110th SMALLS, ROBERT, a Representative from South Carolina. Born on April 5, 1839; died on February 22, 1915. Elected as a Republican to the 44th, 45th, and 47th through 49th Congresses. He served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1879; from July 19, 1882, to March 3, 1883, after he successfully contested the reelection of Representative George Tillman; and from March 18, 1884, to March 3, 1887, after he was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Edmund Mackey. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Militia H. Manufactures H. War Claims Congress 44th, 47th 45th 48th 49th STEWART, BENNETT M., a Representative from Illinois. Born on August 6, 1912; died on April 26, 1988. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th Congress; served from January 3, 1979, to January 3, 1981. Committee Assignment H. Appropriations Congress 96th CRS-37 STOKES, LOUIS, a Representative from Ohio. Born on February 23, 1925. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st through 105th Congresses; served from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 1999. First African American Member of Congress from Ohio. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 92nd and 93rd Congresses. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Internal Security H. Appropriations H. Budget H. Standards of Official Conduct H. Select Assassinations H. Select Intelligence H. Select to Investigate Arms Transactions to Iran Congress 91st 91st 92nd-105th 95th-96th 96th-98th, 102nd (committee chair, 97th-98th, 102nd) 94th-95th (committee chair, 95th) 98th-100th 100th THOMPSON, BENNIE G., a Representative from Mississippi. Born on January 28, 1948. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Mike Espy to become secretary of agriculture; reelected to the 104th through 110th Congresses; has served since April 20, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. Small Business H. Budget H. Homeland Security Congress 103rd-108th 103rd 103rd-104th 105th-107th 108th-110th (committee chair, 110th) TOWNS, EDOLPHUS, a Representative from New York. Born on July 21, 1934. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 3, 1983. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 102nd Congress. Committee Assignments H. Government Operations H. Government Reform and Oversight H. Government Reform H. Oversight and Government Reform H. Public Works and Transportation H. Energy and Commerce H. Commerce H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control Congress 98th-103rd 104th-105th 106th-109th 110th 98th-104th 101st-103rd, 107th-110th 104th-106th 98th-102nd CRS-38 TUCKER, WALTER R., a Representative from California. Born on May 28, 1957. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd and 104th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, until his resignation on December 15, 1995. Committee Assignments H. Public Works and Transportation H. Small Business H. Transportation and Infrastructure Congress 103rd 103rd-104th 104th TURNER, BENJAMIN S., a Representative from Alabama. Born on March 17, 1825; died on March 21, 1894. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd Congress; served from March 4, 1871, to March 3, 1873. First African American Member of Congress from Alabama. Committee Assignment H. Invalid Pensions Congress 42nd WALDON, ALTON R. Jr., a Representative from New York. Born on December 21, 1936. Elected as a Democrat to the 99th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Joseph Addabbo; served from July 29, 1986, to January 3, 1987. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Small Business Congress 99th 99th WALLS, JOSIAH T., a Representative from Florida. Born on December 30, 1842; died on May 5, 1905. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd through 44th Congresses; served from March 4, 1871, to January 29, 1873 (when his election was successfully contested); from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875; and from March 4, 1875, to April 19, 1876 (when his election was successfully contested). First African American Member of Congress from Florida. Committee Assignments H. Militia H. Mileage Congress 42nd-43rd 44th CRS-39 WASHINGTON, CRAIG A., a Representative from Texas. Born on October 12, 1941. Elected as a Democrat to the 101st Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Mickey Leland; reelected to the 102nd and 103rd Congresses; served from December 9, 1989, to January 3, 1995. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Judiciary H. Energy and Commerce H. Government Operations H. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control Congress 101st-102nd 101st-103rd 103rd 103rd 102nd WASHINGTON, HAROLD D., a Representative from Illinois. Born on April 15, 1922; died on November 25, 1987. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th and 98th Congresses; served from January 3, 1981, to April 29, 1983, when he resigned to become mayor of Chicago. Committee Assignments H. Government Operations H. Education and Labor H. Judiciary Congress 97th 97th-98th 97th-98th WATERS, MAXINE, a Representative from California. Born on August 31, 1938. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 109th Congresses, reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 3, 1991. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 105th Congress; vice chair of the Democratic Steering Committee in the 105th through 108th Congresses; a Democratic chief deputy whip in the 106th through 110th Congresses. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Banking and Financial Services H. Financial Services H. Veterans Affairs H. Small Business H. Judiciary Congress 102nd-103rd 104th-106th 107th-110th 102nd-104th 103rd-104th 105th-110th CRS-40 WATSON, DIANE E., a Representative from California. Born on November 12, 1933. Elected as a Democrat to the 107th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Julian Dixon; reelected to the 108th-110th Congresses; has served since June 7, 2001. U.S. ambassador to Micronesia from 1999 to 2001. Committee Assignments H. International Relations H. Foreign Affairs H. Government Reform H. Oversight and Government Reform Congress 107th-109th 110th 107th-109th 110th WATT, MELVIN L., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on August 26, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 109th Congresses; reelected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 5, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 109th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Banking and Financial Services H. Financial Services H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Judiciary Jt. Economic Congress 103rd 104th-106th 107th-110th 103rd 103rd-110th 107th-108th WATTS, J.C. Jr., a Representative from Oklahoma. Born on November 18, 1957. Elected as a Republican to the 104th through 107th Congresses; served from January 3, 1995, to January 3, 2003. First African American Member of Congress from Oklahoma. Chair of the House Republican Conference in the 106th through 107th Congresses. Committee Assignments H. Banking and Financial Services H. National Security H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Armed Services Congress 104th 104th-105th 105th-106th 106th-107th CRS-41 WHEAT, ALAN D., a Representative from Missouri. Born on October 16, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th through 103rd Congresses; served from January 3, 1983, to January 3, 1995. Committee Assignments H. District of Columbia H. Rules H. Select Children, Youth, and Families H. Select Hunger Congress 98th-103rd 98th-103rd 98th-102nd 101st-102nd WHITE, GEORGE H., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on December 18, 1852; died on December 28, 1918. Elected as a Republican to the 55th and 56th Congresses; served from March 4, 1897, to March 3, 1901. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. District of Columbia Congress 55th 55th-56th WYNN, ALBERT R., a Representative from Maryland. Born on September 10, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 110th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to May 31, 2008. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs H. Banking and Financial Services H. Foreign Affairs H. International Relations H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Commerce H. Energy and Commerce Congress 103rd 104th 103rd 104th 103rd 105th-106th 107th-110th YOUNG, ANDREW, a Representative from Georgia. Born on March 12, 1932. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 95th Congresses; served from January 3, 1973, to January 29, 1977, when he resigned to become U.S. ambassador to the United Nations. Elected mayor of Atlanta in 1981. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Currency, and Housing H. Rules Congress 93rd 94th CRS-42 Table 1. African American Members of Congress — Senate Name Congress(es) Years State Party Brooke, Edward W. 90th-95th 1967-1979 MA R Bruce, Blanche K. 44th-46th 1875-1881 MS R 103rd-105th 1993-1999 IL D 109th- 2005- IL D 41st 1870-1871 MS R Moseley-Braun, Carol Obama, Barack Revels, Hiram R.a a. Seated after Mississippi was readmitted to the Union on Feb. 23, 1870; first African American Member of Congress. Table 2. African American Members of Congress — House of Representatives Name State District* Party Congress(es) Years Ballance, Frank W. Jr. 108th 2003-2004 NC 1st D Bishop, Sanford D. Jr. 103rd- 1993- GA 2nd D Blackwell, Lucien E.a 102nd-103rd 1991-1995 PA 2nd D 103rd- 1993- FL 3rd D Burke, Yvonne B. 93rd-95th 1973-1979 CA 28th D Butterfield, G.K.b 108th- 2004- NC 1st D 43rd 45th 1873-1875 1877-1879 SC AL R Carson, Julia Mc 105th-110th 1997-2007 IN 10th, 7th D Carson, Andréc 110th - 2008- IN 7th D Cheatham, Henry P. 51st-52nd 1889-1893 NC 2nd R Chisholm, Shirley A.d 91st-97th 1969-1983 NY 12th D Christian-Christensen, Donna 105th- 1997- VI AL D Clarke, Yvette D. 110th 2007- NY 11th D 91st-106th 1969-2001 MO 1st D 107th- 2001- MO 1st D Clayton, Eva M.e 102nd-107th 1992-2003 NC 1st D Cleaver, Emanuel 109th- 2005- MO 5th D Clyburn, James E. 103rd- 1993- SC 6th D Brown, Corrine Cain, Richard Harvey Clay, William L. Sr. Clay, William Lacy Jr. CRS-43 Name State District* Party Congress(es) Years 102nd-104th 1991-1997 MI 15th D Collins, Cardissf 93rd-104th 1973-1997 IL 7th D Collins, George W.g 91st-92nd 1970-1972 IL 6th D 89th- 1965- MI 14th D Crockett, George W.h 96th-101st 1980-1991 MI 13th D Cummings, Elijah E.i 104th- 1996- MD 7th D Davis, Artur 108th- 2003- AL 7th D Davis, Danny K. 105th- 1997- IL 7th D Dawson, William L.j 78th-91st 1943-1970 IL 1st D DeLarge, Robert C.k 42nd 1871-1873 SC 2nd R Dellums, Ronald V.l 92nd-105th 1971-1998 CA 8th D DePriest, Oscar S. 71st-73rd 1929-1935 IL 1st R Diggs, Charles C. Jr.m 84th-96th 1955-1980 MI 13th D Dixon, Julian C.n 96th-106th 1979-2000 CA 32nd D Dymally, Mervyn M. 97th-102nd 1981-1993 CA 31st D Edwards, Donnao 110th - 2008- MD 4th D Elliott, Robert B.p 42nd-43rd 1871-1874 SC 3rd R 110th 2007- MN 5th D 100th-103rd 1987-1993 MS 2nd D 96th 1979-1981 VI AL R 104th- 1995- PA 2nd D Fauntroy, Walter E.r 92nd-101st 1971-1991 DC AL D Fields, Cleo 103rd-104th 1993-1997 LA 4th D Flake, Floyd H. 100th-105th 1987-1997 NY 6th D Ford, Harold E. Jr. 105th-109th 1997-2007 TN 9th D Ford, Harold E. Sr. 94th-104th 1975-1997 TN 9th D Franks, Gary A. 102nd-104th 1991-1997 CT 5th R Frazer, Victor O. 104th 1995 VI AL D 96th-102nd 1979-1991 PA 2nd D 109th- 2005- TX 9th D 97th-98th 1982-1985 IN 1st D Collins, Barbara-Rose Conyers, John Jr. Ellison, Keith Espy, Albert M. (Mike)q Evans, Melvin H. Fattah, Chaka Gray, William H. IIIs Green, Al Hall, Katie Bt CRS-44 Name State District* Party Congress(es) Years Haralson, Jeremiah 44th 1875-1877 AL 1st R Hastings, Alcee L. 103rd- 1993- FL 23rd D Hawkins, Augustus F. 88th-101st 1963-1991 CA 29th D Hayes, Charles A.u 98th-102nd 1983-1993 IL 1st D 103rd-107th 1993-2003 AL 7th D Hyman, John Adams 44th 1875-1877 NC 2nd R Jackson, Jesse L. Jr.v 104th- 1995- IL 2nd D Jackson Lee, Sheila 104th- 1995- TX 18th D Jefferson, William J. 102nd- 1991- LA 2nd D Johnson, Eddie Bernice 103rd- 1993- TX 30th D Johnson, Henry C. (Hank) Jr. 110th - 2007- GA 4th D Jones, Stephanie Tubbs 106th- 1999- OH 11th D 93rd-95th 1973-1979 TX 18th D 105th- 1997- MI 15th, 13th D 51st 1890-1891 VA 4th R 105th- 1998- CA 9th D 96th-101st 1979-1989 TX 18th D 100th- 1987- GA 5th D 41st 1870-1871 GA 4th R 43rd-44th 47th 1873-1877 1882-1883 MS 7th R 103rd- 107th 109th 1993-2003 2005-2007 GA 4th D 108th 2003-2005 GA 4th D Meek, Carrie P. 103rd-107th 1993-2003 FL 17th D Meek, Kendrick 108th- 2003- FL 17th D Meeks, Gregoraab 105th- 1998- NY 6th D 92nd-95th 1971-1978 IL 1st D Mfume, Kweisiad 100th-104th 1987-1996 MD 7th D Millender-McDonald, Juanitaae 104th-110th 1996-2007 CA 37th D 51st 1890-1891 SC 7th R Hilliard, Earl F. Jordan, Barbara C. Kilpatrick, Carolyn C. Langston, John M.w Lee, Barbarax Leland, George T. (Mickey)y Lewis, John R. Long, Jefferson F.z Lynch, John R.aa McKinney, Cynthia A. Majette, Denise L. Metcalfe, Ralph H.ac Miller, Thomas E.af CRS-45 Name State District* Party Congress(es) Years Mitchell, Arthur W. 74th-77th 1935-1943 IL 1st D Mitchell, Parren J. 92nd-99th 1971-1987 MD 7th D 109th 2005- WI 4th D 53rd-54th 1893-1895 1896-1897 SC 7th R 44th 1875-1877 LA 6th R 85th-95th 1958-1979 PA 2nd D 102nd- 1991- DC AL D O’Hara, James E. 48th-49th 1883-1887 NC 2nd R Owens, Major R. 98th-107th 1983-2007 NY 11th D Payne, Donald M. 101st- 1989- NJ 10th D Powell, Adam C. Jr.ai 79th-89th 91st 1945-1967 1969-1971 NY 18th D Rainey, Joseph H.aj 41st-45th 1870-1879 SC 1st R Rangel, Charles B. 92nd- 1971- NY 15th D Ransier, Alonzo J. 43rd 1873-1875 SC 2nd R Rapier, James T. 43rd 1873-1875 AL 2nd R 103rd-104th 1993-1995 IL 2nd D Richardson, Lauraal 110th - 2007- CA 37th D Rush, Bobby L. 103rd- 1993- IL 1st D Savage, Gus 97th-102nd 1981-1993 IL 2nd D Scott, David 108th- 2003- GA 13th D Scott, Robert C. 103rd- 1993- VA 3rd D Smalls, Robertam 44th-45th 47th 48th-49th 1875-1879 1882-1883 1884-1887 SC 5th R 96th 1979-1981 IL 1st D 91st-105th 1969-1999 OH 21st D Thompson, Bennie G.an 103rd- 1993- MS 2nd D Towns, Edolphus 98th- 1983- NY 10th D Tucker, Walter R.ao 103rd-104th 1993-1995 CA 37th D Turner, Benjamin S. 42nd 1871-1873 AL 1st R Waldon, Alton R. Jr.ap 99th 1986-1987 NY 6th D Moore, Gwen Murray, George W.af Nash, Charles E. Nix, Robert N.C. Sr.ah Norton, Eleanor Holmes Reynolds, Melvin J.ak Stewart, Bennett M. Stokes, Louis CRS-46 Name State District* Party Congress(es) Years 42nd 43rd 44th 1871-1873 1873-1875 1875-1876 FL AL R Washington, Craig A.ar 101st-103rd 1989-1995 TX 18th D Washington, Harold D.as 97th-98th 1981-1983 IL 1st D Waters, Maxine 102nd- 1991- CA 35th D Watson, Diane E.at 107th - 2001- CA 32nd, 33rd D Watt, Melvin L. 103rd- 1993- NC 12th D 104th-107th 1995-2003 OK 4th R Wheat, Alan D. 98th-103rd 1983-1995 MO 5th D White, George H. 55th-58th 1897-1901 NC 2nd R Wynn, Albert R.au 103rd-110th 1993-2008 MD 4th D 93rd-95th 1973-1977 GA 5th D Walls, Josiah T.aq Watts, J.C. Jr. Young, Andrew J.av * The number noted for a Member’s congressional district is that which is now assigned to it or was assigned to it when he or she was last in Congress. “AL” indicates that the Member served atlarge. a. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. William Gray; seated on Nov. 13, 1991. b. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Frank Ballance, seated on July 21, 2004. c. Died on Dec. 15, 2007, and replaced by her grandson, Rep. André Carson on Mar. 13, 2008. d. First African American woman elected to Congress and first African American female presidential candidate, 1972. e. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Rep. Walter Jones; took office on Nov. 5, 1992. f. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband, Rep. George W. Collins; seated on June 7, 1973. g. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Rep. Daniel J. Ronan; seated on Nov. 16, 1970. He was subsequently killed in an airplane crash on Dec. 8, 1972. h. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Charles C. Diggs Jr.; seated on Nov. 12, 1980. i. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Kweisi Mfume; seated on Apr. 25, 1996. j. Died on Nov. 9, 1970. k. Seat declared vacant on January 24, 1873, after Rep. Robert DeLarge’s election was successfully contested. l. Resigned from officeon Feb. 6, 1998. m Resigned from office on June 3, 1980. n. Died on Dec. 8, 2000. o. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Albert Wynn; seated on June 19, 2008. p. Resigned from office, effective Nov. 1, 1874. q. Resigned from office on Jan. 25, 1993, to become Secretary of Agriculture. r. Delegate from the District of Columbia. Elected in a special election and sworn in on Apr. 19, 1971. s. Resigned from office on Sep. 11, 1991. t. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Rep. Adam Benjamin; seated on Nov. 29, 1982. u. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Harold Washington; seated on Sep. 12, 1983. v. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Mel Reynolds; seated on Dec. 14, 1995. CRS-47 w. Successfully contested the election of Rep. Edward C. Venable and served from Sep. 23, 1890, to Mar. 3, 1891. v. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Ronald Dellums; seated on Apr. 20, x 1998. y. Died in a plane crash on Aug. 7, 1989, while in Ethiopia on a fact-finding tour investigating hunger among refugees. z. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the House declaring that Rep. Samuel Gove was not entitled to his seat; served from Dec. 22, 1870, to Mar. 3, 1871. aa. Successfully contested the election of Rep. James R. Chalmers to the 47th Congress; served from Apr. 29, 1882, to Mar. 3, 1883. ab. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Floyd Flake; seated on Feb. 5, 1998. ac. Died on Oct. 10, 1978. ad. Resigned from office on Feb. 16, 1996. ae. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Walter Tucker; seated on Apr. 16, 1996. Died on Apr. 22, 2007. af. Successfully contested an election; served from Sep. 24, 1890, to Mar. 3, 1891. ag. Successfully contested an election; served from June 4, 1896, to Mar. 3, 1897. ah. First elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Earl Chudoff; seated on June 4, 1958. ai. Elected to the 90th Congress, but excluded and not seated. Reelected to the seat vacated by his exclusion, but never took the oath of office. Reelected to the 91st Congress and seated. Defeated for renomination to the 92nd Congress in 1970. aj. First African American Member of the U.S. House of Representatives. Elected to the 41st Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the House declaring the seat of Rep. Benjamin Whittemore vacant. Seated on Dec. 12, 1870. ak. Resigned from office on Oct. 1, 1995. al. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Rep. Juanita Millender-McDonald; seated on Sep. 4, 2007. am. Successfully contested an election and seated in the 47th Congress on July 19, 1882. Subsequently elected to the 48th-49th Congresses; first elected to the 48th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Rep. Edmund Mackey; seated on Mar. 18, 1884. an. Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Mike Espy; seated on Apr. 20, 1993. ao. Resigned from office on Dec. 15, 1995. ap. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Rep. Joseph Addabbo; seated on July 29, 1986. aq. Served from Mar. 4, 1871, until January 29, 1873, when seat was lost to Rep. Silas L. Niblack, who successfully challenged his election. Served from Mar. 4, 1875, until Apr. 19, 1876, when seat was lost to Rep. Jesse J. Finley, who successfully challenged his election. ar. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Rep. Mickey Leland; seated on Dec. 9, 1989. as. Resigned on Apr. 29, 1983, to become mayor of Chicago. at. Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Rep. Julian Dixon; seated on June 7, 2001. au. Resigned from office on May 31, 2008. av. Resigned his seat on Jan. 29, 1977, to become U.S. ambassador to the United Nations. CRS-48 Table 3. Number and Names of African American Members of Congress, by Congress No. Chamber Names 110th Congress (2007-2009) 42a House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Corrine Brown G.K. Butterfield André Carson Julia M. Carson Donna ChristianChristensen Yvette D. Clarke William Lacy Clay Jr. Emanuel Cleaver James E. Clyburn John Conyers Jr. Elijah E. Cummings Artur Davis Danny K. Davis Donna Edwards Keith Ellison 1 Senate Barack Obama No. Chamber Chaka Fattah Al Green Alcee L. Hastings Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee William J. Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Henry (Hank) Johnson Stephanie Tubbs Jones Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Barbara Lee John Lewis Kendrick Meek Gregory W. Meeks Juanita MillenderMcDonald Gwen Moore Eleanor Holmes Norton Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Laura Richardsona Bobby L. Rush David Scott Robert C. Scott Bennie G. Thompson Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Diane E. Watson Melvin L. Watt Albert R. Wynn Names 109th Congress (2005-2007) 42 House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Corrine Brown G.K. Butterfield Julia M. Carson Donna ChristianChristensen William Lacy Clay Jr. Emanuel Cleaver James E. Clyburn John Conyers Jr. Elijah E. Cummings Artur Davis Danny K. Davis Chaka Fattah Harold E. Ford Jr. Al Green Alcee L. Hastings 1 Senate Barack Obama Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee William J. Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Stephanie Tubbs Jones Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Barbara Lee John Lewis Cynthia McKinney Kendrick Meek Gregory W. Meeks Juanita MillenderMcDonald Gwen Moore Eleanor Holmes Norton Major R. Owens Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Bobby L. Rush David Scott Robert C. Scott Bennie G. Thompson Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Diane E. Watson Melvin L. Watt Albert R. Wynn CRS-49 No. Chamber Names 108th Congress (2003-2005) 39b House Frank W. Ballance Jr.c Sanford D. Bishop Jr. G.K. Butterfield Corrine Brown Andre Carson Julia M. Carson Donna ChristianChristensen William Lacy Clay Jr. James E. Clyburn John Conyers Jr. Elijah E. Cummings Artur Davis Danny K. Davis Chaka Fattah Harold E. Ford Jr. Alcee L. Hastings Senate None Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee William J. Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Stephanie Tubbs Jones Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Barbara Lee John Lewis Denise Majette Kendrick Meek Gregory W. Meeks Juanita MillenderMcDonald Eleanor Holmes Norton Major R. Owens Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Bobby L. Rush David Scott Robert C. Scott Bennie G. Thompson Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Diane E. Watson Melvin L. Watt Albert R. Wynn 107th Congress (2001-2003) 39d House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Corrine Brown Julia Carson Donna ChristianChristensen William Lacy Clay Jr. Eva M. Clayton James E. Clyburn John Conyers Jr. Elijah E. Cummings Danny K. Davis Chaka Fattah Harold E. Ford Jr. Alcee L. Hastings Earl Hilliard Senate None Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee William J. Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Stephanie Tubbs Jones Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Barbara Lee John Lewis Cynthia A. McKinney Carrie P. Meek Gregory W. Meeks Juanita MillenderMcDonald Eleanor Holmes Norton Major R. Owens Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Bobby L. Rush Robert C. Scott Bennie G. Thompson Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Diane E. Watson Melvin L. Watt J.C. Watts Jr. Albert R. Wynn CRS-50 No. Chamber Names 106th Congress (1999-2001) 39 House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Corrine Brown Julia M. Carson Donna ChristianChristensen William L. Clay Sr. Eva M. Clayton James E. Clyburn John Conyers Jr. Elijah Cummings Danny K. Davis Julian C. Dixone Chaka Fattah Harold E. Ford Jr. Senate None Alcee L. Hastings Earl Hilliard Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee William J. Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Stephanie Tubbs Jones Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Barbara Lee John Lewis Cynthia A. McKinney Carrie P. Meek Gregory W. Meeks Juanita MillenderMcDonald Eleanor Holmes Norton Major R. Owens Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Bobby L. Rush Robert C. Scott Bennie G. Thompson Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Melvin L. Watt J.C. Watts Jr. Albert R. Wynn 105th Congress (1997-1999) 39f House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Corrine Brown Julia M. Carson Donna M. ChristianGreen William L. Clay Sr. Eva M. Clayton James E. Clyburn John Conyers Jr. Elijah Cummings Danny K. Davis Ronald V. Dellumsg Julian C. Dixon Chaka Fattah 1 Senate Carol Moseley-Braun Floyd Flakeh Harold E. Ford Jr. Alcee L. Hastings Earl Hilliard Jesse L. Jackson Jr. Sheila Jackson Lee William J. Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick Barbara Lee John Lewis Cynthia A. McKinney Carrie P. Meek Gregory W. Meeks Juanita MillenderMcDonald Eleanor Holmes Norton Major R. Owens Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Bobby Rush Robert Scott Louis Stokes Bennie G. Thompson Edolphus Towns Maxine Waters Melvin L. Watt J.C. Watts Jr. Albert R. Wynn CRS-51 No. Chamber Names 104th Congress (1995-1997) 40i House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Corrine Brown William L. Clay Sr. Eva M. Clayton James E. Clyburn Barbara-Rose Collins Cardiss Collins John Conyers Jr. Elijah E. Cummings Ronald V. Dellums Julian C. Dixon Chaka Fattah Cleo Fields Floyd H. Flake Harold E. Ford Sr. 1 Senate Carol Moseley-Braun Gary Franks Victor Frazer Alcee L. Hastings Earl F. Hilliard Jesse L. Jackson Jr. William J. Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson Sheila Jackson Lee John Lewis Cynthia A. McKinney Carrie P. Meek Kweisi Mfumej Juanita MillenderMcDonald Eleanor Holmes Norton Major R. Owens Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Melvin J. Reynoldsk Bobby L. Rush Robert Scott Louis Stokes Bennie G. Thompson Edolphus Towns Walter Tuckerl Maxine Waters Melvin L. Watt J.C. Watts Jr. Albert R. Wynn 103rd Congress (1993-1995) 39m House Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Lucien Blackwell Corrine Brown William L. Clay Sr. Eva M. Clayton James E. Clyburn Barbara-Rose Collins Cardiss Collins John Conyers Jr. Ronald V. Dellums Julian C. Dixon Mike Espyn Cleo Fields Floyd H. Flake 1 Senate Carol Moseley-Braun Harold E. Ford Sr. Gary Franks Earl F. Hilliard Alcee L. Hastings William J. Jefferson Eddie Bernice Johnson John Lewis Cynthia A. McKinney Carrie P. Meek Kweisi Mfume Eleanor Holmes Norton Major R. Owens Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Melvin J. Reynolds Bobby L. Rush Robert Scott Louis Stokes Bennie G. Thompson Edolphus Towns Walter Tucker Craig Washington Maxine Waters Melvin L. Watt Alan D. Wheat Albert R. Wynn 102nd Congress (1991-1993) 27o House Lucien Blackwell William L. Clay Sr. Eva M. Clayton Barbara-Rose Collins Cardiss Collins John Conyers Jr. Ronald V. Dellums Julian C. Dixon Mervyn M. Dymally Mike Espy Senate None Floyd H. Flake Harold E. Ford Sr. Gary Franks William H. Gray IIIp Charles A. Hayes William J. Jefferson John Lewis Kweisi Mfume Eleanor Holmes Norton Major R. Owens Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Gus Savage Louis Stokes Edolphus Towns Craig A. Washington Maxine Waters Alan D. Wheat CRS-52 No. Chamber Names 101st Congress (1989-1991) 24q House William L. Clay Sr. Cardiss Collins John Conyers Jr. George Crockett Ronald V. Dellums Julian C. Dixon Mervyn M. Dymally Mike Espy Walter E. Fauntroy Senate None Floyd H. Flake Harold E. Ford Sr. William H. Gray III Augustus F. Hawkins Charles A. Hayes Mickey Lelandr John Lewis Kweisi Mfume Major R. Owens Donald M. Payne Charles B. Rangel Gus Savage Louis Stokes Edolphus Towns Craig A. Washington Alan D. Wheat 100th Congress (1987-1989) 23 House William L. Clay Sr. Cardiss Collins John Conyers Jr. George W. Crockett Ronald V. Dellums Julian C. Dixon Mervyn M. Dymally Mike Espy Walter E. Fauntroy Senate None Floyd H. Flake Harold E. Ford Sr. William H. Gray III Augustus F. Hawkins Charles A. Hayes Mickey Leland John Lewis Kweisi Mfume Major R. Owens Charles B. Rangel Gus Savage Louis Stokes Edolphus Towns Alan D. Wheat 99th Congress (1985-1987) 21 House William L. Clay Sr. Cardiss Collins John Conyers Jr. George W. Crockett Ronald V. Dellums Julian C. Dixon Mervyn M. Dymally Senate None Walter E. Fauntroy Harold E. Ford Sr. William H. Gray III Augustus F. Hawkins Charles A. Hayes Mickey Leland Parren J. Mitchell Major R. Owens Charles B. Rangel Gus Savage Louis Stokes Edolphus Towns Alton Waldon Jr. Alan D. Wheat 98th Congress (1983-1985) 21s House William L. Clay Sr. Cardiss Collins John Conyers Jr. George W. Crockett Ronald V. Dellums Julian C. Dixon Mervyn M. Dymally Walter E. Fauntroy Senate None Harold E. Ford Sr. William H. Gray III Katie Hall Augustus F. Hawkins Charles A. Hayes Mickey Leland Parren J. Mitchell Major R. Owens Charles B. Rangel Gus Savage Louis Stokes Edolphus Towns Harold D. Washingtont Alan D. Wheat CRS-53 No. Chamber Names 97th Congress (1981-1983) 19 House Shirley A. Chisholm William L. Clay Sr. Cardiss Collins John Conyers Jr. George W. Crockett Ronald V. Dellums Julian C. Dixon Senate None Mervyn M. Dymally Walter E. Fauntroy Harold E. Ford Sr. William H. Gray III Katie B. Hall Augustus F. Hawkins Mickey Leland Parren J. Mitchell Charles R. Rangel Gus Savage Louis Stokes Harold D. Washington 96th Congress (1979-1981) 17u House Shirley A. Chisholm William L. Clay Sr. Cardiss Collins John Conyers Jr. George W. Crockett Ronald V. Dellums Senate None Charles C. Diggs Jr.v Julian C. Dixon Melvin H. Evans Walter E. Fauntroy Harold E. Ford Sr. William H. Gray III Augustus F. Hawkins Mickey Leland Parren J. Mitchell Charles B. Rangel Bennett M. Stewart Louis Stokes 95th Congress (1977-1979) 17 House Yvonne B. Burke Shirley A. Chisholm William L. Clay Sr. Cardiss Collins John Conyers Jr. Ronald V. Dellums 1 Senate Edward W. Brooke Charles C. Diggs Jr. Walter E. Fauntroy Harold E. Ford Sr. Augustus F. Hawkins Barbara C. Jordan Ralph H. Metcalfe Parren J. Mitchell Robert N.C. Nix Sr. Charles B. Rangel Louis Stokes Andrew J. Young 94th Congress (1975-1977) 17 House Yvonne B. Burke Shirley A. Chisholm William L. Clay Sr. Cardiss Collins John Conyers Jr. Ronald V. Dellums 1 Senate Edward W. Brooke Charles C. Diggs Jr. Walter E. Fauntroy Harold E. Ford Sr. Augustus F. Hawkins Barbara C. Jordan Ralph W. Metcalfe Parren J. Mitchell Robert N.C. Nix Sr. Charles B. Rangel Louis Stokes Andrew J. Young 93rd Congress (1973-1975) 16 House Yvonne B. Burke Shirley A. Chisholm William L. Clay Sr. Cardiss Collins John Conyers Jr. Ronald V. Dellums 1 Senate Edward W. Brooke Charles C. Diggs Jr. Walter E. Fauntroy Augustus F. Hawkins Barbara C. Jordan Ralph H. Metcalfe Parren J. Mitchell Robert N.C. Nix Sr. Charles B. Rangel Louis Stokes Andrew J. Young CRS-54 No. Chamber Names 92nd Congress (1971-1973) 13 House Shirley A. Chisholm William L. Clay Sr. George W. Collins John Conyers Jr. Ronald V. Dellums 1 Senate Edward W. Brooke Charles C. Diggs Jr. Walter E. Fauntroy Augustus F. Hawkins Ralph H. Metcalfe Parren J. Mitchell Robert N.C. Nix Sr. Charles B. Rangel Louis Stokes 91st Congress (1969-1971) 10 House Shirley A. Chisholm William L. Clay Sr. George W. Collins Augustus F. Hawkins 1 Senate Edward W. Brooke John Conyers Jr. William L. Dawson Charles C. Diggs Jr. Robert N.C. Nix Adam C. Powell Jr. Louis Stokes 90th Congress (1967-1969) 5w House John Conyers Jr. William L. Dawson 1 Senate Edward W. Brooke Charles C. Diggs Jr. Augustus F. Hawkins Robert N.C. Nix Sr. 89th Congress (1965-1967) 6 House John Conyers Jr. William L. Dawson Senate None Charles Diggs Jr. Augustus F. Hawkins Robert N.C. Nix Sr. Adam Clayton Powell 88th Congress (1963-1965) 5 House: William L. Dawson Charles C. Diggs Jr. Senate None Augustus F. Hawkins Robert N.C. Nix Sr. Adam C. Powell Jr. 85th - 87th Congresses (1957-1963) 4 House William L. Dawson Charles C. Diggs Jr. Senate None Robert N.C. Nix Sr. Adam C. Powell Jr. 84th Congress (1955-1957) 3 House William L. Dawson Charles C. Diggs Jr. 79th - 83rd Congresses (1945-1955) 2 House William L. Dawson Senate None Adam C. Powell Jr. Adam C. Powell Jr. CRS-55 No. Chamber Names 78th Congress (1943-1945) 1 House William L. Dawson Senate None 74th - 77th Congresses (1935-1943) 1 House Arthur W. Mitchell Senate None 71st - 73rd Congresses (1929-1935) 1 House Oscar S. DePriest Senate None 57th - 70th Congresses (1901-1929) House None Senate None 55th - 56th Congresses (1897-1901) 1 House George H. White Senate None 53rd - 54th Congresses (1893-1897) 1 House George W. Murray Senate None 52nd Congress (1891-1893) 1 House Henry P. Cheatham Senate None 51st Congress (1889-1891) 3 House Henry P. Cheatham Senate None John M. Langston 50th Congress (1887-1889) House None Senate None 48th - 49th Congresses (1883-1887) 2 House James E. O’Hara Senate None Robert Smalls Thomas E. Miller CRS-56 No. Chamber Names 47th Congress (1881-1883) 2 House John R. Lynch Senate None Robert Smalls 46th Congress (1879-1881) 1 House None Senate Blanche K. Bruce 45th Congress (1877-1879) 3 House Richard H. Cain 1 Senate Blanche K. Bruce Joseph H. Rainey Robert Smalls 44th Congress (1875-1877) 7 House Jeremiah Haralson John A. Hyman John R. Lynch 1 Senate Blanche K. Bruce Charles E. Nash Joseph H. Rainey Robert Smalls Josiah T. Wallsx 43rd Congress (1873-1875) 7 House Richard H. Cain Robert B. Elliotty John R. Lynch Senate None Joseph H. Rainey Alonzo J. Ransier James T. Rapier Josiah T. Wallsx 42nd Congress (1871-1873) 5 House Robert C. DeLargez Robert B. Elliott Senate None Joseph H. Rainey Benjamin S. Turner Josiah T. Walls 41st Congress (1869-1871)aa 2 House Jefferson F. Long 1 Senate Hiram R. Revels Joseph H. Rainey a. Although 45 different African American individuals have been elected to the House for the 110th Congress, 42 is the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Juanita Millender-McDonald died on Apr. 22, 2007, and was replaced by Rep. Laura Richardson Sept. 4, 2007; Rep. Julia Carson died on Dec. 15, 2007, and was replaced by Rep. André Carson on Mar. 13, 2008; and Rep. Albert Wynn resigned on May 31, 2008, and was replaced by Rep. Donna Edwards on June 19, 2008. b. Although 40 African American individuals were elected to the House for the 108th Congress, 39 was the highest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Frank Ballance resigned and was replaced by Rep. G. K. Butterfield. c. Resigned on June 11, 2004. d. Although 40 African American individuals were elected to the House for the 107th Congress, 39 was the highest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Julian Dixon, who was reelected to the 107th Congress, died before the commencement of the Congress and was later replaced by Rep. Diane Watson. e. Died on Dec. 8, 2000. CRS-57 f. Although 41 African American individuals were elected to the House in the 105th Congress, 39 was the highest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Floyd Flake resigned and was replaced by Rep. Gregory Meeks, and Rep. Ron Dellums resigned and was replaced by Rep. Barbara Lee. g. Resigned on Feb. 6, 1998. h. Resigned on Nov. 15, 1997. i. Although 43 African American individuals were elected to the House in the 104th Congress, 40 was the highest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Melvin J. Reynolds resigned and was replaced by Rep. Jesse L. Jackson Jr.; Rep. Walter Tucker resigned and was replaced by Rep. Juanita Millender-McDonald; and Rep. Kweisi Mfume resigned and was replaced by Rep. Elijah Cummings. j. Resigned on Feb. 16, 1996. k. Resigned on Oct. 1, 1995. l. Resigned on Dec. 15, 1995. m. Although 40 African American individuals were elected to the House in the 103rd Congress, 39 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Mike Espy resigned and was replaced by Rep. Bennie Thompson. n. Resigned on Jan. 25, 1993, to become Secretary of Agriculture. o. Although 28 African American individuals were elected to the House in the 102nd Congress, 27 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. William H. Gray III resigned and was replaced by Rep. Lucien Blackwell. p. Resigned on Sept. 11, 1991. q. Although 25 African American individuals were elected to the House in the 101st Congress, 24 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Mickey Leland, who was killed in an airplane crash, was replaced by Rep. Craig Washington. r. Died Aug. 2, 1989. s. Although 22 African American individuals were elected to the House in the 98th Congress, 21 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Harold Washington resigned and was replaced by Rep. Charles Hayes. t. Resigned on April 29, 1983. u. Although 18 individuals were elected to the House in the 96th Congress, 17 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Charles Diggs Jr. resigned and was replaced by Rep. George Crockett. v. Resigned on June 3, 1980. w. Rep. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. was reelected to the 90th Congress, but never took his seat. x. Resigned from Congress on Jan. 29, 1873, and on April 19, 1876, after his election was successfully contested during two different Congresses. y. Resigned from Congress on Nov. 1, 1874. z. His seat was declared vacant on Jan. 24, 1873, after his election was successfully contested. aa. There were no African American Members of the U.S. Congress until 1870, the 41st Congress, 2nd session. CRS-58 Table 4. Number and Names of African American Members of Congress, by State State Number Names Years of Service Alabama 5 Benjamin S. Turner James T. Rapier Jeremiah Haralson Earl F. Hilliard Artur Davis 1871-1873 1873-1875 1875-1877 1993-2003 2003- California 11 Augustus F. Hawkins Ronald V. Dellums Yvonne Braithwaite Burke Julian C. Dixon Mervyn M. Dymally Maxine Waters Walter R. Tucker Juanita Millender-McDonald Barbara Lee Diane E. Watson Laura Richardson 1963-1991 1971-1998 1973-1979 1979-2000 1981-1993 19911993-1995 1996-2007 199820012007- Connecticut 1 Gary A. Franks 1991-1997 District of Columbia 2 Walter E. Fauntroy Eleanor Holmes Norton 1971-1991 1991- Florida 5 Josiah T. Walls Alcee L. Hastings Corrine Brown Carrie P. Meek Kendrick Meek 1871-1876 199319931993-2003 2003- Georgia 8 Jefferson F. Long Andrew J. Young John R. Lewis Sanford D. Bishop Jr. Cynthia A. McKinney 1870-1871 1973-1977 198719931993-2003, 2005-2007 2003-2005 20032007- Denise L. Majette David Scott Henry C. (Hank) Johnson Jr. CRS-59 State Number Names Years of Service Illinois 16 Oscar S. DePriest Arthur W. Mitchell William L. Dawson George W. Collins Ralph H. Metcalfe Cardiss Collins Bennett M. Stewart Gus Savage Harold D. Washington Charles A. Hayes Carol Moseley-Brauna Melvin J. Reynolds Bobby L. Rush Jesse L. Jackson, Jr. Danny K. Davis Barack Obamaa 1929-1935 1935-1943 1943-1970 1970-1972 1971-1978 1973-1997 1979-1981 1981-1993 1981-1983 1983-1993 1993-1999 1993-1995 1993199519972005- Indiana 3 Katie B. Hall Julia Carson André Carson 1982-1985 1997-2007 2008- Louisiana 3 Charles E. Nash William J. Jefferson Cleo Fields 1875-1877 19911993-1997 Maryland 5 Parren J. Mitchell Kweisi Mfume Albert R. Wynn Elijah E. Cummings Donna Edwards 1971-1987 1987-1996 1993-2008 19962008- Massachusetts 1 Edward W. Brookea 1967-1979 Michigan 5 Charles C. Diggs Jr. John Conyers Jr. George W. Crockett Barbara-Rose Collins Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick 1955-1980 19651980-1991 1991-1997 1997- Minnesota 1 Keith Ellison 2007- Mississippi 5 Hiram Rhodes Revelsa John R. Lynch Blanche K. Brucea Albert M. (Mike) Espy Bennie G. Thompson 1870-1871 1873-1877 1882-1883 1875-1881 1987-1993 1993- Missouri 4 William L. Clay Sr. Alan D. Wheat William Lacy Clay Jr. Emanuel Cleaver 1969-2001 1983-1995 20012005- New Jersey 1 Donald M. Payne 1989- CRS-60 State New York Number 9 Names Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Years of Service Shirley A. Chisholm Charles B. Rangel Major R. Owens Edolphus Towns Alton R. Waldon Jr. Floyd H. Flake Gregory Meeks Yvette D. Clarke 1945-1967 1969-1971 1969-1983 19711983-2007 19831986-1987 1987-1997 19982007- North Carolina 8 John A. Hyman James E. O’Hara Henry P. Cheatham George H. White Eva M. Clayton Melvin L. Watt Frank W. Ballance Jr. G.K. Butterfield 1875-1877 1883-1887 1889-1893 1897-1901 1992-2003 19932003-2004 2004- Ohio 2 Louis Stokes Stephanie Tubbs Jones 1969-1999 1999- Oklahoma 1 J.C. Watts Jr. 1995-2003 Pennsylvania 4 Robert N.C. Nix Sr. William H. Gray III Lucien E. Blackwell Chaka Fattah 1958-1979 1979-1991 1991-1995 1995- South Carolina 9 Joseph H. Rainey Robert C. DeLarge Robert B. Elliott Richard H. Cain James E. Clyburn 1870-1879 1871-1873 1871-1874 1873-1875 1877-1879 1873-1875 1875-1879 1882-1883 1884-1887 1890-1891 1893-1895 1896-1897 1993- Alonzo J. Ransier Robert Smalls Thomas E. Miller George W. Murray Tennessee 2 Harold E. Ford Sr. Harold E. Ford Jr. 1975-1997 1997- Texas 6 Barbara C. Jordan George T. (Mickey) Leland Craig A. Washington Eddie Bernice Johnson Sheila Jackson Lee Al Green 1973-1979 1979-1989 1991-1995 199319952005- CRS-61 State Number Names Years of Service Virginia 2 John M. Langston Robert C. Scott 1890-1891 1993- Virgin Islands 3 Melvin H. Evans Victor O. Frazer Donna M. Christian-Christensen 1979-1981 1995-1997 1997- Wisconsin 1 Gwen Moore 2005- a. Serves/served in the Senate. CRS-62 Table 5. Number of African American Members in the U.S. Congress, 41st-110th Congresses (1870-2008) African American Members of Housea African American Members of Senate Congress Year Total African American Members of Congress 41st 1869-1871 3 2 1 42nd 1871-1873 5 5 - 43rd 1873-1875 7 7 - 44th 1875-1877 8 7 1 45th 1877-1879 4 3 1 46th 1879-1881 1 - 1 47th 1881-1883 2 2 - 48th 1883-1885 2 2 - 49th 1885-1887 2 2 - 50th 1887-1889 - - - 51st 1889-1891 3 3 - 52nd 1891-1893 1 1 - 53rd 1893-1895 1 1 - 54th 1895-1897 1 1 - 55th 1897-1899 1 1 - 56th 1899-1901 1 1 - 57th 1901-1903 - - - 58th 1903-1905 - - - 59th 1905-1907 - - - 60th 1907-1909 - - - 61st 1909-1911 - - - 62nd 1911-1913 - - - 63rd 1913-1915 - - - 64th 1915-1917 - - - 65th 1917-1919 - - - 66th 1919-1921 - - - 67th 1921-1923 - - - CRS-63 Congress Year Total African American Members of Congress 68th 1923-1925 - - - 69th 1925-1927 - - - 70th 1927-1929 - - - 71st 1929-1931 1 1 - 72nd 1931-1933 1 1 - 73rd 1933-1935 1 1 - 74th 1935-1937 1 1 - 75th 1937-1939 1 1 - 76th 1939-1941 1 1 - 77th 1941-1943 1 1 - 78th 1943-1945 1 1 - 79th 1945-1947 2 2 - 80th 1947-1949 2 2 - 81st 1949-1951 2 2 - 82nd 1951-1953 2 2 - 83rd 1953-1955 2 2 - 84th 1955-1957 3 3 - 85th 1957-1959 4 4 - 86th 1959-1961 4 4 - 87th 1961-1963 4 4 - 88th 1963-1965 5 5 - 89th 1965-1967 6 6 - 90th 1967-1969 6 5 1 91st 1969-1971 11 10 1 92nd 1971-1973 14 13 1 93rd 1973-1975 17 16 1 94th 1975-1977 18 17 1 95th 1977-1979 18 17 1 96th 1979-1981 17 17 - African American Members of Housea African American Members of Senate CRS-64 Congress Year Total African American Members of Congress 97th 1981-1983 19 19 - 98th 1983-1985 21 21 - 99th 1985-1987 21 21 - 100th 1987-1989 23 23 - 101st 1989-1991 24 24 - 102nd 1991-1993 27 27 - 103rd 1993-1995 40 39 1 104th 1995-1997 41 40 1 105th 1997-1999 40 39 1 106th 1999-2001 39 39 0 107th 2001-2003 39 39 0 108th 2003-2005 39 39 0 109th 2005-2007 43 42 1 110th 2007-2009 43 42 1 African American Members of Housea African American Members of Senate a. The numbers here reflect the highest number of African American Members to serve in the House at any one time during a Congress. For example, a record number of 46 African American Members were elected to the 110th Congress, but only 43 have served at any one time during the Congress. crsphpgw