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African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2018

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African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012

2018
November 26, 2012April 26, 2018 (RL30378)
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Contents

Summary

There are 43 African American Members serving in the 112th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. There have been 133 African American Members of Congress: 127 have been elected to the House; 5 have been elected to the Senate; and 1 has been appointed to the Senate. There have been 104 Democrats, 101 in the House and 3 in the Senate; and 29 Republicans, 26 in the House and 3 in the Senate.

The number of African American Members has steadily increased since the first African Americans entered Congress in 1870. There were fewer than 10 Members until the 91st Congress (1969-1971). In the 98th Congress (1983-1985), the number surpassed 20 for the first time and then jumped to 40 in the 103rd Congress (1993-1995). Since the 106th Congress (1999-2001), the number has remained between 39 and 44 serving at any one time.

The first African American Member of Congress was Hiram Rhodes Revels (R-MS), who served in the Senate in the 41st Congress (served 1870-1871). The first African American Member of the House was Joseph H. Rainey (R-SC), who also served in the 41st Congress.

Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), elected to the 91st through 97th Congresses (1969-1983), was the first African American woman in Congress. Since that time, 30 other African American women have been elected, including Senator Carol Moseley-Braun (D-IL, 1993-1999), who is the only African American woman, as well as the first African American Democrat, elected to the Senate.

Representative John Conyers, Jr. (D-MI, 1965-present), the current chair of the House Judiciary Committee, holds the record for length of service by an African American Member (46 years). He was first elected to the 89th Congress (1965-1967) and has served since January 3, 1965.

Representative James E. Clyburn (D-SC, 1993-present) and former Representatives William H. Gray III (D-PA, 1979-1991) and J.C. Watts (R-OK, 1995-2003) have been elected to the highest leadership positions held by African American Members of Congress. Representative Clyburn, the House Assistant Democratic leader in the 112th Congress, served as the House majority whip in the 110th and 111th Congresses and as vice chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the 108th and 109th Congresses. Representative Gray was chair of the House Democratic Caucus in 1989 (101st Congress). Later in that Congress, when a vacancy occurred, he was elected House majority whip, a position he held until his resignation from Congress in September 1991 (102nd Congress). Representative Watts served as chair of the House Republican Conference in the 106th-107th Congresses (1997-2001).

Twenty African Americans have served as committee chairs, 19 in the House and 1 in the Senate.

The Congressional Black Caucus (CBC), whose origins date back to 1969, currently has 43 members. Over its 40-year history, the CBC has been one of the most influential caucuses in Congress.

This report will be updated as needed.


African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012

Introduction

One hundred thirty-three African Americans have served in the U.S. Congress: 127 in the House and 6 in the Senate.1 Of these, 31 have been women. A record 43 African American Members (all in the House, including two delegates) serve in the 112th Congress. All but 2 are Democrats and 15 are women. No African Americans have served in both houses of Congress.

The majority of African American Members of Congress (103) have been Democrats; 29 have been Republicans. Five others, all Democrats, have served as Delegates to the House. All of the Democrats have been elected in the 20th and 21st centuries. Twenty-two African American Republicans served in the 19th century House, five in the 20th century (four in the House and one in the Senate), and one was reelected to a single term in the 21st century before retiring. Two others have been elected to the House in the 21st century.

Historical Overview of African Americans in Congress

Excluding delegates, African Americans currently hold 41 (9.4%) of the 435 voting seats in the House of Representatives in the 112th Congress. Including delegates, African Americans currently hold 43 seats in the House of Representatives, totaling 9.8% of the entire House.2 No African Americans serve in the Senate in the 112th Congress.

Figure 1. Trends in the Number of African Americans in Congress, 41st Congress (1870-1871) to Present

Source: Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007 (Washington: GPO, 2008), http://baic.house.gov, supplemented by CRS.

Note: Delegates are not included in the data.

As Figure 1 shows, the number of African Americans serving in Congress stayed below 10 until the 91st Congress (1969-1971), when those in the House doubled, growing from 5 to 10 in one Congress. The number of African-American Senators remained at 1. Subsequently, the number of African American Members steadily increased. In the 98th Congress (1983-1985), the number surpassed 20 for the first time and in the 103rd Congress (1993-1995) reached 40. Since the 106th Congress (1999-2001), the number has remained between 39 and 44 at any one time.

Figure 2. African Americans in Congress

Source: Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007 (Washington: GPO, 2008), http://baic.house.gov, supplemented by CRS. Figures compiled by CRS.

Notes: Delegates are not included in the data.

African Americans did not serve in Congress until the 41st Congress (1869-1871) when two were elected to the House and a third, Hiram Rhodes Revels (R-MS), was elected to the Senate by the Mississippi state legislature.3 This was during the Reconstruction period following the Civil War (1865-1877). Of particular significance is the fact that "all of the 17 African-American Members between 1870 and 1887 came from the new Reconstruction governments in the former Confederacy."4 No African Americans served in Congress from the 57th Congress (1901-1903) until the 71st Congress (1929-1931), when one Member was elected to the House. This was in part because (1) the congressional focus on racial equality had faded; (2) the slow disintegration of the Republican-dominated Reconstruction governments had a detrimental effect on the rights of black voters, and those seeking political office were vulnerable to Democratic state governments controlled by former Confederates and their sympathizers; (3) a variety of impediments such as the poll tax and educational tests prevented African Americans from voting; and (4) some state legislatures attempted to gerrymander congressional districts to restrict the election of African Americans.5

Despite increases in the number of African Americans serving in Congress, especially since the 91st Congress (1969-1971), Figure 2 shows that 1.1% of Members in the United States history have been African Americans. Figure 2 shows the current composition of the 112th Congress with 7.9% voting African American Members.

African American Firsts in Congress

The first African American Member of Congress was Hiram Rhodes Revels (R-MS), who served in the Senate in the 41st Congress (1870-1871). He also has the distinction of being the first African American Member of the Senate and the first African American Member of Congress from Mississippi. On January 20, 1870, he was chosen by the Mississippi legislature to take the seat previously held by Albert G. Brown, who withdrew from the Senate on January 12, 1861, after Mississippi seceded from the Union. Senator Blanche K. Bruce (R-MS, 1875-1881) was the first African American Senator to serve a full Senate term of six years.

Joseph H. Rainey (R-SC, 1870-1879) was the first African American Member of the House of Representatives, beginning service, like Senator Revels, in the 41st Congress. Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), elected to the 91st through 97th Congresses (1969-1983), was the first African American woman to serve in Congress. Edward Brooke (R-MA) was the first African American elected to the Senate after passage of the Seventeenth Amendment, which provided for the direct election of Senators. He served in the 90th through 95th Congresses (1967-1979).

Carol Moseley-Braun (D-IL, 1993-1999) is the only African American woman, as well as the first African American Democrat, to serve in the Senate. President Barack Obama was the first African American male Democrat to serve in the Senate. He served as a Senator from Illinois from 2005 until his resignation on November 16, 2008, after he was elected President of the United States. Senator Roland Burris (D-IL, 2009-present), who was appointed to the seat vacated by President Obama, is the first African American appointed to the Senate. Representative Walter Fauntroy (D-DC, 1971-1991) was the first African American delegate to serve in Congress.

Representative Charles Diggs (D-MI, 1955-1980) was the first chair of the Congressional Black Caucus.

As chair of the Senate Select Committee to Investigate Freedman's Savings and Trust Company (46th Congress), Blanche K. Bruce (R-MS) was the first African American to chair a congressional committee. As chair of the House Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments (81st Congress), William L. Dawson (D-IL, 1943-1970) was the first African American to chair a House committee.

Length of Service

John Conyers Jr. (D-MI), the current chair of the House Judiciary Committee, has served longer than any other African American Member of Congress. Representative Conyers has served since 1965. Edward Brooke (R-MA, 1967-1979) holds the record for Senate service by an African American.

How African Americans Enter Congress

Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution requires that all Members of the House of Representatives must be "chosen every second Year by the People of the several States." Therefore, all Representatives enter office through election, even those who enter after a seat becomes open during a Congress. By contrast, the Seventeenth Amendment gives state legislatures the option to empower governors to fill Senate vacancies by temporary appointment.

All 126 of the African Americans who have served in the House have been elected, as well as all but one of the six African American Senators. The lone exception is Senator Roland Burris (D-IL, 2009-2010).

African American Members in Leadership Positions

Representative James E. Clyburn (D-SC, 1993-present), the House assistant minority leader in the 112th Congress, served as the House majority whip in the 110th-111th Congresses, and as vice chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the 108th and 109th Congresses. Former Representatives William H. Gray III (D-PA, 1979-1991) and J.C. Watts (R-OK, 1995-2003) were also elected members of the House leadership. Representative Gray was chair of the House Democratic Caucus in 1989 (101st Congress). Later in that Congress, when a vacancy occurred, he was elected House majority whip, a position he held until his resignation from Congress in September 1991 (102nd Congress). Representative Watts served as chair of the House Republican Conference in the 106th-107th Congresses (1997-2003).

Representative John Lewis (D-GA, 1987-present), the Democratic senior chief deputy whip in the 110th-112th Congresses, served as a Democratic chief deputy whip in the 102nd-109th Congresses (1991-2007). Representative Maxine Waters (D-CA, 1991-present) has served as a Democratic chief deputy whip since the 106th Congress, and Representative G.K. Butterfield (D-NC, 2004-present) has served as a Democratic chief deputy whip since the 110th Congress. Former Representative Shirley Chisholm (D-NY, 1969-1983) served as secretary to the Democratic Caucus in the 96th Congress (1977-1979).

Nineteen African American Representatives and one Senator have chaired congressional committees, including four in the House in the 111th Congress and a record five in the 110th Congress. No African Americans serve as committee chairs in the 112th Congress.

The other African American committee chairs were Senator Blanche Bruce (R-MS, 1875-1881) and Representatives Yvonne B. Burke (D-CA, 1973-1979); William L. Clay Sr. (D-MO, 1969-2001); William L. Dawson (D-IL, 1943-1970); Ronald V. Dellums (D-CA, 1971-1998); Charles C. Diggs Jr. (D-MI, 1955-1980); Julian Dixon (D-CA, 1979-2000); William H. Gray III (D-PA, 1979-1991); Augustus F. Hawkins (D-CA, 1963-1991); George T. (Mickey) Leland (D-TX, 1979-1989); Parren J. Mitchell (D-MD, 1971-1987); Robert N.C. Nix Sr. (D-PA, 1958-1979); Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (D-NY, 1945-1967, 1969-1971); Louis Stokes (D-OH, 1969-1999); Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA, 1996-2007); and Stephanie Tubbs Jones (D-OH, 1999-2008).6

Congressional Black Caucus

The Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) traces its origins to the start of the 91st Congress in January 1969 when Representative Charles Diggs (MI) brought together the other African American Members of the House to form the Democratic Select Committee.7 As the Select Committee expanded its legislative goals and activities during 1970, it reorganized into a more formal organization, the Congressional Black Caucus, with 13 members at the start of the 92nd Congress in 1971. The CBC became only the fifth Member organization to exist in Congress.8 Since the 92nd Congress, all African American Members except three have joined the CBC. Currently, there are 42 members of the Congressional Black Caucus, comprising all the African American Members of Congress except one. It is chaired by Representative Emanuel Cleaver (MO).9

Three main factors contributed to the founding of the CBC: greater African American participation in electoral politics following passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, a perceived African American leadership vacuum due to the deaths or marginalization of many civil rights leaders in the late 1960s, and perceived inattention to issues of concern to African Americans by the Nixon Administration.10 Although the number of African American legislators increased during the 1968 and 1970 congressional elections, the African American community was still proportionally underrepresented in Congress. According to the CBC, its founding members "believed that a black caucus in Congress, speaking with a single voice, would provide political influence and visibility far beyond their numbers."11

In addition to serving as a voice for the African American community, the Congressional Black Caucus has also addressed issues of concern to the poor and other underrepresented minority groups, both in the United States and abroad. This broader scope is reflected in the original mission of the CBC: "to promote the public welfare through legislation designed to meet the needs of millions of neglected citizens."12 In domestic policy, the CBC has supported efforts to improve access and quality of education and health care, reduce unemployment, protect voting rights, and provide better housing and childcare for the poor and working class. In foreign policy, the CBC generally supports international human rights and focuses on issues where current U.S. policy may conflict with professed American values of liberty and equality.13 This was shown in the CBC stance against apartheid in South Africa, its push for humanitarian aid and refugee assistance for Haiti, and the continual efforts of some CBC members to urge Congress to consider the concerns of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).14 Historically, the CBC has used both informal and formal strategies to influence foreign policy, varying from organizing protests and boycotts to conducting special hearings, writing letters, and introducing legislation.15

At times, the CBC plays an oppositional role, both within Congress and the established party structure. One scholar has argued that within Congress, the CBC serves "not only as an interest group for blacks but also as a labor union for its members."16 In 1974, for example, House leadership agreed to put one black Member on each major committee at the urging of the CBC.17 The CBC also often issues declarations of its policy agenda, distinct from either party's agenda. This was reflected by some of the earliest caucus efforts, beginning with a February 1970 letter to President Richard Nixon addressing issues facing black and impoverished Americans and the presentation of 61 policy recommendations to the President concerning domestic and foreign policy matters at a meeting on March 25, 1971.18 Another example is the CBC alternative federal budget, which has been presented to Congress annually since 1981.19

The caucus also plays a symbolic role for the African American community. Some scholars have argued that the caucus is more effective as a social and community organization than it is a political or legislative institution.20 Evidence also indicates that in recent years CBC members may use the organization's increased size and influence within the House to ascend to party and committee leadership positions.21 As Members of the House and Senate, CBC members held the highest national elected office positions of any African Americans until the 2008 presidential election of former CBC member Barack Obama. The CBC Foundation (CBCF) sponsors a number of leadership development programs, internships, fellowships, and scholarships to encourage the next generation of African American leaders.22 In Congress, CBC members regularly celebrate the accomplishments of African Americans and minorities, by introducing resolutions to commemorate African American and minority leaders as well as civil rights activists.23

Three noteworthy legislative initiatives championed by the CBC include the establishment of Martin Luther King Jr. Day, sanctions on South Africa to pressure an end to apartheid, and humanitarian assistance to Haiti.24 The subsequent section describes the CBC's role in these legislative endeavors.

Martin Luther King Jr. Day

The bill to establish a federal holiday to honor Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on November 3, 1983.25 Representative John Conyers (MI) introduced the first Martin Luther King Jr. holiday bill on April 8, 1968, four days after King's assassination. After its founding in 1971, the CBC became a strong advocate for a Martin Luther King Jr. holiday, frequently participating in demonstrations, orchestrating petition drives, and introducing legislation. In 1971, Congress received a petition signed by 6 million Americans in support of the King holiday, and Representative Conyers and Representative Shirley Chisholm (NY), another CBC member, reintroduced King holiday legislation during every subsequent session of Congress until the holiday became law. On January 15, 1981, musician Stevie Wonder, with the support of the CBC, sponsored a march, rally, and benefit concert in Washington, DC, to celebrate what would have been King's 52nd birthday and to raise awareness about the King holiday legislation.26

On August 27, 1983, more than 200,000 people gathered for a civil rights march at the Lincoln Memorial to commemorate the 20th anniversary of King's march on Washington.27 The attention to King's legacy, coupled with political protests and the spread of local and state King holiday legislation, made 1983 an opportune time for enactment of the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday. The successful 1983 legislation was introduced by CBC member Representative Katie Hall on July 29, passing the House by a vote of 338-90 on August 2 and the Senate by a vote of 78-22 on October 19, and was signed into law on November 2.28

Ending Apartheid in South Africa

The CBC began to address apartheid during the 1970s because it felt that the executive branch had not made ending discrimination in South Africa a priority.29 Between 1972 and 1986, members of the CBC introduced more than 15 bills seeking to end apartheid and racial discrimination practices in South Africa. As a result of the CBC's Black Leadership Conference, the CBC helped establish TransAfrica in 1976, a foreign policy advocacy group designed to raise awareness about African and Caribbean issues. Besides endorsing legislative sanctions, TransAfrica and the CBC also lobbied corporations and universities to divest from South Africa. Through hearings, rallies, and protests in their home districts and in Washington, DC, CBC members increased attention on apartheid in South Africa.30

During the 1980s, public awareness and concern about apartheid grew as violence increased in South Africa. By the mid-1980s, the need to address apartheid in South Africa became more pressing and politically feasible. The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act (H.R. 4868), introduced by a CBC member, Representative William H. Gray (PA),31 included sanctions against South Africa that would not be eased until certain conditions, like the release of political prisoners, were met. The original sanctions in the bill included banning new investments in or loans to South Africa, prohibiting imports of uranium, steel, and coal imports, and removing airport landing rights for South African Airways. An amendment by another CBC member, Representative Ronald Dellums (CA), strengthened the sanctions to include a full trade embargo and complete divestment from South Africa.32 The bill was vetoed by President Ronald Reagan on September 26, 1986,33 but was overridden by a House vote of 313 to 83 on September 29, 1986, and by a Senate vote of 78 to 21 on October 2, 1986.34

Humanitarian Aid to Haiti

In 1976, Representative Shirley Chisholm (NY) and Delegate Walter Fauntroy (DC) formed the Congressional Black Caucus Task Force on Haitian Refugees to pursue humane treatment and equal justice for refugees from Haiti entering the United States. The name of the caucus was changed to the Congressional Task Force on Haiti in 1981 as it adopted broader policy objectives regarding Haiti and also included members outside of the CBC.35

By 1985, it was clear that the 30-year dictatorial regime of Francois Duvalier and his son Jean-Claude Duvalier was nearing its end. In 1986, the U.S. Embassy, working with the Roman Catholic Church and Haitian army, deposed President Jean-Claude Duvalier peacefully, and Haiti scheduled its first free election for November 29, 1987.36 In response to the efforts of the Congressional Task Force on Haiti, American aid to Haiti doubled from $50 million in 1986 to $101 million in 1987, despite tight fiscal conditions.37

CBC activism for Haiti continued during the late 1980s and 1990s, as a series of military coups led to a difficult post-Duvalier transition period. After Haiti's first democratic presidential election in December 1990, President Bertrand Aristide was overthrown in September 1991, eight months after taking office. Many in the CBC believed the only remedy for the escalating refugee crisis was to restore Aristide to office. Beginning in October 1993, the CBC asked President Bill Clinton to impose the strongest military sanctions available against Haiti or to conduct a military intervention. A letter sent to President Clinton on March 18, 1994, by the CBC and signed by all its members, stated that "The United States Haiti policy must be scrapped." The CBC supported the U.S.- and U.N.-imposed sanctions on Haiti during May and June 1994, with some members advocating for even stronger sanctions. An envoy sent to Haiti on September 18, 1994, by President Clinton convinced Haiti's military rulers to resign and to allow U.S. peacekeeping troops to enter the country and restore Aristide to the presidency.38

Concerned about the cost of the Haiti mission and the lack of a troop withdrawal date, Representative Gary Franks (CT), the only Republican member of the CBC, publicly opposed the Clinton Administration's policy and blamed the CBC for the President's decision, stating that a "majority of the Congressional Black Caucus wanted the United States to invade Haiti, and President Clinton caved in." Others argue that Clinton and the CBC simply shared the same position and that the refugee situation constituted a vital American interest.39

Tables and Data

This section of the report provides tabular information on African American Members of Congress, including the Congresses in which they served, the committees, on which they served, and an indication of the committees they chaired or co-chaired, or served as ranking Member. In addition, five tables summarize information about African American Members.

Table 1 presents the number and names of African American Members by Congress. Table 2 presents the same information by state. Table 3 shows the changing number of African American Members serving in Congress since 1870, when the first Member was elected.

Most of the data presented are drawn from the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov, various editions of the Congressional Directory, and a broad range of Congressional Quarterly Inc. and Leadership Directories Inc. publications. For additional information, refer to Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007, (Washington: GPO, 2008), http://baic.house.gov, written by the Office of History and Preservation in the House of Representatives.40

For 112th Congress committee assignments, the sources are Official Alphabetical List of the Members with Committee Assignments in the 112th Congress (available online from the clerk's website at http://clerk.house.gov/committee_info/oal.pdf).

Note that the names and jurisdiction of House and Senate committees have changed several times over the years covered by this report. In the interest of brevity, this report does not identify all historical name changes. The committee names that are listed are those that were in effect at the time a particular Member served on a panel.

Alphabetical Listing of African American Members, Selected Biographical Information, and Committee Assignments During Their Tenure in Office

BALLANCE, FRANK W. Jr., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on February 15, 1942. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th Congress; served from January 7, 2003, until his resignation June 11, 2004.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Agriculture

108th

H. Small Business

108th

BASS, KAREN, a Representative from California. Born on October 3, 1953. Elected as a Democrat to the 112th Congress; has served since January 3, 2011.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Budget

112th

H. Foreign Affairs

112th

BISHOP, SANFORD D. Jr., a Representative from Georgia. Born on February 4, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Agriculture

103rd-107th

H. Post Office and Civil Service

103rd

H. Veterans' Affairs

103rd-104th

H. Select Intelligence

105th-107th

H. Appropriations

108th-112th

BLACKWELL, LUCIEN E., a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on August 1, 1931; died on January 24, 2003. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative William Gray; reelected to the 103rd Congress; served from November 11, 1991, to January 3, 1995.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries

102nd

H. Public Works and Transportation

102nd-103rd

H. Budget

103rd

BROOKE, EDWARD W., a Senator from Massachusetts. Born on October 26, 1919. Elected as a Republican to two six-year terms beginning with the 90th Congress and served through the 95th Congress, from January 3, 1967, to January 3, 1979. First African American Member of Congress from Massachusetts.

Committee Assignments

Congress

S. Aeronautical and Space Sciences

90th

S. Banking and Currency (ranking Member, 95th)

90th-91st

S. Government Operations

90th

S. Armed Services

91st

S. Select Equal Education Opportunity

91st-92nd

S. Appropriations

92nd-95th

S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

92nd-95th

S. Special Aging

92nd-95th

S. Select Standards and Conduct

93rd-94th

Jt. Bicentennial Arrangements (vice-chair, 94th)

94th

Jt. Defense Production

94th-95th

BROWN, CORRINE, a Representative from Florida. Born on November 11, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Government Operations

103rd

H. Public Works and Transportation

103rd

H. Veterans' Affairs

103rd-112th

H. Transportation and Infrastructure

104th-112th

BRUCE, BLANCHE K., a Senator from Mississippi. Born on March 1, 1841; died on March 17, 1898. Elected as a Republican to a six-year term beginning with the 44th Congress and served through the 46th Congress, from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1881.

Committee Assignments

Congress

S. Manufactures

44th

S. Pensions

44th-45th

S. Education and Labor

44th-46th

S. Select Mississippi River

45th-46th

S. Select To Investigate the Freedman's

Savings and Trust Company (committee chair, 46th)

46th

BURKE, YVONNE BRAITHWAITE, a Representative from California. Born on October 5, 1932. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 95th Congresses; served from January 3, 1973, to January 3, 1979. First female chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 94th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Interior and Insular Affairs

93rd

H. Public Works

93rd

H. Appropriations

94th-95th

H. Select Assassinations

94th-95th

H. Select Beauty Shop (committee chair, 94th-95th)

94th-95th

BURRIS, ROLAND, a Senator from Illinois. Born on August 3, 1937. Appointed as a Democrat to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of President Barack Obama; appointed on December 31, 2008, to the 110th Congress, but not seated until January 15, 2009, in the 111th Congress. Served from January 15, 2009, to November 29, 2010.

Committee Assignments

Congress

S. Armed Services

111th

S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

111th

S. Veteran's Affairs

111th

BUTTERFIELD, G.K., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on April 27, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Frank Ballance; reelected to the 109th-112th Congresses, has served since July 21, 2004; a chief deputy Democratic whip in the 110th and 112th Congresses.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Small Business

108th

H. Agriculture

108th-109th

H. Armed Services

109th

H. Energy and Commerce

110th-112th

H. Standards of Official Conduct

111th

CAIN, RICHARD H., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on April 12, 1825; died on January 18, 1887. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd and 45th Congresses; served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875, and from March 4, 1877, to March 3, 1879.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Agriculture

43rd

H. Private Land Claims

45th

CARSON, ANDRÉ, a Representative from Indiana. Born on October 16, 1974. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of his grandmother, Julia Carson; reelected to the 111th-112th Congresses; has served since March 13, 2008.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Financial Services

110th-112th

CARSON, JULIA M., a Representative from Indiana. Born on July 8, 1938; died in office December 15, 2007. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 110th Congresses; served from January 9, 1997, to December 15, 2007.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking and Financial Services

105th-106th

H. Financial Services

107th-110th

H. Veterans' Affairs

105th-107th

H. Transportation and Infrastructure

108th-110th

CHEATHAM, HENRY P., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on December 27, 1857; died on November 29, 1935. Elected as a Republican to the 51st and 52nd Congresses; served from March 4, 1889, to March 3, 1893.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Expenditures on Public Buildings

51st-52nd

H. Education

51st-52nd

H. Agriculture

52nd

CHISHOLM, SHIRLEY A., a Representative from New York. Born on November 30, 1924; died on January 1, 2005. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st through 97th Congresses; served from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 1983. First African American woman elected to Congress and first African American female presidential candidate, 1972. Secretary of the Democratic Caucus in the 96th Congress, 1977-1979.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Veterans' Affairs

91st-92nd

H. Education and Labor

92nd-94th

H. Rules

95th-97th

CHRISTENSEN, DONNA M., a Delegate from the Virgin Islands. Born on September 19, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th Congress through 112th Congresses; has served since January 7, 1997. First woman elected from the Virgin Islands.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Resources / H. Natural Resources

105th-112th (1st session)

H. Small Business

106th-109th

H. Homeland Security

108th-110th, 112th (1st session)

H. Energy and Commerce

111th-112th

CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSEN, DONNA and CHRISTIAN-GREEN, DONNA. See CHRISTENSEN, DONNA.

CLARKE, HANSEN H., a Representative from Michigan. Born on March 2, 1957. Elected as a Democrat to 112th Congress; has served since January 3, 2011.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Homeland Security

H. Science, Space and Technology

112th

112th

CLARKE, YVETTE D., a Representative from New York. Born on November 21, 1964. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 4, 2007.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor

H. Homeland Security

H. Small Business

110th-111th

110th-112th

110th-112th

CLAY, WILLIAM L. Sr., a Representative from Missouri. Born on April 30, 1931. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st through 106th Congresses; served from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 2001. Succeeded by his son, Representative William Lacy Clay Jr. First African American Member of Congress from Missouri.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor / Education and the Workforce (ranking Member, 104th-106th)

91st-103rd, 105th -106th

H. Economic and Educational Opportunities

104th

H. Post Office and Civil Service (committee chair, 102nd-103rd)

93rd-103rd

H. Select to Study the Committee System

96th

H. House Administration

99th-103rd

H. Jt. Library

101st

CLAY, WILLIAM LACY Jr., a Representative from Missouri. Born on July 27, 1956; succeeded his father, Representative William L. Clay Sr. Elected as a Democrat to the 107th-112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 2001.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Financial Services

107th-112th

H. Government Reform

H. Oversight and Government Reform

107th-109th

110th-112th

CLAYTON, EVA M., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on September 16, 1934. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Walter Jones; reelected to the 103rd through 107th Congresses; served from November 5, 1992, to January 3, 2003. Co-chair of the House Democratic Policy Committee in the 104th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Agriculture

103rd-107th

H. Small Business

103rd

H. Budget

105th-107th

CLEAVER, EMANUEL II, a Representative from Missouri. Born on October 26, 1944. Elected as Democrat to the 109th-112th Congresses; has served since January 4, 2005. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 112th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Financial Services

109th-112th

H. Energy Independence and Global Warming

110th-111th

H. Homeland Security

111th

CLYBURN, JAMES E., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on July 21, 1940. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 106th Congress. Vice chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the 108th-109th Congresses; House majority whip in the 110th and 111th Congresses; Assistant Democratic Leader, 112th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Public Works and Transportation

103rd

H. Veterans' Affairs

103rd-105th

H. Transportation and Infrastructure

104th-105th

H. Small Business

104th

H. Appropriations

106th-109th

COLLINS, BARBARA-ROSE, a Representative from Michigan. Born on April 13, 1939. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 104th Congresses; served from January 3, 1991, to January 3, 1997.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Public Works and Transportation

102nd-103rd

H. Transportation and Infrastructure

104th

H. Government Operations / H. Government Reform and Oversight

103rd -104th

H. Post Office and Civil Service

102nd-103rd

H. Science, Space, and Technology

102nd

H. Select Children, Youth, and Families

102nd

COLLINS, CARDISS, a Representative from Illinois. Born on September 24, 1931. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 104th Congresses; served from June 7, 1973, to January 3, 1997. First elected to succeed her husband, Representative George Collins. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 96th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Government Operations / H. Government Reform and Oversight

(ranking Member, 104th)

93rd-104rd

H. Public Works

93rd

H. International Relations

94th-95th

H. Foreign Affairs

96th

H. District of Columbia

95th

H. Energy and Commerce

97th-103rd

H. Commerce

104th

H. Select Population

95th

H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control

96th-102nd

COLLINS, GEORGE W., a Representative from Illinois. Born on March 5, 1926; died on December 8, 1972, in an airplane crash. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st Congress to fill the vacancy by the death of Representative Daniel Ronan; reelected to the 92nd and 93rd Congresses; served from November 16, 1970, to December 8, 1972. Succeeded by his wife, Representative Cardiss Collins.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Government Operations

91st-92nd

H. Public Works

92nd

CONYERS, JOHN Jr., a Representative from Michigan. Born on May 16, 1929. Elected as a Democrat to the 89th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1965.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Judiciary (committee chair, 110th-111th; ranking Member, 104th-109th, 112th)

89th-112th

H. Government Operations (committee chair, 101st-103rd)

92nd-103rd

H. Small Business

100th-103rd

CROCKETT, GEORGE W., a Representative from Michigan. Born on August 10, 1909; died on September 7, 1997. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Charles Diggs; reelected to the 97th through 101st Congresses; served from November 12, 1980, to January 3, 1991.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Foreign Affairs

96th-101st

H. Judiciary

97th-101st

H. Small Business

97th

H. Select Aging

97th-101st

CUMMINGS, ELIJAH E., a Representative from Maryland. Born on January 18, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Kweisi Mfume; reelected to the 105th through 112th Congresses; has served since April 25, 1996. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 108th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform

104th-109th

H. Oversight and Government Reform (ranking Member, 112th)

H. Transportation and Infrastructure

H. Armed Services

110th-112th

110th-112th

110th

Jt. Economic Committee

109th-112th

DAVIS, ARTUR, a Representative from Alabama. Born on October 9, 1967. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th through 111th Congresses; served from January 7, 2003, to January 3, 2011.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Budget

108th-109th

H. Financial Services

H. Judiciary

H. Ways and Means

108th- 109th

110th

110th-111th

DAVIS, DANNY K., a Representative from Illinois. Born on September 6, 1941. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 7, 1997.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Small Business

105th-109th

H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform

105th-109th

H. Oversight and Government Reform

110th-112th

H. Education and the Workforce

H. Education and Labor

H. Ways and Means

108th-109th

110th

111th

H. Homeland Security

112th

DAWSON, WILLIAM L., a Representative from Illinois. Born on April 26, 1886; died in office November 9, 1970. Elected as a Democrat to the 78th through 91st Congresses; served from January 3, 1943, to November 9, 1970.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Expenditures in the Executive Departments (committee chair, 81st, 82nd)

78th-82nd

H. Government Operations (ranking Member, 83rd; committee chair, 84th-91st)

83rd-91st

H. Coinage, Weights, and Measures

78th-79th

H. Invalid Pensions

78th-79th

H. Insular Affairs

78th-79th

H. Irrigation and Reclamation

78th-79th

H. Interior and Insular Affairs

82nd

H. District of Columbia

84th-91st

DeLARGE, ROBERT C., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on March 15, 1842; died on February 14, 1874. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd Congress; served from March 4, 1871, until January 24, 1873, when his seat was declared vacant after his election was successfully contested by former Representative Christopher C. Bowen.

Committee Assignment

Congress

H. Manufactures

42nd

DELLUMS, RONALD V., a Representative from California. Born on November 25, 1935. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 105th Congresses; served from January 3, 1971, until February 6, 1998, when he resigned from the House. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 101st Congress. Elected mayor of Oakland in 2006.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. District of Columbia (committee chair, 96th-102nd)

92nd-103rd

H. Foreign Affairs

92nd

H. Armed Services (committee chair, 103rd)

93rd-103rd

H. National Security (ranking Member, 104th-105th)

104th-105th

H. Post Office and Civil Service

97th-98th

H. Select Intelligence

94th-102nd

DePRIEST, OSCAR S., a Representative from Illinois. Born on March 9, 1871; died on May 12, 1951. Elected as a Republican to the 71st through 73rd Congresses; served from March 4, 1929, to March 3, 1935. First African American Member of Congress from Illinois.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Enrolled Bills

71st-73rd

H. Invalid Pensions

71st-73rd

H. Indian Affairs

71st-73rd

H. Post Office and Post Roads

73rd

DIGGS, CHARLES C. Jr., a Representative from Michigan. Born on December 2, 1922; died on August 24, 1998. Elected as a Democrat to the 84th through 96th Congresses; served from January 3, 1955, until his resignation on June 3, 1980. First African American Member of Congress from Michigan and first chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 92nd Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Interior and Insular Affairs

84th-85th

H. Veterans' Affairs

84th-85th

H. Foreign Affairs

86th-93rd

H. International Relations

94th-96th

H. District of Columbia (committee chair, 93rd-95th)

88th-96th

DIXON, JULIAN C., a Representative from California. Born on August 8, 1934; died on December 8, 2000. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th through 106th Congresses; reelected to the 107th Congress, but died before the commencement of the 107th Congress; served from January 3, 1979, until his death. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 98th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Appropriations

96th-106th

H. Standards of Official Conduct (committee chair, 99th-101st)

98th-101st

H. Select Intelligence (ranking Member, 106th)

103rd-106th

DYMALLY, MERVYN M., a Representative from California. Born on May 12, 1926. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th through 102nd Congresses; served from January 3, 1981, to January 3, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 100th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. District of Columbia

97th-102nd

H. Foreign Affairs

97th-102nd

H. Science and Technology

97th-98th

H. Post Office and Civil Service

98th-102nd

H. Education and Labor

99th

EDWARDS, DONNA F., a Representative from Maryland. Born on June 28, 1958. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Albert Wynn; reelected to the 111th and 112th Congresses; has served since June 19, 2008.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Science and Technology / H. Science, Space and Technology

110th-112th

H. Transportation and Infrastructure

110t h -112th

H. Ethics

112th

ELLIOTT, ROBERT B., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on August 11, 1842; died on August 9, 1884. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd and 43rd Congresses; served from March 4, 1871, until his resignation on November 1, 1874.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor

42nd-43rd

H. Militia

43rd

ELLISON, KEITH, a Representative from Minnesota. Born on August 4, 1963. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 4, 2007. First African American Member of Congress from Minnesota. First Muslim Member of Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Financial Services

110th-112th

H. Judiciary

110th

H. Foreign Affairs

111th

ESPY, ALBERT MICHAEL (MIKE), a Representative from Mississippi. Born on November 28, 1953. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 103rd Congresses. Served from January 6, 1987, to January 25, 1993, when he resigned to become secretary of agriculture.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Agriculture

100th-102nd

H. Budget

101st-102nd

H. Select Hunger

101st-102nd

Jt. Deficit Reduction

100th

EVANS, MELVYN H., a Delegate from the Virgin Islands. Born on August 7, 1917; died on November 27, 1984. Elected as a Republican to the 96th Congress; served from January 3, 1979, to January 3, 1981. First African American Delegate from the Virgin Islands.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Armed Services

96th

H. Interior and Insular Affairs

96th

H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries

96th

FATTAH, CHAKA, a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on November 21, 1956. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1995.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform

104th-106th

H. Economic and Educational Opportunities

104th

H. Education and the Workforce

105th-106th

H. Small Business

104th

H. Standards of Official Conduct

105th-106th

H. Administration

106th-107th

Jt. Printing

106th-107th

H. Appropriations

107th-112th

FAUNTROY, WALTER E., a Delegate from the District of Columbia. Born on February 6, 1933. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd Congress in a special election after the District of Columbia was authorized to elect a delegate to Congress; reelected to the 93rd through 101st Congresses; served from April 19, 1971, to January 3, 1991. First African American Delegate from the District of Columbia. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 97th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. District of Columbia

92nd-101st

H. Banking and Currency / H. Banking, Currency, and Housing

93rd -94th

H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs

95th-101st

H. Select Assassinations

94th-95th

H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control

98th-101st

FIELDS, CLEO, a Representative from Louisiana. Born on November 22, 1962. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd and 104th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 1997. At age 30, he was the youngest Member of the 103rd Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs

103rd

H. Banking and Financial Services

104th

H. Small Business

103rd-104th

FLAKE, FLOYD H., a Representative from New York. Born on January 30, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 105th Congresses; served from January 6, 1987, to November 15, 1997, when he resigned from the House.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs

100th-103rd

H. Banking and Financial Services

104th-105th

H. Small Business

100th-105th

H. Government Operations

103rd

H. Select Children, Youth, and Families

100th

H. Select Hunger

100th-102nd

FORD, HAROLD E. Sr., a Representative from Tennessee. Born on May 20, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 94th through 104th Congresses; served from January 3, 1975, to January 3, 1997. First African American Member of Congress from Tennessee. Succeeded by his son, Harold E. Ford Jr.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Veterans' Affairs

94th

H. Banking, Currency, and Housing

94th

H. Ways and Means

94th-104th

H. Select Aging

94th-102nd

H. Select Assassinations

94th-95th

FORD, HAROLD E. Jr., a Representative from Tennessee. Born on May 11, 1970. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 109th Congresses; served from January 7, 1997, to January 3, 2007. At age 26, he was the youngest Member of the 105th Congress. Succeeded his father, Harold E. Ford Sr.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and the Workforce

105th-107th

H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform

105th-106th

H. Financial Services

107th-109th

H. Budget

108th-109th

FRANKS, GARY A., a Representative from Connecticut. Born on February 9, 1953. Elected as a Republican to the 102nd through 104th Congresses; served from January 3, 1991, to January 3, 1997. First African American Member of Congress from Connecticut.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Armed Services

102nd

H. Small Business

102nd

H. Energy and Commerce

103rd

H. Commerce

104th

H. Select Committee on Aging

102nd

FRAZER, VICTOR O., a Delegate from the U.S. Virgin Islands. Born on May 24, 1943. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress; served from January 3, 1995, to January 3, 1997.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. International Relations

104th

FUDGE, MARCIA L., a representative from Ohio. Born on October 29, 1952. Elected as Democrat to the 111th Congress and also to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Stephanie Tubbs Jones; reelected to the 112th Congress; has served since November 19, 2008.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor

111th

H. Science and Technology / H. Science, Space and Technology

111th-112th

H. Agriculture

112th

GRAY, WILLIAM H. III, a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on August 20, 1941. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th through 102nd Congresses; served from January 3, 1979, to September 11, 1991, when he resigned to become president of the United Negro College Fund. Chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the First Session of the 101st Congress; later in that Congress House Democratic whip (through the First Session of the 102nd Congress).

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Budget (committee chair, 99th-100th)

96th, 98th-100th

H. District of Columbia

96th-102nd

H. Foreign Affairs

96th

H. Appropriations

97th-102nd

H. House Administration

102nd

Jt. Deficit Reduction

100th

GREEN, AL, a Representative from Texas. Born on September 1, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 109th through the 112th Congress; has served since January 4, 2005.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Financial Services

109th-112th

H. Science

109th

H. Homeland Security

H. Foreign Affairs

110th-111th

111th

HALL, KATIE B., a Representative from Indiana. Born on April 3, 1938. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Adam Benjamin; reelected to the 98th Congress; served from November 29, 1982, to January 3, 1985. First African American Member of Congress from Indiana.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Post Office and Civil Service

98th

H. Public Works and Transportation

98th

HARALSON, JEREMIAH, a Representative from Alabama. Born on April 1, 1846, died in 1916. Elected as a Republican to the 44th Congress; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1877.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Public Expenditures

44th

HASTINGS, ALCEE L., a Representative from Florida. Born on September 5, 1936. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Foreign Affairs

103rd

H. International Relations

104th-107th

H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries

103rd

H. Post Office and Civil Service

103rd

H. Science

104th-105th

H. Select Intelligence

106th-111th

H. Rules

107th-112th

H. Standards of Official Conduct

110th

HAWKINS, AUGUSTUS F., a Representative from California. Born on August 31, 1907; died on November 10, 2007. Elected as a Democrat to the 88th through 101st Congresses; served from January 3, 1963, to January 3, 1991. First African American Member of Congress from California.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor (committee chair, 98th, 2nd sess. 101st)

88th-101st

H. House Administration (committee chair, 97th- 98th, 2nd sess.)

91st-98th

Jt. Committee on Printing (committee chair, 96th, 98th)

95th-98th

Jt. Committee on the Library (committee chair, 97th)

97th-98th

Jt. Economic

97th-101st

HAYES, CHARLES A., a Representative from Illinois. Born on February 17, 1918; died on April 8, 1997. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Harold Washington; reelected to the 99th through 102nd Congresses; served from September 12, 1983, to January 3, 1993.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor

98th-102nd

H. Small Business

98th-101st

H. Post Office and Civil Service

101st-102nd

HILLIARD, EARL F., a Representative from Alabama. Born on April 9, 1942. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 107th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 2003.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Agriculture

103rd-107th

H. Small Business

103rd-104th

H. International Relations

105th-107th

HYMAN, JOHN ADAMS, a Representative from North Carolina. Born on July 23, 1840; died on September 14, 1891. Elected as a Republican to the 44th Congress; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1877. First African American Member of Congress from North Carolina.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Manufactures

44th

JACKSON, JESSE L. Jr., a Representative from Illinois. Born on March 11, 1965. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Melvin Reynolds; reelected to the 105th through 112th Congresses; served from December 14, 1995 to November 21, 2012, when he resigned.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking and Financial Services

104th-105th

H. Small Business

105th

H. Appropriations

106th-112th

JACKSON LEE, SHEILA, a Representative from Texas. Born on January 12, 1950. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1995.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Judiciary

104th-112th

H. Science

104th-109th

H. Homeland Security

H. Foreign Affairs

108th-112th

110th-111th

JEFFERSON, WILLIAM J., a Representative from Louisiana. Born on March 14, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 110th Congresses; served from January 3, 1991, to January 3, 2009.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor

102nd

H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries

102nd

H. District of Columbia

103rd

H. Ways and Means

103rd, 105th-109th

H. National Security

104th

H. House Oversight

104th

H. Budget

H. Small Business

109th

110th

Jt. Printing

104th

JOHNSON, EDDIE BERNICE, a Representative from Texas. Born on December 3, 1935. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 107th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Public Works and Transportation

103rd

H. Transportation and Infrastructure

104th-111th

H. Science, Space, and Technology / H. Science and Technology/ H. Science

(ranking Member, 112th)

103rd -112th

JOHNSON, HENRY C. (HANK) Jr., a Representative from Georgia. Born on October 2, 1954. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 4, 2007.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Armed Services

110th-112th

H. Judiciary

110th-112th

H. Small Business

110th

JONES, STEPHANIE TUBBS, a Representative from Ohio. Born on September 10, 1949; died in office August 20, 2008. Elected as a Democrat to the 106th through 110th Congresses; served from January 3, 1999, to August 20, 2008.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking and Financial Services

106th

H. Financial Services

107th

H. Small Business

106th

H. Standards of Official Conduct (committee chair, 110th)

107th-110th

H. Ways and Means

108th-110th

JORDAN, BARBARA C., a Representative from Texas. Born on February 21, 1936; died on January 17, 1996. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 95th Congresses; served from January 3, 1973, to January 3, 1979. First African American Member of Congress from Texas.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Judiciary

93rd-95th

H. Government Operations

94th-95th

KILPATRICK, CAROLYN CHEEKS, a Representative from Michigan. Born on June 25, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th through 111th Congresses; served from January 7, 1997, to January 3, 2011. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 110th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking and Financial Services

105th

H. House Oversight

105th

Jt. Committee on the Library

105th

H. Appropriations

106th-111th

LANGSTON, JOHN M., a Representative from Virginia. Born on December 14, 1829; died on November 15, 1897. Elected as a Republican to the 51st Congress; served from September 23, 1890, to March 3, 1891, after he successfully contested the election of Edward Venable. First African American Member of Congress from Virginia.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education

51st

LEE, BARBARA, a Representative from California. Born on July 16, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Ronald Dellums; reelected to the 106th through 112th Congresses; has served since April 20, 1998. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 111th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking and Financial Services

105th-106th

H. Financial Services

107th-109th

H. Science

105th

H. International Relations

106th-109th

H. Appropriations

H. Foreign Affairs

110th -112th

111th

LELAND, GEORGE T. (MICKEY), a Representative from Texas. Born on November 27, 1944; died in a airplane crash on August 7, 1989, while touring Ethiopian refugee camps. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th through 101st Congresses; served from January 3, 1979, to August 7, 1989. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 99th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. District of Columbia

96th-99th

H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce

96th-101st

H. Post Office and Civil Service

96th-101st

H. Select Hunger (committee chair, 98th-101st)

98th-101st

H. Select Children, Youth, and Families

98th

LEWIS, JOHN R., a Representative from Georgia. Born on February 19, 1940. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 6, 1987. A Democratic chief deputy whip in the 102nd through 109th Congresses; senior chief deputy Democratic whip in the 110th through 112th Congresses.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Public Works and Transportation

100th-102nd

H. Interior and Insular Affairs

100th-102nd

H. Select Aging

101st-102nd

H. District of Columbia

103rd

H. Ways and Means

103rd-112th

H. Budget

108th

LONG, JEFFERSON F., a Representative from Georgia. Born on March 3, 1836; died on February 5, 1900. Elected as a Republican to the 41st Congress after the House declared that Representative Samuel Gove was not entitled to his seat; served from January 16, 1871, to March 3, 1871. First African American Member of Congress from Georgia.

Committee Assignments

Congress

None

LYNCH, JOHN R., a Representative from Mississippi. Born on September 10, 1847; died on November 2, 1939. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd, 44th, and 47th Congresses; served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1877, and from April 29, 1882, to March 3, 1883, after he successfully contested the election of Representative James Chalmers. At age 26, he was the youngest Member of the 43rd Congress. First African American Member of the House of Representatives from Mississippi.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Mines and Mining

43rd-44th

H. Militia

47th

H. Education and Labor

47th

MAJETTE, DENISE L., a Representative from Georgia. Born on May 18, 1955. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th Congress; served from January 7, 2003, to January 3, 2005.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Budget

108th

H. Education and the Workforce

108th

H. Small Business

108th

McKINNEY, CYNTHIA A., a Representative from Georgia. Born on March 17, 1955. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 107th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 2003; elected to the 109th Congress; served from January 4, 2005, to January 3, 2007.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Agriculture

103rd

H. Foreign Affairs

103rd

H. International Relations

104th-107th

H. Banking and Financial Services

104th-105th

H. National Security

105th

H. Armed Services

106th-107th, 109th

H. Budget

109th

MEEK, CARRIE P., a Representative from Florida. Born on April 29, 1926. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 107th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 2003. Succeeded by her son, Representative Kendrick Meek.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Appropriations

103rd, 105th-107th

H. Budget

104th

H. Government Reform and Oversight

104th

MEEK, KENDRICK, a Representative from Florida. Born on September 6, 1966. Elected to the 108th through 111th Congresses; served from January 7, 2003, to January 3, 2011. Succeeded his mother, Representative Carrie Meek.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Armed Services

108th-110th

H. Homeland Security

H. Ways and Means

108th-109th

110th-111th

MEEKS, GREGORY, a Representative from New York. Born on September 25, 1953. Elected as a Democrat to the 105th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Floyd Flake; reelected to the 106th through 112th Congresses; has served since February 5, 1998.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking and Financial Services

105th-106th

H. Financial Services

107th-112th

H. International Relations

106th-109th

H. Foreign Affairs

110th-112th

METCALFE, RALPH H., a Representative from Illinois. Born on May 30, 1910; died on October 10, 1978. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 95th Congresses; served from January 3, 1971, to October 10, 1978.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce

92nd-95th

H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries

92nd-95th

H. Post Office and Civil Service

95th

MFUME, KWEISI, a Representative from Maryland. Born on October 24, 1948. Elected as a Democrat to the 100th through 104th Congresses; served from January 6, 1987, to February 16, 1996, when he resigned to become executive director of the NAACP. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 103rd Congress. Co-chair of the Democratic Policy Committee in the 104th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs

100th-103rd

H. Banking and Financial Services

104th

H. Small Business

100th-104th

H. Education and Labor

101st

H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control

101st-102nd

Jt. Economic

102nd-104th

H. Standards of Official Conduct

103rd

H. Select Hunger

100th

MILLENDER-McDONALD, JUANITA, a Representative from California. Born on September 7, 1938; died in office on April 22, 2007. Elected as a Democrat to the 104th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Walter Tucker; reelected to the 105th through 110th Congresses; served from April 16, 1996, to April 22, 2007.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Small Business

104th-110th

H. Transportation and Infrastructure

104th-109th

H. Administration (committee chair, 110th,1st sess.; ranking Member 109th)

108th-110th

Jt. Library (committee chair, 110th,1st session)

108th, 110th

Jt. Printing (committee chair, 110th, 1st sess.)

110th

MILLER, THOMAS E., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on June 17, 1849; died on April 8, 1936. Elected as a Republican to the 51st Congress, when he successfully contested the election of William Elliott; served from September 24, 1890, to March 3, 1891.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Library of Congress

51st

MITCHELL, ARTHUR W., a Representative from Illinois. Born on December 22, 1883; died on May 9, 1968. Elected as a Democrat to the 74th through 77th Congresses; served from January 3, 1935, to January 3, 1943. First African American Democrat elected to Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Post Office and Post Roads

74th-77th

MITCHELL, PARREN J., a Representative from Maryland. Born on April 29, 1922; died May 28, 2007. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 99th Congresses; served from January 3, 1971, to January 3, 1987. First African American Member of Congress from Maryland. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 95th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking and Currency

92nd-93rd

H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs

94th-99th

H. Select Small Business

92nd-93rd

H. Small Business (committee chair, 97th-99th)

94th, 96th-99th

H. Budget

93rd-95th

Jt. Defense Production

94th-95th

Jt. Economic (vice chair, 95th)

95th-99th

MOORE, GWEN, a Representative from Wisconsin. Born on April 18, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 109th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 4, 2005. First African American Member of Congress from Wisconsin.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Financial Services

109th-112th

H. Small Business

H. Budget

109th-110th

110th-112th

MOSELEY-BRAUN, CAROL, a Senator from Illinois. Born on August 16, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to a six-year term beginning with the 103rd Congress and served from January 5, 1993, to January 3, 1999. First African American woman and African American Democrat to serve in the Senate; candidate for U.S. President in 2004.

Committee Assignments

Congress

S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

103rd-105th

S. Judiciary

103rd

S. Small Business

103rd

S. Finance

104th-105th

S. Special Aging

104th-105th

MURRAY, GEORGE W., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on September 22, 1853; died on April 21, 1926. Elected as a Republican to the 53rd and 54th Congresses; served from March 4, 1893, to March 3, 1895, and from June 4, 1896, to March 3, 1897 (successfully contested an election).

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education

53rd-54th

H. Expenditures in the Treasury Department

54th

NASH, CHARLES E., a Representative from Louisiana. Born on May 23, 1844; died on June 21, 1913. Elected as a Republican to the 44th Congress; served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1877. First African American Member of Congress from Louisiana.

Committee Assignment

Congress

H. Education and Labor

44th

NIX, ROBERT N.C. Sr., a Representative from Pennsylvania. Born on August 9, 1905; died on June 22, 1987. Elected as a Democrat to the 85th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Earl Chudoff; reelected to the 86th through 95th Congresses; served from June 4, 1958, to January 3, 1979. First African American Member of Congress from Pennsylvania.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries

85th-86th

H. Foreign Affairs

87th-93rd

H. International Relations

94th-95th

H. Veterans' Affairs

85th-86th

H. Post Office and Civil Service (committee chair, 95th)

88th-95th

H. Select Standards and Conduct

89th

H. Crime

91st

NORTON, ELEANOR HOLMES, a Delegate from the District of Columbia. Born on June 13, 1937. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1991.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. District of Columbia

102nd-103rd

H. Post Office and Civil Service

102nd-103rd

H. Public Works and Transportation

102nd-103rd

H. Transportation and Infrastructure

104th-112th

H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform

104th-109th

H. Oversight and Government Reform

110th-112th

H. Small Business

104th

Jt. Committee on the Organization of Congress

102nd-103rd

H. Homeland Security

108th-111th

OBAMA, BARACK, a Senator from Illinois. Born on August 4, 1961. Elected as a Democrat to a six-year term beginning with the 109th Congress; served from January 4, 2005, until November 16, 2008, when he resigned after being elected first African American President of the United States.

Committee Assignments

Congress

S. Environment and Public Works

109th-110th

S. Foreign Relations

109th-110th

S. Veterans' Affairs

109th-110th

S. Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions

110th

S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

110th

O'HARA, JAMES E., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on February 26, 1844; died on September 15, 1905. Elected as a Republican to the 48th and 49th Congresses; served from March 4, 1883, to March 3, 1887.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Mines and Mining

48th

H. Expenditures on Public Buildings

49th

H. Invalid Pensions

49th

OWENS, MAJOR R., a Representative from New York. Born on June 28, 1936. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th through 110th Congresses; served from January 3, 1983, to January 3, 2007.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor / H. Education and the Workforce

98th-103rd,, 105th-109th

H. Economic and Educational Opportunities

104th

H. Government Operations

98th-103rd

H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform

104th-109th

PAYNE, DONALD M., a Representative from New Jersey. Born on July 16, 1934; died in office on March 6, 2012. Succeeded by his son, Donald M. Payne, Jr. Elected as a Democrat to the 101st through 112th Congresses; served from January 3, 1989, to March 6, 2012. First African American Member of Congress from New Jersey. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 104th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor / H. Education and the Workforce

101st-103rd, 105th-109th, 111th-112th

H. Economic and Educational Opportunities

104th

H. Foreign Affairs

101st-103rd, 111th -112th

H. International Relations

104th-109th

H. Government Operations

101st-103rd

PAYNE, DONALD M. Jr., a Representative from New Jersey. Born on December 16, 1958. Elected as a Democrat to the 112th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of his father, Representative Donald Payne, Sr.; has served since November 15, 2012.

Committee Assignments

Congress

None yet

 

 

 

 

 

POWELL, ADAM CLAYTON Jr., a Representative from New York. Born on November 29, 1908; died on April 4, 1972. Elected as a Democrat to the 79th through 90th Congresses, but was not seated in the 90th Congress (excluded from that Congress on March 1, 1967). He served from January 3, 1945, to January 3, 1967. In April 1967, he was reelected in a special election to the seat from which he had been excluded, but he did not attempt to take the oath of office. He was reelected to the 91st Congress and served from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 1971. First African American Member of Congress from New York.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Indian Affairs

79th

H. Invalid Pensions

79th

H. Labor

79th

H. Education and Labor (committee chair, 87th-89th)

80th-89th, 91st

H. Interior and Insular Affairs

84th-86th

RAINEY, JOSEPH H., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on June 21, 1832; died on August 2, 1887. Elected as a Republican to the 41st Congress when the House declared the seat of Representative Benjamin Whittemore vacant; reelected to the 42nd through 45th Congresses; served from December 12, 1870, to March 3, 1879. First African American Member of the House of Representatives and first African American Member of Congress from South Carolina.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Freedmen's Affairs

41st-42nd

H. Indian Affairs

43rd

H. Invalid Pensions

44th-45th

H. Select Celebration of Proposed National Census of 1875

43rd

RANGEL, CHARLES B., a Representative from New York. Born on June 11, 1930. Elected as a Democrat to the 92nd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1971. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 94th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Public Works

92nd

H. Science and Astronautics

92nd

H. Judiciary

92nd-93rd

H. District of Columbia

93rd

H. Ways and Means (committee chair, 110th and 111th; ranking Member, 105th-109th)

94th-112th

H. Select Crime

92nd-93rd

H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (committee chair, 98th-102nd)

94th-102nd

Jt. Taxation

104th-105th, 111th

RANSIER, ALONZO J., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on January 3, 1834; died on August 17, 1882. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd Congress; served from March 3, 1873, to March 3, 1875.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Manufactures

43rd

RAPIER, JAMES T., a Representative from Alabama. Born on November 13, 1837; died on May 31, 1883. Elected as a Republican to the 43rd Congress; served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875.

Committee Assignment

Congress

H. Education and Labor

43rd

REVELS, HIRAM RHODES, a Senator from Mississippi. Born on September 27, 1827; died on January 16, 1901. Elected as a Republican to the 41st Congress after Mississippi was readmitted to the union, and served from February 25, 1870, to March 3, 1871. First African American Member of Congress; first African American Senator; first African American Republican elected to Congress; first African American Member of Congress from Mississippi.

Committee Assignments

Congress

S. Education and Labor

41st

S. District of Columbia

41st

REYNOLDS, MELVIN J., a Representative from Illinois. Born on January 8, 1952. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd and 104th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, until his resignation on October 1, 1995.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Ways and Means

103rd

H. Economic and Educational Opportunities

104th

RICHARDSON, LAURA, a Representative from California. Born on April 14, 1962. Elected as a Democrat to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Juanita Millender-McDonald; reelected to the 111th and 112th Congresses; has served since September 4, 2007.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Science and Technology

H. Transportation and Infrastructure

H. Homeland Security

110th

110th-112th

111th-112th

RICHMOND, CEDRIC L, a Representative from Louisiana. Born on September 13, 1973. Elected as a Democrat to the 112th Congress; has served since January 3, 2011.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Homeland Security

H. Small Business

112th

112th

RUSH, BOBBY L., a Representative from Illinois. Born on November 23, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs

103rd

H. Government Operations

103rd

H. Science, Space, and Technology

103rd

H. Commerce

104th-106th

H. Energy and Commerce

107th-112th

SAVAGE, GUS, a Representative from Illinois. Born on October 30, 1925. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th through 102nd Congresses; served from January 3, 1981, to January 3, 1993.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Post Office and Civil Service

97th

H. Public Works and Transportation

97th-102nd

H. Small Business

97th-102nd

SCOTT, DAVID, a Representative from Georgia. Born on June 27, 1946. Elected as a Democrat to the 108th-112th Congresses; has served since January 7, 2003.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Agriculture

108th-112th

H. Financial Services

H. Foreign Affairs

H. Standards of Official Conduct

108th-112th

111th

110th

SCOTT, ROBERT C., a Representative from Virginia. Born on April 30, 1947. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor

H. Economic and Educational Opportunities

103rd, 110th-112th

104th

H. Education and the Workforce

105th-107th, 109th

H. Judiciary

103rd-112th

H. Science, Space, and Technology

103rd

H. Select U.S. National …Concerns with the People's Republic of China

106th

H. Budget

108th, 110th-111th

SCOTT, TIM E., a Representative from South Carolina. Born on September 19, 1965. Elected as a Republican to the 112th Congress; has served since January 3, 2011. An assistant majority whip, 112th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Rules

112th

SEWELL, TERRYCINA "TERRI", a Representative from Alabama. Born on January 1, 1965. Elected as a Democrat to the 112th Congress; has served since January 3, 2011. A senior Democratic whip, 112th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Agriculture

112th

H. Science, Space and Technology

112th

SMALLS, ROBERT, a Representative from South Carolina. Born on April 5, 1839; died on February 22, 1915. Elected as a Republican to the 44th, 45th, and 47th through 49th Congresses. He served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1879; from July 19, 1882, to March 3, 1883, after he successfully contested the reelection of Representative George Tillman; and from March 18, 1884, to March 3, 1887, after he was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Edmund Mackey.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Agriculture

44th, 47th

H. Militia

45th

H. Manufactures

48th

H. War Claims

49th

STEWART, BENNETT M., a Representative from Illinois. Born on August 6, 1912; died on April 26, 1988. Elected as a Democrat to the 96th Congress; served from January 3, 1979, to January 3, 1981.

Committee Assignment

Congress

H. Appropriations

96th

STOKES, LOUIS, a Representative from Ohio. Born on February 23, 1925. Elected as a Democrat to the 91st through 105th Congresses; served from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 1999. First African American Member of Congress from Ohio. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 92nd and 93rd Congresses.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor

91st

H. Internal Security

91st

H. Appropriations

92nd-105th

H. Budget

95th-96th

H. Standards of Official Conduct (committee chair, 97th-98th, 102nd)

96th-98th, 102nd

H. Select Assassinations (committee chair, 95th)

94th-95th

H. Select Intelligence

98th-100th

H. Select to Investigate Arms Transactions to Iran

100th

THOMPSON, BENNIE G., a Representative from Mississippi. Born on January 28, 1948. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by resignation of Representative Mike Espy; reelected to the 104th through 112th Congresses; has served since April 20, 1993.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Agriculture

103rd-108th

H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries

103rd

H. Small Business

103rd-104th

H. Budget

105th-107th

H. Homeland Security (committee chair, 110th and 111th; ranking Member, 112th)

108th-112th

TOWNS, EDOLPHUS, a Representative from New York. Born on July 21, 1934. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th through 112th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1983. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 102nd Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Government Operations

98th-103rd

H. Government Reform and Oversight / H. Government Reform

104th-109th

H. Oversight and Government Reform (committee chair, 111th)

110th-112th

H. Public Works and Transportation

98th-104th

H. Energy and Commerce

101st-103rd, 107th-110th, 112th

H. Commerce

104th-106th

H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control

98th-102nd

TUCKER, WALTER R. III, a Representative from California. Born on May 28, 1957. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd and 104th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, until his resignation on December 15, 1995.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Public Works and Transportation

103rd

H. Small Business

103rd-104th

H. Transportation and Infrastructure

104th

TURNER, BENJAMIN S., a Representative from Alabama. Born on March 17, 1825; died on March 21, 1894. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd Congress; served from March 4, 1871, to March 3, 1873. First African American Member of Congress from Alabama.

Committee Assignment

Congress

H. Invalid Pensions

42nd

WALDON, ALTON R. Jr., a Representative from New York. Born on December 21, 1936. Elected as a Democrat to the 99th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Joseph Addabbo; served from July 29, 1986, to January 3, 1987.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor

99th

H. Small Business

99th

WALLS, JOSIAH T., a Representative from Florida. Born on December 30, 1842; died on May 5, 1905. Elected as a Republican to the 42nd through 44th Congresses; served from March 4, 1871, to January 29, 1873 (when his election was successfully contested); from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875; and from March 4, 1875, to April 19, 1876 (when his election was successfully contested). First African American Member of Congress from Florida.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Militia

42nd-43rd

H. Mileage

44th

WASHINGTON, CRAIG A., a Representative from Texas. Born on October 12, 1941. Elected as a Democrat to the 101st Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative Mickey Leland; reelected to the 102nd and 103rd Congresses; served from December 9, 1989, to January 3, 1995.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Education and Labor

101st-102nd

H. Judiciary

101st-103rd

H. Energy and Commerce

103rd

H. Government Operations

103rd

H. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control

102nd

WASHINGTON, HAROLD D., a Representative from Illinois. Born on April 15, 1922; died on November 25, 1987. Elected as a Democrat to the 97th and 98th Congresses; served from January 3, 1981, to April 29, 1983, when he resigned to become mayor of Chicago.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Government Operations

97th

H. Education and Labor

97th-98th

H. Judiciary

97th-98th

WATERS, MAXINE, a Representative from California. Born on August 31, 1938. Elected as a Democrat to the 102nd through 112th Congresses, has served since January 3, 1991. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 105th Congress; vice chair of the Democratic Steering Committee in the 105th through 108th Congresses; a Democratic chief deputy whip in the 106th through 112th Congresses.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs

102nd-103rd

H. Banking and Financial Services

104th-106th

H. Financial Services

107th-112th

H. Veterans Affairs

102nd-104th

H. Small Business

103rd-104th

H. Judiciary

105th-112th

WATSON, DIANE E., a Representative from California. Born on November 12, 1933. Elected as a Democrat to the 107th Congress to fill vacancy caused by the death of Representative Julian Dixon; reelected to the 108th-111th Congresses; served from June 7, 2001, to January 3, 2011. U.S. ambassador to Micronesia from 1999 to 2001.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. International Relations

H. Foreign Affairs

107th-109th

110th-111th

H. Government Reform / H. Oversight and Government Reform

107th-111th

WATT, MELVIN L., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on August 26, 1945. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 112th Congresses; has served since January 5, 1993. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 109th Congress.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs

103rd

H. Banking and Financial Services

104th-106th

H. Financial Services

107th-112th

H. Post Office and Civil Service

103rd

H. Judiciary

103rd-112th

Jt. Economic

107th-108th

WATTS, J.C. Jr., a Representative from Oklahoma. Born on November 18, 1957. Elected as a Republican to the 104th through 107th Congresses; served from January 3, 1995, to January 3, 2003. First African American Member of Congress from Oklahoma. Chair of the House Republican Conference in the 106th through 107th Congresses.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking and Financial Services

104th

H. National Security

104th-105th

H. Transportation and Infrastructure

105th-106th

H. Armed Services

106th-107th

WEST, ALLEN B., a Representative from Florida. Born on February 7, 1961. Elected as a Republican to the 112th Congress; served from January 3, 2011, to present.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Armed Services

112th

H. Small Business

112th

WHEAT, ALAN D., a Representative from Missouri. Born on October 16, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 98th through 103rd Congresses; served from January 3, 1983, to January 3, 1995.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. District of Columbia

98th-103rd

H. Rules

98th-103rd

H. Select Children, Youth, and Families

98th-102nd

H. Select Hunger

101st-102nd

WHITE, GEORGE H., a Representative from North Carolina. Born on December 18, 1852; died on December 28, 1918. Elected as a Republican to the 55th and 56th Congresses; served from March 4, 1897, to March 3, 1901.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Agriculture

55th

H. District of Columbia

55th-56th

WILSON, FREDERICA S., a Representative from Florida. Born on November 5, 1942. Elected as a Democrat to the 112th Congress; has served since January 3, 2011.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Foreign Affairs

H. Science, Space and Technology

112th

112th

WYNN, ALBERT R., a Representative from Maryland. Born on September 10, 1951. Elected as a Democrat to the 103rd through 110th Congresses; served from January 5, 1993, to May 31, 2008.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs

103rd

H. Banking and Financial Services

104th

H. Foreign Affairs

103rd

H. International Relations

104th

H. Post Office and Civil Service

103rd

H. Commerce

105th-106th

H. Energy and Commerce

107th-110th

YOUNG, ANDREW, a Representative from Georgia. Born on March 12, 1932. Elected as a Democrat to the 93rd through 95th Congresses; served from January 3, 1973, to January 29, 1977, when he resigned to become U.S. ambassador to the United Nations.

Committee Assignments

Congress

H. Banking, Currency, and Housing

93rd

H. Rules

94th

 

 

Table 1. Number and Names of African American
Members of Congress, by Congress

No.a

Chamber

Namesb

112th Congress (2011-2013)

44c

House

Karen Bass

Sanford D. Bishop Jr.

Corrine Brown

G.K. Butterfield

André Carson

Donna Christensen

Hansen H. Clarke

Yvette D. Clarke

William Lacy Clay Jr.

Emanuel Cleaver II

James E. Clyburn

John Conyers Jr.

Elijah E. Cummings

Danny K. Davis

Donna F. Edwards

Keith Ellison

Chaka Fattah

Marcia L. Fudge

Al Green

Alcee L. Hastings

Jesse L. Jackson Jr.

Sheila Jackson Lee

Eddie Bernice Johnson

Henry (Hank) Johnson

Barbara Lee

John Lewis

Gregory W. Meeks

Gwen Moore

Eleanor Holmes Norton

Donald M. Payne

Donald M. Payne, Jr.

Charles B. Rangel

Laura Richardson

Cedric L. Richmond

Bobby L. Rush

David Scott

Robert C. Scott

Tim E. Scott

Terrycina "Terri" Sewell

Bennie G. Thompson

Edolphus Towns

Maxine Waters

Melvin L. Watt

Allen B. West

Frederica S. Wilson

 

Senate

None

 

 

111th Congress (2009-2011)

41

House

Sanford D. Bishop Jr.

Corrine Brown

G.K. Butterfield

André Carson

Donna Christensen

Yvette D. Clarke

William Lacy Clay Jr.

Emanuel Cleaver II

James E. Clyburn

John Conyers Jr.

Elijah E. Cummings

Artur Davis

Danny K. Davis

Donna F. Edwards

Keith Ellison

Chaka Fattah

Marcia L. Fudge

Al Green

Alcee L. Hastings

Jesse L. Jackson Jr.

Sheila Jackson Lee

Eddie Bernice Johnson

Henry (Hank) Johnson

Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick

Barbara Lee

John Lewis

Kendrick Meek

Gregory W. Meeks

Gwen Moore

Eleanor Holmes Norton

Donald M. Payne

Charles B. Rangel

Laura Richardson

Bobby L. Rush

David Scott

Robert C. Scott

Bennie G. Thompson

Edolphus Towns

Maxine Waters

Diane E. Watson

Melvin L. Watt

1

Senate

Roland Burris

 

 

110th Congress (2007-2009)

42d

House

Sanford D. Bishop Jr.

Corrine Brown

G.K. Butterfield

André Carson

Julia M. Carson

Donna Christian-Christensen

Yvette D. Clarke

William Lacy Clay Jr.

Emanuel Cleaver II

James E. Clyburn

John Conyers Jr.

Elijah E. Cummings

Artur Davis

Danny K. Davis

Donna F. Edwards

Keith Ellison

Chaka Fattah

Marcia L. Fudge

Al Green

Alcee L. Hastings

Jesse L. Jackson Jr.

Sheila Jackson Lee

William J. Jefferson

Eddie Bernice Johnson

Henry (Hank) Johnson

Stephanie Tubbs Jones

Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick

Barbara Lee

John Lewis

Kendrick Meek

Gregory W. Meeks

Juanita Millender-McDonald

Gwen Moore

Eleanor Holmes Norton

Donald M. Payne

Charles B. Rangel

Laura Richardson

Bobby L. Rush

David Scott

Robert C. Scott

Bennie G. Thompson

Edolphus Towns

Maxine Waters

Diane E. Watson

Melvin L. Watt

Albert R. Wynn

1

Senate

Barack Obama

 

 

109th Congress (2005-2007)

42

House

Sanford D. Bishop Jr.

Corrine Brown

G.K. Butterfield

Julia M. Carson

Donna Christian-Christensen

William Lacy Clay Jr.

Emanuel Cleaver II

James E. Clyburn

John Conyers Jr.

Elijah E. Cummings

Artur Davis

Danny K. Davis

Chaka Fattah

Harold E. Ford Jr.

Al Green

Alcee L. Hastings

Jesse L. Jackson Jr.

Sheila Jackson Lee

William J. Jefferson

Eddie Bernice Johnson

Stephanie Tubbs Jones

Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick

Barbara Lee

John Lewis

Cynthia McKinney

Kendrick Meek

Gregory W. Meeks

Juanita Millender-McDonald

Gwen Moore

Eleanor Holmes Norton

Major R. Owens

Donald M. Payne

Charles B. Rangel

Bobby L. Rush

David Scott

Robert C. Scott

Bennie G. Thompson

Edolphus Towns

Maxine Waters

Diane E. Watson

Melvin L. Watt

Albert R. Wynn

1

Senate

Barack Obama

 

 

108th Congress (2003-2005)

39e

House

Frank W. Ballance Jr.

Sanford D. Bishop Jr.

G.K. Butterfield

Corrine Brown

Andre Carson

Julia M. Carson

Donna Christian-Christensen

William Lacy Clay Jr.

James E. Clyburn

John Conyers Jr.

Elijah E. Cummings

Artur Davis

Danny K. Davis

Chaka Fattah

Harold E. Ford Jr.

Alcee L. Hastings

Jesse L. Jackson Jr.

Sheila Jackson Lee

William J. Jefferson

Eddie Bernice Johnson

Stephanie Tubbs Jones

Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick

Barbara Lee

John Lewis

Denise Majette

Kendrick Meek

Gregory W. Meeks

Juanita Millender-McDonald

Eleanor Holmes Norton

Major R. Owens

Donald M. Payne

Charles B. Rangel

Bobby L. Rush

David Scott

Robert C. Scott

Bennie G. Thompson

Edolphus Towns

Maxine Waters

Diane E. Watson

Melvin L. Watt

Albert R. Wynn

 

Senate

None

 

 

107th Congress (2001-2003)

39f

House

Sanford D. Bishop Jr.

Corrine Brown

Julia Carson

Donna Christian-Christensen

William Lacy Clay Jr.

Eva M. Clayton

James E. Clyburn

John Conyers Jr.

Elijah E. Cummings

Danny K. Davis

Chaka Fattah

Harold E. Ford Jr.

Alcee L. Hastings

Earl Hilliard

Jesse L. Jackson Jr.

Sheila Jackson Lee

William J. Jefferson

Eddie Bernice Johnson

Stephanie Tubbs Jones

Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick

Barbara Lee

John Lewis

Cynthia A. McKinney

Carrie P. Meek

Gregory W. Meeks

Juanita Millender-McDonald

Eleanor Holmes Norton

Major R. Owens

Donald M. Payne

Charles B. Rangel

Bobby L. Rush

Robert C. Scott

Bennie G. Thompson

Edolphus Towns

Maxine Waters

Diane E. Watson

Melvin L. Watt

J.C. Watts Jr.

Albert R. Wynn

 

Senate

None

 

 

106th Congress (1999-2001)

39

House

Sanford D. Bishop Jr.

Corrine Brown

Julia M. Carson

Donna Christian-Christensen

William L. Clay Sr.

Eva M. Clayton

James E. Clyburn

John Conyers Jr.

Elijah Cummings

Danny K. Davis

Julian C. Dixon

Chaka Fattah

Harold E. Ford Jr.

Alcee L. Hastings

Earl Hilliard

Jesse L. Jackson Jr.

Sheila Jackson Lee

William J. Jefferson

Eddie Bernice Johnson

Stephanie Tubbs Jones

Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick

Barbara Lee

John Lewis

Cynthia A. McKinney

Carrie P. Meek

Gregory W. Meeks

Juanita Millender-McDonald

Eleanor Holmes Norton

Major R. Owens

Donald M. Payne

Charles B. Rangel

Bobby L. Rush

Robert C. Scott

Bennie G. Thompson

Edolphus Towns

Maxine Waters

Melvin L. Watt

J.C. Watts Jr.

Albert R. Wynn

 

Senate

None

 

 

105th Congress (1997-1999)

39g

House

Sanford D. Bishop Jr.

Corrine Brown

Julia M. Carson

Donna M. Christian-Green

William L. Clay Sr.

Eva M. Clayton

James E. Clyburn

John Conyers Jr.

Elijah Cummings

Danny K. Davis

Ronald V. Dellums

Julian C. Dixon

Chaka Fattah

Floyd Flake

Harold E. Ford Jr.

Alcee L. Hastings

Earl Hilliard

Jesse L. Jackson Jr.

Sheila Jackson Lee

William J. Jefferson

Eddie Bernice Johnson

Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick

Barbara Lee

John Lewis

Cynthia A. McKinney

Carrie P. Meek

Gregory W. Meeks

Juanita Millender-McDonald

Eleanor Holmes Norton

Major R. Owens

Donald M. Payne

Charles B. Rangel

Bobby Rush

Robert Scott

Louis Stokes

Bennie G. Thompson

Edolphus Towns

Maxine Waters

Melvin L. Watt

J.C. Watts Jr.

Albert R. Wynn

1

Senate

Carol Moseley-Braun

 

 

104th Congress (1995-1997)

40h

House

Sanford D. Bishop Jr.

Corrine Brown

William L. Clay Sr.

Eva M. Clayton

James E. Clyburn

Barbara-Rose Collins

Cardiss Collins

John Conyers Jr.

Elijah E. Cummings

Ronald V. Dellums

Julian C. Dixon

Chaka Fattah

Cleo Fields

Floyd H. Flake

Harold E. Ford Sr.

Gary Franks

Victor Frazer

Alcee L. Hastings

Earl F. Hilliard

Jesse L. Jackson Jr.

William J. Jefferson

Eddie Bernice Johnson

Sheila Jackson Lee

John Lewis

Cynthia A. McKinney

Carrie P. Meek

Kweisi Mfume

Juanita Millender- McDonald

Eleanor Holmes Norton

Major R. Owens

Donald M. Payne

Charles B. Rangel

Melvin J. Reynolds

Bobby L. Rush

Robert Scott

Louis Stokes

Bennie G. Thompson

Edolphus Towns

Walter Tucker

Maxine Waters

Melvin L. Watt

J.C. Watts Jr.

Albert R. Wynn

1

Senate

Carol Moseley-Braun

 

 

103rd Congress (1993-1995)

39i

House

Sanford D. Bishop Jr.

Lucien Blackwell

Corrine Brown

William L. Clay Sr.

Eva M. Clayton

James E. Clyburn

Barbara-Rose Collins

Cardiss Collins

John Conyers Jr.

Ronald V. Dellums

Julian C. Dixon

Mike Espy

Cleo Fields

Floyd H. Flake

Harold E. Ford Sr.

Gary Franks

Earl F. Hilliard

Alcee L. Hastings

William J. Jefferson

Eddie Bernice Johnson

John Lewis

Cynthia A. McKinney

Carrie P. Meek

Kweisi Mfume

Eleanor Holmes Norton

Major R. Owens

Donald M. Payne

Charles B. Rangel

Melvin J. Reynolds

Bobby L. Rush

Robert Scott

Louis Stokes

Bennie G. Thompson

Edolphus Towns

Walter Tucker

Craig Washington

Maxine Waters

Melvin L. Watt

Alan D. Wheat

Albert R. Wynn

1

Senate

Carol Moseley-Braun

 

 

102nd Congress (1991-1993)

27j

House

Lucien Blackwell

William L. Clay Sr.

Eva M. Clayton

Barbara-Rose Collins

Cardiss Collins

John Conyers Jr.

Ronald V. Dellums

Julian C. Dixon

Mervyn M. Dymally

Mike Espy

Floyd H. Flake

Harold E. Ford Sr.

Gary Franks

William H. Gray III

Charles A. Hayes

William J. Jefferson

John Lewis

Kweisi Mfume

Eleanor Holmes Norton

Major R. Owens

Donald M. Payne

Charles B. Rangel

Gus Savage

Louis Stokes

Edolphus Towns

Craig A. Washington

Maxine Waters

Alan D. Wheat

 

Senate

None

 

 

101st Congress (1989-1991)

24k

House

William L. Clay Sr.

Cardiss Collins

John Conyers Jr.

George Crockett

Ronald V. Dellums

Julian C. Dixon

Mervyn M. Dymally

Mike Espy

Walter E. Fauntroy

Floyd H. Flake

Harold E. Ford Sr.

William H. Gray III

Augustus F. Hawkins

Charles A. Hayes

Mickey Leland

John Lewis

Kweisi Mfume

Major R. Owens

Donald M. Payne

Charles B. Rangel

Gus Savage

Louis Stokes

Edolphus Towns

Craig A. Washington

Alan D. Wheat

 

Senate

None

 

 

100th Congress (1987-1989)

23

House

William L. Clay Sr.

Cardiss Collins

John Conyers Jr.

George W. Crockett

Ronald V. Dellums

Julian C. Dixon

Mervyn M. Dymally

Mike Espy

Walter E. Fauntroy

Floyd H. Flake

Harold E. Ford Sr.

William H. Gray III

Augustus F. Hawkins

Charles A. Hayes

Mickey Leland

John Lewis

Kweisi Mfume

Major R. Owens

Charles B. Rangel

Gus Savage

Louis Stokes

Edolphus Towns

Alan D. Wheat

 

Senate

None

 

 

99th Congress (1985-1987)

21

House

William L. Clay Sr.

Cardiss Collins

John Conyers Jr.

George W. Crockett

Ronald V. Dellums

Julian C. Dixon

Mervyn M. Dymally

Walter E. Fauntroy

Harold E. Ford Sr.

William H. Gray III

Augustus F. Hawkins

Charles A. Hayes

Mickey Leland

Parren J. Mitchell

Major R. Owens

Charles B. Rangel

Gus Savage

Louis Stokes

Edolphus Towns

Alton Waldon Jr.

Alan D. Wheat

 

Senate

None

 

 

98th Congress (1983-1985)

21l

House

William L. Clay Sr.

Cardiss Collins

John Conyers Jr.

George W. Crockett

Ronald V. Dellums

Julian C. Dixon

Mervyn M. Dymally

Walter E. Fauntroy

Harold E. Ford Sr.

William H. Gray III

Katie Hall

Augustus F. Hawkins

Charles A. Hayes

Mickey Leland

Parren J. Mitchell

Major R. Owens

Charles B. Rangel

Gus Savage

Louis Stokes

Edolphus Towns

Harold D. Washington

Alan D. Wheat

 

Senate

None

 

 

97th Congress (1981-1983)

19

House

Shirley A. Chisholm

William L. Clay Sr.

Cardiss Collins

John Conyers Jr.

George W. Crockett

Ronald V. Dellums

Julian C. Dixon

Mervyn M. Dymally

Walter E. Fauntroy

Harold E. Ford Sr.

William H. Gray III

Katie B. Hall

Augustus F. Hawkins

Mickey Leland

Parren J. Mitchell

Charles R. Rangel

Gus Savage

Louis Stokes

Harold D. Washington

 

Senate

None

 

 

96th Congress (1979-1981)

17m

House

Shirley A. Chisholm

William L. Clay Sr.

Cardiss Collins

John Conyers Jr.

George W. Crockett

Ronald V. Dellums

Charles C. Diggs Jr.

Julian C. Dixon

Melvin H. Evans

Walter E. Fauntroy

Harold E. Ford Sr.

William H. Gray III

Augustus F. Hawkins

Mickey Leland

Parren J. Mitchell

Charles B. Rangel

Bennett M. Stewart

Louis Stokes

 

Senate

None

 

 

95th Congress (1977-1979)

17

House

Yvonne B. Burke

Shirley A. Chisholm

William L. Clay Sr.

Cardiss Collins

John Conyers Jr.

Ronald V. Dellums

Charles C. Diggs Jr.

Walter E. Fauntroy

Harold E. Ford Sr.

Augustus F. Hawkins

Barbara C. Jordan

Ralph H. Metcalfe

Parren J. Mitchell

Robert N.C. Nix Sr.

Charles B. Rangel

Louis Stokes

Andrew J. Young

1

Senate

Edward W. Brooke

 

 

94th Congress (1975-1977)

17

House

Yvonne B. Burke

Shirley A. Chisholm

William L. Clay Sr.

Cardiss Collins

John Conyers Jr.

Ronald V. Dellums

Charles C. Diggs Jr.

Walter E. Fauntroy

Harold E. Ford Sr.

Augustus F. Hawkins

Barbara C. Jordan

Ralph W. Metcalfe

Parren J. Mitchell

Robert N.C. Nix Sr.

Charles B. Rangel

Louis Stokes

Andrew J. Young

1

Senate

Edward W. Brooke

 

 

93rd Congress (1973-1975)

16

House

Yvonne B. Burke

Shirley A. Chisholm

William L. Clay Sr.

Cardiss Collins

John Conyers Jr.

Ronald V. Dellums

Charles C. Diggs Jr.

Walter E. Fauntroy

Augustus F. Hawkins

Barbara C. Jordan

Ralph H. Metcalfe

Parren J. Mitchell

Robert N.C. Nix Sr.

Charles B. Rangel

Louis Stokes

Andrew J. Young

1

Senate

Edward W. Brooke

 

 

92nd Congress (1971-1973)

13

House

Shirley A. Chisholm

William L. Clay Sr.

George W. Collins

John Conyers Jr.

Ronald V. Dellums

Charles C. Diggs Jr.

Walter E. Fauntroy

Augustus F. Hawkins

Ralph H. Metcalfe

Parren J. Mitchell

Robert N.C. Nix Sr.

Charles B. Rangel

Louis Stokes

1

Senate

Edward W. Brooke

 

 

91st Congress (1969-1971)

10

House

Shirley A. Chisholm

William L. Clay Sr.

George W. Collins

Augustus F. Hawkins

John Conyers Jr.

William L. Dawson

Charles C. Diggs Jr.

Robert N.C. Nix

Adam C. Powell Jr.

Louis Stokes

1

Senate

Edward W. Brooke

 

 

90th Congress (1967-1969)

5n

House

John Conyers Jr.

William L. Dawson

Charles C. Diggs Jr.

Augustus F. Hawkins

Robert N.C. Nix Sr.

1

Senate

Edward W. Brooke

 

 

89th Congress (1965-1967)

6

House

John Conyers Jr.

William L. Dawson

Charles Diggs Jr.

Augustus F. Hawkins

Robert N.C. Nix Sr.

Adam Clayton Powell Jr.

 

Senate

None

 

 

88th Congress (1963-1965)

5

House:

William L. Dawson

Charles C. Diggs Jr.

Augustus F. Hawkins

Robert N.C. Nix Sr.

Adam C. Powell Jr.

 

Senate

None

 

 

85th - 87th Congresses (1957-1963)

4

House

William L. Dawson

Charles C. Diggs Jr.

Robert N.C. Nix Sr.

Adam C. Powell Jr.

 

 

Senate

None

 

 

84th Congress (1955-1957)

3

House

William L. Dawson

Charles C. Diggs Jr.

Adam C. Powell Jr.

79th - 83rd Congresses (1945-1955)

2

House

William L. Dawson

Adam C. Powell Jr.

 

 

Senate

None

 

 

78th Congress (1943-1945)

1

House

William L. Dawson

 

 

 

Senate

None

 

 

74th - 77th Congresses (1935-1943)

1

House

Arthur W. Mitchell

 

 

 

Senate

None

 

 

71st - 73rd Congresses (1929-1935)

1

House

Oscar S. DePriest

 

 

 

Senate

None

 

 

57th - 70th Congresses (1901-1929)

 

House

None

 

 

 

Senate

None

 

 

55th - 56th Congresses (1897-1901)

1

House

George H. White

 

 

 

Senate

None

 

 

53rd - 54th Congresses (1893-1897)

1

House

George W. Murray

 

 

 

Senate

None

 

 

52nd Congress (1891-1893)

1

House

Henry P. Cheatham

 

 

 

Senate

None

 

 

51st Congress (1889-1891)

3

House

Henry P. Cheatham

John M. Langston

Thomas E. Miller

 

Senate

None

 

 

50th Congress (1887-1889)

 

House

None

 

 

 

Senate

None

 

 

48th - 49th Congresses (1883-1887)

2

House

James E. O'Hara

Robert Smalls

 

 

Senate

None

 

 

47th Congress (1881-1883)

2

House

John R. Lynch

Robert Smalls

 

 

Senate

None

 

 

46th Congress (1879-1881)

 

House

None

 

 

1

Senate

Blanche K. Bruce

 

 

45th Congress (1877-1879)

3

House

Richard H. Cain

Joseph H. Rainey

Robert Smalls

1

Senate

Blanche K. Bruce

 

 

44th Congress (1875-1877)

7

House

Jeremiah Haralson

John A. Hyman

John R. Lynch

Charles E. Nash

Joseph H. Rainey

Robert Smalls

Josiah T. Walls

1

Senate

Blanche K. Bruce

 

 

43rd Congress (1873-1875)

7

House

Richard H. Cain

Robert B. Elliott

John R. Lynch

Joseph H. Rainey

Alonzo J. Ransier

James T. Rapier

Josiah T. Walls

 

Senate

None

 

 

42nd Congress (1871-1873)

5

House

Robert C. DeLarge

Robert B. Elliott

Joseph H. Rainey

Benjamin S. Turner

Josiah T. Walls

 

Senate

None

 

 

41st Congress (1869-1871)o

2

House

Jefferson F. Long

Joseph H. Rainey

 

1

Senate

Hiram R. Revelsp

 

 

a. Unless otherwise specified, number given is the largest number of African Americans serving at any one time during each Congress.

b. For specific dates of service, please see each individual Member's biographical entry in this report.

c. 44 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 112th Congress; Rep. Donald Payne died in March 2012 and was replaced by his son, Donald Payne, Jr. in November 2012; Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr. resigned in November 2012.

d. Although 46 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 110th Congress, 42 was the highest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Laura Richardson filled the seat vacated by the death of Rep. Juanita Millender-McDonald; Rep. André Carson filled the seat vacated by the death of his grandmother, Rep. Julia Carson; Rep. Donna Edwards filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Albert Wynn; and Rep. Marcia Fudge filled the seat vacated by the death of Rep. Stephanie Tubbs Jones.

e. Although 40 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 108th Congress, 39 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. G.K. Butterfield filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Frank Ballance.

f. Although 40 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 107th Congress, 39 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Julian Dixon was reelected to the 107th Congress but died on Dec. 8, 2000, before the Congress commenced; his seat was filled by Rep. Diane Watson.

g. Although 41 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 105th Congress, 39 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep Gregory Meeks filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Floyd Flake, and Rep. Barbara Lee filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Ron Dellums.

h. Although 43 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 104th Congress, 40 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr. filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Mel Reynolds; Rep. Juanita Millender-McDonald filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Walter Tucker; and Rep. Elijah Cummings filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Kweisi Mfume.

i. Although 40 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 103rd Congress, 39 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Bennie Thompson filled the seat vacated by Rep. Mike Espy, who resigned to serve as Secretary of Agriculture.

j. Although 28 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 102nd Congress, 27 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Lucien Blackwell filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. William H. Gray III.

k. Although 25 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 101st Congress, 24 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Craig Washington filled the seat vacated by the death of Rep. Mickey Leland.

l. Although 22 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 98th Congress, 21 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. Charles Hayes filled the seat vacated by Rep. Harold Washington, who resigned to serve as Mayor of Chicago.

m. Although 18 different African Americans were elected to the House in the 96th Congress, 17 was the largest number to serve at any one time. Rep. George Crockett filled the seat vacated by the resignation of Rep. Charles Diggs Jr.

n. Rep. Adam Clayton Powell Jr. was reelected to the House in the 90th Congress, but was excluded and not seated. He was then reelected to the seat vacated by his exclusion but never took the oath of office.

o. There were no African American Members of Congress until 1870, the 41st Congress, 2nd session.

p. Seated after Mississippi was readmitted to the Union on February 23, 1870; first African American Member of Congress.

Table 2. African American Members of Congress, 41st Congress to Present,
by State or Territory

Alabama (6 African-American Members)

Artur Davis

Jeremiah Haralson

Earl F. Hilliard

James T. Rapier

Terrycina "Terri" Sewell

Benjamin S. Turner

California (12 African-American Members)

Karen Bass

Yvonne Braithwaite Burke

Ronald V. Dellums

Julian C. Dixon

Mervyn M. Dymally

Augustus F. Hawkins

Barbara Lee

Juanita Millender-McDonald

Laura Richardson

Walter R. Tucker

Maxine Waters

Diane E. Watson

Connecticut (1 African-American Member)

Gary A. Franks

 

 

District of Columbia (2 African-American Members)

Walter E. Fauntroy

Eleanor Holmes Norton

 

Florida (7 African-American Members)

Corrine Brown

Alcee L. Hastings

Carrie P. Meek

Kendrick Meek

Josiah T. Walls

Allen B. West

Frederica Wilson

Georgia (8 African-American Members)

Sanford D. Bishop Jr.

Henry C. (Hank) Johnson Jr.

John R. Lewis

Jefferson F. Long

Denise L. Majette

Cynthia A. McKinney

David Scott

Andrew J. Young

Illinois (17 African-American Members)

Roland Burrisa

Cardiss Collins

George W. Collins

Danny K. Davis

William L. Dawson

Oscar S. DePriest

Charles A. Hayes

Jesse L. Jackson, Jr.

Ralph H. Metcalfe

Arthur W. Mitchell

Carol Moseley-Brauna

Barack Obamaa

Melvin J. Reynolds

Bobby L. Rush

Gus Savage

Bennett M. Stewart

Harold D. Washington

Indiana (3 African-American Members)

André Carson

Julia Carson

Katie B. Hall

Louisiana (4 African-American Members)

Cleo Fields

William J. Jefferson

Charles E. Nash

Cedric L. Richmond

Maryland (5 African-American Members)

Elijah E. Cummings

Donna Edwards

Parren J. Mitchell

Kweisi Mfume

Albert R. Wynn

Massachusetts (1 African-American Member)

Edward W. Brookea

 

 

Michigan (6 African-American Members)

Hansen H. Clarke

Barbara-Rose Collins

John Conyers Jr.

George W. Crockett

Charles C. Diggs Jr.

Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick

Minnesota (1 African-American Member)

Keith Ellison

 

 

Mississippi (5 African-American Members)

Blanche K. Brucea

Albert M. (Mike) Espy

John R. Lynch

Hiram Rhodes Revelsa

Bennie G. Thompson

Missouri (4 African-American Members)

William Lacy Clay Jr.

William L. Clay Sr.

Emanuel Cleaver II

Alan D. Wheat

New Jersey (2 African-American Members)

Donald M. Payne

Donald M. Payne Jr.

 

New York (9 African-American Members)

Shirley A. Chisholm

Yvette D. Clarke

Floyd H. Flake

Gregory Meeks

Major R. Owens

Adam Clayton Powell Jr.

Charles B. Rangel

Edolphus Towns

Alton R. Waldon Jr.

North Carolina (8 African-American Members)

Frank W. Ballance Jr.

G.K. Butterfield

Henry P. Cheatham

Eva M. Clayton

John A. Hyman

James E. O'Hara

Melvin L. Watt

George H. White

Ohio (3 African-American Members)

Marcia L. Fudge

Stephanie Tubbs Jones

Louis Stokes

Oklahoma (1 African-American Member)

J.C. Watts Jr.

 

 

Pennsylvania (4 African-American Members)

Lucien E. Blackwell

Chaka Fattah

William H. Gray III

Robert N.C. Nix Sr.

South Carolina (10 African-American Members)

Richard H. Cain

James E. Clyburn

Robert C. DeLarge

Robert B. Elliott

Thomas E. Miller

George W. Murray

Joseph H. Rainey

Alonzo J. Ransier

Tim Scott

Robert Smalls

Tennessee (2 African-American Members)

Harold E. Ford Jr.

Harold E. Ford Sr.

 

Texas (6 African-American Members)

Al Green

Sheila Jackson Lee

Eddie Bernice Johnson

Barbara C. Jordan

George T. (Mickey) Leland

Craig A. Washington

Virginia (2 African-American Members)

John M. Langston

Robert C. Scott

 

Virgin Islands (3 African-American Members)

Donna M. Christensen

Melvin H. Evans

Victor O. Frazer

Wisconsin (1 African-American Member)

Gwen Moore

 

 

a. Serves/served in the Senate.

Table 3. Number of African American Members in the U.S. Congress,
41st Congress to Present

Congress

Year

Total African American Members of Congress

African American Members of Housea

African American Members of Senateb

41st

1869-1871

3

2

1

42nd

1871-1873

5

5

43rd

1873-1875

7

7

44th

1875-1877

8

7

1

45th

1877-1879

4

3

1

46th

1879-1881

1

1

47th

1881-1883

2

2

48th

1883-1885

2

2

49th

1885-1887

2

2

50th

1887-1889

-

51st

1889-1891

3

3

52nd

1891-1893

1

1

53rd

1893-1895

1

1

54th

1895-1897

1

1

55th

1897-1899

1

1

56th

1899-1901

1

1

57th

1901-1903

58th

1903-1905

59th

1905-1907

60th

1907-1909

61st

1909-1911

62nd

1911-1913

63rd

1913-1915

64th

1915-1917

65th

1917-1919

66th

1919-1921

67th

1921-1923

68th

1923-1925

69th

1925-1927

70th

1927-1929

71st

1929-1931

1

1

72nd

1931-1933

1

1

73rd

1933-1935

1

1

74th

1935-1937

1

1

75th

1937-1939

1

1

76th

1939-1941

1

1

77th

1941-1943

1

1

78th

1943-1945

1

1

79th

1945-1947

2

2

80th

1947-1949

2

2

81st

1949-1951

2

2

82nd

1951-1953

2

2

83rd

1953-1955

2

2

84th

1955-1957

3

3

85th

1957-1959

4

4

86th

1959-1961

4

4

87th

1961-1963

4

4

88th

1963-1965

5

5

89th

1965-1967

6

6

90th

1967-1969

6

5

1

91st

1969-1971

11

10

1

92nd

1971-1973

14

13

1

93rd

1973-1975

17

16

1

94th

1975-1977

18

17

1

95th

1977-1979

18

17

1

96th

1979-1981

17

17

97th

1981-1983

19

19

98th

1983-1985

21

21

99th

1985-1987

21

21

100th

1987-1989

23

23

101st

1989-1991

24

24

102nd

1991-1993

27

27

103rd

1993-1995

40

39

1

104th

1995-1997

41

40

1

105th

1997-1999

40

39

1

106th

1999-2001

39

39

0

107th

2001-2003

39

39

0

108th

2003-2005

39

39

0

109th

2005-2007

43

42

1

110th

2007-2009

42b

42

1c

111th

2009-2011

42

41

1

112th

2011-2013

44

44

0

a. The numbers here reflect the highest number of African American Members, including Delegates, to serve in the House at any one time during a Congress. For example, a record number of 47 African American Members were elected to the 110th Congress, but only 43 served at any one time during the Congress.

b. The numbers here reflect the highest number of African American Members to serve in the Senate at any one time during a Congress.

c. President Barack Obama served in the Senate in the 110th Congress until his resignation on November 16, 2008.

Acknowledgments

This report was originally authored by [author name scrubbed], formerly a specialist in American National Government at CRS. [author name scrubbed] authored the Congressional Black Caucus section of this report. Neal Arp II and Erin Hemlin provided research assistance and graphics support. Jared Nagel provided graphics support.

Footnotes

Non-voting Members in the Housea

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives.

Notes: The 115th Congress began with 51 African American Members. One Representative resigned on December 5, 2017. These numbers includes one Senator and one House Member who are of African American and Asian ancestry. In this report, these two Members counted as belonging to two ethnic groups. For additional information, see U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, Black Americans in Congress, at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/. a. Non-voting Members may include Delegates and the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. None of the sources used for this report identified an African American Resident Commissioner. All data in this report on non-voting Members, therefore, refers to Delegates.

In addition to data for the 115th Congress, this report provides historical information. The report also includes an appendix with an alphabetical listing of African American Members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in Congress.

Information and data in this report is drawn from Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007, and the accompanying website maintained by the House Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives (http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/), the Biographical Directory of the American Congress(http://bioguide.congress.gov), various editions of the Congressional Directory, and a broad range of Congressional Quarterly Inc. and Leadership Directories Inc. publications. Brief Overview of Studies on African Americans in Congress

Numerous studies of Congress have examined the role and impact of African Americans in Congress. Many of these studies relate to larger questions about the nature of representation or about Congress as an institution.1

Central to these studies have been questions about

  • descriptive representation (i.e., representation by those who share demographic characteristics with their constituents) and substantive representation (i.e., representation of policy preferences and a linkage to policy outcomes) in the representation of minority electoral and policy interests, as well as any linkage or tradeoffs between the two. While the former concentrates on election outcomes (e.g., percentages of congressional seats), the latter focuses on behaviors and actions once an elected official is in office.2
  • the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the impact of majority-minority districts in representing minority interests in a district, and the influence of majority-minority districts on electoral and policy preferences in surrounding districts.3 These studies have also examined recent court rulings.4
  • the relationship of minority Members of Congress with their constituents, including any impact on turnout, electoral competitiveness or strategies, the hiring of minority staff, communication styles, constituency service, and voter satisfaction and engagement.5
  • legislative activities and influence, including work in committees, floor speeches, bill introduction and passage, cosponsorship, coalition formation, career progression and seniority, and relations with congressional leadership.6
  • roll-call voting behavior, including voting cohesion compared to party or state delegations.7
  • positions on various domestic or international issues.8
African Americans in Congress Since 1870: Totals and in Each Congress

The first African American to serve in the Senate, Hiram Revels of Mississippi, was sworn in on February 23, 1870. The first African American to serve in the House, Joseph Rainey of South Carolina, was sworn in on December 12, 1870.

Both chambers subsequently had periods without any African American Members. The longest period for the House stretched from the 57th Congress (1901-1903) until the beginning of the 71st Congress (1929-1931), or 28 years. The longest period for the Senate stretched from the beginning of the 47th Congress (1881-1883) until the beginning of the 90th Congress (1967-1968), or 86 years.

African American membership in the House first reached ten Members during the 91st Congress (1969-1970), and voting membership first exceeded 5% during the 100th Congress (1987-1988). Another large increase occurred during the 103rd Congress (1993-1994), which was the first Congress after the redistricting that followed the 1990 U.S. Census.

The 115th Congress began with the highest number of African American Members ever for the start of a Congress: 51 (46 Representatives, 2 Delegates, and 3 Senators).9

Table 2 provides a summary of the 153 African Americans who have served in the House, Senate, and both chambers. Of these 153 Members, 22 began their service after the Civil War but prior to the start of the 20th Century (2 in the Senate, 20 in the House). Table 2. African American Members of Congress by Type of Service and Party: Summary Statistics, 1870-Present

Including any Members who served only a portion of the Congress

  Senate Service Only House Service Only (Representatives) House Service Only (Delegates) 153a 6a 143a 122b 5bSource: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives, "Black Americans in Congress," http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/. Notes: These numbers include one Senator and two House Members who are of African American and Asian ancestry. In this report, these three Members are counted as belonging to two ethnic groups. For additional information, see U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, Black Americans in Congress, at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/. a. The total number of African American Members of the House includes two Delegates from the District of Columbia and four Delegates from the U.S. Virgin Islands. b. Includes one Independent who caucused with the Democrats in the 104th Congress.

Figure 1. Number of African Americans in Each Congress, 1870 to Present

Including any Members who served only a portion of the Congress

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives, 'Black Americans in Congress," http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/.

Notes: Delegates are included in the data. The figure also includes Members who served only a portion of the Congress (due, for example, to special elections, appointments to the Senate, deaths, and resignations) and so may not reflect the number serving at a given time within a Congress.

Table 3. Number of African American Members in Each Congress: 41st Congress to Present

Including any Members who served only a portion of the Congress

Non-Voting Members in the House (Delegates)w House Subtotal

(Voting & Non-Voting Members)

Total(Voting & Non-Voting Members) 2a 1b 3ab 3ab 5c 5c 5c 5c 7d 7e 2f 2g 3f 1h 4g 6i 10j 12j 1g 15g 16k 16l 18g 21l 20g 24m 27dn 39dg 41o 39p 37j 37g 38l 44q 1r 1s 43t 42u 3v 45l 46dSource: CRS summary, based on http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/ and the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress: 1774-Present, http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp.

Notes:

Three columns include numbers for the House: (1) the number of African American Representatives, (2) the number of African American non-voting Members (Delegates and Resident Commissioner), and (3) the total number of African Americans in the House.

Totals are provided for (1) the number of African Americans in the House and Senate, not including non-voting Members; and (2) the number of African Americans in the House and Senate, including non-voting Members.

For simplification, Congresses are listed in two-year increments. Pursuant to the 20th Amendment to the Constitution, which was ratified January 23, 1933, "the terms of Senators and Representatives [shall end] at noon on the 3rd day of January." For specific dates, see "Dates of Sessions of the Congress, present-1789," at http://www.senate.gov/reference/Sessions/sessionDates.htm.

The numbers include Members who served only a portion of the Congress and so may not reflect the number serving at any given time within a Congress.

Service for less than the entirety of a Congress is noted below:

a. Includes two House Members who were elected by special election (serving from December 12, 1870 and January 16, 1871, respectively). b. Includes one Senator who presented his credentials upon the readmission of Mississippi and served from February 23, 1870. c. Includes two Representatives who served until their elections were contested. d. Includes one House Member who resigned. e. Includes one House Member who served until their election was contested. f. Includes two Representatives who successfully contested an election and served for a portion of the Congress. g. Includes one House Member who was elected to fill a vacancy. h. Includes one Representative who successfully contested an election and served for a portion of the Congress. i. Includes one Representative excluded from membership in the 90th Congress pursuant to H.Res. 278. This same person was subsequently elected by special election to fill the vacancy caused by his exclusion, though he did not appear to be sworn in. j. Includes one House Member who died. k. Includes one House Member who died and one House Member who resigned. l. Includes one House Member who resigned and one House Member who was elected to fill a vacancy. m. Includes one House Member who was elected to fill a vacancy and one House Member who died. n. Includes two House Members who were elected to fill a vacancy. o. Includes three House Members who resigned and four House Members who were elected to fill a vacancy. p. Includes two House Members who resigned and two House members who were elected to fill a vacancy. q. Includes four Members who were elected to fill a vacancy, three Members who died, and one Member who resigned. r. President Barack Obama served in the Senate in the 110th Congress until his resignation on November 16, 2008. s. Includes one Senator who was appointed to fill a vacancy. t. Includes one Member who died, one who was elected to fill a vacancy, one who resigned, and one who was appointed to the Senate and resigned from the House on January 2, 2013. u. Includes three House Members who were elected to fill a vacancy and one House Member who resigned. v. Includes one Senator who was appointed to fill a vacancy (February 1, 2013) and one Senator who was elected to fill a vacancy (October 31, 2013). w. Non-voting Members may include Delegates and the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. None of the sources used for this report identified an African American Resident Commissioner. All data in this report on non-voting Members, therefore, refers to Delegates.

Figure 2. Number of African Americans in the House and Senate by State, District, or Territory, 1870-Present

Including any Members who served only a portion of the Congress

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives, 'Black Americans in Congress," http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/.

Notes: 153 African Americans have served in Congress. One African American who has served in both the House and Senate, from South Carolina, is included in both House and Senate tallies in this figure. Delegates are included in the data. The figure also includes Members who served only a portion of the Congress (due, for example, to special elections, appointments to the Senate, deaths, and resignations).

How African Americans Enter Congress: Regular Elections, Special Elections, and Appointments

Article I, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution requires that all Members of the House of Representatives must be "chosen every second Year by the People of the several States."

Therefore, all 144 of the African Americans who have served in the House entered office through election, even those who entered after a seat became open during a Congress.

By contrast, the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution, which was ratified in 1913, gives state legislatures the option to empower governors to fill congressional Senate vacancies by temporary appointment. The Seventeenth Amendment also provides for direct elections of Senators by the "people" of a state. Previously, Senators were elected by legislative selection rather than through the direct elections by which Representatives to Congress were elected.10

Of the 10 African Americans who have served in the Senate,

  • two were elected prior to the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution;
  • four initially entered Senate service by winning a regular election;
  • one initially entered Senate service by winning a special election and was subsequently reelected; and
  • three were appointed. Of these three, one was a candidate for reelection and served in more than one Congress.

Figure 3. African Americans' Initial Entrance to the Senate: Regular Elections, Special Elections, and Appointments to Unexpired Terms

Inclusive through January 3, 2018

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian and Office of Art and Archives, "Black Americans in Congress," http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/ and the "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress," http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp. The Congressional Black Caucus (CBC): A Congressional Member Organization

In 1971, the 13 African Americans then serving in the House established the Congressional Black Caucus.

In the 115th Congress, the CBC11 is one of more than 470 registered congressional member organizations (CMOs) in the House.12 House CMOs are required to register with the Committee on House Administration. CMOs do not receive separate funding, and they have not since a change in the Rules of the House adopted for the 104th Congress.13 Members may use their Members' Representational Allowance (MRA) to support staff, including shared staff, assigned to CMO duties.14 Members, rather than the CMO, remain the employing authority, and the CMO is not an independent entity. The committee's Members' Congressional Handbook lists a number of additional regulations related to the staffing and funding of CMOs.15

CMOs are not required to register in the Senate. As in the House, informal congressional groups or organizations do not receive separate funding.

The CBC CMO is distinct from the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, which was established in 1976 and is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization.16

African American Firsts in Congress Table 4. List of Firsts by an African American in Congress

Including Member, dates, and related information

Congress First Occurred[total dates of service] Related Information (if applicable) 44th Congress [March 4, 1875-March 3, 1881]     90th Congress [January 3, 1967- January 3, 1979]   91st Congress [January 3, 1969-January 3, 1983]   92nd Congress[March 23, 1971-January 3, 1991]   111th Congress [January 12, 2009- November 29, 2010] 113th Congress[House-January 3, 2011, to January 2, 2013; Senate-January 2, 2013 to present] 113th Congress[October 31, 2013-present]

Source: Compiled by CRS.

African Americans Who Have Served in Party Leadership Positions17 A number of African Americans in Congress, listed in Table 5, have held positions in their party's leadership.18 All of these party leadership positions have been in the House. The first African American Member to be elected to any party leadership position was Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), who served as House Democratic Caucus Secretary in the 95th and 96th Congresses (1977-1980). Table 5. Selected Congressional Party Leadership Positions Held by African Americans House Democratic Caucus Secretarya

Shirley Chisholm (D-NY)

95th-96th (1977-1980)

Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Data/Black-Americans-in-Party-Leadership-Positions/ and CRS Report RL30567, Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2017, by [author name scrubbed].

Notes: All party leadership positions held by African Americans have been in the House.

a. The title of this position changed from "Secretary" to "Vice Chair" with the 100th Congress. African Americans and Leadership of Congressional Committees

As chair of the Senate Select Committee on the Levees of the Mississippi River (45th Congress), Blanche K. Bruce was the first African American to chair any congressional committee. As chair of the House Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments (81st Congress), William L. Dawson was the first African American to chair a House committee. In total,

  • 19 African Americans have chaired a House committee;
  • 1 African American has chaired a Senate committee; and
  • 2 African American Representatives have chaired a joint committee.

These chairmanships include standing, special, and select committees. Some African Americans have chaired multiple committees in the House.19

Length of Service Records Table 6. Longest Service by an African American in the House and Senate
1.

Includes three Delegates from the U.S. Virgin Islands and two from the District of Columbia. For an in-depth look at African Americans in Congress, refer to U.S. Congress, House, Office of History and Preservation, Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007 (Washington: GPO, 2008), http://baic.house.gov.

2.

44 African Americans were elected to the House at the beginning of the 112th Congress; one African American Member died in March 2012 and was replaced by another African American Member in November 2012, and another resigned in November 2012.

3.

This was prior to the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1913 that provided for the direct election of Senators.

4.

U.S. Congress, House, Office of History and Preservation, Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 22; and http://baic.house.gov.

5.

Ibid., pp. 152-159.

6.

For more information, refer to "Black Americans Who Have Chaired Congressional Committees, 1870 to Present" at the Black Americans in Congress website at http://baic.house.gov/historical-data/congressional-committee-chairs.html

7.

James Stuart Olson, "Congressional Black Caucus," in Historical Dictionary of the 1970s, ed. James Stuart Olson (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999), p. 103; and Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, Inc., "Origins and the History of the Congressional Black Caucus," at http://www.cbcfinc.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=54&Itemid=71.

8.

CRS Report R40683, Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation, by [author name scrubbed].

9.

For more information about the current CBC members, see Congressional Black Caucus, "CBC Members," at http://www.house.gov/cleaver/cbc/members.html.

10.

Carol M. Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2006), p. 37; and Charles E. Jones, "An Overview of the Congressional Black Caucus," in Readings in American Political Issues, ed. Franklin D. Jones, et al., (Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1987), p. 233.

11.

Congressional Black Caucus, "History & Agenda," at http://thecongressionalblackcaucus.lee.house.gov/history_details.html.

12.

Ibid.

13.

[author name scrubbed], The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy (New York: Novinka Books, 2003), pp. 14-15.

14.

Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress, pp. 11-12.

15.

Michael L. Clemons, "Conceptualizing the Foreign Affairs Participation of African Americans," in African Americans in Global Affairs: Contemporary Perspectives, ed. Michael L. Clemons, (Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 2010), pp. 57-59.

16.

Robert Singh, The Congressional Black Caucus: Racial Politics in the U.S. Congress (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 1998), p. xii.

17.

Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress, p. 40.

18.

Marguerite Ross Barnett, "The Congressional Black Caucus," Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science, vol. 32, no. 1 (1975), p. 35.

19.

Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, pp. 12-13; For information on recent CBC alternative budgets, see Office of Representative Bobby Scott, "Congressional Black Caucus FY2010 Budget Substitute Amendment"," April 2009 press release, at http://www.bobbyscott.house.gov/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=380&Itemid=89.

20.

Arthur B. Levy and Susan Stoudinger, "Sources of Voting Cues for the Congressional Black Caucus," Journal of Black Studies, vol. 7 (1976), pp. 29-46.

21.

Kareem Crayton, "The Changing Face of the Congressional Black Caucus," Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal, vol. 19 (2009-2010), p. 494.

22.

Members of the CBC established the non-profit and non-partisan Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, Inc. (CBCF) in 1976 to "advance the global black community by developing leaders, informing policy and educating the public." In addition to leadership development programs, the CBCF conducts policy research on economic development, public health, and other pertinent issues for the black community. As a part of its public education goals, the CBCF also holds seminars on these topics, and launched an online archive (Avoice Online) to document the history of African Americans in Congress and the history of the CBC. See Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, Inc., "About CBCF," at http://www.cbcfinc.org/aboutus.html.

23.

Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress, p. 17.

24.

Sources detailing CBC involvement with the Martin Luther King, Jr., Holiday Bill, include Avoice Online, "The Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday Bill," at http://www.avoiceonline.org/mlk/timeline.html; Jones, "An Overview of the Congressional Black Caucus," p. 236; and Singh, The Congressional Black Caucus: Racial Politics in the U.S. Congress, pp. 95-96. For CBC efforts to end apartheid in South Africa, see Avoice Online, "Anti-Apartheid," at http://www.avoiceonline.org/aam/; Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, pp. 11-14, pp. 26-30; and Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress, p. 12. Sources detailing CBC involvement with humanitarian aid and other policies regarding Haiti include Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, pp. 37-40; Singh, The Congressional Black Caucus: Racial Politics in the U.S. Congress,pp. 188-189; and Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress, pp. 236-237.

25.

P.L. 98-144, 97 Stat. 917 (November 3, 1983).

26.

Avoice Online, "The Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday Bill," http://www.avoiceonline.org/mlk/timeline.html.

27.

John Herbers, "1983 March: Left Revives," New York Times, August 29, 1983, at http://www.factiva.com.

28.

Congressional Black Caucus, "1983 Legislative Achievements," at http://www.avoiceonline.org/assets/txu-gwc-84-98-f8-01/txu-gwc-84-98-f8-01.pdf; Avoice Online, "Origins of the CBC," at http://www.avoiceonline.org/cbc/history.html; and Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress, p. 132.

29.

Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, p. 27.

30.

For more information about the CBC and the formation of Transafrica, see Avoice Online, "Origins of the CBC," at http://www.avoiceonline.org/cbc/history.html; and TransAfrica Forum, "Our History," at http://transafrica.org/history/. For more information regarding CBC opposition to South African apartheid, see Avoice Online, "Anti-Apartheid," at http://www.avoiceonline.org/aam/.

31.

P.L. 99-440, 100 Stat. 1086 (October 2, 1986).

32.

Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, pp. 26-30.

33.

Pres. Ronald Reagan, "Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 – Veto Message from the President of the United States," read in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 132, part 19 (September 29, 1986), pp. 27076-27077.

34.

"Roll Call 425," Congressional Record, vol. 132, part 19 (September 29, 1986), p. 27101; and "Roll Call 311," Congressional Record, vol. 132, part 19 (October 2, 1986), p. 27859.

35.

Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, p. 13.

36.

Walter E. Fauntroy, "Haiti Doesn't Need a Tarzan to Come Rescue It," letter to the editor, New York Times, September 16, 1987.

37.

David Binder, "Washington Talk: Foreign Affairs; Haitians Gain Influential Following in America," New York Times, September 23, 1987, p. A26.

38.

Copson, The Congressional Black Caucus and Foreign Policy, pp. 38-39.

39.

Rep. Richard Gephardt et al., "Commending the President and the Special Delegation to Haiti, and Supporting the United States Armed Forces in Haiti," remarks in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 140, part 18 (September 19, 1994), pp. 24755-24768.

40.

The Black Americans in Congress website, http://baic.house.gov, is updated for each Congress, despite the "2007" in the title.

Congressional Black Caucus (CBC): A Congressional Member Organization
  • African American Firsts in Congress
  • African Americans Who Have Served in Party Leadership Positions
  • African Americans and Leadership of Congressional Committees
  • Length of Service Records
  • African American Women in Congress
  • Alphabetical Listing, Including Dates of Service and Committee Assignments
  • Summary

    In total, 153 African Americans have served in Congress. This total includes

    • 143 African Americans (137 Representatives and 6 Delegates) elected only to the House of Representatives;
    • 9 African Americans elected or appointed only to the Senate; and
    • 1 African American who has served in both chambers.

    The first African American Members, Senator Hiram Revels of Mississippi and Representative Joseph Rainey of South Carolina, both took the oath of office in 1870. These first two Members were among the 22 African American Members (2 in the Senate, 20 in the House) that began their service in the period of time after the Civil War but prior to the start of the 20th Century. After these first 22, the presence of African Americans in the Membership of Congress was not continuous and there were subsequent periods in both chambers with no African American Members.

    Most recently, the 115th Congress began with the highest number of African American Members ever at the start of a Congress: 51 (46 Representatives, 2 Delegates, and 3 Senators).

    Other information in this report includes

    • the total number of African Americans who have served in Congress by party and type of service;
    • the number of African Americans who have served in each Congress since 1870;
    • the number of African Americans who have served in the House and Senate by state, district, or territory;
    • the means of entry to Congress, including regular elections, special elections, and appointments;
    • the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) House Congressional Member Organization;
    • a listing of firsts for African Americans in Congress;
    • a listing of the African Americans who have served in leadership;
    • the records for length of service in the House and Senate; and
    • a listing of the African American women in the 115th Congress.
    African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2018

    Introduction

    The 115th Congress began with 51 African Americans Members, the highest number ever at the beginning of a Congress. Summary statistics on the 50 currently serving African American Members in Congress include the following:
    • African Americans account for 9.0% of voting Members in the House and Senate (48 of 535);
    • African Americans account for 9.2% of total Members in the House and Senate (50 of 541, including the Delegates and Resident Commissioner);
    • African Americans account for 10.3% of voting Representatives in the House (45 of 435); and
    • African Americans account for 10.7% of total Members in the House (47 of 441, including the Delegates and Resident Commissioner).
    Table 1 provides more detail on these African American Members across the 115th Congress. Table 1. Number of African American Members in the 115th Congress

    As of April 5, 2018

      Total African Americans

    Senators

    Representatives

    House Subtotal (Representatives and Non-voting Members)

    Total

    50

    3

    45

    2

    47

    Democrats

    47

    2

    43

    2

    45

    Republicans

    3

    1

    2

    0

    2

    Total

    African Americans who have Served in Both Chambers

    House Service Only (Subtotal)

    Total

    1

    9

    137

    Democrats

    0

    6

    111

    116

    Republicans

    31

    1

    3

    26

    1

    27

    Congress

    Reps

    Senate

    Total

    (Voting Members)

    41st (1869-1871)

    0

    2

    42nd (1871-1873)

    0

    0

    43rd (1873-1875)

    0

    7

    0

    7

    7

    44th (1875-1877)

    0

    7

    1

    8

    8

    45th (1877-1879)

    3

    0

    3

    1

    4

    4

    46th (1879-1881)

    0

    0

    0

    1

    1

    1

    47th (1881-1883)

    0

    2

    0

    2

    2

    48th (1883-1885)

    0

    2

    0

    2

    2

    49th (1885-1887)

    2

    0

    2

    0

    2

    2

    50th (1887-1889)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    51st (1889-1891)

    0

    3

    0

    3

    3

    52nd (1891-1893)

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    53rd (1893-1895)

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    54th (1895-1897)

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    55th (1897-1899)

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    56th (1899-1901)

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    57th (1901-1903)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    58th (1903-1905)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    59th (1905-1907)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    60th (1907-1909)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    61st (1909-1911)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    62nd (1911-1913)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    63rd (1913-1915)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    64th (1915-1917)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    65th (1917-1919)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    66th (1919-1921)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    67th (1921-1923)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    68th (1923-1925)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    69th (1925-1927)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    70th (1927-1929)

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    71st (1929-1931)

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    72nd (1931-1933)

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    73rd (1933-1934)

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    74th (1935-1936)

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    75th (1937-1938)

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    76th (1939-1940)

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    77th (1941-1942)

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    78th (1943-1944)

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    1

    79th (1945-1946)

    2

    0

    2

    0

    2

    2

    80th (1947-1948)

    2

    0

    2

    0

    2

    2

    81st (1949-1950)

    2

    0

    2

    0

    2

    2

    82nd (1951-1952)

    2

    0

    2

    0

    2

    2

    83rd (1953-1954)

    2

    0

    2

    0

    2

    2

    84th (1955-1956)

    3

    0

    3

    0

    3

    3

    85th (1957-1958)

    0

    4

    0

    4

    4

    86th (1959-1960)

    4

    0

    4

    0

    4

    4

    87th (1961-1962)

    4

    0

    4

    0

    4

    4

    88th (1963-1964)

    5

    0

    5

    0

    5

    5

    89th (1965-1966)

    6

    0

    6

    0

    6

    6

    90th (1967-1968)

    0

    6

    1

    7

    7

    91st (1969-1970)

    0

    10

    1

    11

    11

    92nd (1971-1972)

    13

    1

    13

    14

    93rd (1973-1974)

    1

    16

    1

    16

    17

    94th (1975-1976)

    16

    1

    17

    1

    17

    18

    95th (1977-1978)

    1

    17

    1

    17

    18

    96th (1979-1980)

    2

    18

    0

    16

    18

    97th (1981-1982)

    1

    19

    0

    18

    19

    98th (1983-1984)

    1

    22

    0

    21

    22

    99th (1985-1986)

    1

    21

    0

    20

    21

    100th (1987-1988)

    22

    1

    23

    0

    22

    23

    101st (1989-1990)

    1

    25

    0

    24

    25

    102nd (1991-1992)

    1

    28

    0

    27

    28

    103rd (1993-1994)

    1

    40

    1

    40

    41

    104th (1995-1996)

    2

    43

    1

    42

    44

    105th (1997-1998)

    2

    41

    1

    40

    42

    106th (1999-2000)

    2

    39

    0

    37

    39

    107th (2001-2002)

    2

    39

    0

    37

    39

    108th (2003-2004)

    2

    40

    0

    38

    40

    109th (2005-2006)

    40

    2

    42

    1

    41

    43

    110th (2007-2008)

    2

    46

    45

    47

    111th (2009-2010)

    39

    2

    41

    40

    42

    112th (2011-2012)

    2

    45

    0

    43

    45

    113th (2013-2014)

    2

    44

    45

    47

    114th (2015-2016)

    2

    47

    2

    47

    49

    115th (2017-2018)

    2

    48

    3

    49

    51

    First

    Member

    African American Member of Congress, also first African American Member of the Senate

    Hiram Rhodes Revels (R-MS)

    41st Congress [February 23, 1870- March 3, 1871]

    On January 20, 1870, he was chosen by the Mississippi legislature to take the seat previously held by Albert G. Brown, who withdrew from the Senate on January 12, 1861, after Mississippi seceded from the Union.

    African American Member of the House

    Joseph H. Rainey (R-SC)

    41st Congress [December 12, 1870-March 3, 1879]

    Elected to fill the vacancy caused by the action of the House of Representatives in declaring the seat of B. Franklin Whittemore vacant.

    African American Member of the Senate to serve a full term

    Blanche K. Bruce (R-MS)

    Senate Committee Chair

    Blanche K. Bruce (R-MS)

    45th Congress

    [Mar 5, 1877- Mar 3, 1879]

    Senate Select Committee on the Levees of the Mississippi River

    House Committee Chair

    William L. Dawson (D-IL)

    81st Congress

    [January 18, 1949-January 3, 1953; January 13, 1955-November 9, 1970]

    House Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments

    Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus

    Charles Diggs (D-MI)

    84th Congress

    [January 3, 1955-June 3, 1980]

    African American elected to the Senate after passage of the Seventeenth Amendment (providing for direct election of Senators)

    Edward Brooke (R-MA)

    African American woman elected to the House

    Shirley Chisholm (D-NY)

    African American Delegate

    Walter Fauntroy (D-DC)

    Elected by special election

    African American woman elected to the Senate

    Carol Moseley Braun (D-IL)

    103rd Congress [January 3, 1993- January 3, 1999]

    African American appointed to the Senate

    Roland Burris (D-IL)

    Appointed to the seat vacated by President Obama, was not a candidate for election to the unexpired portion of the term

    African American appointed to the Senate to subsequently win a special or regular election, also first African American to Serve in the House and Senate

    Tim Scott (R-SC)

    Appointed January 2, 2013, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of James DeMint, subsequently elected in a special election in 2014 and regular election in 2016

    African American to win a Senate special election

    Cory Booker (D-NJ)

    Elected in a special election on October 16, 2013 and reelected in 2014

    Position

    Member

    Congresses

    House Assistant Democratic Leader

    James Clyburn (D-SC)

    112th-115th (2011-present)

    House Democratic Whip

    James Clyburn (D-SC)

    William Herbert Gray III (D-PA)

    110th-111th (2001-2002)

    101st-102nd (1989-1992)

    House Senior Chief Deputy Democratic Whip

    John R. Lewis (D-GA)

    110th, 113th-115th (2007-2008, 2013-present)

    Chief Deputy Democratic Whip

    Keith Ellison (D-MN)

    Terri Sewell (D-AL)

    George Kenneth Butterfield, Jr. (G.K.) (D-NC)

    Maxine Waters (D-CA)

    John R. Lewis (D-GA)

    113th-115th (2013-present)

    113th-115th (2013-present)

    110th, 112th -115th (2007-2008, 2011-present)

    106th-110th, 112th (1999-2008, 2011-2012)

    102nd-109th (1991-2006)

    House Democratic Caucus Chair

    James Clyburn (D-SC)

    William Herbert Gray III (D-PA)

    109th (2005-2006)

    101st (1989-1990)

    House Democratic Caucus Vice Chair

    James Clyburn (D-SC)

    108th -109th (2003-2006)

    House Republican Conference Chair

    Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. (J.C.) (R-OK)

    106th -107th (1999-2002)

    Chamber

    Member of Congress

    Dates of Service

    Length of Service

    House

    John Conyers Jr. (D-MI)

    January 3, 1965-December 5, 2017

    52.96 years

    Senate

    Edward Brooke (R-MA)

    January 3, 1967-January 3, 1979

    12.00 years

    Source: Calculations by CRS.

    African American Women in Congress A total of 41 African American women have served in Congress.20 Of these, 21 serve in the 115th Congress (including two delegates), a record. The previous record was 20 (including 2 delegates), which was reached at the end of the 114th Congress. The African American women Members of the 115th Congress are listed in Table 7.

    African American women comprise

    • 21 of the 111 women currently serving in the 115th Congress (18.9%), and
    • 21 of the 50 African Americans currently serving in the 115th Congress (42%).
    Table 7. African American Women in the 115th Congress

    All are House Members except for Sen. Kamala Harris

    Alma Adams (D-NC)

    Val Demings (D-FL)

    Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX)

    Gwen Moore (D-WI)

    Frederica Wilson (D-FL)

    Karen Bass (D-CA)

    Marcia Fudge (D-OH)

    Robin Kelly (D-IL)

    Stacey Plaskett (D-VI) [Delegate]

     

    Joyce Beatty (D-OH)

    Sen. Kamala Harris (D-CA)

    Brenda Lawrence (D-MI)

    Terri Sewell (D-AL)

     

    Lisa Blunt Rochester (D-DE)

    Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-DC) [Delegate]

    Barbara Lee (D-CA)

    Maxine Waters (D-CA)

     

    Yvette Clarke (D-NY)

    Sheila Jackson Lee (D-TX)

    Mia Love (R-UT)

    Bonnie Watson Coleman (D-NJ)

      Source: U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/WIC/Historical-Data/Women-of-Color-in-Congress/.

    Note: Sen. Kamala Harris is also Asian Pacific American.

    Alphabetical Listing, Including Dates of Service and Committee Assignments21

    ADAMS, ALMA S. Democrat; North Carolina, 12th District. Elected to the 113th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Melvin L. Watt, and also elected to the 114th-115th Congresses. (served Nov. 4, 2014-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (114th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Education and the Workforce (114th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (114th-115th Congresses)

    BALLANCE, FRANK W., Jr. Democrat; North Carolina,1st District. Elected to the 108th Congress. (served Jan. 7, 2003 until his resignation June 11, 2004)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (108th Congress)
    • H. Small Business (108th Congress)

    BASS, KAREN. Democrat; California, 33rd (112th Congress) and 37th District (113th Congress- present). Elected to the 112th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2011-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Budget (112th Congress)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (112th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Judiciary (113th-115th Congresses)

    BEATTY, JOYCE. Democrat; Ohio, 3rd District. Elected to the 113th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2013-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Financial Services (113th-115th Congresses)

    BISHOP, SANFORD DIXON, Jr. Democrat; Georgia, 2nd District. Elected to the 103rd -115th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993- present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (103rd-107th Congresses)
    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
    • H. Veterans' Affairs (103rd-104th Congresses)
    • H. Select Intelligence (105th-107th Congresses)
    • H. Appropriations (108th-115th Congresses)

    BLACKWELL, LUCIEN EDWARD. Democrat; Pennsylvania, 2nd District. Elected to the 102nd Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of William Gray, and also elected to the 103rd Congress (served Nov. 11, 1991-Jan. 3, 1995)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (102nd Congress)
    • H. Public Works and Transportation (102nd-103rd Congresses)
    • H. Budget (103rd Congress)

    BLUNT ROCHESTER, LISA. Democrat; Delaware, At-Large. Elected to the 115th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2017-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (115th Congress)
    • H. Education and the Workforce (115th Congress)

    BOOKER, CORY ANTHONY. Democrat; New Jersey. Senator. Elected to the Senate in 2013 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Frank Lautenberg and subsequently elected to a full term in 2014. (served October 31, 2013-present).

    Committee assignments:

    • S. Commerce, Science and Transportation (113th-114th Congress)
    • S. Environment and Public Works (113th-115th Congresses)
    • S. Homeland Security and Government Affairs (114th Congress)
    • S. Foreign Relations (115th Congress)
    • S. Small Business and Entrepreneurship (113th-115th Congresses)
    • S. Judiciary (115th Congress)

    BROOKE, EDWARD WILLIAM, III. Republican; Massachusetts. Senator. Elected in 1966 (served January 3, 1967-Jan. 3, 1979)

    Committee assignments:

    • S. Aeronautical and Space Sciences (90th Congress)
    • S. Banking and Currency (90th-95th Congresses; ranking member, 95th Congress)
    • S. Government Operations (90th Congress)
    • S. Armed Services (91st Congress)
    • S. Select Education Opportunity (91st-92nd Congresses)
    • S. Appropriations (92nd-95th Congresses)
    • S. Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs (92nd-95th Congresses)
    • S. Special Aging (92nd-95th Congresses)
    • S. Select Standards and Conduct (93rd-94th Congresses)
    • Jt. Bicentennial Arrangements (94th Congress; vice-chair)
    • Jt. Defense Production (94th-95th Congresses)

    BROWN, ANTHONY GREGORY. Democrat; Maryland, 4th District. Elected to the 115th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2017-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Armed Services (115th Congress)
    • H. Ethics (115th Congress)
    • H. Natural Resources (115th Congress)

    BROWN, CORRINE. Democrat; Florida, 3rd District (103rd-112th Congresses), 5th District (113th-114th Congress). Elected to the 103rd-114th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1993-Jan. 3, 2017)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
    • H. Public Works and Transportation (103rd Congress)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th-114th Congresses)
    • H. Veterans' Affairs (103rd-114th Congresses; ranking member, 114th Congress)

    BRUCE, BLANCHE KELSO. Republican; Mississippi, Senator. Elected in 1874 (served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1881)

    Committee assignments:

    • S. Manufactures (44th Congress)
    • S. Pensions (44th-45th Congresses)
    • S. Education and Labor (44th-46th Congresses)
    • S. Select Levees of the Mississippi River (chairman, 45th-46th Congresses)
    • S. Select To Investigate the Freedman's Savings and Trust Company

    (46th Congress; chair)

    BURKE, YVONNE BRATHWAITE. Democrat; California, 28th (94th-95th Congresses) and 37th (93rd Congress) Districts. Elected to the 93rd-95th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1973 - Jan. 3, 1979). First female chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 94th- 95th Congresses.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Public Works (93rd Congress)
    • H. Interior and Insular Affairs (93rd Congress)
    • H. Appropriations (94th-95th Congresses)
    • H. Select Committee on the House Beauty Shop (chair, 94th-95th Congresses)

    BURRIS, ROLAND. Democrat; Illinois. Senator. Appointed to the Senate in December 2008 to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Barack Obama, but was not seated until Jan. 12, 2009. (served Jan. 12, 2009-Nov. 29, 2010).

    Committee assignments:

    • S. Armed Services (111th Congress)
    • S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (111th Congress)
    • S. Veteran's Affairs (111th Congress)

    BUTTERFIELD, GEORGE KENNETH, Jr. (G.K.). Democrat; North Carolina,1st District. Elected to the 108th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Frank Ballance, and also elected to the 109th-115th Congresses. Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 114th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Small Business (108th Congress)
    • H. Agriculture (108th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Armed Services (109th Congress)
    • H. Energy and Commerce (110th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Standards of Official Conduct (111th Congress)

    CAIN, RICHARD HARVEY. Republican; South Carolina, At-Large. Elected to the 43rd and 45th Congresses. (served March 4, 1873-March 3, 1875; March 4, 1877-March 3, 1879)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (43rd Congress)
    • H. Private Land Claims (45th Congress)

    CARSON, ANDRÉ. Democrat; Indiana, 7th District. Elected to the 110th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of his grandmother Julia Carson, and also elected to the 111th-115th Congresses. (served March 11, 2008-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Financial Services (110th-112th Congresses)
    • H. Armed Services (113th Congress)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (113th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Permanent Select Intelligence (114th-115th Congresses)

    CARSON, JULIA. Democrat; Indiana, 10th District (105th-107th Congresses) and 7th District (108th-110th Congresses). Elected to the 105th-110th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1997 until her death Dec. 15, 2007)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking and Financial Services/Financial Services (105th-110th Congresses)
    • H. Veterans' Affairs (105th-107th Congresses)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (108th-110th Congresses)

    CHEATHAM, HENRY PLUMMER. Republican; North Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 51st and 52nd Congresses (served March 4, 1889-March 3, 1893)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Expenditures on Public Buildings (51st-52nd Congresses)
    • H. Education (51st-52nd Congresses)
    • H. Agriculture (52nd Congresses)

    CHISHOLM, SHIRLEY ANITA. Democrat; New York, 12th District. Elected to the 91st-97th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1969-Jan. 3, 1983)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Veterans' Affairs (91st-92nd Congresses)
    • H. Education and Labor (92nd-94th Congresses)
    • H. Rules (95th-97th Congresses)

    CHRISTENSEN, DONNA. Democrat; Delegate from the Virgin Islands. Elected to the 105th-113th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1997-Jan. 3, 2015)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Resources/Natural Resources (105th-112th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (105th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Homeland Security (108th-110th Congresses; 112th Congress)
    • H. Energy and Commerce (111th-113th Congresses)

    CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSEN, DONNA and CHRISTIAN-GREEN, DONNA. See CHRISTENSEN, DONNA.

    CLARKE, HANSEN. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District. Elected to the 112th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2011-Jan. 3, 2013)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Homeland Security (112th Congress)
    • H. Science, Space and Technology (112th Congress)

    CLARKE, YVETTE. Democrat; New York, 11th District (110th-112th Congresses) and 9th District (113th Congress-present). Elected to the 110th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2007-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor (110th-111th Congresses)
    • H. Homeland Security (110th-113th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (110th-114th Congresses)
    • H. Ethics (113th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Energy and Commerce (114th-115th Congresses)

    CLAY, WILLIAM LACY, Jr. Democrat; Missouri, 1st District. Elected to the 107th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2001-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Financial Services (107th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Government Reform/H. Oversight and Government Reform (107th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Natural Resources (115th Congress)

    CLAY, WILLIAM LACY, Sr. Democrat; Missouri, 1st District. Elected to the 91st-106th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1969-Jan. 3, 2001)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor (91st-106th Congresses)
    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (93rd -103rd Congresses; chair 102nd-103rd Congresses)
    • H. Select to Study the Committee System (96th Congress)
    • H. House Administration (99th-103rd Congresses)
    • Jt. Library (101st Congress)

    CLAYTON, EVA. Democrat; North Carolina, 1st District. Elected to the 102nd Congress Nov. 3, 1992, to fill vacancy caused by death of Walter Jones; simultaneously elected to the 103rd Congress; reelected to the 104th-107th Congresses. (served Nov. 5, 1992-Jan. 3, 2003)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (103rd-107th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
    • H. Budget (105th-107th Congresses)

    CLEAVER, EMANUEL, II. Democrat, Missouri, 5th District. Elected to the 109th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 4, 2005-present) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 112th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Financial Services (109th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Select Energy Independence and Global Warming (110th-111th Congresses)
    • H. Homeland Security (111th Congress)

    CLYBURN, JAMES ENOS. Democrat, South Carolina. 6th District. Elected to the 103rd-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993-present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 106th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Public Works and Transportation/Transportation and Infrastructure (103rd-105th Congresses)
    • H. Veterans' Affairs (103rd-105th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (104th Congress)
    • H. Appropriations (106th-109th Congresses)

    COLLINS, BARBARA-ROSE. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District (102nd Congress) and 15th District (103rd -104th Congresses). Elected to the 102nd-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1991-Jan. 3, 1997)

    Committee assignments:

  • H. Public Works and Transportation (102nd-103rd Congresses)
  • H. Science, Space and Technology (102nd Congress)
  • H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
  • H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
  • H. Government Reform and Oversight (104th Congress)
  • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th Congress)
  • H. Select Children, Youth, and Families (102nd Congress)
  • COLLINS, CARDISS. Democrat; Illinois, 7th District. Elected to the 93rd Congress in a June 5, 1973, special election to fill vacancy caused by death of husband George W. Collins; reelected to the 94th-104th Congresses (served June 7, 1973-Jan. 3, 1997). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 96th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Government Operations/Government Reform and Oversight (93rd-104th Congresses)
    • H. International Relations/Foreign Affairs (94th-96th Congresses)
    • H. District of Columbia (95th Congress)
    • H. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control (96th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Energy and Commerce/Commerce (97th-104th Congresses)

    COLLINS, GEORGE WASHINGTON. Democrat; Illinois, 6th District. Elected to the 91st Congress to fill vacancy caused by death of Daniel J. Ronan; simultaneously elected to the 92nd Congress; reelected to the 93rd Congress. (served Nov. 3, 1970 until his death Dec. 18, 1972, before the seating of the 93rd Congress)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Government Operations (91st-92nd Congresses)
    • H. Public Works (92nd Congress)

    CONYERS, JOHN, Jr. Democrat; Michigan, 1st District (89th-102nd Congresses); 14th District (103rd-112th Congresses); 13th District (113th-115th Congresses). Elected to the 89th-115th Congresses (served January 3, 1965 until his resignation December 5, 2017)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Judiciary (89th-115th Congresses; chair, 110th-111th Congresses; ranking member, 104th-109th, 112th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Government Operations (92nd-103rd Congresses; chair, 101st-103rd Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (100th-103rd Congresses)

    COWAN, WILLIAM (MO). Democrat; Massachusetts. Senator. Appointed to the Senate in 2013 to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John F. Kerry. (served Feb. 1, 2013- July 15, 2013)

    Committee assignments:

    • S. Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry (113th Congress)
    • S. Commerce, Science and Transportation (113th Congress)
    • S. Small Business and Entrepreneurship (113th Congress)

    CROCKETT, GEORGE WILLIAM, Jr. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District. Elected to the 96th Congress to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Charles C. Diggs, Jr.; simultaneously elected to the 97th Congress; reelected to the 98th-101st Congresses. (served Nov. 4, 1980-Jan. 3, 1991)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Foreign Affairs (96th-101st Congresses)
    • H. Judiciary (97th-101st Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (97th Congress)
    • H. Select Aging (97th-101st Congresses)

    CUMMINGS, ELIJAH EUGENE. Democrat; Maryland, 7th District. Elected to the 104th Congress to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Kweisi Mfume; reelected to the 105th-115th Congresses. (served April 16, 1996-present) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 108th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Government Oversight and Government Reform/Government Reform (104th- 115th Congresses; ranking member, 112th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (110th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Armed Services (110th Congress)
    • Jt. Economic Committee (109th -114th Congresses)
    • Select Terrorist Attack in Benghazi (114th Congress; ranking member)

    DAVIS, ARTUR. Democrat; Alabama, 7th District. Elected to the 108th-111th Congresses. (served Jan. 7, 2003-Jan. 2, 2001).

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Budget (108th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Financial Services (108th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Judiciary (110th Congress)
    • H. Ways and Means (110th-111th Congresses)

    DAVIS, DANNY K. Democrat; Illinois, 7th District. Elected to the 105th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 7, 1997-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Small Business (105th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Government Oversight and Government Reform/Government Reform (105th-113th Congresses)
    • H. Education and the Workforce/Education and Labor (108th-110th Congresses)
    • H. Ways and Means (111th, 113th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Homeland Security (112th Congress)

    DAWSON, WILLIAM LEVI. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 78th-91st Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1943 until his death Nov. 9, 1970)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Expenditures in the Executive Departments (78th-82nd Congresses; chair 81st-82nd Congresses)
    • H. Government Operations (83rd-91st Congresses; ranking member, 83rd Congress; committee chair, 84th-91st Congresses)
    • H. Coinage, Weights, and Measures (78th-79th Congresses)
    • H. Invalid Pensions (78th-79th Congresses)
    • H. Insular Affairs (78th-79th Congresses)
    • H. Irrigation and Reclamation (78th-79th Congresses)
    • H. Interior and Insular Affairs (82nd Congress)
    • H. District of Columbia (84th-91st Congresses)

    DE LARGE, ROBERT CARLOS. Republican; South Carolina, 2nd District, Elected to the 42nd Congress. (served March 4, 1871 until Jan. 24, 1873, when his seat was declared vacant after his election was successfully contested by former Rep. Christopher Bowen)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Manufactures (42nd Congress)

    DELLUMS, RONALD V. Democrat; California, 7th District (92nd-93rd Congresses); 8th District (94th-102nd Congresses); 9th District (103rd-105th Congresses). Elected to the 92nd-105th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1971 until his resignation Feb. 6, 1998). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 101st Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. District of Columbia (96th-103rd Congresses; chair; 96th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (92nd Congress)
    • H. Armed Services (93rd-103rd Congresses; chair, 103rd Congress)
    • H. National Security (104th-105th Congresses; ranking member, 104th-105th Congresses)
    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (97th-98th Congresses)
    • H. Select Intelligence (94th-102nd Congresses)

    DEMINGS, VAL. Democrat; Florida, 10th District. Elected to the 115th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2017-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Homeland Security (115th Congress)
    • H. Government Reform (115th Congress)
    • H. Judiciary (115th Congress)

    DE PRIEST, OSCAR STANTON. Republican; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 71st-73rd Congresses. (served March 4, 1929-March 3, 1935)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Enrolled Bills (71st-73rd Congresses)
    • H. Invalid Pensions (71st-73rd Congresses)
    • H. Indian Affairs (71st-73rd Congresses)
    • H. Post Office and Post Roads (73rd Congress)

    DIGGS, CHARLES COLES, Jr. Democrat; Michigan, 13th District. Elected to the 84th-96th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1955 until his resignation on June 3, 1980). First Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 92nd Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Interior and Insular Affairs (84th-85th Congresses)
    • H. Veterans' Affairs (84th-85th Congresses)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (86th-93rd Congresses)
    • H. District of Columbia (88th-96th Congresses; chair, 93rd-95th Congresses)

    DIXON, JULIAN CAREY. Democrat; California, 28th District (96th-102nd Congresses); 32nd District (103rd-106th Congresses). Elected to 96th-107th Congresses, but died before the commencement of the 107th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 1979 until his death on Dec. 8, 2000). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 98th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Appropriations (96th-106th Congresses)
    • H. Standards of Official Conduct (98th-101st Congresses; chair, 99th-101st Congresses)
    • H. Select Intelligence (103rd-106th Congresses; ranking member, 106th Congress)

    DYMALLY, MERVYN MALCOLM. Democrat; California, 31st District. Elected to the 97th-102nd Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1981-Jan. 3, 1993). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 110th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. District of Columbia (97th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (97th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Science and Technology (97th-98th Congresses)
    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (98th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Education and Labor (99th Congress)

    EDWARDS, DONNA. Democrat; Maryland, 4th District. Elected to the 110th Congress in a June 17, 2008, special election to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Albert Wynn; reelected to the 111th-114th Congresses. (served June 19, 2008-Jan. 3, 2017)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Science and Technology/Science, Space and Technology (110th-114th Congresses)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (110th-114th Congresses)
    • H. Ethics (112th Congress)

    ELLIOTT, ROBERT BROWN. Republican; South Carolina, 3rd District. Elected to the 42nd-43rd Congresses. (served March 4, 1871 until his resignation on Nov. 1, 1874)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor (42nd-43rd Congresses)
    • H. Militia (43rd Congress)

    ELLISON, KEITH. Democrat; Minnesota, 5th District. Elected to the 110th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 4, 2007-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Financial Services (110th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Judiciary (110th Congress)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (111th Congress)

    ESPY, ALPHONSO MICHAEL (MIKE). Democrat; Mississippi, 2nd District. Elected to the 100th-103rd Congresses. (served Jan. 6, 1987 until his resignation on Jan. 25, 1993)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (100th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Budget (101st-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Select Hunger (101st-102nd Congresses)
    • Jt. Deficit Reduction (100th Congress)

    EVANS, DWIGHT. Democrat; Pennsylvania, 2nd District. Elected to the 114th Congress to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Chaka Fattah; simultaneously elected to the 115th Congress. (served Nov. 8, 2016-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (115th Congress)
    • H. Small Business (115th Congress)

    EVANS, MELVIN HERBERT. Republican; Delegate from the U.S. Virgin Islands. Elected to the 96th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 1979-Jan. 3, 1981)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Armed Services (96th Congress)
    • H. Interior and Insular Affairs (96th Congress)
    • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (96th Congress)

    FATTAH, CHAKA. Democrat. Pennsylvania, 2nd District. Elected to the 104th-114th Congresses.(served Jan. 3, 1995 until his resignation June 23, 2016)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Government Reform and Oversight/Government Reform (104th-106th Congresses)
    • H. Economic and Education Opportunities (104th Congress)
    • H. Education and the Workforce (105th-106th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (104th Congress)
    • H. Standards of Official Conduct (105th-106th Congresses)
    • H. Administration (106th-107th Congresses)
    • Jt. Printing (106th-107th Congresses)
    • Appropriations (107th-114th Congresses)

    FAUNTROY, WALTER EDWARD. Democrat; Delegate from the District of Columbia. Elected to the 92nd Congress in a special election after the District of Columbia was authorized to elect a delegate; reelected to the 93rd-101st Congresses. (served April 19, 1971-Jan. 3, 1991).Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 97th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. District of Columbia (92nd-101st Congresses)
    • H. Banking and Currency/Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs (93rd-101st Congresses)
    • H. Select Assassinations (94th-95th Congresses)
    • H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (98th-101st Congresses)

    FIELDS, CLEO. Democrat; Louisiana, 4th District. Elected to the 103rd-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993-Jan. 3, 1997)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (103rd-104th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (103rd-104th Congresses)

    FLAKE, FLOYD HAROLD. Democrat; New York, 6th District. Elected to the 100th-105th Congresses. (served Jan. 6, 1987 until his resignation on Nov. 15, 1997)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (100th-105th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (100th-105th Congresses)
    • H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
    • H. Select Children, Youth and Families (100th Congress)
    • H. Select Hunger (100th-102nd Congresses)

    FORD, HAROLD EUGENE, SR. Democrat; Tennessee, 8th District (94th-97th Congresses); 9th District (98th-104th Congresses). Elected to the 94th-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1975-Jan. 3, 1997)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Veterans' Affairs (94th Congress)
    • H. Banking, Currency, and Housing (94th Congress)
    • H. Ways and Means (94th-104th Congresses)
    • H. Select Aging (94th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Select Assassinations (94th-95th Congresses)

    FORD, HAROLD EUGENE, Jr. Democrat; Tennessee, 9th District. Elected to the 105th-109th Congresses. (served Jan. 7, 1997-Jan. 3, 2007)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and the Workforce (105th-107th Congresses)
    • H. Government Reform and Oversight/Government Reform (105th-106th Congresses)
    • H. Financial Services (107th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Budget (108th-109th Congresses)

    FRANKS, GARY. Republican; Connecticut, 5th District. Elected to the 102nd-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1991-Jan. 3, 1997)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Armed Services (102nd Congress)
    • H. Small Business (102nd Congress)
    • H. Energy and Commerce (103rd Congress)

    FRAZER, VICTOR O. Independent; Delegate from the U.S. Virgin Islands. Elected to the 104th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 1995-Jan. 3, 1997)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. International Relations (104th Congress)

    FUDGE, MARCIA F. Democrat; Ohio, 11th District. Elected to the 110th Congress in a Nov. 4, 2008, special election to fill vacancy caused by death of Stephanie Tubbs Jones; reelected to the 111th-115th Congresses. (served Nov. 19, 2008-present) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 113th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor/Education and the Workforce (111th Congress; 113th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Science and Technology/Science, Space and Technology (111th-112th Congresses)
    • H. Agriculture (112th-115th Congresses)

    GRAY, WILLIAM HERBERT III. Democrat; Pennsylvania, 2nd District. Elected to the 96th-102nd Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1979 until his resignation on Sept. 11, 1991)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Budget (96th, 98th-100th Congresses; chair, 99th-100th Congresses)
    • H. District of Columbia (96th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (96th Congress)
    • H. Appropriations (97th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. House Administration (102nd Congress)
    • Jt. Deficit Reduction (100th Congress)

    GREEN, AL. Democrat; Texas, 9th District. Elected to the 109th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 4, 2005-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Financial Services (109th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Science (109th Congress)
    • H. Homeland Security (110th-111th Congresses)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (111th Congresses)

    HALL, KATIE BEATRICE. Democrat; Indiana, 1st District. Elected to the 97th Congress in a Nov. 2, 1982, special election to fill vacancy caused by death of Adam Benjamin Jr.; reelected to the 98th Congress. (served Nov. 29, 1982-Jan. 3, 1985)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (98th Congress)
    • H. Public Works and Transportation (98th Congress)

    HARALSON, JEREMIAH. Republican; Alabama, 1st District. Elected to the 44th Congress. (served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1877)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Public Expenditures (44th Congress)

    HARRIS, KAMALA DEVI. Democrat; California, Senator. Elected in 2016. (served Jan. 3, 2017-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • S. Budget (115th Congress)
    • S. Environment and Public Works (115th Congress)
    • S. Homeland Security (115th Congress)
    • S. Judiciary (115th Congress)
    • S. Select Intelligence (115th Congress)

    HASTINGS, ALCEE LAMAR. Democrat; Florida, 20th District. Elected to the 103rd-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Foreign Affairs/International Relations (103rd-107th Congress)
    • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (103rd Congress)
    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
    • H. Science (104th-105th Congresses)
    • H. Select Intelligence (106th-111th Congresses)
    • H. Rules (107th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Standards of Official Conduct (110th Congress)

    HAWKINS, AUGUSTUS FREEMAN (GUS). Democrat; California, 21st District (88th-93rd Congresses); 29th (94th-101st Congresses). Elected to the 88th-101st Congresses. (served from Jan. 3, 1963-Jan. 3, 1991)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor (88th-101st Congresses; chair, 98th-101st Congresses)
    • H. House Administration (91st-98th Congresses; chair, 97th-98th Congresses)
    • Jt. Printing (95th-98th Congresses; chair, 96th and 98th Congresses)
    • Jt. Library (97th-98th Congresses; chair, 97thCongress)
    • Jt. Economic (97th-101st Congresses)

    HAYES, CHARLES ARTHUR. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 98th Congress in a Aug. 23, 1983 special election to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Harold Washington; reelected to the 99th-102nd Congresses. (served Aug. 23, 1983-Jan. 3, 1993)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor (98th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (98th-101st Congresses)
    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (101st-102nd Congresses)

    HILLIARD, EARL FREDERICK. Democrat; Alabama, 7th District. Elected to the 103rd-107th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993-Jan. 3, 2003)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (103rd-107th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
    • H. International Relations (105th-107th Congresses)

    HORSFORD, STEVEN. Democrat; Nevada, 4th District. Elected to the 113th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2013-Jan. 3, 2015)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Homeland Security (113th Congress)
    • H. Natural Resources (113th Congress)
    • H. Oversight and Government Reform (113th Congress)

    HURD, WILLIAM BALLARD. Republican; Texas, 23rd District. Elected to the 114th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2015-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Homeland Security (114th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Oversight and Government Reform (114th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (114th Congress)
    • H. Permanent Select Intelligence (115th Congress)

    HYMAN, JOHN ADAMS. Republican; North Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 44th Congress. (served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1977)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Manufactures (44th Congress)

    JACKSON, JESSE L., Jr. Democrat; Illinois, 2nd District. Elected to the 104th Congress in a special election to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mel Reynolds; reelected to the 105th-113th Congress, but declined to serve in the 113th Congress (served Dec. 14, 1995 until his resignation Nov. 21, 2012)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking and Financial Services (104th-105th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (104th-105th Congresses)
    • H. Appropriations (106th-112th Congresses)

    JACKSON LEE, SHEILA. Democrat; Texas, 18th District. Elected to the 104th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1995-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Judiciary (104th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Science (104th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Homeland Security (108th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (110th-111th Congresses)

    JEFFERSON, WILLIAM JENNINGS. Democrat; Louisiana, 2nd District. Elected to the 102nd-110th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1991-Jan. 3, 2009)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor (102nd Congress)
    • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (102nd Congress)
    • H. District of Columbia (103rd Congress)
    • H. Ways and Means (103rd, 105th-109th Congresses)
    • H. National Security (104th Congress)
    • H. House Oversight (104th Congress)
    • H. Budget (109th Congress)
    • H. Small Business (110th Congress)
    • Jt. Printing (104th Congress)

    JEFFRIES, HAKEEM. Democrat; New York, 8th District, Elected to the 113th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2013-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Budget (113th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Education and the Workforce (114th Congress)
    • H. Judiciary (113th-115th Congresses)

    JOHNSON, EDDIE BERNICE. Democrat; Texas, 30th District. Elected to the 103rd-115th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1993-present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 107th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Public Works and Transportation (103rd Congress)
    • H. Science, Space, and Technology / Science / Science and Technology (103rd-115th Congresses; ranking member, 112th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th-115th Congresses)

    JOHNSON, HENRY C. (HANK), Jr. Democrat; Georgia, 4th District. Elected to the 110th-115th Congresses (served Jan. 4, 2007-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Armed Services (110th-114th Congresses)
    • H. Judiciary (110th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (110th Congress)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (115th Congress)

    JONES, STEPHANIE TUBBS. Democrat; Ohio, 11th District. Elected to the 106th-110th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1999 until her death on August 20, 2008)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking and Financial Services (106th Congress)
    • H. Financial Services (107th Congress)
    • H. Small Business (106th-107th Congresses)
    • H. Standards of Official Conduct (107th-110th Congresses; chair, 110th Congress)
    • H. Ways and Means (108th-110th Congresses)

    JORDAN, BARBARA C. Democrat; Texas, 18th District. Elected to the 93rd-95th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1973-Jan. 3, 1979)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Judiciary (93rd-95th Congresses)
    • H. Government Operations (94th-95th Congresses)

    KELLY, ROBIN. Democrat; Illinois, 2nd District. Elected to the 113th Congress in an April 9, 2013, special election to vacancy caused by resignation of Jesse Jackson Jr.; reelected to the 114th-115th Congresses. (served April 11, 2013-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Oversight and Government Reform (113th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Science, Space, and Technology (113th Congress)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (114th-115th Congresses)

    KILPATRICK, CAROLYN CHEEKS. Democrat; Michigan, 15th District (105th-107th Congresses) and 13th District (108th-111th Congresses). Elected to the 105th-111th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1997-Jan. 3, 2011). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 110th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking and Financial Services (105th Congress)
    • H. House Oversight (105th Congress)
    • Jt. Library (105th Congress)
    • H. Appropriations (106th-111th Congresses)

    LANGSTON, JOHN MERCER. Republican; Virginia, 4th District. Elected to the 51st Congress. (served from September 23, 1890-March 3, 1891, after he successfully contested the election of Edward Venable)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education (51st Congress)

    LAWRENCE, BRENDA L. Democrat; Michigan, 14th District. Elected to the 114th-115th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2015-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Oversight and Government Reform (114th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (114th Congress)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (115th Congress)

    LAWSON, ALFRED, Jr. Democrat; Florida, 3rd District. Elected to the 115th Congress (served Jan. 3, 2017-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (115th Congress)
    • H. Small Business (115th Congress)

    LEE, BARBARA. Democrat; California, 9th District. Elected to the 105th Congress in an April 7, 1998, special election to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Ronald Dellums; reelected to the 106th-115th Congresses. (served April 20, 1998-present) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 111th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking and Financial Services (105th-106th Congresses)
    • H. Financial Services (107th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Science (105th Congress)
    • H. International Relations (107th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (110th-111th Congresses)
    • H. Appropriations (110th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Budget (113th-115th Congresses)

    LELAND, GEORGE THOMAS (Mickey). Democrat; Texas, 18th District. Elected to the 96th-101st Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1979 until his death Aug. 7, 1989). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 99th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. District of Columbia (96th-99th Congresses)
    • H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce (96th-101st Congresses)
    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (96th-101st Congresses)
    • H. Select Hunger (98th-101st Congress; chair, 98th-101st Congresses)
    • H. Select Children, Youth, and Families (98th Congress)

    LEWIS, JOHN R. Democrat; Georgia, 5th District. Elected to the 100th-115th Congresses (served Jan. 6, 1987-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Public Works and Transportation (100th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Interior and Insular Affairs (100th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Select Aging (101st-102nd Congresses)
    • H. District of Columbia (103rd Congress)
    • H. Ways and Means (103rd-115th Congresses)
    • H. Budget (108th Congress)
    • Jt. Taxation (115th Congress)

    LONG, JEFFERSON FRANKLIN. Republican; Georgia, 4th District. Elected to the 41st Congress after the House declared that Rep. Samuel Gove was not entitled to the seat. (served Jan. 16, 1871-March 3, 1871)

    Committee assignments:

    None

    LOVE, MIA B. Republican; Utah, 4th District. Elected to the 114th-115th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2015-present)

    Committee assignment:

    • H. Financial Services (114th-115th Congresses)

    LYNCH, JOHN ROY. Republican; Mississippi, 6th District. Elected to the 43rd, 44th and 47th Congresses. (served March 4, 1873-March 3, 1877 and April 29, 1882-March 3, 1883 after he successfully contested the election of James Chalmers)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Mines and Mining (43rd-44th Congresses)
    • H. Militia (47th Congress)
    • H. Education and Labor (47th Congress)

    MAJETTE, DENISE L. Democrat; Georgia, 4th District. Elected to the 108th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2003-Jan. 3, 2005)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Budget (108th Congress)
    • H. Education and the Workforce (108th Congress)
    • H. Small Business (108th Congress)

    MCEACHIN, ASTON DONALD. Democrat; Virginia, 4th District. Elected to the 115th Congress (served Jan. 3, 2017-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Armed Services (115th Congress)
    • H. Natural Resources (115th Congress)

    MCKINNEY, CYNTHIA. Democrat; Georgia, 11th District (103rd-104th Congresses) and 4th District (105th-107th Congress and 109th Congress). Elected to the 103rd-107th Congresses and to the 109th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 1993-Jan. 3, 2003; Jan. 3, 2005-Jan. 3, 2007)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (103rd-104th Congresses)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (103rd Congress)
    • H. Banking and Finance (104th-105th Congresses)
    • H. International Relations (104th-107th Congresses)
    • H. National Security (105th Congress)
    • H. Armed Services (106th-107th Congresses; 109th Congress)
    • H. Budget (109th Congress)

    MEEK, CARRIE. Democrat; Florida, 17th District. Elected to the 103rd-107th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1993-Jan. 3, 2003)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Appropriations (103rd Congress; 105th-107th Congresses)
    • H. Budget (104th Congress)
    • H. Government Reform and Oversight (104th Congress)

    MEEK, KENDRICK B. Democrat; Florida, 17th District. Elected to the 108th-111th Congresses. (served from Jan. 7, 2003-Jan. 3, 2011)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Armed Services (108th-111th Congresses)
    • H. Homeland Security (108th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Ways and Means (110th-111th Congresses)

    MEEKS, GREGORY W. Democrat; New York, 5th District. Elected to the 105th Congress in a Feb. 3, 1998 special election to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Floyd Flake; reelected to 106th-115th Congresses. (served Feb. 3, 1998-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking and Financial Services/Financial Services (105th-115th Congresses)
    • H. International Relations/Foreign Affairs (106th-115th Congresses)

    METCALFE, RALPH HAROLD. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 92nd-95th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1971 until his death October 10, 1978)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce (92nd-95th Congresses)
    • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (92nd-95th Congresses)
    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (95th Congress)

    MFUME, KWEISI. Democrat; Maryland, 7th District. Elected to the 100th-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 6, 1987 until his resignation on Feb. 16, 1996). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 103rd Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (100th-104th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (100th-104th Congresses)
    • H. Education and Labor (101st Congress)
    • H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (101st-102nd Congresses)
    • Jt. Economic (102nd-104th Congresses)
    • H. Standards of Official Conduct (103rd Congress)
    • H. Select Hunger (100th Congress)

    MILLENDER-McDONALD, JUANITA. Democrat; California, 37th District. Elected to the 104th Congress in a March 26, 1996, special election to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Walter Tucker; reelected to the 105th-110th Congresses. (served April 16, 1996 until her death April 22, 2007)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Small Business (104th-110th Congresses)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th-110th Congresses)
    • H. Administration (108th-110th Congresses; ranking member, 109th Congress; chair, 110th Congress)
    • Jt. Library (108th-110th Congresses)
    • Jt. Printing (109th-110th Congresses)

    MILLER, THOMAS EZEKIEL. Republican; South Carolina, 7th District. Elected to the 51st Congress. (served Sept. 24, 1890-March 3, 1891, after successfully contesting the election of William Elliott)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Library of Congress (51st Congress)

    MITCHELL, ARTHUR WERGS. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 74th-77th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1935-Jan. 3, 1943)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Post Office and Post Roads (74th-77th Congresses)

    MITCHELL, PARREN JAMES. Democrat; Maryland, 7th District. Elected to the 92nd-99th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1971-Jan. 3, 1987) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 95th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking and Currency/Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs (92nd -99th Congresses)
    • H. Select Small Business (92nd -93rd Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (94th, 96th -99th Congresses; chair, 97th-99th Congresses)
    • H. Budget (93rd -95th Congresses)
    • Jt. Defense Production (94th-95th Congresses)
    • Jt. Economic (95th-99th Congresses; vice chair, 95th Congress)

    MOORE, GWENDOLYNNE (GWEN). Democrat; Wisconsin, 4th District. Elected to the 109th- 115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2005-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Financial Services (109th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (109th-111th Congresses)
    • H. Budget (110th-114th Congresses)

    MOSELEY-BRAUN, CAROL. Democrat; Illinois, Senator. Elected in 1992. (served Jan. 3, 1993-Jan. 3, 1999)

    Committee assignments:

    • S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs (103rd-105th Congresses)
    • S. Judiciary (103rd Congress)
    • S. Small Business (103rd Congress)
    • S. Finance (104th-105th Congresses)
    • S. Special Aging (104th-105th Congresses)

    MURRAY, GEORGE WASHINGTON. Republican; South Carolina, 1st District. Elected to the 53rd-54th Congresses. (served March 4, 1893-March 3, 1895 and June 4, 1896-March 3, 1897, after successfully contesting the election)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education (53rd -54th Congresses)
    • H. Expenditures in the Department of the Treasury (54th Congress)

    NASH, CHARLES EDMUND. Republican; Louisiana, 6th District. Elected to the 44th Congress. (served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1877)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor (44th Congress)

    NIX, ROBERT NELSON CORNELIUS, Sr. Democrat; Pennsylvania, 4th District (85th-87th Congresses); 2nd District (88th-95th Congresses). Elected to the 85th-95th Congresses (served June 4, 1958-Jan. 3, 1979)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (85th-86th Congresses)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (87th-93rd Congresses)
    • H. International Relations (94th-95th Congresses)
    • H. Veterans' Affairs (85th-86th Congresses)
    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (88th-95th Congresses; chair, 95th Congress)
    • H. Select Standards and Conduct (89th Congress)
    • H. Crime (91st Congress)

    NORTON, ELEANOR HOLMES. Democrat; Delegate from the District of Columbia. Elected to the 102nd-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1991-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. District of Columbia (102nd-103rd Congresses)
    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (102nd-103rd Congresses)
    • H. Public Works and Transportation (102nd-103rd Congresses)
    • Jt. Committee on the Organization of Congress (103rd Congress)
    • H. Small Business (104th Congress)
    • H. Oversight and Government Reform/Government Reform (104th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (104th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Homeland Security (108th-111th Congresses)

    OBAMA, BARACK. Democrat; Illinois. Senator. Elected in 2004. (served Jan. 4, 2005 until his resignation Nov. 16, 2008 after being elected President of the United States)

    Committee assignments:

    • S. Environment and Public Works (109th-110th Congresses)
    • S. Foreign Relations (109th-110th Congresses)
    • S. Veterans' Affairs (109th-110th Congresses)
    • S. Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (110th Congress)
    • S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (110th Congress)

    O'HARA, JAMES EDWARD. Republican; North Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 48th-49th Congresses. (served March 4, 1883-March 3, 1887)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Mines and Mining (48th Congress)
    • H. Expenditures on Public Buildings (49th Congress)
    • H. Invalid Pensions (49th Congress)

    OWENS, MAJOR ROBERT ODELL. Democrat; New York, 11th District. Elected to the 98th-110th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1983-Jan. 3, 2007)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor/Economic and Educational Opportunities/Education and the Workforce (98th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Government Operations/Reform and Oversight (98th-109th Congresses)

    PAYNE, DONALD MILFORD, Sr. Democrat; New Jersey, 10th District. Elected to the 101st-112th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1989 until his death March 6, 2012) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 104th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor/Economic and Educational Opportunities/Education and the Workforce (101st-112th Congresses)
    • H. Foreign Affairs/International Relations (101st-112th Congress)
    • H. Government Operations (101st-103rd Congresses)

    PAYNE, DONALD MILFORD, Jr. Democrat; New Jersey; 10th District. Elected to the 112th Congress Nov. 6, 2012, to fill vacancy caused by death of his father Donald Payne, Sr.; simultaneously elected to the 113th Congress; reelected to the 114th-115th Congresses. (served Nov. 6, 2012-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Homeland Security (113th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (113th-114th Congresses)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (115th Congress)

    PLASKETT, STACEY E. Democrat; Delegate from the U.S. Virgin Islands. Elected to the 114th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 2015-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (114th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Oversight and Government Reform (114th-115th Congresses)

    POWELL, ADAM CLAYTON, Jr. Democrat; New York, 22nd District (79th-82nd Congresses); 16th District (83rd-87th Congresses); 18th District (88th-89th and 91st Congresses). Elected to the 79th-90th Congress, but was not seated in the 90th Congress; and to the 91st Congress. (served Jan. 3, 1945-Jan. 3, 1967 and Jan. 3, 1969-Jan. 3, 1971)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Indian Affairs (79th Congress)
    • H. Invalid Pensions (79th Congress)
    • H. Labor/Education and Labor (79th-89th and 91st Congresses; chair, 87th-89th Congresses)
    • H. Interior and Insular Affairs (84th-86th Congresses)

    RAINEY, JOSEPH HAYNE. Republican; South Carolina, 1st District. Elected to the 41st Congress after the seat declared vacant, and to the 42nd-45th Congresses. (served Dec. 12, 1870- March 3, 1879)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Freedmen's Affairs (41st-42nd Congresses)
    • H. Indian Affairs (43rd Congress)
    • H. Invalid Pensions (44th-45th Congresses)
    • H. Select Celebration of Proposed National Census of 1875 (43rd Congress)

    RANGEL, CHARLES B. Democrat; New York, 18th District (92nd Congress); 19th District (93rd-97th Congresses); 16th District (98th-102nd Congresses); 15th District (103rd-112th Congresses); 13th District (113th-114th Congresses). Elected to the 92nd-114th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1971-Jan. 3, 2017) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 94th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Public Works (92nd Congress)
    • H. Science and Astronautics (92nd Congress)
    • H. Judiciary (92nd-93rd Congresses)
    • H. District of Columbia (93rd Congress)
    • H. Ways and Means (94th-114th Congresses; committee chair, 110th-111th Congresses; ranking Member, 105th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Select Crime (92nd-93rd Congresses)
    • H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (94th-102nd Congresses; chair, 98th-102nd Congresses)
    • Jt. Taxation (104th-105th, 108th, 111th, and 114th Congresses; chair, 111th Congress)

    RANSIER, ALONZO JACOB. Republican; South Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 43rd Congress. (served March 3, 1873-March 3, 1875)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Manufactures (43rd Congress)

    RAPIER, JAMES THOMAS. Republican; Alabama, 2nd District. Elected to the 43rd Congress (served March 4, 1873-March 3, 1875)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor (43rd Congress)

    REVELS, HIRAM RHODES. Republican; Mississippi, Senator. Elected in 1870 (served Feb. 23, 1870-March 3, 1871)

    Committee assignments:

    • S. Education and Labor (41st Congress)
    • S. District of Columbia (41st Congress)

    REYNOLDS, MEL. Democrat; Illinois, 2nd District. Elected to the 103rd-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993 until his resignation October 1, 1995)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Ways and Means (103rd Congress)
    • H. Economic and Education Opportunities (104th Congress)

    RICHARDSON, LAURA. Democrat, California, 37th District. Elected to the 110th Congress in an August 21, 2007, special election to fill vacancy caused by death of Juanita Millender-McDonald; reelected to the 111th-112th Congresses. (served Sept. 4, 2007 to Jan. 3, 2013)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Science and Technology (110th Congress)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (110th-112th Congresses)
    • H. Homeland Security (111th-112th Congresses)

    RICHMOND, CEDRIC. Democrat; Louisiana, 2nd District. Elected to the 112th-115th Congresses (served Jan. 3, 2011-present). Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 115th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Judiciary (113th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Homeland Security (112th-115th Congress)
    • H. Small Business (112th Congress)

    RUSH, BOBBY L. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 103rd-115th Congresses (served Jan. 4, 1993-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs (103rd Congress)
    • H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
    • H. Science, Space and Technology (103rd Congress)
    • H. Commerce/Energy and Commerce (104th-115th Congresses)

    SAVAGE, GUS. Democrat; Illinois. 2nd District. Elected to the 97th-102nd Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1981-Jan. 3, 1993)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (97th Congress)
    • H. Public Works and Transportation (97th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (97th-102nd Congresses)

    SCOTT, DAVID. Democrat; Georgia, 13th District. Elected to the 108th- 115th Congresses (served Jan. 7, 2003-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (108th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Financial Services (108th-115th Congress)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (111th Congress)

    SCOTT, ROBERT C. Democrat; Virginia, 3rd District. Elected to the 103rd-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 4, 1993-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor/Economic and Educational Opportunities/Education and the Workforce (103rd-107th, 109th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Judiciary (103rd-113th Congresses)
    • H. Science, Space, and Technology (103rd Congress)
    • H. Select U.S. National Security and Military/Commercial Concerns with the People's Republic of China (106th Congress)
    • H. Budget (108th, 110th Congresses)
    • H. Standards of Official Conduct (110th Congress)
    • Jt. Select Solvency of Multiemployer Pension Plans (115th Congress)

    SCOTT, TIM. Republican; South Carolina, 1st District. Senator. Elected to the 112th Congress (served in House Jan. 3, 2011 until his resignation Jan. 2, 2013) Appointed to the Senate in January 2013 to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Jim DeMint; reelected to the remainder of the term in 2014 and to a full term in 2016. (served in Senate January 3, 2013-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Rules (112th Congress)
    • S. Armed Services (115th Congress)
    • S. Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs (114th-115th Congresses)
    • S. Commerce, Science and Transportation (113th Congress)
    • S. Energy and Natural Resources (113th Congress)
    • S. Finance (114th-115th Congresses)
    • S. Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (113th-115th Congresses)
    • S. Small Business and Entrepreneurship (113th-114th Congresses)
    • S. Special Aging (113th-115th Congresses)

    SEWELL, TERRYCINA ("TERRI"). Democrat; Alabama, 7th District. Elected to the 112th- 115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2011-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (112th Congress)
    • H. Science, Space and Technology (112th Congress)
    • H. Financial Services (113th-114th Congresses)
    • H. Intelligence (113th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Ways and Means (115th Congress)

    SMALLS, ROBERT. Republican; South Carolina, 7th District. Elected to the 44th-45th and 47th-49th Congresses. (served March 4, 1875-March 3, 1879; July 19, 1992-March 3, 1883, after he successfully contested the reelection of George Tillman, and March 18, 1884-March 3, 1887, after he was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Edmund Mackey)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (44th, 47th Congresses)
    • H. Militia (45th Congress)
    • H. Manufactures (48th Congress)
    • H. War Claims (49th Congress)

    STEWART, BENNETT MCVEY. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 96th Congress. (served Jan. 3, 1979-Jan. 3, 1981)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Appropriations (96th Congress)

    STOKES, LOUIS. Democrat; Ohio, 21st District (91st-102nd Congresses); 11th District (103rd-105th Congresses). Elected to the 91st-105th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1969 to Jan. 3, 1999) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 93rd Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor (91st Congress)
    • H. Internal Security (91st Congress)
    • H. Appropriations (92nd-105th Congress)
    • H. Budget (95th-96th Congresses)
    • H. Standards of Official Conduct (96th-98th and 102nd Congresses; chair, 97th-98th and 102nd Congresses)
    • H. Select Assassinations (94th-95th Congresses; chair, 95th Congress)
    • H. Select Intelligence (98th-100th Congresses)
    • H. Select to Investigate Arms Transactions to Iran (100th Congress)

    THOMPSON, BENNIE. Democrat; Mississippi, 2nd District. Elected to the 103rd Congress in an April 13, 1993 special election to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mike Espy. (served April 13, 1993-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (103rd-108th Congresses)
    • H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries (103rd Congress)
    • H. Small Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
    • H. Budget (105th-107th Congresses)
    • H. Homeland Security (108th-115th Congresses; chair 110th-111th Congresses; ranking Member, 112th-115th Congress)

    TOWNS, EDOLPHUS. Democrat; New York, 11th District (98th-102nd Congresses); 10th District (103rd-112th Congresses). Elected to the 98th-112th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1983-Jan. 23, 2013) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 102nd Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Government Operations/Government Reform and Oversight/Oversight and Government Reform (98th-112th Congresses; chair, 111th Congress)
    • H. Public Works and Transportation (98th-104th Congresses)
    • H. Energy and Commerce/Commerce (101st-110th and 112th Congresses)
    • H. Select Narcotics Abuse and Control (98th-102nd Congresses)

    TUCKER, WALTER R., III. Democrat; California, 37th District. Elected to the 103rd-104th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993 until his resignation on December 15, 1995)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Public Works and Transportation/Transportation and Infrastructure (103rd- 104th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (103rd-104th Congresses)

    TURNER, BENJAMIN STERLING. Republican; Alabama, 1st District. Elected to the 42nd Congress. (served March 4, 1871-March 3, 1873)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Invalid Pensions (42nd Congress)

    VEASEY, MARC. Democrat; Texas, 33rd District. Elected to 113th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2015-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Armed Services (113th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Science, Space and Technology (113th -115th Congresses)

    WALDON, ALTON R., Jr. Democrat; New York, 6th District. Elected to the 99th Congress in a June 10, 1986 special election to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Joseph P. Addabbo (served July 29, 1986-Jan. 3, 1987)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor (99th Congress)

    WALLS, JOSIAH THOMAS. Republican; Florida, At-Large (42nd and 43rd Congresses); 2nd District (44th Congress). Elected to the 42nd-44th Congresses (served March 4, 1871-Jan. 29, 1873, when his election was successfully contested; March 4, 1873-March 3, 1875; and March 4, 1875-April 19, 1876, when his election was successfully contested)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Militia (42nd-43rd Congresses)
    • H. Mileage (44th Congress)

    WASHINGTON, CRAIG ANTHONY. Democrat; Texas, 18th District. Elected to the 101st Congress in a Dec. 9, 1989 special election to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mickey Leland; reelected to the 102nd-103rd Congresses (served Dec. 9, 1989-Jan. 3, 1995)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Education and Labor (101st-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Judiciary (101st-103rd Congresses)
    • H. Energy and Commerce (103rd Congress)
    • H. Government Operations (103rd Congress)
    • H. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control (102nd Congress)

    WASHINGTON, HAROLD. Democrat; Illinois, 1st District. Elected to the 97th-98th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1981 until his resignation April 29, 1983)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Government Operations (97th Congress)
    • H. Education and Labor (97th-98th Congresses)
    • H. Judiciary (97th-98th Congresses)

    WATERS, MAXINE. Democrat; California, 29th District (102nd Congress), 35th District (103rd- 112th Congresses) and 43rd District (113th Congress-present). Elected to the 102nd-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1991-present) Chair, Congressional Black Caucus, 105th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (102nd-106th Congresses)
    • H. Financial Services (107th-115th Congresses; ranking member, 113th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Veterans' Affairs (102nd-104th Congresses)
    • H. Small Business (103rd-104th Congresses)
    • H. Judiciary (105th-112th Congresses)

    WATSON, DIANE. Democrat; California, 32nd District (107th Congress) and 33rd District (108th- 111th Congresses). Elected to the 107th Congress in a June 5, 2001, special election to fill vacancy caused by death of Julian Dixon; reelected to the 108th-111th Congresses. (served June 7, 2001-Jan. 3, 2011)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Government Reform/Oversight and Government Reform (107th-111th Congresses)
    • H. International Relations (107th-109th Congresses)
    • H. Foreign Affairs (110th-111th Congresses)

    WATSON COLEMAN, BONNIE. Democrat; New Jersey, 12th District. Elected to the 114th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2015-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Homeland Security (114th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Oversight and Government Reform (114th-115th Congresses)

    WATT, MELVIN L. Democrat; North Carolina, 12th District. Elected to the 103rd-113th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993 until his resignation Jan. 6, 2014) Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, 109th Congress.

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services/ Financial Services (103rd-113th Congresses)
    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
    • H. Judiciary (103rd-113th Congresses)
    • Jt. Economic (107th-108th Congresses)

    WATTS, JULIUS CAESAR, Jr. (J.C.) Republican; Oklahoma, 4th District. Elected to the 104th-107th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1995-Jan. 3, 2003)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking and Financial Services (104th Congress)
    • H. National Security (104th-105th Congress)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (105th-106th Congresses)
    • H. Armed Services (106th-107th Congresses)

    WEST, ALLEN Republican; Florida, 22nd District. Elected to the 112th Congress (served Jan, 3, 2011-Jan. 3,2013)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Armed Services (112th Congress)
    • H. Small Business (112th Congress)

    WHEAT, ALAN DUPREE. Democrat; Missouri, 5th District. Elected to the 98th-103rd Congresses (served Jan. 3, 1983-Jan. 3, 1995)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. District of Columbia (98th-103rd Congresses)
    • H. Rules (98th-103rd Congresses)
    • H. Select Children, Youth, and Families (98th-102nd Congresses)
    • H. Select Hunger (101st-102nd Congresses)

    WHITE, GEORGE HENRY. Republican; North Carolina, 2nd District. Elected to the 55th-56th Congresses. (served March 4, 1897-March 3, 1901)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Agriculture (55th Congress)
    • H. District of Columbia (55th-56th Congresses)

    WILSON, FREDERICA. Democrat; Florida, 17th District (112th Congress), 24th District (113th Congress-present). Elected to the 112th-115th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 2011-present)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Foreign Affairs (112th Congress)
    • H. Science, Space and Technology (112th-113th Congresses)
    • H. Education and the Workforce (114th-115th Congresses)
    • H. Transportation and Infrastructure (115th Congress)

    WYNN, ALBERT RUSSELL. Democrat; Maryland, 4th District. Elected to the 103rd-110th Congresses. (served Jan. 5, 1993-May 31, 2008)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs/Banking and Financial Services (103rd-104th Congresses)
    • H. Foreign Affairs/International Relations (103rd-104th Congresses)
    • H. Post Office and Civil Service (103rd Congress)
    • H. Commerce/Energy and Commerce (105th-110th Congresses)

    YOUNG, ANDREW JACKSON, Jr. Democrat; Georgia, 5th District. Elected to the 93rd-95th Congresses. (served Jan. 3, 1973 until his resignation on Jan. 29, 1977)

    Committee assignments:

    • H. Banking, Currency and Housing (93rd Congress)
    • H. Rules (94th Congress)

    Author Contact Information

    [author name scrubbed], Specialist on the Congress ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])
    [author name scrubbed], Information Research Specialist ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

    Acknowledgments

    This report was originally authored by [author name scrubbed], formerly a specialist in American National Government at CRS. [author name scrubbed], formerly Deputy Director and Senior Specialist at CRS, was a former coauthor. [author name scrubbed], research assistant, provided research assistance for this version. [author name scrubbed], Neal Arp II, Erin Hemlin provided research assistance for prior versions.

    Footnotes

    1.

    The idea of "representation," including its forms and variations, has long been debated among political scientists and political theorists. For a discussion, see Hanna F. Pitkin, The Concept of Representation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1967).

    2.

    For example: David Lublin, The Paradox of Representation: Racial Gerrymandering and Minority Interests in Congress (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997); Kenny J. Whitby, The Color of Representation: Congressional Behavior and Black Interests (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997); David T. Canon, "Electoral systems and the representation of minority interests in legislatures," Legislative Studies Quarterly, vol. 24:331-85 (1999); David T. Canon, Race, Redistricting, and Representation: The Unintended Consequences of Black Majority Districts (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999); Carol M. Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests, Enlarged Edition (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, Inc., 2006); Daniel C. Bowen and Christopher J. Clark, "Revisiting Descriptive Representation in Congress: Assessing the Effect of Race on the Constituent–Legislator Relationship," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 67, No. 3 (September 2014), pp. 695-707; and Shane A. Gleason and Christopher T. Stout, "Who is Empowering Who: Exploring the Causal Relationship Between Descriptive Representation and Black Empowerment," Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 45, No. 7 (October 2014), pp. 635-659.

    3.

    For example: Charles Cameron, David Epstein, and Sharon O'Halloran, "Do majority-minority districts maximize substantive black representation in Congress?" American Political Science Review, vol. 90:794-812, 1996); David Lublin, "Racial Redistricting and African-American Representation: A Critique of 'Do Majority-Minority Districts Maximize Substantive Black Representation in Congress?'" The American Political Science Review, vol. 93, No. 1 (Mar., 1999), pp. 183-186; Vincent L. Hutchings, Harwood K. McClerking, and Guy-Uriel Charles, "Congressional Representation of Black Interests: Recognizing the Importance of Stability," Journal of Politics, vol. 66, no. 2 (2004), pp. 450-68.

    4.

    See, for example, CRS Report R44798, Congressional Redistricting Law: Background and Recent Court Rulings, by [author name scrubbed] and CRS Report R44199, Congressional Redistricting: Legal and Constitutional Issues, by [author name scrubbed].

    5.

    For example: Claudine Gay, "Spirals of Trust: The Effect of Descriptive Representation on the Relationship Between Citizens and their Government," American Journal of Political Science, vol. 46: 717 (2002); Richard F. Fenno, Going Home: Black Representatives and Their Constituencies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003); John D. Griffin and Michael Keane, "Descriptive Representation and the Composition of African American Turnout," American Journal of Political Science, vol. 50, no. 4 (Oct., 2006), pp. 998-1012; Christian R. Grose, Maurice Mangum and Christopher Martin, "Race, Political Empowerment, and Constituency Service: Descriptive Representation and the Hiring of African-American Congressional Staff," Polity, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Oct., 2007), pp. 449-478; Claudine Gay, "Legislating without Constraints: The Effect of Minority Districting on Legislator'' Responsiveness to Constituency Preferences," The Journal of Politics, Vol. 69, No. 2 (May, 2007), pp. 442-456; Kenny J. Whitby, "The Effect of Black Descriptive Representation on Black Electoral Turnout in the 2004 Elections," Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 88, No. 4 (December 2007), pp. 1010-1023; Thomas L. Brunell, Christopher J. Anderson and Rachel K. Cremona, "Descriptive Representation, District Demography, and Attitudes toward Congress among African Americans," Legislative Studies Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 2 (May, 2008) pp. 223-244; Whose Black Politics? Cases in Post-Racial Black Leadership, ed. Andra Gillespie (New York: Routledge, 2010); Phillip J. Ardoin, "Why Don't You Tweet? The Congressional Black Caucus' Social Media Gap," Race, Gender, and Class, Vol. 20, No. 1-2 (2013), pp. 130-140; and Bernard L. Fraga, "Candidates or Districts? Reevaluating the Role of Race in Voter Turnout," American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 60, No. 1 (January 2016), pp. 97-122.

    6.

    For example: Kerry L. Haynie, "African Americans and the New Politics of Inclusion," in Congress Reconsidered, ed. Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 8th ed. (Washington: CQ Press, 2005), pp. 395-409; Scott A. Frisch and Sean Q. Kelly, Committee Assignment Politics in the U.S. House of Representatives (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2006); Katrina L. Gamble, "Black Political Representation: An Examination of Legislative Activity within U. S. House Committees," Legislative Studies Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Aug., 2007), pp. 421-447; Franklin G. Mixon Jr. and Amanda C. Pagels, "Are Congressional Black Caucus Members More Reliable? Loyalty Screening and Committee Assignments of Newly Elected Legislators," The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 66, No. 2 (Apr., 2007), pp. 413-432; Katrina L. Gamble, "Black Voice: Deliberation in the United States Congress," Polity, Vol. 43, No. 3 (July 2011), pp. 291-312; Michael S. Rocca, Gabriel R. Sanchez and Jason L. Morin, "The Institutional Mobility of Minority Members of Congress," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 64, No. 4 (December 2011), pp. 897-909; John D. Griffin and Michael Keane, "Are African Americans Effectively Represented in Congress?" Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 64, No. 1 (March 2011), pp. 145-156; Gbemende Johnson, Bruce I. Oppenheimer and Jennifer L. Selin, "The House as a Stepping Stone to the Senate: Why Do So Few African American House Members Run?" American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 56, No. 2 (April 2012), pp. 387-399; and, Stella M. Rouse, Michele L. Swers, and Michael D. Parrott, "Gender, Race, and Coalition Building: Agenda Setting as a Mechanism for Collaboration Among Minority Groups in Congress," Paper delivered for presentation at the American Political Science Association Meeting (2013).

    7.

    For example: Charles E. Jones, "United We Stand, Divided We Fall: An Analysis of the Congressional Black Caucus' Voting Behavior, 1975-1980," Phylon, Vol. 48, No. 1 (1st Qtr., 1987), pp. 26-37; Roxanne L. Gile, Charles E. Jones, "Congressional Racial Solidarity: Exploring Congressional Black Caucus Voting Cohesion, 1971-1990," Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 25, No. 5 (May, 1995), pp. 622-641; Neil Pinney and George Serra, "The Congressional Black Caucus and Vote Cohesion: Placing the Caucus within House Voting Patterns," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 52, No. 3 (Sept., 1999), pp. 583-608; Michael S. Rocca, Gabriel R. Sanchez and Ron Nikora, "The Role of Personal Attributes in African American Roll-Call Voting Behavior in Congress," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Jun., 2009), pp. 408-414.

    8.

    For example: Edward O. Erhagbe, "The Congressional Black Caucus and United States Policy Toward Africa:1971-1990," Transafrican Journal of History, Vol. 24 (1995), pp. 84-96; Joseph Uscinski, Michael S. Rocca, Gabriel R. Sanchez and Marina Brenden, "Congress and Foreign Policy: Congressional Action on the Darfur Genocide," PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 42, No. 3 (July 2009), pp. 489-496; Michael D. Minta and Valeria Sinclair-Chapman, "Diversity in Political Institutions and Congressional Responsiveness to Minority Interests," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 66, No. 1 (March 2013), pp. 127-140.

    9.

    One Representative has since resigned.

    10.

    For information on the Seventeenth Amendment, see https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/amendments-11-27#toc-amendment-xvii and http://www.crs.gov/conan/details/?mode=topic&doc=Amendment17.xml&t=1&c=1.

    11. For information on the CBC CMO, see https://cbc.house.gov/. For additional historical information, see http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Essays/Permanent-Interest/Congressional-Black-Caucus/. 12.

    Number includes CMOs listed as of February 5, 2018. For a list of CMOs in the 115th Congress, see https://cha.house.gov/sites/republicans.cha.house.gov/files/assets/115CMOList%282.5.18%29.pdf.

    13.

    H.Res. 6 (104th Congress), Section 222. These groups were previously referred to as Legislative Service Organizations (LSOs).

    14.

    Rules of the House adopted for the 114th and 115th Congress made changes to the accounting of CMOs (H.Res. 5, Section 3(p), 114th Congress; H.Res. 5, Section (3)(n), 115th Congress) by allowing a "Member of the House of Representatives and an eligible Congressional Member Organization [to] enter into an agreement" to allow for a transfer of funds from the MRA to a "dedicated account in the House of Representatives which is administered by the Organization," subject to regulations adopted by the Committee on House Administration.

    15.

    For information, see https://cha.house.gov/handbooks/members-congressional-handbook#Members-Handbook-Organizations-CMO.

    16.

    For information, see https://www.cbcfinc.org/.

    17.

    For additional information, refer to CRS Report RL30567, Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2017, by [author name scrubbed].

    18. U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, "Black Americans in Party Leadership Positions, 1977-Present," http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Data/Black-Americans-in-Party-Leadership-Positions/. 19. For additional information, refer to the "Black Americans Who Have Chaired Congressional Committees in the U.S. House, 1873-present" table of the Black Americans in Congress website at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Data/Black-American-Chairs-of-Congressional-Committees/. 20. This number includes one female Senator who is of African American and Asian ancestry. For additional information, see U.S. Congress, House, Office of the Historian, Black Americans in Congress, at http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/. 21.

    Prior to the adoption of the Twentieth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, effective Oct. 15, 1933, the terms of Representatives and Senators began on March 4, in conformance with a resolution of the Continental Congress implementing the Constitution (adopted Sept. 13, 1788). The Twentieth Amendment provides inter alia that the terms of Representatives and Senators shall commence at noon on January 3, in the year following their election. The first Congress affected by the Twentieth Amendment was the 74th (1935-1937). Members elected to fill a vacancy are sworn in and commence their terms as soon as possible, as do Senators appointed to fill a vacancy.

    The names and jurisdiction of House and Senate committees have changed many times over the years. In the interest of brevity, this report does not identify all historical name changes. The committee names listed are for the most part those in effect at the time a Member served on the panel.