Monuments and Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia: Current Development of In-Progress and Lapsed Works




Monuments and Memorials Authorized Under
the Commemorative Works Act in the District
of Columbia: Current Development of
In-Progress and Lapsed Works

Updated April 29, 2021
Congressional Research Service
https://crsreports.congress.gov
R43744




In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act

Summary
Under the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) of 1986, Congress may authorize commemorative
works to be placed in the District of Columbia or its environs. Once a commemorative work has
been authorized, Congress continues to be responsible for statutorily designating a memorial site
location.
This report provides a status update on 13 in-progress memorials, 7 memorials with lapsed
authorizations, and 1 with a repealed authorization. For each monument or memorial, the report
provides a rationale for the work as expressed in the Congressional Record or a House or Senate
committee report; its statutory authority; the group or groups sponsoring the commemoration; and
the memorial’s location (or proposed location), if known. A picture or rendering of each work is
also included, when available.
For more information on the Commemorative Works Act, see CRS Report R41658,
Commemorative Works in the District of Columbia: Background and Practice, by Jacob R.
Straus; CRS Report R43241, Monuments and Memorials in the District of Columbia: Analysis
and Options for Proposed Exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act
, by Jacob R. Straus; and
CRS Report R43743, Monuments and Memorials Authorized and Completed Under the
Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia, by Jacob R. Straus.
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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1
Commemorative Works Areas of the District of Columbia ..................................................... 1

Reserve .................................................................................................................... 2
Area I ...................................................................................................................... 2
Area II ..................................................................................................................... 2

Factors Potentially Influencing Commemorative Works’ Completion ...................................... 2
Site Location ............................................................................................................ 3
Design Approval ....................................................................................................... 3
Fundraising .............................................................................................................. 3

Authorized Commemorative Works ................................................................................... 4
In-Progress Commemorative Works ................................................................................... 5
Memorials Under Construction .................................................................................... 6
Memorials Being Designed ......................................................................................... 6
World War II D-Day Prayer ................................................................................... 6
Slaves and Free Black Persons Who Served in the Revolutionary War .......................... 7
Korean War Veterans Memorial Wal of Remembrance .............................................. 9
Second Division Memorial Additions .................................................................... 11
Desert Storm and Desert Shield ............................................................................ 12
Peace Corps....................................................................................................... 14
First Division Monument Modifications................................................................. 15
Site Locations to Be Determined ................................................................................ 16
John Adams and His Family’s Legacy ................................................................... 16
Global War on Terrorism Memorial ....................................................................... 17
Emergency Medical Services Memorial ................................................................. 18
Republic of Texas Legation.................................................................................. 19
Fal en Journalists ............................................................................................... 20
Women’s Suffrage Movement Memorial................................................................ 20

Commemorative Works with Lapsed Authorizations........................................................... 21
Gold Star Mothers .............................................................................................. 21
National Peace Garden ........................................................................................ 23
Thomas Paine .................................................................................................... 23

Benjamin Banneker ............................................................................................ 24
Frederick Douglass ............................................................................................. 24
Brigadier General Francis Marion ......................................................................... 25
Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visitors Center ........................................................... 25

Repealed Authorization ............................................................................................ 26
Black Revolutionary War Patriots ......................................................................... 26

Figures
Figure 1. World War II D-Day Prayer Plaque Proposed Design and Location............................ 7
Figure 2. Slaves and Free Black Persons Who Served in the Revolutionary War ....................... 9
Figure 3. Korean War Veterans Memorial Wal of Remembrance .......................................... 11
Figure 4. Second Division Memorial ................................................................................ 12
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Figure 5. National Desert Storm and Desert Shield War Memorial ........................................ 13
Figure 6. Peace Corps Memorial...................................................................................... 15
Figure 7. First Division Monument .................................................................................. 16
Figure 8. Gold Star Mothers Memorial ............................................................................. 22

Tables
Table 1. In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials in the District of Columbia and Its Environs ........... 4

Contacts
Author Information ....................................................................................................... 27

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In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act

Introduction
Since November 1986, the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) has provided the legal framework
for the placement of commemorative works in the District of Columbia. The CWA was enacted to
establish a statutory process for ensuring “that future commemorative works in areas
administered by the National Park Service (NPS) and the General Services Administration (GSA)
in the District of Columbia and its environs (1) are appropriately designed, constructed, and
located and (2) reflect a consensus of the lasting significance of the subjects involved.”1 Areas
administered by other agencies are not subject to the CWA. Responsibility for overseeing the
design, construction, and maintenance of such works was delegated to the Secretary of the
Interior or the Administrator of the GSA,2 the National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC),
and the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts (CFA). Additional y, the CWA restricts placement of
commemorative works to certain areas of the District of Columbia based on the subject’s historic
importance.
Pursuant to the CWA, locating a commemorative work on federal y owned and administered land
in the District of Columbia requires the federal government to maintain the memorial unless
otherwise stipulated in the enabling legislation. In some cases, however, authorized memorials are
ultimately sited on land that fal s outside of CWA jurisdiction and outside the boundaries of the
District of Columbia and its environs. For example, the Air Force Memorial was authorized by
Congress for placement on land owned and administered by either NPS or GSA in the District of
Columbia. Memorial organizers, however, chose a site near the Pentagon in Arlington, VA, that is
owned and administered by the Department of Defense. Consequently, the Department of
Defense, not the NPS or GSA, is responsible for maintenance.
This report highlights in-progress works and memorials with lapsed authorizations since the
passage of the CWA in 1986. The report provides information—located within text boxes for easy
reference—on the statute(s) authorizing the work; the sponsor organization; statutory legislative
extensions, if any;3 and the memorial’s location or proposed location, if known. A picture or
rendering of each work is also included, when available.
Commemorative Works Areas of the District of
Columbia
The CWA divides areas administered by the NPS and the GSA in the District of Columbia and its
environs into three sections for the placement of memorials: the Reserve, Area I, and Area II. For

1 40 U.S.C. §8901(4).
2 Whether oversight of the design, construction, and maintenance of commemorative works authorized pursuant to the
Commemorative Works Act falls to the Secretary of the Interior or the Administrator of the General Services
Administration is determined by who administers the land on which the memorial is to be constructed. In all cases to
date, the Secretary of the Interior has been the oversight official, as all authorized commemorative works have been
placed or are scheduled to be placed on National Park Service land.
3 Pursuant to the Commemorative Works Act (40 U.S.C. §8903(e)(1)), all sponsor groups are provided with a seven-
year period to complete the work necessary to complete (i.e., dedicate) the memorial. T his time period can be extended
administratively if the Secretary of the Interior or the Administrator of General Services issues a construction permit, or
if Congress amends the initial statute to provide for additional time to complete the memorial’s design and
construction. For more information, see CRS Report R41658, Com m emorative Works in the District of Colum bia:
Background and Practice
, by Jacob R. Straus.
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each area, the standards for memorial placement are specified in law, and congressional approval
of monument location is required.
Reserve
The Reserve was created in November 2003, by P.L. 108-126, to prohibit the addition of future
memorials in an area defined as “the great cross-axis of the Mal , which general y extends from
the United States Capitol to the Lincoln Memorial, and from the White House to the Jefferson
Memorial.”4 Under the act, this area is considered “a substantial y completed work of civic art.”5
Within this area, “to preserve the integrity of the Mal … the siting of new commemorative works
is prohibited.”6
Area I
Created as part of the original CWA in 1986, Area I is reserved for commemorative works of
“preeminent historical and lasting significance to the United States.”7 Area I is roughly bounded
by the West Front of the Capitol; Pennsylvania Avenue NW (between 1st and 15th Streets NW);
Lafayette Square; 17th Street NW (between H Street and Constitution Avenue); Constitution
Avenue NW (between 17th and 23rd Streets); the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
waterfront area; Theodore Roosevelt Island; National Park Service land in Virginia surrounding
the George Washington Memorial Parkway; the 14th Street Bridge area; and Maryland Avenue
SW, from Maine Avenue SW, to Independence Avenue SW, at the U.S. Botanic Garden.
Area II
Also created as part of the original CWA statute, Area II is reserved for “subjects of lasting
historical significance to the American people.”8 Area II encompasses al sections of the District
of Columbia and its environs not part of the Reserve or Area I.
Factors Potentially Influencing Commemorative
Works’ Completion
Several factors may affect a memorial foundation’s ability to complete a memorial. These include
settling on a desired site location, getting design approval, and raising the funds necessary to
design and build a commemorative work.

4 40 U.S.C. §8902.
5 P.L. 108-126, §202(a), 117 Stat. 1348, November 17, 2003.
6 40 U.S.C. §8901 note; and 40 U.S.C. §8908(c). T he placement of museums and visitors centers is also prohibited
under 40 U.S.C. §8905(b)(5) and 40 U.S.C. §8908(c).
7 40 U.S.C. §8908 (b)(1). T he Secretary of the Interior or the Administrator of General Services, after seeking the
advice of the National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission, can recommend that a memorial be placed in Area I. If
either the Secretary or the Administrator recommends placement in Area I, he or she must notify the House Committee
on Natural Resources and the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. T he Secretary or the Administrator
notifies Congress by sending a letter to the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate. If the
recommendation is not enacted into law within 150 calendar days, the recommendation is not adopted and the
memorial sponsor must consider sites in Area II.
8 40 U.S.C. §8908(b)(2).
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Site Location
Choosing a memorial site location is one of the biggest tasks for al authorized sponsor groups.
Many groups want locations on or near the National Mal . The creation of the Reserve in 2003,9
however, makes placement of a future memorial on the National Mal difficult. Subsequently,
many sponsor groups attempt to locate sites as close to the National Mal as possible in order to
ensure that visitors have easy access to the memorial. For example, the Dwight D. Eisenhower
Memorial is located on land directly south of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum,
thus providing a prominent—just off the Mal —location.
Likewise, the foundation previously authorized to construct a memorial to honor John Adams and
his family’s legacy evaluated site locations as close to the National Mal as possible.
Design Approval
In 1986, as part of the CWA, Congress authorized the NCPC and the CFA to approve memorial
designs. The NCPC and the CFA were tasked with carrying out the goals of the CWA, which are
(1) to preserve the integrity of the comprehensive design of the L’Enfant and McMilan
plans for the Nation’s Capital; (2) to ensure the continued public use and enjoyment of
open space in the District of Columbia and its environs, and to encourage the location of
commemorative works within the urban fabric of the District of Columbia; (3) to preserve,
protect, and maintain the limited amount of open space available to residents of, and
visitors to, the Nation’s Capital; and (4) to ensure that future commemorative works in
areas administered by the National Park Service and the Administrator of General Services
in the District of Columbia and its environs are … appropriately designed, constructed, and
located; and … reflect a consensus of lasting national significance of the subjects
involved.10
In some instances, sponsor groups have difficulty creating a memorial vision that meets the
specifications of the NCPC, CFA, and the National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission
(NCMAC). In these cases, groups wil often have to present multiple designs to these bodies
before getting final design approval. For example, the Eisenhower Memorial Commission has
presented variations on the design for the Eisenhower Memorial to the NCPC multiple times.11 In
al instances, the NCPC gave feedback to the memorial design team and asked them to continue
work to comply with NCPC guidelines for memorial construction.12
Fundraising
Perhaps the most chal enging step in the commemorative works process for many sponsor groups
is raising the necessary funds to design and build a commemorative work. Although most sponsor
groups do not anticipate fundraising difficulties, some groups have experienced chal enges.
Failure to raise the necessary funds can be used as a reason not to extend a memorial’s

9 P.L. 108-126, §202, 117 Stat. 1349, November 5, 2003.
10 40 U.S.C. §8901.
11 For example, the National Capital Planning Commission’s web page on the Eisenhower Memorial lists five formal
presentations by the Eisenhower Memorial Commission. For more information, see National Capital Planning
Commission, “Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial,” at https://www.ncpc.gov/projects/eisenhower/.
12 National Capital Planning Commission, “Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial,” Commission Action, File No. 6694, at
https://www.ncpc.gov/docs/actions/2017October/
6694_Dwight_D._Eisenhower_Memorial_Modification_Staff_Report_Oct2017.pdf .
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authorization beyond the initial seven-year period. In some cases, even though the CWA general y
prohibits the use of federal funds for memorial design and construction,13 Congress has
authorized appropriations to aid sponsor groups in their fundraising efforts. For example, in 2005,
Congress appropriated $10 mil ion to the Secretary of the Interior “for necessary expenses for the
Memorial to Martin Luther King, Jr.”14 The appropriation was designated as matching funds,
making them available only after being matched by nonfederal contributions.15
Since the enactment of the Commemorative Works Act in 1986, 42 memorials and monuments
have been authorized by statute. On a yearly basis, however, legislation is pending before
Congress to consider a wide range of additional commemorative works. Pursuant to the CWA,
future commemorative works wil continue to be considered according to congressional
guidelines. If new commemorative works are authorized or currently authorized commemorative
works are completed, this report wil be updated accordingly.
Authorized Commemorative Works
Since the passage of the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) in 1986, Congress has authorized 42
commemorative works to be placed in the District of Columbia or its environs. Of these works,
13 are in progress, 7 have lapsed authorizations, and 1 had its authorization repealed. Table 1 lists
commemorative works authorized by Congress since 1986 that are in progress, with
authorizations that have lapsed, or with an authorization that has been repealed.
Table 1. In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials
in the District of Columbia and Its Environs
Congress
Memorial
Authorizing Legislation
In-Progress Commemorative Works
107
John Adams and his Family’s Legacy
P.L. 107-62, 115 Stat. 411, November 5, 2001a
112
Slaves and Free Black Persons Who Served in
P.L. 112-239, §2860, 126 Stat. 2164, January 3,
American Revolutionb
2013
113
World War II Memorial Prayer
P.L. 113-123, 128 Stat. 1377, June 30, 2014
113
Desert Storm and Desert Shield
P.L. 113-291, §3093, 128 Stat. 3879, December
19, 2014
113
Peace Corpse
P.L. 113-78, 127 Stat. 647, January 24, 2013
114
Korean War Memorial Wal of Remembrance
P.L. 114-230, 130 Stat. 947, October 7, 2016
115
Global War on Terrorism
P.L. 115-51, 131 Stat. 1003, August 18, 2017
115
Second Division Memorial Modifications
P.L. 115-141, Division G, §121(a)(1), 132 Stat.
661, March 23, 2018c
115
Emergency Medical Services
P.L. 115-275, 132 Stat. 4164, November 3, 2018
116
Women’s Suffrage Movement Memorial
P.L. 116-217, 134 Stat. 1052, December 17, 2020
116
Republic of Texas Legation
P.L. 116-248, 134 Stat. 1124, December 22, 2020
116
Fal en Journalists
P.L. 116-253, 134 Stat. 1135, December 23, 2020

13 For example, see the statute authorizing the American Veterans Disabled for Life Memor ial (P.L. 106-348, 114 Stat.
1358, October 24, 2000).
14 P.L. 109-54, §134, 119 Stat. 526, August 2, 2005.
15 P.L. 109-54, §134, 119 Stat. 527, August 2, 2005.
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Congress
Memorial
Authorizing Legislation
116
First Division Monument Modifications
P.L. 116-283, Title X, §1083, January 1, 2021
Lapsed Authorizations for Commemorative Worksd
100
National Peace Garden
P.L. 100-63, 101 Stat. 379, June 30, 1987
102
Thomas Paine
P.L. 102-407, 106 Stat. 1991, October 13, 1992
105
Benjamin Banneker
P.L. 105-355, Title V, §512, 112 Stat. 3266,
November 6, 1998
106
Frederick Douglass
P.L. 106-479, 114 Stat. 2184, November 9, 2000
108
Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visitors Center
P.L. 108-126, 117 Stat. 1348, November 17, 2003
110
Brigadier General Francis Marion
P.L. 110-229, §331, 122 Stat. 781, May 8, 2008
112
Gold Star Motherse
P.L. 112-239, §2859, 126 Stat. 2164, January 3,
2013
Repealed Authorization
99
Black Revolutionary War Patriotsb
P.L. 99-558, 100 Stat. 3144, October 27, 1986
Source: 40 U.S.C. §8903 note and CRS analysis of memorial legislation.
a. The memorial to John Adams and his family’s legacy was reauthorized by P.L. 116-9, [§2406(l), 133 Stat. 749,
March 12, 2019], until December 2025.
b. P.L. 112-239, §2860 repealed an authorization to the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Foundation to
create a Black Revolutionary War Veterans Memorial that had been authorized by P.L. 99-558 (100 Stat.
3144, October 27, 1986). P.L. 112-239 provided a new authorization for the Slaves and Free Black Persons
Who Served in the American Revolution Memorial to the National Mal Liberty Fund DC. The Liberty Fund
commonly cal s the memorial the National Liberty Memorial.
c. P.L. 115-141 incorporated S. 1460, §7130 (115th Congress; Energy and Natural Resources Act of 2017) to
authorize modifications to the Second Division Memorial.
d. Authority for these memorials lapsed prior to construction permits being issued to the sponsoring group.
e. Legislation to reauthorize these memorials was introduced in the 116th Congress, but was not enacted.
In-Progress Commemorative Works
Currently, 13 commemorative works have active authorizations and are in various stages of
development. These include the following:
 Memorials Under Construction
[No Memorials Currently Under Construction]
 Memorials Being Designed
Slaves and Free Black Persons Who Served in the Revolutionary War Memorial,
World War II Prayer plaque,
Korean War Memorial Wal of Remembrance,
Second Division Memorial modifications,
Desert Storm and Desert Shield,
Peace Corps Memorial, and
First Division Monument modifications.
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 Memorials Evaluating Site Locations
John Adams and his Family’s Legacy Memorial,
Global War on Terrorism Memorial,
Emergency Medical Services Memorial,
Texas Legation Memorial,
Fal en Journalists Memorial, and
Women’s Suffrage Movement Memorial.
There is one memorial with a recently lapsed authorization, where legislation was introduced to
reauthorize it in the 116th Congress (2019-2020): the Gold Star Mothers memorial.16
Memorials Under Construction
Currently, there are no memorials authorized pursuant to the CWA that are under construction.
Memorials Being Designed
World War II D-Day Prayer
In June 2014, Congress authorized the placement of a plaque containing President Franklin D.
Roosevelt’s D-Day prayer at the “area of the World War II Memorial in the District of
Columbia.... ”17 During debate on the bil in the 112th Congress (H.R. 2070), Representative Bil
Johnson summarized why he believed the prayer should be added to the World War II Memorial.
This legislation directs the Secretary of the Interior to install at the World War II Memorial
a suitable plaque or an inscription with the words that President Franklin Roosevelt prayed
with the Nation on the morning of the D-day invasion. This prayer, which has been entitled
“Let Our Hearts Be Stout,’’ gave solace, comfort and strength to our Nation and our brave
warriors as we fought against tyranny and oppression. The memorial was built to honor the
16 million who served in the Armed Forces of the United States during World War II and
the more than 400,000 who died during the war ... I have no doubt that the prayer should
be included among the tributes to the Greatest Generation memorialized on the National
Mall, and I strongly urge all of my colleagues to support this legislation.18
The prayer plaque wil be located at the “Circle of Remembrance” on the northwest side of the
World War II Memorial.19 The NCPC and the CFA have both expressed favorable views toward

16 T he Gold Star Mothers National Memorial Foundation’s authority to construct a memorial expired in January 2020.
In the 116th Congress (2019-2020), legislation was introduced to reauthorize the memorial until January 24, 2028. None
of the legislation was enacted. For more information, see H.R. 2819 (116th Congress), passed the House on February
28, 2020; and S. 1673 (116th Congress), introduced May 23, 2019. For more information, see U.S. Congress, House
Committee on Natural Resources, Gold Star Fam ilies National Monum ent Extension Act, report to accompany H.R.
2819, 116th Cong., 1st sess., October 18, 2019, H.Rept. 116-243 (Washington: GPO, 2019), at
https://www.congress.gov/116/crpt/hrpt243/CRPT-116hrpt243.pdf.
17 P.L. 113-123, 128 Stat. 1377, June 30, 2014.
18 Rep. Bill Johnson, “World War II Memorial Prayer Act of 2011,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record, daily
edition, vol. 158 (January 24, 2012), pp. H131 -H132.
19 National Capital Planning Commission, “President Franklin D. Roosevelt Prayer Plaque,” Commission Action, File
No. 7727, July 13, 2017, at https://www.ncpc.gov/docs/actions/2017July/
7727_President_Franklin_D._Roosevelt_Prayer_Plaque_Commission_Action_Jul2017.pdf.
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an “asymmetrical” design for the prayer plaque.20 Figure 1 shows the proposed location of the
plaque at the Circle of Remembrance.
Figure 1. World War II D-Day Prayer Plaque Proposed Design and Location

Source: Friends of the National World War II Memorial, Inc, “Revised Circle and Prayer Plaque Design: View to
WWII Memorial,” Presentation to the Commission of Fine Arts, April 15, 2021, 2017, p. 14, at https://www.cfa.gov/
system/files/meeting-materia ls/1-CFA-15APR21-1-WWI_Prayer_Plaque_REVISED-pres.pdf#page=14.
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 113-123, 128 Stat. 1377, June 30, 2014
Sponsor Organization:


Secretary of the Interior
Statutory Extension:


N/A
Location:





Reserve (Area of the World War II Memorial)
Dedication:




TBD
Slaves and Free Black Persons Who Served in the Revolutionary War
In December 2012, as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013,
Congress authorized the National Mal Liberty Fund DC to establish a commemorative work “to
honor the more than 5,000 courageous slaves and free Black persons who served as soldiers and
sailors or provided civilian assistance during the American Revolution.”21 Additional y, P.L. 112-
239 repealed a 1986 authorization to the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Foundation to
establish a commemorative work for black Revolutionary War veterans (discussed further in the
section below on “Repealed Authorization”).22

20 Letter from T homas E. Luebke, secretary, U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, to Robert Vogel, regional director,
National Park Service, National Capital Region, June 22, 2017, at https://www.cfa.gov/records-research/project -search/
cfa-15jun17-1; and National Capital Planning Commission, President Franklin D. Roosevelt Prayer Plaque,”
Com m ission Action, File No. 7727, July 13, 2017, at https://www.ncpc.gov/docs/actions/2017July/
7727_President_Franklin_D._Roosevelt_Prayer_Plaque_Commission_Action_Jul2017.pdf .
21 P.L. 112-239, §2860, January 2, 2013. T he Liberty Fund commonly calls the memorial the National Liberty
Memorial.
22 P.L. 112-239, §2860(f) repeals P.L. 99-558 (100 Stat. 3144, October 27, 1986), as amended by P.L. 99-590 (100
Stat. 3330, October 30, 1986); and P.L. 99-591 (100 Stat. 3341, October 30, 1986), which authorized the Black
Revolutionary War Patriots Foundation to establish a memorial in the District of Columbia “the estimated five
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In prepared remarks to the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, Senator Joseph
Lieberman summarized the need, from his perspective, for a memorial to African Americans who
served in the Revolutionary War:
Throughout our history the sacrifices of these remarkable patriots have often been relegated
to a mere footnote. This is unfortunate not only because it overlooks their service, but also
because it prevents us from taking an honest, nuanced view of ou r nation’s history. By
establishing a memorial to honor African Americans’ contributions to our nation’s
founding, we will broaden all Americans’ understanding of the diversity of the patriots
who helped to secure our independence.23
Further, in the Senate report accompanying the 2012 authorization (S. 883, 112th Congress), the
Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources summarized the history of memorializing
Black Revolutionary War veterans in the District of Columbia.
In 1986, Congress authorized the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial Foundation
to establish the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial to honor the 5,000 courageous
slaves and free Black persons who served as soldiers or provided civilian assistance during
the American Revolution (P.L. 99-558).
In 1987 Congress enacted a second law, P.L. 100-265, authorizing placement of that
memorial within the monumental core area as it was then defined by the Commemorative
Works Act. In 1988, the National Park Service, the Commission of Fine Arts, and the
National Capital Planning Commission approved a site in Constitution Gardens for the
Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial and, in 1996, approved the final design.
Despite four extensions of the memorial’s legislative authorization over 21 years, the
Foundation was unable to raise sufficient funds for construction, the authority (and
associated site and design approvals) finally lapsed in October 2005, and the Foundation
disbanded with numerous outstanding debts and unpaid creditors.
S. 883 would authorize another nonprofit organization, the National Mall Liberty Fund
D.C., to construct a commemorative work honoring the same individuals as proposed by
the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial Foundation, subject to the requirements
of the Commemorative Works Act.24
On September 26, 2014, President Obama signed H.J.Res. 120 to provide the memorial with a
location in Area I.25 The sponsor group publicly expressed interest in three sites: the National
Mal at 14th Street and Independence Avenue, NW; Freedom Plaza; and Virginia Avenue and 19th
Streets, NW,26 with a strong preference for the National Mal site, which is currently under the
jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. In the 114th Congress (2015-2016), legislation

thousand courageous slaves and free black persons who served as soldiers and sailors or provided civilian a ssistance
during the American Revolution and to honor countless black men, women, and children who ran away from slavery or
filed petitions with courts and legislatures seeking their freedom.”
23 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Miscellaneous National Park Bills, hearing on
S. 264, S. 265, S. 324, S. 764, S. 864, S. 883, S. 888, S. 925, S. 970, S. 1063, and S. 1134, 112th Cong., 1st sess., July
28, 2011, S.Hrg. 112-214 (Washington: GPO, 2012), p. 7.
24 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Reso urces, Establishment of a Memorial to Honor
Contributions of Free Persons and Slaves During the Am erican Revolution
, report to accompany S. 883, 112th Cong.,
2nd sess., January 13, 2012, S.Rept. 112-118 (Washington: GPO, 2012), pp. 1-2.
25 P.L. 113-176, 128 Stat. 1910, September 26, 2014. See also, “Approval of Memorial to Commemorative Slaves and
Free Black Persons who Fought in the American Revolution,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 160
(September 8, 2014), pp. H7273-H7274; and “ Approving the Location of an American Revolution Memorial,”
Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 160 (September 11, 2014), p. S5518.
26 National Liberty Memorials, “T he Sites,” at http://libertyfunddc.com/site-selection-2.
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was introduced to designate the Secretary of Agriculture as the officer “responsible for the
consideration of the site and design proposals and the submission of such proposals on behalf of
the sponsor to the Commission of Fine Arts and the National Capital Planning Commission”27 in
order to apply the CWA to the memorial.28 No further action was taken on the measure. Figure 2
shows a memorial concept design.
Figure 2. Slaves and Free Black Persons Who Served in the Revolutionary War
Concept Design

Source: Liberty Mal Fund DC, “Conceptual Design—National Liberty Memorial,” National Liberty Memorial Site
Selection Report
, presentation to the National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission, July 23, 2013, at
http://libertyfunddc.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/PRINTED-VERSION-National-Liberty-Memorial-Site-
Selection-Report-SITE-NC.... pdf.
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 112-239, §2860, January 2, 2013
Sponsor Organization:


National Mal Liberty Fund DC








(http://www.libertyfunddc.com)
Statutory Extension:


N/A
Location:





Area I29
Dedication:




TBD
Korean War Veterans Memorial Wall of Remembrance
In October 2016, Congress authorized a wal of remembrance, which “shal include a list of
names of members of the Armed Forces of the United States who died in the Korean War” to be
added to the Korean War Memorial in the District of Columbia.30 The wal of remembrance is to

27 H.R. 1949 (114th Congress), passed the House on September 16, 2015. On March 17, 2016, the Senate Energy and
Natural Resources Committee, Subcommittee on National Parks held a hearing on H.R. 1949. Additionally, the
provisions of H.R. 1949 are also included as a House amendment to S. 2012, the North American Energy Security and
Infrastructure Act of 2016. S. 2012 passed the Senate and the House in different forms, and a conference was held. No
further action on S. 2012 occurred in the 114th Congress.
28 T he Commemorative Works Act (CWA) only applies to land under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service or
the General Services Administration (40 U.S.C. §8901(4)). Since the Liberty Memorial Fund’s preferred site is under
the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture, the CWA would not apply to the memorial. Legislation ( H.R. 1949
and an amendment to S. 2012) applying the CWA to the Department of Agriculture for this particular memorial passed
the House in the 114th Congress (see footnote Error! Bookmark not de fined.).
29 P.L. 113-176, 128 Stat. 1910, September 26, 2014.
30 P.L. 114-230, 130 Stat. 947, October 7, 2016.
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be located “at the site of the Korean War Veterans Memorial.”31 During debate on the bil (H.R.
1475, 114th Congress) in the House, Representative Sam Johnson summarized why he believed it
was important to add a wal of remembrance to the Korean War Veterans Memorial.
My fellow Korean war veterans and I believe that the magnitude of this enormous sacrifice
is not yet fully conveyed by the memorial in Washington, DC.... Similar to the Vietnam
Veterans Memorial Wall, the Korean War Veterans Memorial Wall of Remembrance
would eternally honor the brave Americans who gave their lives in defense of freedom
during the Korean War. It would list their names as a visual record of their sacrifice.32
In April and May 2020, the NCPC and CFA approved the final site development plans for the
Korean War Memorial Wal of Remembrance.33 The Korean War Veterans Memorial Foundation
reports that it is currently fundraising to “secure al of the necessary funding of construction
costs.. . Al funding is to come from private donations.”34 Figure 3 shows the concept design for
the Korean War Veterans Memorial Wal of Remembrance.

31 P.L. 114-230, §2(a)(1).
32 Rep. Sam Johnson, “Korean War Veterans Memorial Wall of Remembrance Act of 2016,” House debate,
Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 162 (February 24, 2016), p. H878.
33 Letter from T homas E. Luebke, Secretary, U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, to Lisa Mendelson -Lelmini, Acting
Director, Region 1-National Capital Area, National Park Service, April 23, 2020, https://www.cfa.gov/records-
research/project -search/cfa-16-apr-20-1; and National Capital Planning Commission, “ Korean War Veterans Memorial
Wall of Remembrance,” Commission Action, May 7, 2020, NCPC File Number 8107, at https://www.ncpc.gov/docs/
actions/2020May/
8107_Korean_War_Veterans_Memorial_Wall_of_Remembrance_Commission_Action_May2020.pdf .
34 Korean War Veterans Memorial Foundation, “T he Wall of Remembrance,” at
https://www.koreanwarvetsmemorial.org/wall-of-remembrance.
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Figure 3. Korean War Veterans Memorial Wall of Remembrance
Concept Design

Source: Korean War Veterans Memorial Foundation, “The Wal of Remembrance,” at
https://www.koreanwarvetsmemorial.org/wal -of-remembrance/.
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 114-230, October 7, 2016
Sponsor Organization:


Korean War Veterans Memorial Foundation, Inc.








(http://www.koreanwarvetsmemorial.org)
Statutory Extension:


N/A
Location:





Reserve
Dedication:




TBD
Second Division Memorial Additions
On March 23, 2018, as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 (P.L. 115-141),
modifications to the Second Division Memorial were authorized.35 The Second Division
Memorial was initial y dedicated on July 18, 1936, to commemorate the division’s World War I
casualties, and “two wings were dedicated on June 20, 1962, with significant battles of World
War II inscribed on the west and of the Korean War on the east.”36 P.L. 115-141 authorizes the
placement of “additional commemorative elements or engravings on the raised platform or stone
work of the existing Second Division Memorial ... to further honor the members of the Second

35 P.L. 115-141, Division G, §121(a)(1), March 23, 2018. P.L. 115-141 incorporated by reference Section 7130 ofS.
1460, the Energy and Natural Resources Act of 2017.
36 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, “Second Division Memorial,” President’s Park: Explore the
Southern Trail
, at https://www.nps.gov/whho/planyourvisit/explore-the-southern-trail.htm#CP_JUMP_2801870/
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Infantry Division who have given their lives in service to the United States.”37 Figure 4 shows
the proposed modification to the Second Division Memorial.
Figure 4. Second Division Memorial

Source: Second Infantry Division Association Memorial Foundation, “Second Infantry Division Memorial
Modification,” CFA Submission, November 19, 2020, p. 21, at https://www.cfa.gov/system/files/meeting-materials/
CFA-19NOV20-2-Second_Division_Memorial_%28pres%29.pdf.
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 115-141, Division G, §121(a)(1), March 23, 2018
Sponsor Organization:


Second Division Indianhead Division Association, Inc.








(http://2ida.org)
Statutory Extension:


N/A
Location:





Reserve
Dedication:




TBD
Desert Storm and Desert Shield
In December 2014, as part of the FY2015 National Defense Authorization Act, Congress
authorized the National Desert Storm Memorial Association to establish a National Desert Storm
and Desert Shield Memorial in the District of Columbia to “commemorate and honor those who,
as a member of the Armed forces, served on active duty in support of Operation Desert Storm or
Operation Desert Shield.”38 During debate on the House version of the bil (H.R. 503),
Representative Doc Hastings, chair of the House Natural Resources Committee, summarized the
need for a memorial:

37 P.L. 115-141, Division G, §121(a)(1), March 23, 2018.
38 P.L. 113-291, §3093(b)(1), 128 Stat. 3858, December 19, 2014.
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Over 600,000 American servicemen deployed for Operations Desert Storm and Desert
Shield and successfully led a coalition of over 30 countries to evict an invading army to
secure the independence of Kuwait.
This memorial will recognize their success, but it will also serve as a commemoration of
those nearly 300 Americans who made the ultimate sacrifice on our behalf.39
On March 31, 2017, President Trump signed S.J.Res. 1, to provide the memorial with a location
in Area I.40 The memorial wil be located at the southwest corner of Constitution Avenue, NW,
and 23rd Street, NW. Figure 5 shows a rendering for the National Desert Storm and Desert Shield
Veteran’s War Memorial.
Figure 5. National Desert Storm and Desert Shield War Memorial
Concept Design: Proposed Views

Source: National Capital Planning Commission, “National Desert Storm and Desert Shield Memorial: Executive
Director’s Recommendation,” NCPC File Number: 7745, p. 26, at https://www.ncpc.gov/docs/actions/
2020January/7745_National_Desert_Storm_and_Desert_Shield_Memoria l_Staff_Report_Jan2020.pdf.
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 113-291, §3093, December 19, 2014.
Sponsor Organization:


National Desert Storm Memorial Association








(http://www.ndswm.org)
Statutory Extension:


N/A
Location:





Area I

39 Rep. Doc Hastings, “National Desert Storm and Desert Shield War Memorial Act,” House debate, Congressional
Record
, daily edition, vol. 160 (May 28, 2014), p. H4858. In August 2016, Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell
notified Congress of her recommendation that the memorial be placed in Area I (Letter from Sally Jewell, Secretary of
the Interior, to Vice President Joe Biden, August 31, 2016).
40 P.L. 115-18, 131 Stat. 82, March 31, 2017.
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Dedication:




TBD
Peace Corps
In January 2014, Congress authorized the Peace Corps Memorial Foundation to establish a
commemorative work in the District of Columbia to “commemorate the mission of the Peace
Corps and the ideals on which the Peace Corps was founded.”41 During House debate on the bil
(S. 230), Representative Raúl Grijalva, ranking member of the House Natural Resources
Committee, Subcommittee on Public Lands and Environmental Regulations, summarized his
understanding of the aims of the Peace Corps Memorial:
Last November, we marked the 50th anniversary of President Kennedy’s tragic
assassination. Losing President Kennedy left a lasting scar on the American psyche, but
his legacy lives on through his words and ideas, including the establishment of the Peace
Corps, an institution that has sent over 200,000 Americans to 139 countries in its 52-year
history.
S. 230 authorizes construction of a memorial to commemorate the mission of the Peace
Corps and the values on which it was founded. I cannot think of a better way to celebrate
President Kennedy’s legacy and the tremendous accomplishments of the Peace Corps.
With the passage of S. 230, we will be sending a worthwhile bill to the President’s desk. I
am glad we have been able to put our differences aside and pass such a meaning ful bill in
the first few weeks of the new year.42
To be located between 1st Street, NW, Louisiana Avenue, NW, and C Street, NW, in the District of
Columbia, the Peace Corps Memorial Foundation presented its design concept to the CFA and
NCPC in early 2019. In March 2019, the CFA approved the memorial’s concept design with
comments to be addressed as the design moves forward toward a final design.43 In May 2019, the
NCPC stated “that the proposed concept design does not adequately embrace the site’s strengths
or adequately respond to these chal enges, particularly as they relate to visual resources, visitor
use and experience, or natural resources.”44 In September 2020, the Peace Corps Memorial
Foundation presented a revised concept design to the CFA.45
In the 116th Congress, the Peace Corps Commemorative Foundation’s authority to construct a
memorial was extended until January 24, 2028.46 Figure 6 shows the concept design for the
Peace Corps Memorial as presented to CFA and NCPC.

41 P.L. 113-78, §1(a), 127 Stat. 647, January 24, 2014.
42 Rep. Raúl Grijalva, “Peace Corps DC Commemorative Work Act,” House debate, Congressional Record, daily
edition, vol. 160 (January 13, 2014), p. H168.
43 Letter from T homas E. Luebke, Secretary, U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, to Lisa Mendelson -Ielmini, Acting
Regional Director, National Park Service, National Capital Region, March 28, 2019, at https://www.cfa.gov/records-
research/project -search/cfa-21-mar-19-2.
44 National Capital Planning Commission, “Executive Director’s Recommendation, Commission Meeting: May 2,
2019,” Peace Corps Commemorative Work, NCPC File Number 7623, p. 4, at https://www.ncpc.gov/docs/actions/
2019May/7623_Peace_Corps_Commemorative_Work_Staff_Report_May2019.pdf .
45 U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, “CFA Meeting—19 September 2019,” at https://www.cfa.gov/records-research/
record-cfa-actions/2019/09/cfa-meeting.
46 P.L. 116-318, January 5, 2021.
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Figure 6. Peace Corps Memorial
Concept Design

Source: Peace Corps Commemorative Foundation, “Commemorative Concept,” at
http://www.peacecorpsdesign.net/commemorative/.
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 113-78, 127 Stat. 647, January 24, 2014
Sponsor Organization:


Peace Corps Commemorative Foundation








(http://www.peacecorpsdesign.net/)
Statutory Extension:


Authorization extended through January 24, 2028








P.L. 116-318, January 5, 2021
Location:





Area II
Dedication:




TBD
First Division Monument Modifications
On January 1, 2021, as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021 (P.L.
116-283, §1083), modifications to the First Division Monument were authorized. The First
Division Monument was initial y dedicated on October 4, 1924, to “honor the 5,516 soldiers of
the First Division who lost their lives during World War I.”47 In 1957, the monument was
modified to honor the 4,325 soldiers who died in World War II, in 1977 it was modified to honor
soldiers from the Vietnam War, and in 1995 it was modified to include a plaque to honor soldiers
from Desert Storm.48 P.L. 116-283 authorizes modifications “to honor the dead of the First
Infantry Division, United States Forces, in (1) Operation Desert Storm; (2) Operation Iraqi

47 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Natural Resources, First Infantry Recognition of Sacrifice in Theater Act, report
to accompany H.R. 1088, 116th Cong., 1st sess., November 8, 2019, H.Rept. 116-275 (Washington: GPO, 2019), p. 2.
48 Ibid.; and National Park Service, “First Division Monument History,” at https://www.nps.gov/whho/learn/
historyculture/first-division-monument.htm.
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Freedom and New Dawn; and (3) Operation Enduring Freedom.”49 Figure 7 shows the current
design of the First Division Monument.
Figure 7. First Division Monument

Source: National Park Service, “First Division Monument History,” at https://www.nps.gov/whho/learn/
historyculture/first-division-monument.htm.
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 116-283, §1083, January 1, 2021
Sponsor Organization:


Society of the First Infantry Division








(https://www.1stid.org)
Statutory Extension:


N/A
Location:





Reserve
Dedication:




TBD
Site Locations to Be Determined
John Adams and His Family’s Legacy
In November 2001, Congress authorized the Adams Memorial Foundation to “establish a
commemorative work on Federal land in the District of Columbia and its environs to honor
former President John Adams, along with his wife Abigail Adams and former President John
Quincy Adams, and the family’s legacy of public service.”50 In remarks during debate on the bil
(H.R. 1668, 107th Congress), Representative Joel Hefley summarized the importance of the
Adams family to American history:
Perhaps no American family has contributed as profoundly to public service as the family
that gave the Nation its second President, John Adams; his wife, Abigail Adams; and their
son, our sixth President, John Quincy Adams, who was also, by the way, a member of this
body. The family’s legacy was far reaching, continuing with John Quincy Adams’s son,
Charles Francis Adams, who was also a member of this body and an ambassador to England
during the Civil War; and his son, Henry Adams, an eminent writer and scholar, and it goes
on and on.51

49 P.L. 116-283, §1083(a), January 1, 2021.
50 P.L. 107-62, 115 Stat. 411-412, November 5, 2001.
51 Rep. Joel Hefley, “Authorizing Adams Memorial Foundation to Establish Commemorative Work Honoring Former
President John Adams,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 147, part 8 (June 25, 2001), p. 11757.
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In March 2019, as part of the enactment of the John D. Dingel , Jr. Conservation, Management,
and Recreation Act, Congress created the Adams Memorial Commission.52 The Adams Memorial
Commission replaces the Adams Memorial Foundation as the memorial’s sponsor. Moving
forward, the commission wil be responsible for al aspects of the memorial’s siting, design, and
construction.
Previously, in December 2013, the Adams Memorial Foundation’s authorization expired. Prior to
its lapse of authorization, the Adams Memorial Foundation was working with the NCMAC on the
potential recommendation of Area I.53 While the commission had not endorsed any particular site
location, it had recommended that the foundation continue its examination of numerous sites in
the District of Columbia in order to find a suitable location.54
Authorization Statute:

P.L. 107-62, 115 Stat. 411, November 5, 2001
Sponsor Organization:

Adams Memorial Commission








(P.L. 116-9, §2406(l), 133 Stat. 749, March 12, 2019)
Statutory Extensions:



Authorization extended through September 30, 2010








P.L. 111-88, §130, 123 Stat. 2933, October 30, 2009
Authorization extended through December 2, 2013








P.L. 111-169, 124 Stat. 1192, May 24, 2010
Authorization extended through December 2, 2020








P.L. 113-291, §3094, December 19, 2014
Authorization Extended through December 2, 2025








P.L. 116-9, §2406(l), 133 Stat. 749, March 12, 2019
Location:





Area I55
Dedication:




TBD
Global War on Terrorism Memorial
In August 2017, Congress authorized the Global War on Terrorism Memorial Foundation to
establish a commemorative work in the District of Columbia to “commemorate and honor the
members of the Armed Forces that served on active duty in support of the Global War on
Terrorism.”56 During debate on the bil (H.R. 873) in the House, Representative Tom McClintock,
chair of the Federal Lands Subcommittee of the House Committee on Natural Resources, stated
why a memorial to the Global War on Terrorism is important, despite a statutory prohibition
against war memorials for ongoing conflicts.57
The Commemorative Works Act requires that a war be ended for at least 10 years before
planning can commence on a national memorial. There is good reason for this requirement:

52 P.L. 116-9, §2406, March 12, 2019. T he commission consists of 12 members: four appointed by the President; four
Senators appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate in consultation with the Senate ma jority leader and the
Senate minority leader; and four Members of the House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House in
consultation with the House majority leader and the House minority leader.
53 National Park Service, “National Capital Memorial Advisory Committee Meeting,” 76 Federal Register 32986, June
7, 2011.
54 Author’s notes of National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission Meeting, June 23, 2011, National Building
Museum, Washington, DC.
55 P.L. 107-315, 116 Stat. 2763, December 2, 2002.
56 P.L. 115-51, 121 Stat. 1003, August 18, 2017.
57 40 U.S.C. §8903(b) and (c).
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it gives history the insight to place the war in an historic context and to begin to fuly
appreciate its full significance to our country and future generations.
But the war on terrorism has been fought in a decidedly different way than our past wars.
We are now approaching the 16th anniversary of the attack on New York and Washington.
The veterans who sacrificed so much to keep that war away from our shores deserve some
tangible and lasting tribute to their patriotism and altruism while they, their families, and
their fellow countrymen can know it. The Gold Star families of our fallen heroes for whom
the war will never end deserve some assurance that their sons and daughters will never be
forgotten by a grateful Nation.
We should remember that many of our Nation’s heroes from World War II never lived to
see the completion of the World War II Memorial, which was completed 59 years after the
end of that conflict.
For these reasons, this measure suspends the 10-year period in current law. It doesn't repeal
it. It merely sets it aside for the unique circumstances of the current war on terrorism.58
In the 116th and 117th Congresses, legislation was introduced to authorize the siting of the Global
War on Terrorism Memorial in the Reserve.59 In the 116th Congress, neither the House nor Senate
considered the legislation beyond introduction and committee referral. In the 117th Congress, the
legislation was referred to the House Natural Resources Committee and Senate Energy and
Natural Resources Committee, respectively, and would provide the Global War on Terrorism
Memorial Foundation with the choice of three sites in the Reserve.60
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 115-51, 131 Stat. 1003, August 18, 2017
Sponsor Organization:


Global War on Terrorism Memorial Foundation








(https://www.gwotmemorialfoundation.org)
Statutory Extension:


N/A
Location:





TBD
Dedication:




TBD
Emergency Medical Services Memorial
In October 2018, Congress authorized the National Emergency Medical Services Memorial
Foundation to establish a commemorative work in the District of Columbia to “commemorate the
commitment and service represented by emergency medical services.”61 During House debate on
the bil (H.R. 1037), Representative Tom McClintock, chair of the Federal Lands Subcommittee
of the House Committee on Natural Resources, stated why he considered a memorial to the
emergency medical services providers to be important:
Mr. Speaker, each year 850,000 EMS providers answer more than 30 million calls to serve
22 million patients in need at a moment’s notice and without reservation. For these heroes

58 Rep. T om McClintock, “Global War on T errorism Memorial Act,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 163
(July 28, 2017), p. H6544.
59 H.R. 5046 (116th Congress), introduced November 19, 2019; S. 4564 (116th Congress), introduced September 10,
2020; H.R. 1115 (117th Congress), introduced February 18, 2021; and S. 535 (117th Congress), introduced March 2,
2021.
60 H.R. 1115 (117th Congress) and S. 535 (117th Congress) both propose the same three potential sites: Constitution
Gardens, the JFK Hockey Fields, and West Potomac Park (§2(c)). These are the same sites proposed in the 116 th
Congress by H.R. 5046 and S. 4564.
61 P.L. 115-275, 132 Stat. 4164, November 3, 2018.
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who serve on the front lines of medicine, sacrifice is a part of their calling. EMTs and
paramedics have a rate of injury that is about three times the national average for all
occupations, and some pay the ultimate price in the service of helping others.
The men and women of the emergency medical services profession face danger every day
to save lives and help their neighbors in crisis. They respond to incidents ranging from a
single person’s medical emergency to natural and manmade disasters, including terrorist
attacks. But while their first responder peers in law enforcement and firefighting have been
honored with national memorials, EMS providers have not.62
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 115-275, 132 Stat. 4164, November 3, 2018
Sponsor Organization:


National Emergency Medical Services Memorial Foundation








(https://www.emsmemorial.org)
Statutory Extension:


N/A
Location:





TBD
Dedication:




TBD
Republic of Texas Legation
In December 2020, Congress authorized the Daughters of the Republic of Texas to establish a
commemorative work in the District of Columbia to “honor those who, as representatives of the
Republic of Texas, served in the District of Columbia as diplomats to the United States and made
possible the annexation of Texas as the twenty-eighth State of the United States.”63 During House
debate on the bil (H.R. 3349), Representative Deb Haaland, chair of the National Parks, Forests,
and Public Lands Subcommittee of the House Committee on Natural Resources, stated why she
considered a memorial to the Republic of Texas Legation to be important:
Shortly after Texas declared its independence from Mexico in 1836, the Republic of Texas
sent diplomats to several countries to represent the Republic’s interests. Among other
things, these diplomats advocated for protection from Mexico, financial assistance, and
annexation by the United States.
London and Paris have each erected commemorative works to recognize the role their
Texas legations played in their countries, and it seems only fitting to install one here in the
capital of the country proud to claim Texas as its own.64
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 116-248, 134 Stat. 1124, December 22, 2020
Sponsor Organization:


Daughters of the Republic of Texas








(https://www.drtinfo.org)
Statutory Extension:


N/A
Location:





TBD
Dedication:




TBD

62 Rep. T om McClintock, “Authorizing National Emergency Medical Services Memorial Foundation to Establish a
Commemorative Work,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 164 (July 17, 2018), p. H6338.
63 P.L. 116-248, sec. 2(a), 134 Stat. 1124, December 22, 2020.
64 Rep. Deb Haaland, “Republic of T exas Legation Memorial Act,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 166
(September 21, 2020), p. H4558.
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Fallen Journalists
In December 2020, Congress authorized the Fal en Journalists Memorial Foundation to establish
a commemorative work in the District of Columbia to “commemorate America’s commitment to
a free press by honoring journalists who sacrificed their lives in service to that cause.”65 During
House debate on the bil (H.R. 3465), Representative Deb Haaland, chair of the National Parks,
Forests, and Public Lands Subcommittee of the House Committee on Natural Resources, stated
why she considered a memorial to fal en journalists to be important:
Every day, journalists at home and abroad place their lives at risk in pursuit of the truth
and in defense of our First Amendment right to a free and independent press.
In 2018 alone, nearly 80 journalists from around the world were murdered in their line of
work. Yet, with the closure of the Newseum earlier this year, there is no memorial that
commemorates those who have paid the ultimate sacrifice while fulfilling their duty to
deliver the news.
The memorial envisioned in H.R. 3465 would be a fitting tribute to their sacrifices and an
affirmation of our Nation’s commitment to a free press.66
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 116-253, 134 Stat. 1135, December 23, 2020
Sponsor Organization:


Fal en Journalists Memorial Foundation








(https://www.fal enjournalists.org)
Statutory Extension:


N/A
Location:





TBD
Dedication:




TBD
Women’s Suffrage Movement Memorial
In December 2020, Congress authorized the Every Word We Utter Monument to establish a
commemorative work in the District of Columbia to “commemorate the women’s suffrage
movement and the passage of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, which gave women the
right to vote.”67 During House debate on the bil (H.R. 473), Representative Joe Neguse, sponsor
of the bil , stated he considered a memorial to the 19th Amendment to be important:
“Every word we utter, every act we perform, waft unto innumerable circles beyond.” Those
are the words Elizabeth Cady Stanton that inspired the movement for H.R. 473, which will
create Washington, D.C.’s first statue memorializing the women’s suffrage movement.
Today, we have the opportunity to honor the diverse and multigenerational group of
women who fought for decades to secure women the right to vote.68
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 116-217, 134 Stat. 1052, December 17, 2020
Sponsor Organization:


Every Word We Utter Monument








(https://everywordweutter.com)
Statutory Extension:


N/A

65 P.L. 116-253, §2(a), 134 Stat. 1135, December 23, 2020.
66 Rep. Deb Haaland, “Fallen Journalists Memorial Act,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 166 (September 21,
2020), p. H4560.
67 P.L. 116-217, §1(a), 134 Stat. 1135, December 17, 2020.
68 Rep. Joe Neguse, “Authorizing Every Word We Utter Monument to Establish a Commemorative Work,”
Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 166 (February 26, 2020), p. H1205.
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Location:





TBD
Dedication:




TBD
Commemorative Works with Lapsed Authorizations
Since 1986, at least seven commemorative works authorized by Congress were not completed in
the time al owed by the CWA. One of these memorials—the Gold Star Mothers—had
reauthorization legislation introduced in the 116th Congress, but its authorization was not
extended. The other six commemorative works did not have reauthorization legislation introduced
in the 116th Congress.69 These seven memorials were to be constructed to honor Gold Star
Mothers, Thomas Paine, Benjamin Banneker, Frederick Douglass, and Brigadier General Francis
Marion; to create a National Peace Garden; and to build a Vietnam Veterans Visitor Center. The
following section describes the initial authorization for each of these memorials and
congressional extensions of memorial authorization, if appropriate. Additional y, one memorial
had its authorization lapse and then subsequently repealed in legislation creating a new memorial
authorization.
Gold Star Mothers
In December 2012, as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013,
Congress authorized the Gold Star Mothers National Monument Foundation to establish a
commemorative work to “commemorate the sacrifices made by mothers, and made by their sons
and daughters who as members of the Armed Forces make the ultimate sacrifice, in defense of the
United States.”70 In testimony before the House Committee on Natural Resources Subcommittee
on National Parks, Forests, and Public Lands, the legislation’s (H.R. 1980’s) sponsor,
Representative Jon Runyan, explained why he thought a memorial to Gold Star Mothers was
needed:
During World War I, mothers of sons and daughters who served in the Armed Forces
displayed flags bearing a blue star to represent pride in their sons or daughters and their
hope that they would return home safely.
For more than 650,000 of these brave mothers, that hope was shattered, and their children
never returned home. Afterwards many of them began displaying flags bearing gold stars
to represent the sacrifice that their sons and daughters made in heroic service to our country.
Over the years the gold star has come to represent a child who was killed while serving in
the Armed Forces, during either war or peacetime.71
In December 2013, the Gold Star Mothers National Monument Foundation presented its site
analysis to the National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission. In that informational
presentation, they expressed a preference for a site location adjacent to Arlington National
Cemetery.72 In January 2015, the NCPC expressed support for a site next to the Arlington

69 P.L. 99-652, 100 Stat. 3654, November 14, 1986.
70 P.L. 112-239, §2859, January 2, 2013.
71 T estimony of Congressman Jon Runyan, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee
on National Parks, Forests, and Public Lands, Legislative Hearing on H.R. 1980, H.R. 2070, H.R. 2621, and H.R. 3155,
112th Cong., 1st sess., November 3, 2011, at http://naturalresources.house.gov/uploadedfiles/
runyanstatement11.03.11.pdf.
72 National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission, “Agenda,” December 12, 2013, at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/
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National Cemetery Visitor’s Center on Memorial Drive,73 and the CFA approved that site
location.74
The Gold Star Mothers National Memorial Foundation’s authority to construct a memorial
expired in January 2020. In the 116th Congress (2019-2020), legislation to reauthorize the
memorial until January 24, 2028, was introduced and passed the House but was not enacted into
law.75
Figure 8 shows the Gold Star Mothers National Monument Foundation’s concept design.
Figure 8. Gold Star Mothers Memorial
Concept Design

Source: Gold Star Mothers National Memorial Foundation, “Proposal,” at http://www.gsmmonument.org/
Proposal/Proposal.htm.
Authorization Statute:


P.L. 112-239, §2859, January 2, 2013
Sponsor Organization:


Gold Star Mothers National Memorial Foundation








(http://www.gsmmonument.org)
Statutory Extension:


N/A
Location:





TBD

document.cfm?documentID=50005.
73 National Capital Planning Commission, “Proposed Site for the Gold Star Mothers National Monuments,”
Com m ission Action, at https://www.ncpc.gov/docs/actions/2015December/
Gold_Star_Mothers_National_Monument_Recommendation_7731_December2015.pdf .
74 U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, “CFA 19/NOV/15-2, Gold Star Mothers National Monument,” at
https://www.cfa.gov/records-research/project -search/cfa-19nov15-2.
75 H.R. 2819 (116th Congress), passed the House on February 28, 2020; and S. 1673 (116th Congress), introduced May
23, 2019. For more information, see U.S. Congress, House Committee on Natural Resources, Gold Star Fam ilies
National Monum ent Extension Act
, report to accompany H.R. 2819, 116th Cong., 1st sess., October 18, 2019, H.Rept.
116-243 (Washington: GPO, 2019), at https://www.congress.gov/116/crpt/hrpt243/CRPT-116hrpt243.pdf.
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Dedication:




TBD
National Peace Garden
In June 1987, Congress authorized the Director of the National Park Service to enter into an
agreement with the Peace Garden Project to “construct a garden to be known as the ‘Peace
Garden’ on a site on Federal land in the District of Columbia to honor the commitment of the
people of the United States to world peace.”76 In remarks during debate on the bil (H.R. 191,
100th Congress), Representative Steny Hoyer summarized the need for a memorial to peace:
No one or nation can ever doubt the commitment of the American people to protecting our
freedoms when threatened by foreign aggressors. Our Nation’s Capital rightfully honors
our heroic defenders of freedom—Americans who served their country courageously,
gallantly, and at great risk to their lives.
Our citizens have also exhibited an equal commitment for world peace and international
law and justice. The creation of a Peace Garden is an appropriate symbol of our efforts to
continuing to seek peaceful res olution of world conflict and the institution of the rule of
law.
Certainly, this century has been one of bloodiest and most violent in man’s history. We
have seen countless battles, wars, rebellions, massacres, and civil and international strife
of all kinds—continuing examples of man’s inhumanity toward his fellow man.
At the same time, against this terrible backdrop, there have been encouraging strides toward
world peace. As we honor those who have made sacrifices in war, through monuments, so,
too, should we honor them by striving to ensure that the world they have left us will be a
peaceful one. A garden would be a living monument to our efforts.77
In 1988, a site was approved for the Peace Garden at Hains Point in Southwest Washington, DC.78
Since its initial authorization in 1987, the National Peace Garden was reauthorized twice.79 The
authorization expired on June 30, 2002.80
Thomas Paine
In October 1992, Congress authorized the Thomas Paine National Historical Association to
establish a memorial to honor Revolutionary War patriot Thomas Paine.81 In remarks
summarizing the need for a memorial to Thomas Paine, Representative Wil iam Lacy Clay stated:
Thomas Paine’s writings were a catalyst of the American Revolution. His insistence upon
the right to resist arbitrary rule has inspired oppressed peoples worldwide, just as it
continues to inspire us. It is time that a grateful nation gives him a permanent place of
honor in the capital of the country he helped build.82

76 P.L. 100-63, 101 Stat. 379, June 30, 1987.
77 Rep. Steny Hoyer, “Authorizing the Establishment of a Peace Garden,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record,
vol. 133, part 4 (March 10, 1987), p. 5205.
78 National Park Service, “New Memorials Update,” press release, March 14, 2001.
79 P.L. 103-321 (108 Stat. 1793, August 26, 1994) extended the Peace Garden’s authorization until 10 -years after
enactment (1997). P.L. 105-202 (112 Stat. 676, July 16, 1998) extended the authorization until June 30, 2002.
80 P.L. 105-202, 112 Stat. 676, July 16, 1998.
81 P.L. 102-407, 106 Stat. 1991, October 13, 1992; and P.L. 102-459, 106 Stat. 2268, October 23, 1992.
82 Rep. William Lacy Clay, “Authorizing Construction of a Monument to Honor T homas Paine,” remarks in the House,
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Since its initial authorization in 1992, the authorization for the Thomas Paine memorial was
extended once. Authorization for the memorial expired on December 31, 2003.83
Benjamin Banneker
In November 1998, Congress authorized the Washington Interdependence Council of the District
of Columbia to establish a memorial to “honor and commemorate the accomplishments of Mr.
Benjamin Banneker.”84 Adopted as part of a larger bil to create a national heritage area in
Michigan, the authorization for the Benjamin Banneker Memorial passed the House and Senate
without debate and by voice vote in October.85 In 2001, the National Park Service reported that
the memorial was to be sited on the L’Enfant Promenade in Southwest Washington and be under
the jurisdiction of the District of Columbia.86
Since its initial authorization, the Washington Interdependence Council has not been granted an
extension to its original authorization, which expired in 2005. A bil (S. 3886) was introduced in
the 111th Congress (2009-2010) to reauthorize a Benjamin Banneker Memorial. S. 3886 was
referred to the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, but no further action was
taken.87
Frederick Douglass
In November 2000, Congress authorized the Frederick Douglass Gardens, Inc., “to establish a
memorial and gardens on lands under the administrative jurisdiction of the Secretary of the
Interior in the District of Columbia or its environs in honor and commemoration of Frederick
Douglass.”88 During debate, Representative James Hansen provided a summary of why a
memorial to Frederick Douglass was important:
Mr. Speaker, Frederick Douglass was one of the most prominent leaders of the 19th century
abolitionist movement. Born into slavery in eastern Maryland in 1818, Douglass escaped
to the North as a young man where he became a world-renowned defender of human rights
and eloquent orator, and later a Federal ambassador and advisor to several Presidents.
Frederick Douglass was a powerful voice for human rights during the important period of
American history, and is still revered today for his contributions against racial injustice.89
Early in 2001, the Frederick Douglass Memorial Gardens, Inc., expressed its preference for a site
location near the Douglass Memorial Bridge in Southeast Washington,90 but no further action was
taken by Congress to approve the site location. The Frederick Douglass Memorial’s authorization
expired in 2008. One attempt was made to reauthorize a Frederick Douglass Memorial during the

Congressional Record, vol. 138, part 13 (July 21, 1992), p. 18660.
83 P.L. 106-113, §142, 113 Stat. 1501A-171, November 29, 1999.
84 P.L. 105-355, Title V, §512, 112 Stat. 3266, November 6, 1998.
85 “Automobile National Heritage Area Act of 1998,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 144 (October 10,
1998), p. H10423; and “ Automobile National Heritage Area,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 144 (October
14, 1998), p. S12533.
86 National Park Service, “New Memorials Update,” press release, March 14, 2001.
87 S. 3886 (111th Congress), introduced September 29, 2010.
88 P.L. 106-479, 114 Stat. 2184, November 9, 2000.
89 Rep. James Hansen, “Authorizing Memorial and Gardens in Honor and Commemoration of Frederick Douglass,”
Congressional Record, vol. 146, part 14 (October 3, 2000), p. 20630.
90 National Park Service, “New Memorials Update,” press release, March 14, 2001.
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110th Congress (2007-2008), but the bil was not reported by the House Committee on Natural
Resources.91
Brigadier General Francis Marion
In May 2008, Congress authorized the Marion Park Project to establish a commemorative work to
honor Brigadier General Francis Marion.92 In testimony before the Senate Committee on Energy
and Natural Resources, Subcommittee on National Parks, Daniel N. Wenk, deputy director for
operations, National Park Service, supported the enactment of legislation authorizing a Brigadier
General Francis Marion Memorial and explained why such a memorial meets criteria for
commemoration in the District of Columbia.
Brigadier General Francis Marion commanded the Williamsburg Militia Revolutionary
force in South Carolina and was instrumental in delaying the advance of British forces by
leading his troops in disrupting supply lines. He is credited for inventing and applying
innovative battle tactics in this effort, keys to an ultimate victory for the American Colonies
in the Revolutionary War. Additionally Brigadier General Marion’s troops are believed to
have been the first racially integrated force fighting for the United States.93
The Marion Park Project identified its preferred site location for the memorial at Marion Park in
southeast Washington, DC. In December 2014, the National Capital Planning Commission
expressed its support for the Marion Park site.94 Since its initial authorization, the Marion
Memorial was reauthorized once.95 Authorization for the memorial expired on May 8, 2018.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visitors Center
In November 2003, Congress authorized the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund to create a visitor
center at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial to “better inform and educate the public about the
Vietnam Veterans Memorial and the Vietnam War.”96 In the House report accompanying the
legislation (H.R. 1442, 108th Congress), the Committee on Resources summarized the need for a
visitor center at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial:
Since its dedication in 1982, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, known to many as simply
“The Wall,” has done much to heal the nation’s wounds after the bitterly divisive
experience of the Vietnam War. For those who served, that year marked a sea change in
the country’s view of the Vietnam veteran. Americans began to understand and respect the
Vietnam veterans’ service and sacrifice. Today, over 4.4 million people visit The Wal
every year—making it the most visited Memorial in the Nation’s Capital. Today, most

91 H.R. 3935 (110th Congress), introduced October 25, 2007.
92 P.L. 110-229, §331, 122 Stat. 781, May 8, 2008.
93 T estimony of National Park Service Deputy Director for Operations Daniel N. Wenk, in U.S. Congress, Senate
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Subcommittee on National Parks, Miscellaneous National Park Bills,
hearing on S. 169, S. 312, S. 580, S. 686, S. 722, S. 783, S. 890, H.R. 497, and H.R. 1047, 110th Cong., 1st sess., April
26, 2007, S.Hrg. 110-88 (Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 12.
94 T he Marion Park Project, “Site Selection & Design Process,” at http://www.swampfoxmemorial.org/
siteselection.html. On December 4, 2014, the National Capital Planning Commission officially expressed its support for
the placement of the Francis Marion Memorial within Marion Park. For more information, see National Capital
Planning Commission, “Commission Action: Francis Marion Memorial,” NCPC File #7615, December 4, 2014, at
https://www.ncpc.gov/docs/actions/2014December/
Francis_Marion_Memorial_Recommendation_7615_December_2014.pdf.
95 P.L. 114-92, §2852, 129 Stat. 1184, November 25, 2015.
96 P.L. 108-126, 117 Stat. 1348, November 16, 2003.
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visitors to The Wall were not alive during the “Vietnam Era.” Many veterans’
organizations and many others believe today’s visitor is shortchanged in his/her
experience. Many leave The Wall not fully understanding its message. To that end, a visitor
center would provide an educational experience for visitors by facilitating self-guided
tours, collecting and displaying remembrances of those whose names are inscribed on the
Memorial, and displaying exhibits discussing the history of the Memorial and the Vietnam
War. The visitor’s center would eventually replace a 168-foot National Park Service kiosk
currently at the site.97
The visitor center was to be constructed underground and located across the street from the
Vietnam Veterans Memorial and the Lincoln Memorial.98 In 2015, the NCPC and CFA approved
the visitor center’s design.99 On September 21, 2018, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund
announced their intention not to seek an extension to its authorization to build the visitor center,
which expired on November 17, 2018.100 At that time, legislation had been introduced, but not
considered, to extend the fund’s authorization into 2022.101 Previously, the fund had received two
statutory extensions.102
Repealed Authorization
Since 1986, one commemorative work’s authorization was repealed by Congress—the Black
Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial—as part of legislation creating a new memorial
authorization.
Black Revolutionary War Patriots
In October 1986, Congress authorized the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Foundation to
establish a memorial in the District of Columbia to honor “the estimated five thousand
courageous slaves and free black persons who served as soldiers and sailors or provided civilian
assistance during the American Revolution and to honor countless black men, women, and
children who ran away from slavery or filed petitions with courts and legislatures seeking their

97 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Resources, To Authorize the Design and Construction of a Visitor Center for
the Vietnam Veterans Mem orial
, report to accompany H.R. 1442, 108th Cong., 1st sess., October 2, 2003, H.Rept. 108-
295 (Washington: GPO, 2003), p. 2.
98 P.L. 108-126, §6(b), 117 Stat. 1348, November 17, 2003.
99 National Capital Planning Commission, “Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visito r Center,” Commission Action, File No.
6597, July 9, 2015, at https://www.ncpc.gov/docs/actions/2015July/
Vietnam_Veterans_Memorial_Visitor_Center_Recommendation_6597_July2015.pdf ; Letter from T homas E. Luebke,
secretary, U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, to Robert Vogel, regional director, National Park Service, National Capital
Region, May 15, 2015, https://www.cfa.gov/records-research/project -search/cfa-21may15-2; and National Capital
Planning Commission, “Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visitor Center,” Commission Action, File No. 6597, at
https://www.ncpc.gov/docs/actions/2012July/
Vietnam_Veterans_Memorial_Visitor_Center_Recommendation_6597_July2012_.pdf .
100 Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, “Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund Changes Direction of Education Center
Campaign,” press release, September 21, 2018, http://www.vvmf.org/news/article=Vietnam-Veterans-Memorial-Fund-
changes-direction-of-Education-Center-campaign.
101 S. 3298 (115th Congress), introduced July 30, 2018. T he Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee,
Subcommittee on National Parks held a hearing on S. 3298 on August 15, 2018. For more information, see U.S.
Congress, Senate, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Subcommittee on National Parks, “Legislative
Hearing,” August 15, 2018, at https://www.energy.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/hearings-and-business-meetings?ID=
B763CF41-B503-4EF2-9B06-CD734A00DBB8.
102 P.L. 111-270, 124 Stat. 2851, October 12, 2010 (extended through November 17, 2014); and P.L. 113-21, 127 Stat.
490, July 18, 2013 (extended through November 17, 2018).
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freedom.”103 In remarks introducing the memorial legislation, Representative Mary Rose Oakar
summarized the need for a memorial to Black Revolutionary War Veterans:
Mr. Speaker, as early as 1652 blacks were fighting as members of the Militia in Colonial
America, thus beginning their history of achievement and heroism for our country. Yet,
history books in American schools have for the most part omitted the contributions of black
soldiers since the Revolutionary War, to our most recent conflict in Vietnam.
This memorial to these black Americans is a small tribute to their bravery and valor, an
important part of the founding of our country.104
Following its initial authorization in 1986, the memorial was reauthorized three times.105
Authorization for the memorial expired in 2005,106 and it was repealed when the National Mal
Liberty Fund DC was authorized to build a memorial to “Slaves and Free Black Persons Who
Served in the Revolutionary War”
in 2013 (discussed above in the section on “In-Progress
Commemorative Works”).107



Author Information

Jacob R. Straus

Specialist on the Congress



Disclaimer
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103 P.L. 99-558, 100 Stat. 3144, October 27, 1986; P.L. 99-590, 100 Stat. 3330, October 30, 1986; and P.L. 99-591, 100
Stat. 3341, October 30, 1986.
104 Rep. Mary Oakar, “Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial,” Congressional Record, vol. 131, part 22
(November 4, 1985), p. 30373.
105 P.L. 103-321 (108 Stat. 1793, August 26, 1994) extended the authorization to 10 years from the date of enactment
(1996). P.L. 105-345 (112 Stat. 3205, November 2, 1988) extended the authorization until 2000, and P.L. 106-442 (114
Stat. 1926, November 6, 2000) extended the authorization until 2005.
106 P.L. 106-442, 114 Stat. 1926, November 6, 2000.
107 P.L. 112-239, Title XXVIII, §2860, 126 Stat. 2164, January 2, 2013.
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