Monuments and Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia: Current Development of In-Progress and Lapsed Works Jacob R. Straus Analyst on the Congress January 22, 2015 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R43744 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Summary Under the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) of 1986, Congress may authorize commemorative works to be placed in the District of Columbia or its environs. Once a commemorative work has been authorized, Congress continues to be responsible for statutorily designating a memorial site location. This report provides a status update on eight in-progress memorials and five memorials with lapsed authorizations. For each monument or memorial, the report provides a rationale for the work as expressed in the Congressional Record or a House or Senate committee report; its statutory authority; the group or groups sponsoring the commemoration; and the memorial’s location (or proposed location), if known. A picture or rendering of each work is also included, when available. For more information on the Commemorative Works Act, see CRS Report R41658, Commemorative Works in the District of Columbia: Background and Practice, by Jacob R. Straus; CRS Report R43241, Monuments and Memorials in the District of Columbia: Analysis and Options for Proposed Exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act, by Jacob R. Straus; and CRS Report R43743, Monuments and Memorials Authorized and Completed Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia, by Jacob R. Straus. Congressional Research Service In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1 Commemorative Works Areas of the District of Columbia ............................................................. 2 Reserve ...................................................................................................................................... 2 Area I ......................................................................................................................................... 2 Area II........................................................................................................................................ 2 Factors Potentially Influencing Commemorative Works’ Completion ............................................ 3 Site Location.............................................................................................................................. 3 Design Approval ........................................................................................................................ 3 Fundraising ................................................................................................................................ 4 Authorized Commemorative Works ................................................................................................ 4 In-Progress Commemorative Works ................................................................................................ 5 Memorials Under Construction ................................................................................................. 6 Victims of the Ukrainian Manmade Famine of 1932-1933 ................................................. 6 Memorials Being Designed ....................................................................................................... 7 Dwight D. Eisenhower ........................................................................................................ 7 Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visitors Center ....................................................................... 9 World War II D-Day Prayer............................................................................................... 11 Slaves and Free Black Persons Who Served in the Revolutionary War ............................ 12 World War I Memorial ...................................................................................................... 14 Site Locations to Be Determined ............................................................................................. 15 John Adams and His Family’s Legacy .............................................................................. 15 Brigadier General Francis Marion..................................................................................... 16 Gold Star Mothers ............................................................................................................. 17 Peace Corps ....................................................................................................................... 19 Desert Storm and Desert Shield ........................................................................................ 20 Commemorative Works with Lapsed Authorizations .................................................................... 21 National Peace Garden ............................................................................................................ 21 Thomas Paine .......................................................................................................................... 22 Benjamin Banneker ................................................................................................................. 22 Frederick Douglass .................................................................................................................. 23 Figures Figure 1. Victims of the Ukrainian Manmade Famine of 1932-1933 Memorial ............................. 7 Figure 2. Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial..................................................................................... 9 Figure 3. Map of Site for Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visitors Center ......................................... 11 Figure 4. Slaves and Free Black Persons Who Served in the Revolutionary War Memorial Concept Design........................................................................................................................... 14 Figure 5. Marion Park Project Preferred Site Location for Brigadier General Francis Marion Memorial ........................................................................................................... 17 Figure 6. Gold Star Mothers Memorial Concept Design ............................................................... 19 Congressional Research Service In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Tables Table 1. In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials in the District of Columbia and Its Environs............ 5 Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 23 Congressional Research Service In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Introduction Since November 1986, the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) has provided the legal framework for the placement of commemorative works in the District of Columbia. The CWA was enacted to establish a statutory process for ensuring “that future commemorative works in areas administered by the National Park Service (NPS) and the General Services Administration (GSA) in the District of Columbia and its environs (1) are appropriately designed, constructed, and located and (2) reflect a consensus of the lasting significance of the subjects involved.”1 Areas administered by other agencies are not subject to the CWA. Responsibility for overseeing the design, construction, and maintenance of such works was delegated to the Secretary of the Interior or the Administrator of the GSA,2 the National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC), and the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts (CFA). Additionally, the CWA restricts placement of commemorative works to certain areas of the District of Columbia based on the subject’s historic importance. Pursuant to the CWA, locating a commemorative work on federally owned and administered land in the District of Columbia requires the federal government to maintain the memorial unless otherwise stipulated in the enabling legislation. In some cases, however, authorized memorials are ultimately sited on land that falls outside of CWA jurisdiction and outside the boundaries of the District of Columbia and its environs. For example, the Air Force Memorial was authorized by Congress for placement on land owned and administered by either NPS or GSA in the District of Columbia. Memorial organizers, however, chose a site near the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, that is owned and administered by the Department of Defense. Consequently, the Department of Defense, not the NPS or GSA, is responsible for maintenance. This report highlights in-progress works and memorials with lapsed authorizations since the passage of the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) in 1986. The report provides information— located within text boxes for easy reference—on the statute(s) authorizing the work; the sponsor organization; statutory legislative extensions, if any;3 and the memorial’s location or proposed location, if known. A picture or rendering of each work is also included, when available. 1 40 U.S.C. §8901(4). Whether oversight of the design, construction, and maintenance of commemorative works authorized pursuant to the Commemorative Works Act falls to the Secretary of the Interior or the Administrator of the General Services Administration is determined by who administers the land on which the memorial is to be constructed. In all cases to date, the Secretary of the Interior has been the oversight official, as all authorized commemorative works have been placed or are scheduled to be placed on National Park Service land. 3 Pursuant to the Commemorative Works Act (40 U.S.C. §8903(e)(1)), all sponsor groups are provided with a sevenyear period to complete the work necessary to complete (i.e., dedicate) the memorial. This time period can be extended administratively if the Secretary of the Interior or the Administrator of General Services issues a construction permit, or if Congress amends the initial statute to provide for additional time to complete the memorial’s design and construction. For more information, see CRS Report R41658, Commemorative Works in the District of Columbia: Background and Practice, by Jacob R. Straus. 2 Congressional Research Service 1 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Commemorative Works Areas of the District of Columbia The CWA divides areas administered by the NPS and the GSA in the District of Columbia and its environs into three sections for the placement of memorials: the Reserve, Area I, and Area II. For each area, the standards for memorial placement are specified in law, and congressional approval of monument location is required. Reserve The Reserve was created in November 2003, by P.L. 108-126, to prohibit the addition of future memorials in an area defined as “the great cross-axis of the Mall, which generally extends from the United States Capitol to the Lincoln Memorial, and from the White House to the Jefferson Memorial.”4 Under the act, this area is considered “a substantially completed work of civic art.”5 Within this area, “to preserve the integrity of the Mall … the siting of new commemorative works is prohibited.”6 Area I Created as part of the original CWA in 1986, Area I is reserved for commemorative works of “preeminent historical and lasting significance to the United States.”7 Area I is roughly bounded by the West Front of the Capitol; Pennsylvania Avenue NW (between 1st and 15th Streets NW); Lafayette Square; 17th Street NW (between H Street and Constitution Avenue); Constitution Avenue NW (between 17th and 23rd Streets); the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts waterfront area; Theodore Roosevelt Island; National Park Service land in Virginia surrounding the George Washington Memorial Parkway; the 14th Street Bridge area; and Maryland Avenue SW, from Maine Avenue SW, to Independence Avenue SW, at the United States Botanic Garden. Area II Also created as part of the original CWA statute, Area II is reserved for “subjects of lasting historical significance to the American people.”8 Area II encompasses all sections of the District of Columbia and its environs not part of the Reserve or Area I. 4 40 U.S.C. §8902. P.L. 108-126, §202(a), 117 Stat. 1348, November 17, 2003. 6 40 U.S.C. §8901 note; and 40 U.S.C. §8908 (c). The placement of museums and visitors centers is also prohibited under 40 U.S.C. §8905 (b)(5) and 40 U.S.C. §8908 (c). 7 40 U.S.C. §8908 (b)(1). The Secretary of the Interior or the Administrator of General Services, after seeking the advice of the National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission, can recommend that a memorial be placed in Area I. If either the Secretary or the Administrator recommends placement in Area I, he or she must notify the House Committee on Natural Resources and the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. The Secretary or the Administrator notifies Congress by sending a letter to the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate. If the recommendation is not enacted into law within 150 calendar days, the recommendation is not adopted and the memorial sponsor must consider sites in Area II. 8 40 U.S.C. §8908 (b)(2). 5 Congressional Research Service 2 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Factors Potentially Influencing Commemorative Works’ Completion Of the 33 commemorative works authorized for placement in the District of Columbia since 1986, 18 (55%) have been completed and dedicated, while 11 (33%) are in-progress, and four (12%) have lapsed authorizations. Several factors may affect a memorial foundation’s ability to complete a memorial. These include settling on a desired site location, getting design approval, and raising the funds necessary to design and build a commemorative work. Site Location Choosing a memorial site location is one of the biggest tasks for all authorized sponsor groups. Many groups want locations on or near the National Mall. The creation of the Reserve in 2003,9 however, makes placement of a future memorial on the National Mall difficult. Subsequently, many sponsor groups attempt to locate sites as close to the National Mall as possible in order to ensure that visitors have easy access to the memorial. For example, the Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial is to be located on land directly south of the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, thus providing a prominent—just off the Mall—location. Likewise, the foundation previously authorized to construct a memorial to honor John Adams and his family’s legacy evaluated site locations as close to the National Mall as possible. Design Approval In 1986, as part of the CWA, Congress authorized the NCPC and the CFA to approve memorial designs. The NCPC and the CFA were tasked with carrying out the goals of the CWA, which are, (1) to preserve the integrity of the comprehensive design of the L’Enfant and McMillan plans for the Nation’s Capital; (2) to ensure the continued public use and enjoyment of open space in the District of Columbia and its environs, and to encourage the location of commemorative works within the urban fabric of the District of Columbia; (3) to preserve, protect, and maintain the limited amount of open space available to residents of, and visitors to, the Nation’s Capital; and (4) to ensure that future commemorative works in areas administered by the National Park Service and the Administrator of General Services in the District of Columbia and its environs are … appropriately designed, constructed, and located; and … reflect a consensus of lasting national significance of the subjects involved.10 In some instances, sponsor groups have difficulty creating a memorial vision that meets the specifications of the NCPC, CFA, and NCMAC. In these cases, groups will often have to present multiple designs to these bodies before getting final design approval. For example, the Eisenhower Memorial Commission has presented variations on the design for the Eisenhower Memorial to the NCPC at least three times.11 In all instances, the NCPC gave feedback to the 9 P.L. 108-126, §202, 117 Stat. 1349, November 5, 2003. 40 U.S.C. §8901. 11 The Eisenhower Memorial Commission presented concept designs in September 2006 (http://www.ncpc.gov/ncpc/ Main%28T2%29/ProjectReview%28Tr2%29/CommissionArchive/CommissionArchives.html); June 2010 (continued...) 10 Congressional Research Service 3 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act memorial design team and asked them to continue work to comply with NCPC guidelines for memorial construction.12 Fundraising Perhaps the most challenging step in the commemorative works process for many sponsor groups is raising the necessary funds to design and build a commemorative work. While most sponsor groups do not anticipate fundraising difficulties, some groups have experienced challenges. Failure to raise the necessary funds can be used as a reason not to extend a memorial’s authorization beyond the initial seven-year period. In some cases, even though the CWA generally prohibits the use of federal funds for memorial design and construction,13 Congress has authorized appropriations to aid sponsor groups in their fundraising efforts. For example, in 2005, Congress appropriated $10 million to the Secretary of the Interior “for necessary expenses for the Memorial to Martin Luther King, Jr.”14 The appropriation was designated as matching funds, making them available only after being matched by nonfederal contributions.15 Since the enactment of the Commemorative Works Act in 1986, 31 memorials and monuments have been authorized by statute. On a yearly basis, however, legislation is pending before Congress to consider a wide range of additional commemorative works. Pursuant to the CWA, future commemorative works will continue to be considered according to the guidelines Congress has established. If new commemorative works are authorized or currently authorized commemorative works are completed, this report will be updated accordingly. Authorized Commemorative Works Since the passage of the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) in 1986, Congress has authorized 33 commemorative works to be placed in the District of Columbia or its environs, 31 of these pursuant to the CWA. Of these works, 11 are in-progress and four have lapsed authorizations. Table 1 lists commemorative works authorized by Congress since 1986 that are in-progress or whose authorization has lapsed. (...continued) (http://www.ncpc.gov/Video/EisenhowerMemorialConcepts.html); February 2011 (http://www.ncpc.gov/ncpc/ Main%28T2%29/ProjectReview%28Tr2%29/CommissionArchive/CommissionActionsiframepages/Archive/2011/ February2011Actions.html); and April 2014 (http://www.ncpc.gov/ncpc/Main%28T2%29/ProjectReview%28Tr2%29/ CommissionArchive/CommissionArchives.html). 12 National Capital Planning Commission, “Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial,” Commission Action, File No. 6694, at http://www.ncpc.gov/DocumentDepot/Actions_Recommendations/2011Feb/ Eisenhower_Memorial_Concept_Action_6694_February2011_.pdf. 13 For example, see the statute authorizing the American Veterans Disabled for Life Memorial (P.L. 106-348, 114 Stat. 1358, October 24, 2000). 14 P.L. 109-54, §134, 119 Stat. 526, August 2, 2005. 15 P.L. 109-54, §134, 119 Stat. 527, August 2, 2005. Congressional Research Service 4 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Table 1. In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials in the District of Columbia and Its Environs Congress Memorial Authorizing Legislation In-Progress Commemorative Works 106 Dwight D. Eisenhower P.L. 106-79, §8162, 113 Stat. 1274, October 25, 1999 107 John Adams and his Family’s Legacy P.L. 107-62, 115 Stat. 411, November 5, 2001 a 108 Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visitors Center P.L. 108-126, 117 Stat. 1348, November 17, 2003 109 Victims of Ukrainian Manmade Famine of 19321933 P.L. 109-340, 120 Stat. 1864, October 13, 2006 110 Brigadier General Francis Marion P.L. 110-229, §331, 122 Stat. 781, May 8, 2008 112 Gold Star Mothers P.L. 112-239, §2859, 126 Stat. 2164, January 3, 2013 112 Slaves and Free Black Persons who Served in American Revolution b P.L. 112-239, §2860, 126 Stat. 2164, January 3, 2013 113 Peace Corps P.L. 113-78, 127 Stat. 647, January 24, 2013 113 World War II Memorial Prayer P.L. 113-123, 128 Stat. 1377, June 30, 2014 113 World War I P.L. 113-291, §3091(b), December 19, 2014 113 Desert Storm and Desert Shield P.L. 113-291, §3093, December 19, 2014 Lapsed Authorizations for Commemorative Works c 100 National Peace Garden P.L. 100-63, 101 Stat. 379, June 30, 1987 102 Thomas Paine P.L. 102-407, 106 Stat. 1991, October 13, 1992 105 Benjamin Banneker P.L. 105-355, Title V, §512, 112 Stat. 3266, November 6, 1998 106 Frederick Douglass P.L. 106-479, 114 Stat. 2184, November 9, 2000 Source: 40 U.S.C. §8903 note and CRS analysis of memorial legislation. Notes: a. The memorial to John Adams and his family’s legacy was reauthorized by P.L. 113-291, §3094 (December 19, 2014), until December 2020. b. P.L. 112-239, §2860 repealed an authorization to the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Foundation to create a Black Revolutionary War Veterans Memorial that had been authorized by P.L. 99-558 (100 Stat. 3144, October 27, 1986). P.L. 112-239 provided a new authorization for the Slaves and Free Black Persons who Served in the American Revolution Memorial to the National Mall Liberty Fund DC. c. Authority for these memorials lapsed prior to construction permits being issued to the sponsoring group. In-Progress Commemorative Works Currently, 11 commemorative works are in various stages of development. These include Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial, Ukrainian Famine-Genocide Victims 1932-1933 Memorial, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visitors Center, and the Slaves and Free Black Persons Who Served in the Revolutionary War, which are currently in the design stage; the World War I Memorial, which was statutorily provided a site location; and the Brigadier General Francis Marion, the Gold Star Mothers, the Peace Corps, the World War II Prayer, the John Adams and his Family’s Congressional Research Service 5 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Legacy, and the Desert Storm and Desert Shield memorials, whose sponsor groups are currently evaluating possible site locations. Memorials Under Construction Victims of the Ukrainian Manmade Famine of 1932-1933 In October 2006, Congress authorized the government of Ukraine “to establish a memorial on Federal land in the District of Columbia to honor the victims of the Ukrainian famine-genocide of 1932-1933.”16 During debate on the bill (H.R. 562, 109th Congress), Representative Louie Gohmert summarized the conditions that existed in Ukraine in 1932 and 1933. Known by historians as the Harvest of Sorrow, the Ukrainian famine of 1932-1933 was the result of a naturally caused low harvest and harsh Soviet policies, including forced collectivization and grain seizures in order to neutralize the Ukrainian population. Over 7 million people died of starvation as Russians stopped Ukrainians from entering Russia to obtain food. Attempts by the United States to intercede were stalled by Stalin’s regime.17 The memorial to the victims of the Ukrainian manmade famine of 1932-1933 will be located at a site bordered by Massachusetts Avenue, North Capitol Street, and F Street NW. The memorial design is termed “Field of Wheat,” and “contains a six foot tall bronze wall that transitions from a high bas relief of wheat on the east end to a deep negative relief on the west, symbolizing the loss of wheat and food.”18 The Victims of Ukrainian Manmade Famine memorial is currently under construction. Figure 1 shows the final design of the memorial as approved by the NCPC. 16 P.L. 109-340, 120 Stat. 1864, October 13, 2006. Rep. Louie Gohmert, “Authorizing the Government of Ukraine to Establish Memorial to Honor Victims of Manmade Famine that Occurred in Ukraine in 1932-1933,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 151, part 19 (November 16, 2005), p. 29356. 18 National Capital Planning Commission, “The Memorial to Victims of Ukrainian Manmade Famine of 1932-1933,” Executive Director’s Recommendations, File No. 6863, at http://www.ncpc.gov/DocumentDepot/ Actions_Recommendations/2012September/ Ukrainian_Mandmade_Famine_1932_1933_Memorial_Recommendation_6863_Sept2012_.pdf. 17 Congressional Research Service 6 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Figure 1. Victims of the Ukrainian Manmade Famine of 1932-1933 Memorial Approved Design Source: National Capital Planning Commission, “The Memorial to Victims of Ukrainian Manmade Famine of 1932-1933,” Executive Director’s Recommendations, File No. 6863, p. 9, at http://www.ncpc.gov/DocumentDepot/ Actions_Recommendations/2012September/ Ukrainian_Mandmade_Famine_1932_1933_Memorial_Recommendation_6863_Sept2012_.pdf. Authorization Statute: P.L. 109-340, 120 Stat. 1864, October 13, 2006 Sponsor Organization: Government of Ukraine Statutory Extension: N/A Location: Area II Dedication: TBD Memorials Being Designed Dwight D. Eisenhower In October 1999, Congress created a federal commission to “consider and formulate plans for ... a permanent memorial to Dwight D. Eisenhower, including its nature, design, construction, and location.”19 In January 2002, Congress amended the initial statute to formally authorize the commission to create a memorial.20 In remarks during debate on additional amendments to the commission’s statute in 2007, Representative Dennis Moore summarized Eisenhower’s life and contributions to the United States: 19 20 P.L. 106-79, §8162, 113 Stat. 1274, October 24, 1999. P.L. 107-117, §8120, 115 Stat. 2273, January 10, 2002. Congressional Research Service 7 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act I am particularly proud to claim one of the greatest 20th-century Americans as a fellow Kansan. He ranks as one of the preeminent figures in the global history of the 20th century. Dwight Eisenhower spent his entire life in public service. His most well-known contributions include serving as Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in World War II and as 34th President of the United States, but Eisenhower also served as the first commander of NATO and as President of Columbia University. Dramatic changes occurred in America during his lifetime, many of which he participated in and influenced through his extraordinary leadership as President. Although Ike grew up before automobiles existed, he created the Interstate Highway System and took America into space. He created NASA, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and the Federal Aviation Administration. He added Hawaii and Alaska to the United States and ended the Korean War. President Eisenhower desegregated the District of Columbia and sent federal troops into Little Rock, Arkansas, to enforce school integration. He defused international crises and inaugurated the national security policies that guided the nation for the next three decades, leading to the peaceful end of the Cold War. A career soldier, Eisenhower championed peace, freedom, justice and security, and as President he stressed the interdependence of those goals. He spent a lifetime fulfilling his duty to his country, always remembering to ask what’s best for America.21 The memorial is to be located at Maryland Avenue and Independence Avenue, SW, between the National Air and Space Museum and the Lyndon B. Johnson Department of Education building.22 It will be designed by architect Frank Gehry. The commission is currently working with Mr. Gehry to create a design that will gain the approval of the NCPC and the Commission of Fine Arts (CFA). At the April 3, 2014, meeting of the NCPC, the commission disapproved of the memorial’s preliminary site and building plans and will require the Eisenhower Memorial Commission to “return every two months beginning in June 2014 as a standing item on the Commission’s agenda for updates on design modifications.”23 The NCPC approved preliminary site and building plans at its October 2, 2014, meeting.24 Figure 2 shows the most recent design concept for the Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial. 21 Rep. Dennis Moore, “Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 153, part 20 (October 22, 2007), p. 27816. 22 P.L. 109-220, 120 Stat. 335, May 5, 2006. 23 National Capital Planning Commission, “Corrected Commission Action,” Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial, April 3, 2014, File No. 6694, at http://www.ncpc.gov/DocumentDepot/Actions_Recommendations/2014April/ Dwight_D_Eisenhower_Memorial_Action_Corrected_6694_April2014.pdf. The CFA continues to review revisions to various aspects of the Eisenhower Memorial design. Most recently, in February 2014, the CFA reviewed revised landscape elements and provided comments for the development of the project’s final design. For more information, see Letter from Thomas E. Luebke, Secretary, U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, to Steve Whitesell, Regional Director, National Park Service, National Capital Region, February 27, 2014, http://www.cfa.gov/meetings/2014/feb/ 20140220_02.html. 24 National Capital Planning Commission, “NCPC Approves Revised Preliminary Plans for Eisenhower Memorial,” press release, October 2, 2014, at http://www.ncpc.gov/ncpc/Main%28T2%29/Media%28Tr2%29/ News_Release_DOC/2014/NCPC_Approves_Revised_Preliminary_Plans_for_Eisenhower_Memorial.pdf. Congressional Research Service 8 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Figure 2. Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Design Concept Source: Eisenhower Memorial Commission, “Eisenhower Memorial,” at http://eisenhowermemorial.gov/ #memorial/design?p=0. Authorization Statutes: P.L. 106-79, §8162, 113 Stat. 1274, October 24, 1999 P.L. 107-117, §8120, 115 Stat. 2273, January 10, 2002 P.L. 110-229, §332, 122 Stat. 782, May 8, 2008 Sponsor Organization: Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission (http://www.eisenhowermemorial.org) Statutory Extensions: Authorization extended through September 30, 2013 P.L. 113-6, §1413, 127 Stat. 421, March 26, 2013 Authorization extended through January 15, 2014 P.L. 113-46, §138(a), 127 Stat. 564, October 17, 2013 Authorization extended through September 30, 2014 P.L. 113-76, §436(a), January 17, 2014 Authorization extended through December 11, 2014 P.L. 113-164, §131(a), September 19, 2014 Location: Area I Dedication: TBD Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visitors Center In November 2003, Congress authorized the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund to create a visitor center at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial to “better inform and educate the public about the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and the Vietnam War.”25 In the House report accompanying the legislation (H.R. 1442, 108th Congress), the Committee on Resources summarized the need for a visitors center at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial: 25 P.L. 108-126, 117 Stat. 1348, November 16, 2003. Congressional Research Service 9 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Since its dedication in 1982, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, known to many as simply “The Wall,” has done much to heal the nation’s wounds after the bitterly divisive experience of the Vietnam War. For those who served, that year marked a sea change in the country’s view of the Vietnam veteran. Americans began to understand and respect the Vietnam veterans’ service and sacrifice. Today, over 4.4 million people visit The Wall every year— making it the most visited Memorial in the Nation’s Capital. Today, most visitors to The Wall were not alive during the “Vietnam Era.” Many veterans’ organizations and many others believe today’s visitor is shortchanged in his/her experience. Many leave The Wall not fully understanding its message. To that end, a visitor center would provide an educational experience for visitors by facilitating self-guided tours, collecting and displaying remembrances of those whose names are inscribed on the Memorial, and displaying exhibits discussing the history of the Memorial and the Vietnam War. The visitor’s center would eventually replace a 168-foot National Park Service kiosk currently at the site.26 The proposed underground visitor center is to be located across the street from the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and the Lincoln Memorial.27 In July 2012, the NCPC approved the visitor center’s design.28 Figure 3 shows the site location for the visitor center (“Education Center at the Wall”). 26 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Resources, To Authorize the Design and Construction of a Visitor Center for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, report to accompany H.R. 1442, 108th Cong., 1st sess., October 2, 2003, H.Rept. 108295 (Washington: GPO, 2003), p. 2. 27 P.L. 108-126, §6 (b), 117 Stat. 1348, November 16, 2003. 28 National Capital Planning Commission, “Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visitor Center,” Commission Action, File No. 6597, at http://www.ncpc.gov/DocumentDepot/Actions_Recommendations/2012July/ Vietnam_Veterans_Memorial_Visitor_Center_Action_6597_July2012_.pdf. Congressional Research Service 10 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Figure 3. Map of Site for Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visitors Center Source: Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, “Map of Site,” http://www.buildthecenter.org/images/SiteMap.jpg. Authorization Statute: P.L. 108-126, 117 Stat. 1348, November 17, 2003 Sponsor Organization: Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund (http://www.vvmf.org and http://www.buildthecenter.org) Statutory Extension: Authorization extended through November 17, 2014 P.L. 111-270, 124 Stat. 2851, October 12, 2010 Location: The Reserve Dedication: TBD World War II D-Day Prayer In June 2014, Congress authorized the placement of a plaque containing President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s D-Day prayer at the “area of the World War II Memorial in the District of Columbia.... ”29 During debate on the bill in the 112th Congress (H.R. 2070), Representative Bill Johnson summarized why he believed the prayer should be added to the World War II Memorial. This legislation directs the Secretary of the Interior to install at the World War II Memorial a suitable plaque or an inscription with the words that President Franklin Roosevelt prayed 29 P.L. 113-123, 128 Stat. 1377, June 30, 2014. Congressional Research Service 11 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act with the Nation on the morning of the D-day invasion. This prayer, which has been entitled “Let Our Hearts Be Stout,’’ gave solace, comfort and strength to our Nation and our brave warriors as we fought against tyranny and oppression. The memorial was built to honor the 16 million who served in the Armed Forces of the United States during World War II and the more than 400,000 who died during the war ... I have no doubt that the prayer should be included among the tributes to the Greatest Generation memorialized on the National Mall, and I strongly urge all of my colleagues to support this legislation.30 Authorization Statute: P.L. 113-123, 128 Stat. 1377, June 30, 2014 Sponsor Organization: Secretary of the Interior Statutory Extension: N/A Location: Reserve (Area of the World War II Memorial) Dedication: TBD Slaves and Free Black Persons Who Served in the Revolutionary War In December 2012, as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, Congress authorized the National Mall Liberty Fund D.C. to establish a commemorative work “to honor the more than 5,000 courageous slaves and free Black persons who served as soldiers and sailors or provided civilian assistance during the American Revolution.”31 Additionally, P.L. 112239 repealed a 1986 authorization to the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Foundation to establish a commemorative work for black Revolutionary War veterans.32 In remarks introducing the 1986 legislation, Representative Mary Rose Oakar summarized the need, from her perspective, for a memorial to black Revolutionary War veterans: Mr. Speaker, as early as 1652 blacks were fighting as members of the Militia in Colonial America, thus beginning their history of achievement and heroism for our country. Yet, history books in American schools have for the most part omitted the contributions of black soldiers since the Revolutionary War, to our most recent conflict in Vietnam. This memorial to these black Americans is a small tribute to their bravery and valor, an important part of the founding of our country.33 Following its initial authorization in 1986, Congress approved the memorial’s location in Area I on land that became part of the Reserve in 2003.34 Following the site designation, the memorial 30 Rep. Bill Johnson, “World War II Memorial Prayer Act of 2011,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 158 (January 24, 2012), pp. H131-H132. 31 P.L. 112-239, §2860, January 2, 2013. 32 P.L. 112-239, §2860(f) repeals P.L. 99-558 (100 Stat. 3144, October 27, 1986), as amended by P.L. 99-590 (100 Stat. 3330, October 30, 1986); and P.L. 99-591 (100 Stat. 3341, October 30, 1986), which authorized the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Foundation to establish a memorial in the District of Columbia “the estimated five thousand courageous slaves and free black persons who served as soldiers and sailors or provided civilian assistance during the American Revolution and to honor countless black men, women, and children who ran away from slavery or filed petitions with courts and legislatures seeking their freedom.” 33 Rep. Mary Rose Oakar, “Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial,” Congressional Record, vol. 131, part 22 (November 4, 1985), p. 30373. 34 P.L. 100-265, 102 Stat. 39, March 25, 1988. For more information on the approval of the site for the memorial, see U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial, (continued...) Congressional Research Service 12 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act was reauthorized three times.35 Pursuant to P.L. 106-442, the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Foundation’s authorization for the memorial expired in 2005.36 In the Senate report accompanying the 2012 authorization (S. 883, 112th Congress), the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources summarized the importance of reauthorizing the memorial with a new sponsor. In 1986, Congress authorized the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial Foundation to establish the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial to honor the 5,000 courageous slaves and free Black persons who served as soldiers or provided civilian assistance during the American Revolution (P.L. 99-558). In 1987 Congress enacted a second law, P.L. 100-265, authorizing placement of that memorial within the monumental core area as it was then defined by the Commemorative Works Act. In 1988, the National Park Service, the Commission of Fine Arts, and the National Capital Planning Commission approved a site in Constitution Gardens for the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial and, in 1996, approved the final design. Despite four extensions of the memorial’s legislative authorization over 21 years, the Foundation was unable to raise sufficient funds for construction, the authority (and associated site and design approvals) finally lapsed in October 2005, and the Foundation disbanded with numerous outstanding debts and unpaid creditors. S. 883 would authorize another nonprofit organization, the National Mall Liberty Fund D.C., to construct a commemorative work honoring the same individuals as proposed by the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial Foundation, subject to the requirements of the Commemorative Works Act.37 On September 26, 2014, President Obama signed H.J.Res. 120 to provide the memorial with a location in Area I.38 Figure 4 shows a memorial concept design. (...continued) report to accompany S.J.Res. 216, 100th Cong., 2nd sess., S. Rept. 100-288 (Washington: GPO, 1988); and U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Approving the Location of the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial, report to accompany S.J.Res. 216, 100th Cong., 2nd sess., H.Rept. 100-515 (Washington: GPO, 1988). 35 P.L. 103-321 (108 Stat. 1793, August 26, 1994) extended the authorization to 10 years from the date of enactment (1996). P.L. 105-345 (112 Stat. 3205, November 2, 1988) extended the authorization until 2000, and P.L. 106-442 (114 Stat. 1926, November 6, 2000) extended the authorization until 2005. 36 P.L. 106-442, 114 Stat. 1926, November 6, 2000. 37 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Establishment of a Memorial to Honor Contributions of Free Persons and Slaves During the American Revolution, report to accompany S. 883, 112th Cong., 2nd sess., January 13, 2012, S.Rept. 112-118 (Washington: GPO, 2012), pp. 1-2. 38 P.L. 113-176, 128 Stat. 1910, September 26, 2014. See also, “Approval of Memorial to Commemorative Slaves and Free Black Persons who Fought in the American Revolution,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 160 (September 8, 2014), pp. H7273-H7274; and “Approving the Location of an American Revolution Memorial,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 160 (September 11, 2014), p. S5518. Congressional Research Service 13 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Figure 4. Slaves and Free Black Persons Who Served in the Revolutionary War Memorial Concept Design Source: National Mall Liberty Fund D.C., at http://www.libertyfunddc.org/images/jpeg/center_entire_rendering150dpi.jpg. Authorization Statute: P.L. 112-239, §2860, January 2, 2013 Sponsor Organization: National Mall Liberty Fund D.C. (http://www.libertyfunddc.org) Statutory Extension: N/A Location: Area I 39 Dedication: TBD World War I Memorial In December 2014, as part of the FY2015 National Defense Authorization Act, Congress redesignated Pershing Park in the District of Columbia as “a World War I Memorial,”40 and authorized the World War I Centennial Commission to “enhance the General Pershing Commemorative Work by constructing...appropriate sculptural and other commemorative 39 40 P.L. 113-176, 128 Stat. 1910, September 26, 2014. P.L. 113-291, §3091(b)(1), December 19, 2014. Congressional Research Service 14 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act elements, including landscaping, to further honor the service of members of the United States Armed Forces in World War I.”41 Pershing Park is located between E Street and Pennsylvania Avenue and 14th and 15th Streets, NW. Currently, the park contains a statute to General John J. Pershing.42 Authorization Statute: P.L. 113-291, §3091, December 19, 2014. Sponsor Organization: World War I Centennial Commission (http://worldwar-1centennial.org) Statutory Extension: N/A Location: Area I – Pershing Park Dedication: TBD Site Locations to Be Determined John Adams and His Family’s Legacy In November 2001, Congress authorized the Adams Memorial Foundation to “establish a commemorative work on Federal land in the District of Columbia and its environs to honor former President John Adams, along with his wife Abigail Adams and former President John Quincy Adams, and the family’s legacy of public service.”43 In remarks during debate on the bill (H.R. 1668, 107th Congress), Representative Joel Hefley summarized the importance of the Adams family to American history: Perhaps no American family has contributed as profoundly to public service as the family that gave the Nation its second President, John Adams; his wife, Abigail Adams; and their son, our sixth President, John Quincy Adams, who was also, by the way, a member of this body. The family’s legacy was far reaching, continuing with John Quincy Adams’s son, Charles Francis Adams, who was also a member of this body and an ambassador to England during the Civil War; and his son, Henry Adams, an eminent writer and scholar, and it goes on and on.44 In December 2013, the Adams Memorial Foundation’s authorization expired. Prior to its lapse of authorization, the Adams Memorial Foundation was working with the NCMAC on the potential recommendation of Area I.45 While the commission had not endorsed any particular site location, it had recommended that the foundation continue its examination of numerous sites in the District of Columbia in order to find a suitable location.46 41 P.L. 113-291, §3091(b)(3), December 19, 2014. For more information on Pershing Park, see U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, “Pershing Park,” National Mall & Memorial Parks, at http://www.nps.gov/nama/planyourvisit/pershing-park.htm. 43 P.L. 107-62, 115 Stat. 411-412, November 5, 2001. 44 Rep. Joel Hefley, “Authorizing Adams Memorial Foundation to Establish Commemorative Work Honoring Former President John Adams,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 147, part 8 (June 25, 2001), p. 11757. 45 National Park Service, “National Capital Memorial Advisory Committee Meeting,” 76 Federal Register 32986, June 7, 2011. 46 Author’s notes of National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission Meeting, June 23, 2011, National Building (continued...) 42 Congressional Research Service 15 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act In December 2014, as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2015, the Adams Memorial Foundation authorization was renewed until December 2, 2020.47 Authorization Statute: P.L. 107-62, 115 Stat. 411, November 5, 2001 Sponsor Organization: Adams Memorial Foundation (http://www.adamsmemorial.org) Statutory Extensions: Authorization extended through September 30, 2010 P.L. 111-88, §130, 123 Stat. 2933, October 30, 2009 Authorization extended through December 2, 2013 P.L. 111-169, 124 Stat. 1192, May 24, 2010 Authorization extended through December 2, 2020 P.L. 113-291, §3094, December 19, 2014 Location: Area I48 Dedication: TBD Brigadier General Francis Marion In May 2008, as part of the Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008, Congress authorized the Marion Park Project to establish a commemorative work to honor Brigadier General Francis Marion.49 In testimony before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks, Daniel N. Wenk, deputy director for operations, National Park Service, supported the enactment of legislation authorizing a Brigadier General Francis Marion memorial and explained why such a memorial meets criteria for commemoration in the District of Columbia. Brigadier General Francis Marion commanded the Williamsburg Militia Revolutionary force in South Carolina and was instrumental in delaying the advance of British forces by leading his troops in disrupting supply lines. He is credited for inventing and applying innovative battle tactics in this effort, keys to an ultimate victory for the American Colonies in the Revolutionary War. Additionally Brigadier General Marion’s troops are believed to have been the first racially integrated force fighting for the United States.50 (...continued) Museum, Washington, DC. 47 P.L. 113-291, §3094, December 19, 2014. Prior to the inclusion of the extension in the FY2015 National Defense Authorization Act, the House had passed its version of the extension (H.R. 3802) on July 22, 2014. The Senate version (S. 1866) was introduced in December 2013 and did not received further consideration. For more information, see U.S. Congress, House Committee on Natural Resources, Markup on H.R. 503, H.R. 863, H.R. 2208, H.R. 2430, H.R. 3802, H.R. 4002, H.R. 4017, H.R. 4120, H.R. 4253, and H.R. 4309 , 113th Cong., 2nd sess., April 9, 2014, at http://naturalresources.house.gov/calendar/eventsingle.aspx?EventID=375254; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Natural Resources, To Extend the Legislative Authority of the Adams Memorial Foundation to Establish a Commemorative Work in Honor of Former President John Adams and His Legacy, and For Other Purposes, report to accompany H.R. 3802, 113th Cong., 2nd sess., June 30, 2014, H.Rept. 113-504 (Washington: GPO, 2014); and “Extension of Legislative Authority to Establish Commemorative Work Honoring Former President John Adams,” Congressional Record, daily edition (July 22, 2014), p. H6619-H6620. 48 P.L. 107-315, 116 Stat. 2763, December 2, 2002. 49 P.L. 110-229, §331, 122 Stat. 781, May 8, 2008. 50 Testimony of National Park Service Deputy Director for Operations Daniel N. Wenk, in U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Subcommittee on National Parks, Miscellaneous National Park Bills, (continued...) Congressional Research Service 16 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act The Marion Park Project is currently evaluating sites for the location of the commemorative work. The group has expressed that it would prefer to place the memorial in Marion Park, which is located along South Carolina Avenue in Southeast Washington, DC.51 Figure 5 shows a map of Marion Park. Figure 5. Marion Park Project Preferred Site Location for Brigadier General Francis Marion Memorial Marion Park, Washington, D.C. Source: Marion Park Project, “Maps,” at http://www.swampfoxmemorial.org/mapoldlarge.gif. Authorization Statute: P.L. 110-229, §331, 122 Stat. 781, May 8, 2008 Sponsor Organization: Marion Park Project, a committee of the Palmetto Conservation Foundation (http://www.swampfoxmemorial.org) Statutory Extension: N/A Location: TBD Dedication: TBD Gold Star Mothers In December 2012, as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, Congress authorized the Gold Star Mothers National Monument Foundation to establish a commemorative work to “commemorate the sacrifices made by mothers, and made by their sons (...continued) hearing on S. 169, S. 312, S. 580, S. 686, S. 722, S. 783, S. 890, H.R. 497, and H.R. 1047, 110th Cong., 1st sess., April 26, 2007, S.Hrg. 110-88 (Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 12. 51 The Marion Park Project, “Site Selection & Design Process,” at http://www.swampfoxmemorial.org/ siteselection.html. On December 4, 2014, the National Capital Planning Commission officially expressed its support for the placement of the Francis Marion Memorial within Marion Park. For more information, see National Capital Planning Commission, “Commission Action: Francis Marion Memorial,” NCPC File # 7615, December 4, 2014, at http://www.ncpc.gov/DocumentDepot/Actions_Recommendations/2014December/Francis_Marion_Memorial_Action_ 7615_December_2014.pdf. Congressional Research Service 17 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act and daughters who as members of the Armed Forces make the ultimate sacrifice, in defense of the United States.”52 In testimony before the House Committee on Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests, and Public Lands, the legislation’s (H.R. 1980) sponsor, Representative Jon Runyan, explained why he thought a memorial to Gold Star Mothers was needed: During World War I, mothers of sons and daughters who served in the Armed Forces displayed flags bearing a blue star to represent pride in their sons or daughters and their hope that they would return home safely. For more than 650,000 of these brave mothers, that hope was shattered, and their children never returned home. Afterwards many of them began displaying flags bearing gold stars to represent the sacrifice that their sons and daughters made in heroic service to our country. Over the years the gold star has come to represent a child who was killed while serving in the Armed Forces, during either war or peacetime.53 In December 2013, the Gold Star Mothers National Monument Foundation presented its site analysis to the National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission. In that informational presentation, they expressed a preference for a site location adjacent to Arlington National Cemetery.54 Figure 6 shows the Gold Star Mothers National Monument Foundation’s concept design. 52 P.L. 112-239, §2859, January 2, 2013. Testimony of Congressman Jon Runyan, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests, and Public Lands, Legislative Hearing on H.R. 1980, H.R. 2070, H.R. 2621, and H.R. 3155, 112th Cong., 1st sess., November 3, 2011, at http://naturalresources.house.gov/uploadedfiles/ runyanstatement11.03.11.pdf. 54 National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission, “Agenda,” December 12, 2013, at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/document.cfm?documentID=50005. 53 Congressional Research Service 18 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Figure 6. Gold Star Mothers Memorial Concept Design Source: Gold Star Mothers National Memorial Foundation, “Proposal,” at http://www.gsmmonument.org/ Proposal/Proposal.htm. Authorization Statute: P.L. 112-239, §2859, January 2, 2013 Sponsor Organization: Gold Star Mothers National Memorial Foundation (http://www.gsmmonument.org) Statutory Extension: N/A Location: TBD Dedication: TBD Peace Corps In January 2014, Congress authorized the Peace Corps Memorial Foundation to establish a commemorative work in the District of Columbia to “commemorate the mission of the Peace Corps and the ideals on which the Peace Corps was founded.”55 During debate on the bill (S. 230) in the House, Representative Raúl Grijalva, ranking Member of the House Natural Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Public Lands and Environmental Regulations, summarized his understanding of the aims of the Peace Corps Memorial: Last November, we marked the 50th anniversary of President Kennedy’s tragic assassination. Losing President Kennedy left a lasting scar on the American psyche, but his legacy lives on through his words and ideas, including the establishment of the Peace Corps, an institution that has sent over 200,000 Americans to 139 countries in its 52-year history. 55 P.L. 113-78, §1(a), January 24, 2014. Congressional Research Service 19 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act S. 230 authorizes construction of a memorial to commemorate the mission of the Peace Corps and the values on which it was founded. I cannot think of a better way to celebrate President Kennedy’s legacy and the tremendous accomplishments of the Peace Corps. With the passage of S. 230, we will be sending a worthwhile bill to the President’s desk. I am glad we have been able to put our differences aside and pass such a meaningful bill in the first few weeks of the new year. 56 On May 6, 2014, the Peace Corps Memorial Foundation presented proposed site locations to the NCMAC. These sites included locations near Georgetown, north of the White House on Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, and near Union Station.57 On December 4, 2014, the foundation presented a revised list of proposed site locations to the National Capital Planning Commission. The National Capital Planning Commission expressed its support for two potential sites—one in close proximity to the U.S. Capitol building and Union Station and one on Pennsylvania Avenue at 18th and H Streets, NW.58 Authorization Statute: P.L. 113-78, 127 Stat. 647, January 24, 2014 Sponsor Organization: Peace Corps Commemorative Foundation (http://www.peacecorpsconnect.org/) Statutory Extension: N/A Location: TBD Dedication: TBD Desert Storm and Desert Shield In December 2014, as part of the FY2015 National Defense Authorization Act, Congress authorized the National Desert Storm Memorial Association to establish a National Desert Storm and Desert Shield Memorial in the District of Columbia to “commemorate and honor those who, as a member of the Armed forces, served on active duty in support of Operation Desert Storm or Operation Desert Shield.”59 During debate on the House version of the bill (H.R. 503), Representative Doc Hastings, chair of the House Natural Resources Committee, summarized the need for a memorial: Over 600,000 American servicemen deployed for Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield and successfully led a coalition of over 30 countries to evict an invading army to secure the independence of Kuwait. 56 Rep. Raúl Grijalva, “Peace Corps DC Commemorative Work Act,” House debate, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 160 (January 13, 2014), p. H168. 57 National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission, “Peace Corps Commemorative Foundation 4-18-14 report to NCMAC, May 6, 2014, at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/showFile.cfm?projectID=44217&MIMEType= application%252Fx%252Dtika%252Dooxml&filename= 4%2D18%2D14%5FPCCF%5Freport%5Fto%5FNCMAC%5Fdraft%2Epptx&sfid=0. 58 National Capital Planning Commission, “Committee Action: Peace Corps Memorial,” December 4, 2014, at http://www.ncpc.gov/DocumentDepot/Actions_Recommendations/2014December/Peace_Corps_Memorial_Action_76 23_December2014_.pdf. 59 P.L. 113-291, §3093(b)(1), December 19, 2014. Congressional Research Service 20 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act This memorial will recognize their success, but it will also serve as a commemoration of those nearly 300 Americans who made the ultimate sacrifice on our behalf.60 Authorization Statute: P.L. 113-291, §3093, December 19, 2014. Sponsor Organization: National Desert Storm Memorial Association (http://www.nationaldesertstormwarmemorial.org/) Statutory Extension: N/A Location: TBD Dedication: TBD Commemorative Works with Lapsed Authorizations Since 1986, four commemorative works authorized by Congress were not completed in the time allowed by the Commemorative Works Act and were not granted subsequent extensions by Congress.61 These memorials were to be constructed to honor Thomas Paine, Benjamin Banneker, Frederick Douglass, and to create a National Peace Garden. The following section describes the initial authorization for each of these memorials and congressional extensions of memorial authorization, if appropriate. National Peace Garden In June 1987, Congress authorized the Director of the National Park Service to enter into an agreement with the Peace Garden Project to “construct a garden to be known as the ‘Peace Garden’ on a site on Federal land in the District of Columbia to honor the commitment of the people of the United States to world peace.”62 In remarks during debate on the bill (H.R. 191, 100th Congress), Representative Steny Hoyer summarized the need for a memorial to peace: No one or nation can ever doubt the commitment of the American people to protecting our freedoms when threatened by foreign aggressors. Our Nation’s Capital rightfully honors our heroic defenders of freedom—Americans who served their country courageously, gallantly, and at great risk to their lives. Our citizens have also exhibited an equal commitment for world peace and international law and justice. The creation of a Peace Garden is an appropriate symbol of our efforts to continuing to seek peaceful resolution of world conflict and the institution of the rule of law. Certainly, this century has been one of bloodiest and most violent in man’s history. We have seen countless battles, wars, rebellions, massacres, and civil and international strife of all kinds—continuing examples of man’s inhumanity toward his fellow man. At the same time, against this terrible backdrop, there have been encouraging strides toward world peace. As we honor those who have made sacrifices in war, through monuments, so, 60 Rep. Doc Hastings, “National Desert Storm and Desert Shield War Memorial Act,” House debate, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 160 (May 28, 2014), p. H4858. 61 P.L. 99-652, 100 Stat. 3654, November 14, 1986. 62 P.L. 100-63, 101 Stat. 379, June 30, 1987. Congressional Research Service 21 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act too, should we honor them by striving to ensure that the world they have left us will be a peaceful one. A garden would be a living monument to our efforts.63 In 1988, a site was approved for the Peace Garden at Hains Point in Southwest Washington, DC.64 Since its initial authorization in 1987, the National Peace Garden was reauthorized twice.65 The authorization expired on June 30, 2002.66 Thomas Paine In October 1992, Congress authorized the Thomas Paine National Historical Association to establish a memorial to honor Revolutionary War patriot Thomas Paine.67 In remarks summarizing the need for a memorial to Thomas Paine, Representative William Lacy Clay stated: Thomas Paine’s writings were a catalyst of the American Revolution. His insistence upon the right to resist arbitrary rule has inspired oppressed peoples worldwide, just as it continues to inspire us. It is time that a grateful nation gives him a permanent place of honor in the capital of the country he helped build.68 Since its initial authorization in 1992, the authorization for the Thomas Paine memorial was extended once. Authorization for the memorial expired on December 31, 2003.69 Benjamin Banneker In November 1998, Congress authorized the Washington Interdependence Council of the District of Columbia to establish a memorial to “honor and commemorate the accomplishments of Mr. Benjamin Banneker.”70 Adopted as part of a larger bill to create a national heritage area in Michigan, the authorization for the Benjamin Banneker Memorial passed the House and Senate without debate and by voice vote in October.71 In 2001, the National Park Service reported that the memorial was to be sited on the L’Enfant Promenade in Southwest Washington and be under the jurisdiction of the District of Columbia.72 63 Rep. Steny Hoyer, “Authorizing the Establishment of a Peace Garden,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 133, part 4 (March 10, 1987), p. 5205. 64 National Park Service, “New Memorials Update,” press release, March 14, 2001, http://www.nps.gov/ncro/ PublicAffairs/ProposedMemorials.htm. 65 P.L. 103-321 (108 Stat. 1793, August 26, 1994) extended the Peace Garden’s authorization until 10-years after enactment (1997). P.L. 105-202 (112 Stat. 676, July 16, 1998) extended the authorization until June 30, 2002. 66 P.L. 105-202, 112 Stat. 676, July 16, 1998. 67 P.L. 102-407, 106 Stat. 1991, October 13, 1992; and P.L. 102-459, 106 Stat. 2268, October 23, 1992. 68 Rep. William Lacy Clay, “Authorizing Construction of a Monument to Honor Thomas Paine,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 138, part 13 (July 21, 1992), p. 18660. 69 P.L. 106-113, §142, 113 Stat. 1501A-171, November 29, 1999. 70 P.L. 105-355, Title V, §512, 112 Stat. 3266, November 6, 1998. 71 “Automobile National Heritage Area Act of 1998,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 144 (October 10, 1998), p. H10423; and “Automobile National Heritage Area,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 144 (October 14, 1998), p. S12533. 72 National Park Service, “New Memorials Update,” press release, March 14, 2001, at http://www.nps.gov/ncro/ PublicAffairs/ProposedMemorials.htm. Congressional Research Service 22 In-Progress and Lapsed Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act Since its initial authorization, the Washington Interdependence Council has not been granted an extension to its original authorization, which expired in 2005. A bill (S. 3886) was introduced in the 111th Congress (2009-2010) to reauthorize a Benjamin Banneker Memorial. S. 3886 was referred to the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, but no further action was taken.73 Frederick Douglass In November 2000, Congress authorized the Frederick Douglass Gardens, Inc., “to establish a memorial and gardens on lands under the administrative jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior in the District of Columbia or its environs in honor and commemoration of Frederick Douglass.”74 During debate, Representative James Hansen provided a summary of why a memorial to Frederick Douglass was important: Mr. Speaker, Frederick Douglass was one of the most prominent leaders of the 19th century abolitionist movement. Born into slavery in eastern Maryland in 1818, Douglass escaped to the North as a young man where he became a world-renowned defender of human rights and eloquent orator, and later a Federal ambassador and advisor to several Presidents. Frederick Douglass was a powerful voice for human rights during the important period of American history, and is still revered today for his contributions against racial injustice.75 Early in 2001, the Frederick Douglass Memorial Gardens, Inc., expressed its preference for a site location near the Douglass Memorial Bridge in Southeast Washington,76 but no further action was taken by Congress to approve the site location. The Frederick Douglass Memorial’s authorization expired in 2008. One attempt was made to reauthorize a Frederick Douglass Memorial during the 110th Congress (2007-2008), but the bill was not reported by the House Committee on Natural Resources.77 Author Contact Information Jacob R. Straus Analyst on the Congress jstraus@crs.loc.gov, 7-6438 73 S. 3886 (111th Congress), introduced September 29, 2010. 74 P.L. 106-479, 114 Stat. 2184, November 9, 2000. 75 Rep. James Hansen, “Authorizing Memorial and Gardens in Honor and Commemoration of Frederick Douglass,” Congressional Record, vol. 146, part 14 (October 3, 2000), p. 20630. 76 National Park Service, “New Memorials Update,” press release, March 14, 2001, at http://www.nps.gov/ncro/ PublicAffairs/ProposedMemorials.htm. 77 H.R. 3935 (110th Congress), introduced October 25, 2007. Congressional Research Service 23