National Institutes of Health (NIH) Funding: FY1996-FY2022

National Institutes of Health (NIH) Funding:
June 29, 2021
FY1996-FY2022
Kavya Sekar
This report details the National Institutes of Health (NIH) budget and appropriations
Analyst in Health Policy
process with a focus on FY2020, FY2021, and FY2022. Coronavirus supplemental

funding for NIH is discussed in a dedicated section of the report but is general y not
included in the budgetary figures elsewhere in the report. The report also provides an

overview of funding trends in regular appropriations to the agency from FY1996 to
FY2022. Appendix A includes funding tables by account and program-specific funding levels for FY2020,
FY2021, and FY2022. Appendix B provides a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.
NIH is the primary federal agency charged with conducting and supporting medical, health, and behavioral
research, and it is made up of 27 Institutes and Centers and the Office of the Director (OD). About 80% of the
NIH budget funds extramural research through grants, contracts, and other awards. About 10% of NIH funding
goes to intramural researchers at NIH-operated facilities. Almost al of NIH’s funding is provided in the annual
Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies (LHHS) Appropriations
Act. NIH also receives smal er amounts of funding from Interior/Environmental (INT) appropriations and a
mandatory budget authority for type 1 diabetes research.
The FY2021 NIH program level of $42.936 bil ion represents a $1.251 bil ion increase (+3.0%) above the
FY2020-enacted program level. The FY2021-enacted total for NIH is also $3.802 bil ion (+9.7%) above the
FY2021 budget request and $715 mil ion (+1.7%) above the program level proposed by the House-passed LHHS
and INT bil s. In FY2021, al Institute and Center (IC) accounts received an increase above FY2020 funding
levels, except for the Buildings and Facilities account (see Table A-1). The Biden Administration’s FY2022
budget request proposes an FY2022 program level of $51.953 bil ion—a $9.017 bil ion increase (+21.0%) from
the FY2021 program level. It also proposes the creation of a new Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health
(ARPA-H) within NIH.
NIH has seen periods of high and low funding growth during the period covered by this report, as il ustrated in
Figure 1. Between FY1996 and FY1998, funding for NIH grew from $11.928 bil ion to $13.675 bil ion (nominal
dollars). Over the next five years, Congress and the President doubled the NIH budget to $27.167 bil ion in
FY2003. In each of FY1999 through FY2003, NIH received annual funding increases of 14% to 16%. From
FY2003 to FY2015, NIH funding increased more gradual y in nominal dollars. In some years (FY2006, FY2011,
and FY2013), funding for the agency decreased in nominal dollars. From FY2016 through FY2020, NIH has seen
funding increases of over 5% each year. The largest increase was from FY2017 to FY2018, where the program
level increased by $3.010 bil ion (+8.8%), making this the largest single-year nominal dollar increase since
FY2003. The proposed funding increase in the FY2022 budget request would be over twice this amount.
When looking at NIH funding adjusted for inflation (in projected constant FY2022 dollars using the Biomedical
Research and Development Price Index; BRDPI), the purchasing power of NIH funding peaked in FY2003—the
last year of the five-year doubling period—and then declined fairly steadily for more than a decade until back-to-
back funding increases were provided in each of FY2016 through FY2021. The FY2021 program level is 3.3%
below the peak FY2003 program level. The FY2022 budget request would provide a program level that is 14.4%
above the peak FY2003 program level.


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Contents
NIH Funding: FY1996-FY2022 ........................................................................................ 1
Funding Sources........................................................................................................ 2
Coronavirus Supplemental Appropriations (FY2020 and FY2021) .................................... 3
FY2021 Proposed and Enacted Funding ........................................................................ 5
FY2022 Budget and Appropriations.............................................................................. 7
Trends ..................................................................................................................... 8

Figures
Figure 1. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Funding, FY1996-FY2022 ............................... 10

Tables
Table 1. NIH Funding, FY1996-FY2022........................................................................... 11

Table A-1. National Institutes of Health Funding................................................................ 13
Table A-2. Specified NIH Funding Levels in FY2021 Explanatory Statement ......................... 15
Table A-3. Specified NIH Funding Levels in FY2022 Budget Request .................................. 17

Appendixes
Appendix A. NIH Funding Details ................................................................................... 13
Appendix B. Acronyms and Abbreviations ........................................................................ 18

Contacts
Author Information ....................................................................................................... 19


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NIH Funding: FY1996-FY2022
This report provides a historical overview of federal funding provided to the National Institutes of
Health (NIH) between FY1996 and FY2022. It also provides a brief explanation of the
discretionary spending funding sources for NIH associated with the annual appropriations process
(via the Labor, HHS, and Education and Interior/Environment Appropriations Acts) and the
mandatory funding for special program on type 1 diabetes research.1
NIH is the primary federal agency for medical, health, and behavioral research. It is the largest of
the eight health-related agencies that make up the Public Health Service (PHS) within the
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).2 NIH consists of the Office of the Director
(OD) and 27 Institutes and Centers (ICs) that focus on aspects of health, human development, and
biomedical science. The OD sets overal policy for NIH and coordinates the programs and
activities of al NIH components, particularly in areas of research that involve multiple institutes.
NIH activities cover a wide range of basic,
Supplemental Funding for NIH
clinical, and translational research, focused on
In FY2021 and prior years, NIH received supplemental
particular diseases, areas of human health and
appropriations provided as an emergency requirement.
development, or more fundamental aspects of
Given that this report examines trends in regular
biology and behavior. Its mission also includes
annual appropriations to NIH enacted by Congress and
the President for the normal operations of the agency,
research training and health information
amounts provided to NIH pursuant to an emergency
collection and dissemination.3 More than 80%
requirement are general y excluded from this report. In
of the NIH budget funds extramural research
some years, supplemental funding to NIH was
(i.e., external) through grants, contracts, and
substantial, such as the over $10 bil ion in
other awards. This funding supports research
appropriations provided in the American Recovery and
Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA; P.L. 111-5), which
performed by more than 300,000 individuals
was a 33% increase to the regular FY2009
who work at over 2,500 hospitals, medical
appropriations NIH received. NIH has also received
schools, universities, and other research
supplemental appropriations during several infectious
institutions around the country.4 About 10% of
disease emergencies, such as for the Ebola and Zika
outbreaks. Given current interest, a summary of the
the agency’s budget supports intramural
FY2020 and FY2021 amounts for the COVID-19
research (i.e., internal) conducted by nearly
pandemic is provided in “Coronavirus Supplemental
6,000 NIH physicians and scientists, most of
Appropriations.”
whom are located on the NIH campus in
Bethesda, Maryland.5

1 “Mandatory spending” is controlled by authorization acts; “discretionary spending” is controlled by appropriations
acts. For further information, see CRS Report R44582, Overview of Funding Mechanism s in the Federal Budget
Process, and Selected Exam ples
.
2 T he Public Health Service also includes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA), the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the Health Resources and Services
Administration (HRSA), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), the Indian
Health Service (IHS), and the Agency for T oxic Substances and Disease Registry (AT SDR).
3 For further information on T he National Institutes of Health (NIH), see CRS Report R41705, The National Institutes
of Health (NIH): Background and Congressional Issues
.
4 NIH, “What We Do- Budget,” March 3, 2020, at https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/budget.
5 Ibid.
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Funding Sources
The vast majority of NIH funding comes from annual discretionary appropriations bil s. NIH
additional y receives some mandatory funding and some funding due to unique transfer or
budgetary rules, as explained below. The total funding available for NIH activities, taking account
of add-ons and PHS tap transfers, is referred to as the NIH “program level.”
Discretionary budget authority: NIH’s discretionary budget authority comes primarily from
annual Labor, HHS, and Education (LHHS) Appropriations Acts, with an additional smal er
amount for the Superfund Research Program and related activities from the Interior/Environment
(INT) Appropriations Act.6
PHS Evaluation Set-Aside: Through LHHS appropriations, some funding is subject to the PHS
Evaluation Set-Aside or the “PHS Evaluation Tap” transfer authority.7 Authorized by Section 241
of the Public Health Service Act, the evaluation tap al ows the Secretary of HHS, with the
approval of appropriators, to redistribute a portion of eligible PHS agency appropriations across
HHS for program evaluation and implementation purposes. The PHSA section limits the set-aside
to not less than 0.2% and not more than 1% of eligible program appropriations. However, LHHS
Appropriations Acts have commonly established a higher maximum percentage for the set-aside
and have appropriated specific amounts of “tap” funding to selected HHS programs—in the
context of NIH, these appropriations have been made to National Institute of General Medical
Sciences in recent years.8 Since FY2010, and including in FY2021, this higher maximum set-
aside level has been 2.5% of eligible appropriations.9 Readers should note that totals in this report
and NIH source documents include amounts “transferred in” pursuant to PHS tap but do not
include any amounts “transferred out” under this same authority.
Nonrecurring expenses fund (NEF): The NEF permits HHS to transfer unobligated balances of
expired discretionary funds from FY2008 and subsequent years into the NEF account. Statute
authorizes use of the funds for capital acquisitions, including information technology (IT) and
facilities infrastructure (42 U.S.C. §3514a), and can direct the funds to certain accounts through
appropriations acts. As shown in Table A-1, Congress directed specific amounts from the NEF to
the NIH Building and Facilities account in FY2020 and FY2021.

6 T he Hazardous Substance Basic Research and T raining Program (Superfund Research Program ) funds research on the
health effects of exposures to hazardous substances and related solutions at the National Institute of Environmental
Health Sciences. It is authorized by 311(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. §9660(a)) and Section 126(g) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
of 1986.
7 For more information on the PHS Evaluation T ap, or PHS Evaluation Set -Aside, see discussion in CRS Report
R44916, Public Health Service Agencies: Overview and Funding (FY2016 -FY2018).
8 Prior to FY2015, NIH had traditionally been by far the largest net donor of tap funds, rather than a net recipient. T he
joint explanatory statement accompanying the FY2015 omnibus explained this shift as being intended to ensure that tap
transfers are a “ net benefit to NIH rather than a liability” and noted that this change was in response to a growing
concern at the loss of NIH funds to the tap. Joint Explanatory Statement, Proceedings and Debates of the
113th Congress, Second Session, Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151, Book II, December 11, 2014, p. H9832.
9 See Section 204 of Division H, T itle II of P.L. 116-260 for the FY2021 maximum set-aside level. T he last time that an
appropriations act set the PHS tap percentage at a level other than 2.5% was in FY2009, when it was 2.4% (see P.L.
111-8). T he FY2020 omnibus also retained a change to this provision, first included in the FY2014 omnibus, allowing
tap transfers to be used for the “evaluation and the implementation” of programs funded in the HHS title of the LHHS
Appropriations Act. Prior to FY2014, such provisions had restricted tap funds to the “ evaluation of the
implementation” of programs authorized under the Public Health Service Act.
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21st Century Cures Act Innovation Account: NIH also receives funding through LHHS
appropriations, subject to different budget enforcement rules than the rest of the NIH funding in
the act—appropriations to the NIH Innovation Account created by The 21st Century Cures Act
(“the Cures Act,” P.L. 114-255) to fund programs authorized by the act.10 For appropriated
amounts to the account—up the limit authorized for each fiscal year—the amounts are subtracted
from any cost estimate for enforcing discretionary spending limits (i.e., the budget caps). In
effect, appropriations to the NIH Innovation Account as authorized by the Cures Act are not
subject to discretionary spending limits.11 The NIH Director may transfer these amounts from the
NIH Innovation Account to other NIH accounts, but only for the purposes specified in the Cures
Act. If the NIH Director determines that the funds for any of the four Innovation Projects are not
necessary, the amounts may be transferred back to the NIH Innovation Account. Al amounts
authorized by the Cures Act have been fully appropriated to the Innovation Account from FY2017
to FY2021, including $404 mil ion for FY2021. Under the FY2022 budget request, the full
amount authorized by the Cures Act ($496 mil ion) would be appropriated.
Mandatory Type I Diabetes Funding: In addition, NIH has received mandatory funding of $150
mil ion annual y that is provided in Public Health Service Act (PHSA) Section 330B, for a special
program on type 1 diabetes research, most recently extended through FY2023 by the
Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (P.L. 116-260 ; Division BB, Title III).
Coronavirus Supplemental Appropriations (FY2020 and FY2021)
NIH has also received FY2020 and FY2021 emergency supplemental appropriations to several IC
accounts and as transfers from the Public Health and Social Services Emergency Fund (PHSSEF)
account as provided by four coronavirus supplemental appropriations acts:12
 Division A of the Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental
Appropriations Act, 2020 (P.L. 116-123), enacted on March 6, 2020.
 Division B of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES
Act, P.L. 116-136), enacted on March 27, 2020.
 Division B of the Paycheck Protection Program and Health Care Enhancement
Act (PPPHCEA, P.L. 116-139), enacted on April 24, 2020.
 Division M of Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (P.L. 116-260), enacted on
December 27, 2020.
NIH received a total of $3.031 bil ion to NIH IC accounts, along with directed transfers from the
PHSSEF account to NIH accounts totaling not less than $1.806 bil ion. Accounting for transfers,
NIH is to receive a total of at least $4.837 bil ion (see text box below for information on
American Rescue Plan Act funding). Al appropriations to NIH accounts are available until
September 30, 2024, and al transfers from the PHSSEF are available until expended. This
funding was primarily provided in three categories:
Broadly Available Funding. In the first (P.L. 116-123) and third measure (CARES Act; P.L. 116-
136), funding was made available to several NIH IC accounts “to prevent, prepare for and

10 See section on 21st Century Cures Act in CRS Report R41705, The National Institutes of Health (NIH): Background
and Congressional Issues
.
11 CRS Report R45778, Exceptions to the Budget Control Act’s Discretionary Spending Limits.
12 NIH did not receive supplemental appropriations from the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA, P.L.
116-127), enacted on March 18, 2020.
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respond to coronavirus, domestical y and international y.” NIH IC accounts that received broadly
available funds and their totals include the following:
National Institute of Allergy and
Infectious Diseases (NIAID): $1.542
American Rescue Plan Act of 2021
bil ion, including $836 mil ion in the
(ARPA; P.L. 117-2) Appropriations
first measure and $706 mil ion in the
The ARPA did not provide any appropriations directly
CARES Act. Some transfers or set-
to NIH. The law made available $6.050 bil ion to the
asides were directed for specific
HHS Secretary in mandatory appropriations (i.e., direct
purposes in the NIAID appropriations.
appropriations) for research, development,
The first measure directed a transfer
manufacturing, production, and the purchase of
of not less than $10 mil ion to the
vaccines, therapeutics, and ancil ary medical products
and supplies—available to address COVID-19, SARS-
National Institute of Environmental
CoV-2 or its variants, and any disease with potential for
Health Sciences (NIEHS) for
creating a pandemic (Title II, Section 2303). The HHS
“worker-based training to prevent and
Secretary can al ocate a portion of these funds to NIH
reduce exposure of hospital
accounts at his discretion.
employees, emergency first
responders, and other workers who are at risk of exposure to coronavirus through
their work duties.” The third measure set aside not less than $156 mil ion of the
total for “the study of, construction of, demolition of, renovation of, and
acquisition of equipment for, vaccine and infectious diseases research facilities of
or used by NIH, including the acquisition of real property.”
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI): $103 mil ion in the
CARES Act.
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB): $60
mil ion in the CARES Act.
National Library of Medicine (NLM): $10 mil ion in the CARES Act.
National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS): $36 mil ion
in the CARES Act.
Office of the Director (OD): $30 mil ion in the CARES Act.
Diagnostic Testing Research and Development (R&D). In the fourth (Paycheck Protection
Program and Health Care Enhancement Act; PPPHCEA, P.L. 116-139) and fifth measure
(Division M of P.L. 116-260), NIH received funding for specific purposes related to diagnostic
test R&D. This funding was directed to NIH as “not less than” transfers from the PHSSEF
account in the fourth measure, and directly to the OD account in the fifth measure. These amounts
include the following:
National Cancer Institute (NCI): Transfer of not less than $306 mil ion from
PHSSEF to NCI “to develop, validate, improve, and implement serological
testing and associated technologies” in the PPPHCEA.
NIBIB: Transfer of not less than $500 mil ion from PHSSEF to NIBIB “to
accelerate research, development, and implementation of point of care and other
rapid testing related to coronavirus” in the PPPHCEA.
OD: Transfer of not less than $1 bil ion from PHSSEF to OD “to develop,
validate, improve, and implement testing and associated technologies; to
accelerate research, development, and implementation of point of care and other
rapid testing; and for partnerships with governmental and non-governmental
entities” in the PPPHCEA. In the fifth measure, not less than $100 mil ion of the
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$1.250 bil ion total provided to the OD account is for “the Rapid Acceleration of
Diagnostics.”
NIH’s Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics (RADx) initiative is a prize competition for diagnostics
development. As communicated to CRS, the $1.500 bil ion total for NIBIB and OD in the fourth
measure was used to support RADx initial y, with additional funds in the fifth measure as
specified above.13
Long-Term Studies of COVID-19. The fifth measure directed $1.150 bil ion of the total $1.250
bil ion provided to the OD account “for research and clinical trials related to long-term studies of
COVID-19.” The fifth measure also al ows the total $1.250 bil ion appropriation to OD to be
transferred to other IC accounts (in addition to other HHS transfer authorities in the law).
FY2021 Proposed and Enacted Funding
Former President Trump’s FY2021 initial budget request (February 10, 2020) proposed that NIH
be provided a total program level of $38.694 bil ion, a decrease of $2.991 bil ion (-7.2%) from
FY2020 program levels.14 Subsequently, on March 17, 2020, the Office of Management and
Budget submitted an amendment to President Trump’s original request that would increase
funding for the National Institute of Al ergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) by $440 mil ion
relative to the original request. 15 The purpose of this additional requested funding was “to ensure
[NIAID] has the resources beginning October 1, 2020, to continue critical basic and applied
research on coronaviruses and other infectious diseases.” The amended NIH FY2021 request
would have provided a program level of $39.133 bil ion, a decrease of $2.552 bil ion (-6.1%)
from the FY2020 program level.16 Under the amended FY2021 budget request, al the existing
ICs and budget activity, except for NIAID and Buildings and Facilities, would have received a
decrease compared to FY2020-enacted levels.17 The NIAID appropriation of $5.885 bil ion would
have been the same amount as the program level for NIAID at the time. The Buildings and
Facilities appropriation of $300 mil ion would have been an increase of $100 mil ion from
FY2020 in terms of discretionary LHHS budget authority.18
In addition, the FY2021 budget request proposed consolidating the Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality (AHRQ) into NIH, forming a 28th IC—the National Institute for Research
on Safety and Quality (NIRSQ). The creation of a new NIH institute would general y require an

13 CRS communication with NIH, July 24, 2020.
14 NIH, Congressional Justification: FY2021, February 10, 2020, p. 75, at https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/pdfs/FY21/
br/1-OverviewVolumeSingleFile-toPrint.pdf. T his report uses FY2020 enacted funding levels from NIH,
Congressional Justification: FY2022, May 28, 2021, p. 89-91, at
https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/pdfs/FY22/br/2022%20CJ%20Overview%20Volume%20May%2028.pdf.
15 Letter from Michael R. Pence, President of the Senate, to Donald T rump, President of the United States, March 17,
2020, at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Letter-regarding-additional-funding-to-support -the-
United-States-response-to-COVID-19-3.17.2020.pdf.
16 Amended budget request funding levels from Rep. Nancy Pelosi, “Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mrs. Lowey,
Chairwoman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding H.R. 133, Consolidated Appropriations Act,
2021,” House of Representatives, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 166, part No. 218—Book IV (December
21, 2020).
17 T hough the budget request provides an increase to the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
through discretionary LHHS budget authority, the total amount for NI GMS with the PHS evaluation transfer included
is less than FY2020-enacted levels. For proposed FY2021 IC funding levels, see Table A-1.
18 FY2020 appropriations also directed a $225 million transfer from the HHS nonrecurring expenses fund (NEF) to the
NIH Building and Facilities (B&F) account; however, this transfer was not reflected in budget request tables.
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amendment to PHSA Section 401(d), which specifies that “[i]n the National Institutes of Health,
the number of national research institutes and national centers may not exceed a total of 27.” The
proposed NIRSQ would have received a total appropriation of $355 mil ion, including $257
mil ion in discretionary LHHS budget authority and $99 mil ion in mandatory appropriations
from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund (PCORTF) in Social Security Act
Section 1181. Congress did not adopt this proposal in FY2021 and did not adopt similar proposals
to consolidate AHRQ into NIH as NIRSQ in FY2018, FY2019, or FY2020.
In July 2020, the House passed two consolidated appropriations bil s with proposed funding
levels for NIH accounts: H.R. 7617 with proposed LHHS appropriations in Division E19 and H.R.
7608 with proposed INT appropriations in Division C.20 In summary, House-passed
appropriations would have provided NIH with an FY2021 estimated program level of $42.221
bil ion.21 With this estimated funding, the House-proposed program level would be $536 mil ion
(+1.3%) more than the FY2020-enacted program level and $3.088 bil ion (+7.9%) more than the
amended FY2021 budget request program level.
The House LHHS appropriations bil (in Title VI of Division E) also included $5 bil ion in
emergency funding “to support biomedical research—including support for current grantees to
cover the shutdown costs, startup costs, and other costs related to delays in research in 2020.”22
The $5 bil ion would have been appropriated to the Office of the Director (OD). Of this total, the
NIH Director was directed to transfer not less than $2.500 bil ion to the IC accounts “in
proportion to the amounts otherwise made available” in FY2020-enacted LHHS appropriations,
and to transfer the full FY2020-enacted amount to the Building and Facilities account.23 As
shown in the House report, this funding would have been distributed to al NIH accounts, except
the Innovation Account, with funding levels ranging from $5 mil ion for the Fogarty International
Center, to $2.275 bil ion for the Office of the Director account.24
The Senate did not complete committee or floor consideration of FY2021 LHHS appropriations.
The Chair of the Senate Appropriations Committee, however, released drafts of al 12 annual
appropriations bil s along with draft accompanying committee reports. 25
On December 27, 2020, Congress and President Trump finalized the NIH FY2021 appropriations
by enacting the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (P.L. 116-260), which included final
FY2021 LHHS appropriations in Division H, Interior/Environment appropriations in Division G,

19 T he Defense, Commerce, Justice, Science, Energy and Water Development, Financial Services and General
Government, Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, T ransportation, Housing, and Urban Development
Appropriations Act, 2021.
20 T he State, Foreign Operations, Agriculture, Rural Development, Interior, Environment, Military Construction, and
Veterans Affairs Appropriations Act, 2021.
21 Estimated funding level also accounts for proposed full year extension of mandatory type I diabetes research funding
per H.Rept. 116-450, p. 399.
22 H.R. 7617, Division E, T itle VI. By convention, CRS does not add discretionary funding designated as an emergency
requirement to regular appropriations amounts. However, H.Rept. 116 -450 (p. 404) presents a combined proposed
FY2021 NIH program level with emergency funding included of $46.959.
23 Ibid.
24 H.Rept. 116-450, pp. 399-404.
25 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations majority staff, “ Committee Releases FY21 Bills in Effort to
Advance Process, Produce Bipartisan Results,” press release, November 10, 2020,
at https://www.appropriations.senate.gov/news/committee-releases-fy21-bills-in-effort-to-advance-process-produce-
bipartisan-results.
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and full year mandatory type 1 diabetes funding in Division BB. The enacted FY2021 NIH
program level is made up of the following:
 $41.432 bil ion in discretionary LHHS budget authority;
 $1.272 bil ion pursuant to the PHS program evaluation transfer and a $225
mil ion transfer from the HHS nonrecurring expenses fund (NEF);26
 $82 mil ion for the Superfund research program and related activities from
Interior/Environment appropriations; and
 $150 mil ion in annual funding for the mandatory type 1 diabetes research
program.
Accounting for transfers and other adjustments, cited budget documents show the FY2021
program level as $42.936 bil ion.27 This FY2021 NIH program level represents a $1.251 bil ion
increase (+3.0%) above the FY2020 program level. The FY2021 total for NIH is also $3.802
bil ion (+9.7%) above the FY2021 budget request and $715 mil ion (+1.7%) above the program
level proposed by the House-passed bil s. In FY2021, al IC accounts received an increase above
FY2020 funding levels, except for the Buildings and Facilities account, which had an unchanged
funding level of $200 mil ion (see Table A-1). For the Innovation Account, the full amount
authorized by the 21st Century Cures Act ($404 mil ion) was appropriated.
FY2022 Budget and Appropriations
President Biden’s FY2022 budget request (May 28, 2021) proposes that NIH be provided with a
total program level of $51.953 bil ion, an increase of $9.017 bil ion (+21.0%) from FY2021-
enacted levels. The proposed FY2022 program level would be made up of28
 $50.456 bil ion in discretionary LHHS budget authority (nontransfer);
 $1.272 bil ion pursuant to the PHS program evaluation transfer;
 $84 mil ion for the Superfund research program and related activities from
Interior/Environment appropriations; and
 $141 mil ion in annual funding for the mandatory type 1 diabetes research
program.29
Under this request, al existing IC accounts would receive an increase compared to FY2021-
enacted levels (see Appendix A). In addition, the full amount ($496 mil ion) authorized by the
21st Century Cures Act for FY2021 (P.L. 114-255) would be appropriated to the Innovation
Account. The Buildings and Facilities (B&F) account would receive an increase of $50 mil ion
(+25%) in LHHS discretionary budget authority, but an overal decrease of $175 mil ion (-41%)

26 T he NEF amount is not reflected in the FY2021 NIH program level in cited FY2022 budget request tables.
27 See NIH, Congressional Justification: FY2022, May 28, 2021, p. 89-91, at
https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/pdfs/FY22/br/2022%20CJ%20Overview%20Volume%20May%2028.pdf.
Specifically, FY2022 budget documents reflect a transfer from NIH to HHS OIG, transfers between IC accounts, and
do not account for the NEF transfer to the B&F account.
28 NIH, Congressional Justification: FY2022, May 28, 2021, p. 89-91, at
https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/pdfs/FY22/br/2022%20CJ%20Overview%20Volume%20May%2028.pdf .
29 T his proposed amount for the mandatory type 1 diabetes research program differs from the already enacted amount
for FY2022 of $150 million in PHSA Section 330B, as amended in P.L. 116-260, Division BB, T itle III. According to
the budget request, the FY2022 amount reflects sequestration of $8.55 million. See “Budget Mechanism T able,” p. 92
in https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/pdfs/FY22/br/2022%20CJ%20Overview%20Supplementary%20Tables.pdf .
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when accounting for the additional NEF transfer of $225 mil ion directed to the B&F account in
FY2021 appropriations.30
The FY2022 budget request also proposes the creation of an Advanced Research Projects Agency
for Health (ARPA-H) within NIH. The budget request included $6.5 bil ion for ARPA-H “to build
platforms and capabilities to deliver cures for cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and other
diseases.”31 The $6.5 bil ion for ARPA-H would account for 72.1% of the FY2022 budget
request’s $9.017 bil ion increase from FY2021-enacted levels. Further information on the ARPA-
H proposal is provided below.
Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health (ARPA-H) in the FY2022
Budget Request
On May 28, 2021, the Office of Budget and Management (OMB) submitted President Biden’s FY2022 budget
request to Congress. This budget request proposed the creation of an Advanced Research Projects Agency for
Health (ARPA-H) within the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The budget request included $6.5 bil ion for
ARPA-H “to build platforms and capabilities to deliver cures for cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and other
diseases.” Funding was requested for a period of three years to “al ow for both scale-up in FY 2022 and
redeployment of resources in the next two years if projects fail to meet performance milestones.” The vast
majority of funding would support extramural research, with a smal amount of funding reserved for staffing and
administrative functions. Unlike NIH Institutes and Centers (ICs), ARPA-H would not have its own intramural
research program.
ARPA-H would be modeled after the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) , which primarily
works with the Department of Defense (DOD), and would contain several “DARPA model” characteristics,
including a flat and nimble organizational structure, tenure-limited program managers with a high degree of
autonomy to select and fund projects, and a milestone-based contract approach. While this organizational
structure would be “operational y unique” from NIH ICs, ARPA-H would stil coordinate research and activities
with NIH ICs and other HHS agencies.
The FY2022 budget request describes four broad project areas that ARPA-H would fund:

tackling bold chal enges requiring large scale, sustained, cross-sector coordination;

creating new capabilities (e.g., technologies, data resources, disease models);

supporting high-risk exploration that could establish entirely new paradigms; and

overcoming market failures through critical solutions, including financial incentives.
Most ARPA-H awards would be given to industry, universities, and nonprofit research institutions, and may
involve some agreements with other federal agencies. ARPA-H would make use of some of NIH’s flexible hiring
and funding authorities, such as its Other Transaction Authority mechanisms.32
For further information and analysis regarding ARPA-H, see CRS Insight IN11674, Advanced Research Projects
Agency for Health (ARPA-H): Considerations for Congress

Trends
Table 1
outlines NIH program level funding over the previous 25 years; Figure 1 il ustrates
funding trends in both current (also cal ed nominal dollars) and projected constant (i.e., inflation-
adjusted) FY2022 dollars (funding shown is total budget authority).

30 Accounting for the directed NEF transfer, the Buildings and Facilities account has a total FY2021 funding level of
$425 million. T his total account amount is not reflected in budget request documents.
31 NIH, Congressional Justification: FY2022, May 28, 2021, p . 10, at
https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/pdfs/FY22/br/2022%20CJ%20Overview%20Volume%20May%2028.pdf.
32 NIH, Congressional Justification: FY2022, May 28, 2021, pp. 10-11, at
https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/pdfs/FY22/br/2022%20CJ%20Overview%20Volume%20May%2028.pdf and HHS,
“FY2022 Budget in Brief,” pp. 59-60, at https://www.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/fy-2022-budget-in-brief.pdf.
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NIH has seen periods of high and low funding growth. Between FY1996 and FY1998, funding
for NIH grew from $11.928 bil ion to $13.675 bil ion (nominal dollars). Over the next five years,
Congress and the President doubled the NIH budget to $27.167 bil ion in FY2003. In each of
FY1999 through FY2003, NIH received annual funding increases of 14% to 16%. From FY2003
to FY2015, NIH funding increased more gradual y in nominal dollars.33 In some years, (FY2006,
FY2011, and FY2013) funding for the agency decreased in nominal dollars.34 From FY2016
through FY2020, NIH has seen funding increases of over 5% each year. The largest increase was
from FY2017 to FY2018, where the program level increased by $3.010 bil ion (+8.8%), making
this the largest single-year nominal dollar increase since FY2003. (If adopted, the FY2022
request program level would surpass this prior largest annual program level increase).
The lower half of Figure 1 shows NIH funding adjusted for inflation (in projected constant
FY2022 dollars) using the Biomedical Research and Development Price Index (BRDPI).35 It
shows that the purchasing power of NIH funding peaked in FY2003 (the last year of the five-year
doubling period) and then declined fairly steadily for more than a decade until consecutive
funding increases were provided in each of FY2016 through FY2021. The FY2021 program level
is 3.3% below the peak FY2003 program level. The FY2022 budget request would provide a
program level that is 14.4% above the peak FY2003 program level.

33 Amounts shown in Table 1 include appropriations for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, T B, and Malaria (FY2002 -
FY2011) that were subject to transfer-out. As of FY2012, NIH no longer receives appropriations for the National
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) identify ing resources for the Global Fund; this responsibility was
transferred to another federal agency. For further details on the amounts transferred out by fiscal year, see the
“Supplemental Appropriation Data T able” for “History of Congressional Appropriations, Fiscal Years 2000-2012” at
http://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/approp_hist.html.
34 For instance, the FY2006 total was 0.1% lower than the previous year, the first time that NIH appropriatio ns had
decreased since FY1970; the FY2011 total, provided in the Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011 (P.L. 112-
10), was 1.0% below the previous fiscal year; the FY2013 total, provided in the Consolidated and Further Continuing
Appropriations Act, 2013 (P.L. 113-6), was reduced by the March 2013 sequestration and a transfer of funding under
the authority of the HHS Secretary ($1.553 billion and $173 million, respectively), resulting in a budget that was 5.0%
lower than the prior year.
35 T he index is developed for NIH by the Bureau of Economic Analysis of the Department of Commerce. It re flects the
increase in prices of the resources needed to conduct biomedical research, including personnel services, supplies, and
equipment. It indicates how much the NIH budget must change to maintain purchasing power. See “ NIH Price
Indexes,” at https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/gbiPriceIndexes.html.
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National Institutes of Health (NIH) Funding: FY1996-FY2022

Figure 1. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Funding, FY1996-FY2022
Program Level Funding in Current and Projected Constant (FY2022) Dol ars.

Source: NIH Budget Office, Appropriations History by Institute/Center (1938 to Present), at
http://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/approp_hist.html. The FY2020, FY2021, and FY2022 program levels are based on
NIH, Congressional Justification: FY2022, May 28, 2021, p. 89-91, at
https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/pdfs/FY22/br/2022%20CJ%20Overview%20Volume%20May%2028.pdf . Inflation
adjustment reflects the Biomedical Research and Development Price Index (BRDPI), updated March 2021, at
https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/gbiPriceIndexes.html.
Notes: By convention, program level totals include amounts “transferred in” pursuant to PHS tap but do not
include any amounts “transferred out” under this same authority. Program level includes al budget authority,
including appropriations for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria (FY2002 -FY2011) that were subject
to transfer-out. As of FY2012, NIH no longer receives appropriations for the National Institute of Al ergy and
Infectious Diseases (NIAID) identifying resources for the Global Fund; this responsibility was transferred to
another federal agency. In general, amounts provided to NIH designated for emergency requirements are
excluded from these totals (e.g., FY2020 amount does not include the amounts provided in the coronavirus
supplemental appropriations acts, summarized in “Coronavirus Supplemental Appropriations”).
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Table 1. NIH Funding, FY1996-FY2022
Program Level Funding in Current and Constant (FY2022) Dol ars (bil ions)
Program Level
Program Level Projected
% Below
Fiscal Year
Current $
% Change
Constant FY2021 $
FY2003a
1996
11.928
5.6%
25.045

1997
12.741
6.8%
26.028

1998
13.675
7.3%
27.020

1999
15.629
14.3%
29.934

2000
17.841
14.1%
32.942

2001
20.459
14.7%
36.561

2002
23.321
14.0%
40.340

2003
27.167
16.5%
45.396

2004
28.037
3.2%
45.167
-0.5%
2005
28.594
2.0%
44.341
-2.3%
2006
28.560
-0.1%
42.328
-6.8%
2007
29.179
2.2%
41.664
-8.2%
2008
29.607
1.5%
40.385
-11.0%
2009
30.545
3.2%
40.480
-10.8%
2010
31.238
2.3%
40.176
-11.5%
2011
30.916
-1.0%
38.657
-14.8%
2012
30.861
-0.2%
38.099
-16.1%
2013
29.316
-5.0%
35.526
-21.7%
2014
30.143
2.8%
35.760
-21.2%
2015
30.311
0.6%
35.243
-22.4%
2016
32.311
6.6%
36.769
-19.0%
2017
34.301
6.2%
38.044
-16.2%
2018
37.311
8.8%
40.375
-11.1%
2019
39.313
5.4%
41.661
-8.2%
2020
41.685
6.0%
43.483
-4.2%
2021
42.936
3.0%
43.887
-3.3%
2022PB
51.953
21.0%
51.953
+14.4%
Sources: NIH Budget Office, Appropriations History by Institute/Center (1938 to Present), at
https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/approp_hist.html. The FY2020, FY2021, and FY2022 program levels are based
on NIH, Congressional Justification: FY2022, May 28, 2021, p. 89-91, at
https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/pdfs/FY22/br/2022%20CJ%20Overview%20Volume%20May%2028.pdf . Inflation
adjustment reflects the Biomedical Research and Development Price Index (BRDPI), updated March 2021, at
https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/gbiPriceIndexes.html.
Notes: By convention, budget tables, such as Table 1, include amounts “transferred in” pursuant to PHS tap
but do not include any amounts “transferred out” under this same authority. Program level includes al budget
authority, including appropriations for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria (FY2002 -FY2011) that
were subject to transfer-out. As of FY2012, NIH no longer receives appropriations for the National Institute of
Al ergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) identifying resources for the Global Fund; this responsibility was
transferred to another federal agency. In general, amounts provided to NIH for emergency requirements are
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excluded from these totals (e.g., the FY2020 and FY2021 amounts do not include the amounts provided in the
coronavirus supplemental appropriations acts, summarized in “Coronavirus Supplemental Appropriations”). PB
denotes “President’s Budget.”
a. FY2003 was the year that NIH received the most program level funding.
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Appendix A. NIH Funding Details
Table A-1. National Institutes of Health Funding
(budget authority, in mil ions of dol ars)
FY2020
FY2021
FY2021
FY2022
Institutes/Centers
Final
Request
Final
Request
Cancer Institute (NCI)
$6,440
$5,881
$6,559
$6,733
Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
$3,625
$3,298
$3,665
$3,846
Dental/Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
$478
$435
$485
$516
Diabetes/Digestive/Kidney (NIDDK)a
$2,115
$1,924
$2,132
$2,219
Neurological Disorders/Stroke (NINDS)
$2,447
$2,245
$2,511
$2,783
Al ergy/Infectious Diseases (NIAID)b
$5,876
$5,885
$6,067
$6,246
General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)c
$1,706
$1,931
$1,720
$1,825
Child Health/Human Development (NICHD)d
$1,798
$1,416
$1,838
$1,942
National Eye Institute (NEI)
$823
$749
$836
$859
Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)e
$803
$730
$815
$937
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
$3,546
$3,226
$3,900
$4,036
Arthritis/Musculoskeletal/Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
$625
$568
$634
$680
Deafness/Communication Disorders (NIDCD)
$491
$446
$498
$512
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
$2,043
$1,845
$2,106
$2,214
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
$1,458
$1,432
$1,480
$1,853
Alcohol Abuse/Alcoholism (NIAAA)
$547
$497
$555
$570
Nursing Research (NINR)
$172
$157
$175
$200
Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)
$604
$550
$616
$633
Biomedical Imaging/Bioengineering (NIBIB)
$405
$368
$411
$422
Minority Health/Health Disparities (NIMHD)
$336
$305
$392
$652
Complementary/Integrative Health (NCCIH)
$152
$138
$154
$184
Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS)
$833
$788
$855
$879
Fogarty International Center (FIC)
$81
$74
$84
$96
National Library of Medicine (NLM)
$457
$416
$462
$475
Office of Director (OD)f,
$2,007
$2,099
$2,175
$2,245
Innovation Accountg
$157
$109
$109
$150
Buildings and Facilities (B&F)h
$200
$300
$200
$250
National Institute for Research on Safety & Quality
(NIRSQ)

$257


Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health
(ARPA-H)



$6,500
Subtotal, NIH (LHHS Discretionary BA)
$40,223
$38,070
$41,432
$50,456
PHS Program Evaluation (provided to NIGMS)
$1,231
$741
$1,272
$1,272
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FY2020
FY2021
FY2021
FY2022
Institutes/Centers
Final
Request
Final
Request
Superfund (Interior approp. to NIEHS)i
$81
$74
$82
$84
Nonrecurring Expenses Fund (NEF) Transfer (to
($225)

($225)

Buildings and Facilities)j
Mandatory type 1 diabetes funds (to NIDDK)k
$150
$150
$150
$141l
Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund

$98


(PCORTF)
NIH Program Level
$41,685
$39,133
$42,936
$51,953
Source: NIH, “FY2022 Budget Request by IC (Summary Table),” at
https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/pdfs/FY22/br/2022%20CJ%20Overview%20Supplementary%20Tables.pdf , pg. 89,
except as noted below. FY2021 request amounts from Rep. Nancy Pelosi, “Explanatory Statement Submitted by
Mrs. Lowey, Chairwoman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding H.R. 133, Consolidated
Appropriations Act, 2021,” House of Representatives, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 166, part
No.218—Book IV (December 21, 2020).
Notes: Totals may differ from the sum of the components due to rounding. Amounts in table may differ from
actuals in many cases. By convention, budget tables such as Table A-1 do not subtract the amount of transfers
to the evaluation tap from the agencies’ appropriation. In general, amounts provided to NIH for emergency
requirements are excluded from these totals (e.g., FY2020 and FY2021 amounts do not include the amounts
provided in the coronavirus supplemental appropriations acts, summarized in “Coronavirus Supplemental
Appropriations”
).
a. Amounts for the NIDDK do not include mandatory funding for type 1 diabetes research (see note k).
b. The White House amended the NIAID FY2021 budget request on March 17, 2020, in a supplemental
request letter for COVID-19 funding, to $5,885,470,000, which is $439,584,000 above the original FY2021
budget request.
c. Amounts for NIGMS do not include funds from PHS Evaluation Set-Aside (§241 of the PHS Act).
d. FY2020 and FY2021 funding level for NICHD adjusted for comparability in NIH FY2022 budget tables to
reflect the proposed transfer of the ECHO and INCLUDE programs from OD to NICHD.
e. Amounts for NIEHS do not include Interior/Environment Appropriations amount for Superfund research
(see note i).
f.
Includes $12.6 mil ion transfer from the Pediatric Research Initiative Fund (PRIF) as authorized by the
Gabriel a Mil er Kids First Research Act. FY2020 and FY2021 amounts for this account adjusted for
comparability reflect the proposed transfer of ECHO and INCLUDE programs from OD to NICHD in the
FY2022 request.
g. The amount shown for the NIH Innovation Account in each column represents only a portion of the total
appropriation to the account ($404 mil ion for FY2021: $496 mil ion for FY2022. The remaining funds for
this account are reflected, where applicable, into the totals for other ICs. For FY2022, this includes $194
mil ion to NCI for cancer research and $76 mil ion to each of NINDS and NIMH for the BRAIN Initiative
($152 mil ion total for BRAIN).
h. Amounts for the Building and Facilities account do not include directed transfers from the nonrecurring
expenses fund in FY2020 and FY2021 enacted appropriations (see note j).
i.
This is a separate account in the Interior/Environment appropriations for NIEHS research activities related
to Superfund research.
j.
The nonrecurring expenses fund (NEF) permits HHS to transfer unobligated balances of expired
discretionary funds from FY2008 and subsequent years into the NEF account. Congress and the President
authorized use of the funds for capital acquisitions including information technology (IT) and facilities
infrastructure (42 U.S.C. §3514a), and can direct the funds to certain accounts through appropriations acts.
NEF transfers are shown as non-add in this budget presentation as these amounts were not reflected in
FY2022 budget request tables.
k. Mandatory funds are available to NIDDK for type 1 diabetes research under PHSA Section 330Bm, which
was most recently extended through FY2023 by the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (P.L. 116 -260;
Division BB, Title II)
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l.
FY2022 proposed amount for the type I diabetes research program ($141 mil ion) is lower than enacted
funding level for FY2022 ($150 mil ion). According to the budget request, the FY2022 amount reflects
sequestration of $8.55 mil ion. See “Budget Mechanism Table,” p. 92 in
https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/pdfs/FY22/br/2022%20CJ%20Overview%20Supplementary%20Tables.pdf.
Program-Specific Funding
In recent years, Congress and the President have increasingly specified funding levels for
programs or research areas within NIH accounts throughout the budget and appropriations
process. Congress uses language in reports and explanatory statements accompanying
appropriations bil s to designate funding for specified purposes. This is a relatively new practice
that has expanded since FY2015.36 For the most part, Congress does not specify NIH funding for
particular diseases or areas of research, instead al owing the ICs to award funding within their
mission areas. Funding is general y awarded on a flexible and competitive basis through various
funding mechanisms intended to balance scientific opportunity with health priorities.37
In FY2021, Congress used explanatory statement language to specify a certain amount of IC
funding for designated purposes, as summarized in Table A-2. Sometimes the language specifies
that “no less than” a certain amount can be designated for a certain purpose; in other cases,
language “provides” or “recommends” that an amount be spent on a certain purpose. For FY2021,
while the House report (H.Rept. 116-450) also included funding levels for some of the below
programs, the amounts in the explanatory statement supersede those. Both the explanatory
statement and the House report include many additional statements directing the agency to
prioritize certain programs or areas of research, as wel as expressing the opinion or concerns of
Congress regarding NIH; these broad statements are not summarized here. In addition, the
President has proposed broad funding increases for certain research and other areas in his FY2022
budget request.
Table A-2. Specified NIH Funding Levels in FY2021 Explanatory Statement
Institute/Center
Program
Amount
Cancer Institute (NCI)
NCI Paylines
$250 mil ion, an increase of $38
mil ion
Childhood Cancer Survivorship, Treatment
$30 mil ion
Access, and Research (STAR) Act
Neurological
HEAL Initiative (opioid misuse and addiction)
No less than $270 mil ion
Disorders/Stroke
(NINDS)
Centers for AIDS Research
$61 mil ion, an increase of $10
mil ion

36 As recently as December 2014, the explanatory statement on the FY2015 omnibus stipulated, “ In keeping with
longstanding practice, the agreement does not recommend a specific amount of NIH funding for this purpose
[Alzheimer's disease] or for any other individual disease. Doing so would establish a dangerous precedent that could
politicize the NIH peer review system. Nevertheless, in reco gnition that Alzheimer's disease poses a serious threat to
the Nation's long-term health and economic stability, the agreement expects that a significant portion of the
recommended increase for NIA should be directed to research on Alzheimer's. T he exact a mount should be determined
by scientific opportunity of additional research on this disease and the quality of grant applications that are submitted
for Alzheimer's relative to those submitted for other diseases.” See Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 160, no.
151, Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9832.
37 CRS Report R41705, The National Institutes of Health (NIH): Background and Congressional Issues.
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Institute/Center
Program
Amount
National Institute of
Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases
An increase of $10 mil ion
Al ergy and Infectious
Diseases (NIAID)
Regional biocontainment laboratories (RBL)
$40 mil ion
Universal flu vaccine
No less than $220 mil ion, an
increase of $20 mil ion
General Medical Sciences
Institutional Development Award (IDeA) Program $397 mil ion, an increase of $10
(NIGMS)
mil ion
Child Health/Human
Research on the survival and healthy development
An increase of $10 mil ion
Development (NICHD)
of preterm infants
Aging (NIA)
Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias
No less than $3.118 bil ion
Drug Abuse (NIDA)
HEAL Initiative (opioid misuse and addiction)
No less than $270 mil ion
Genome Research
Emerging Centers of Excel ence in Genomic
$13 mil ion
(NHGRI)
Sciences
Minority Health/Health
Research Centers in Minority Institutions
$80 mil ion, an increase of $5
Disparities (NIMHD)
mil ion
Advancing Translational
Clinical and Translational Science Awards
$588 mil ion
Sciences (NCATS)
(CTSAs)
Cures Acceleration Network
Up to $60 mil ion
Gene Vector Initiative
$10 mil ion
Office of the Director
Al of Us Precision Medicine Initiative
$500 mil iona
(OD)/ Multi-Institute
Research Initiatives
Artificial intel igence/big data
$105 mil ion, including $50
mil ion to expand machine
learning-focused grants and $55
mil ion for the Office of Data
Science Strategy
Grants for biomedical research facilities
$50 mil ion
Brain Research through Advancing Innovative
$560 mil ion,b including $40
Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative
mil ion for the Human Brain
Cel Atlas and $20 mil ion for
the Armamentarium for Brain
Cel Access.
Environmental Influences on Child Health
$180 mil ion
Outcomes (ECHO)
Firearm injury and mortality prevention research
$13 mil ion
HHS Office of National Security al ocation for
$5 mil ion
foreign threats program
IDeA States Pediatric Clinical Trials Network
No less than the FY2020
funding level ($15 mil ion)
Office of AIDS Research, for HIV/AIDS research
$3.090 bil ion
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Institute/Center
Program
Amount
Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH)
an increase of $5 mil ion
Investigation of Co-Occurring Conditions Across
no less than $65 mil ion, an
the Lifespan to Understand Down Syndrome
increase of $5 mil ion
(INCLUDE)
Source: U.S. Congress, House and Senate Committees on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Departments
of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies, Division H—Department of Labor, Health
and Human Services, and Education and Related Agencies [LHHS] Appropriations Act, 2021
, committee print, 116th
Cong., 2nd sess., December 21, 2020, pp. 44-71, 154-159.
a. Amount likely includes $109 mil ion from the Innovation Account as authorized in the Cures Act.
b. Amount likely includes $100 mil ion from the Innovation Account for the BRAIN Initiative as authorized by
the Cures Act (split between NINDS and NIMH in FY2021 appropriations).
Table A-3. Specified NIH Funding Levels in FY2022 Budget Request
Program/Activity
Amount
Opioid, stimulant, and pain research
$2.2 bil ion—$811 mil ion for the Helping to End
Addiction Long-term (HEAL) Initiative and more than
$1.4 bil ion to support ongoing research
Health disparities and inequities research
$330 mil ion—$250 mil ion for NIMHD and $80 mil ion
for targeted cardiovascular, nursing, and international
health disparities and inequities research at NHLBI,
NINR, and the Fogarty International Center,
respectively
Research on the effects of climate change on human
$100 mil ion
health
Centers for AIDS Research
$26 mil ion
Maternal health and Pregnancy Outcomes Vision for
$30 mil ion
Everyone (IMPROVE) initiative
Firearm violence prevention research
$25 mil ion
Research on COVID-19 and individuals at risk for, or
$25 mil ion
experiencing, mental disorders
Col aboration to Assess Risk and Identify Long-term
$15 mil ion
Outcomes for Children with COVID (CARING for
Children with COVID) research program
Creating a Diverse Biomedical Workforce—increasing
$16 mil ion
opportunities for early-career investigators, reaching
underrepresented groups, and tracking and evaluating
diversity and inclusion metrics at NIH ICs
NIH cybersecurity modernization and improvements
$100 mil ion
Nonhuman primate resource infrastructure expansion
$30 mil ion
at the National Primate Research Centers and
Caribbean Primate Research Center
Source: HHS, “FY2022 Budget in Brief,” pp. 60-64, at https://www.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/fy-2022-budget-in-
brief.pdf. For the most part, the budget request does not specify funding amounts by institute/center or account.
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National Institutes of Health (NIH) Funding: FY1996-FY2022

Appendix B. Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronym/
Abbreviation
Organization/Term
ARPA-H
Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health
DARPA
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DOD
Department of Defense
FIC
Fogarty International Center
FY
Fiscal Year
IC
Institutes and Centers
NASEM
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
NCATS
National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences
NCCIH
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
NCI
National Cancer Institute
NEF
Nonrecurring Expenses Fund
NEI
National Eye Institute
NHGRI
National Human Genome Research Institute
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
NIA
National Institute on Aging
NIAAA
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
NIAID
National Institute of Al ergy and Infectious Diseases
NIAMS
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
NIBIB
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering
NICHD
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
NIDA
National Institute on Drug Abuse
NIDCD
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
NIDCR
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
NIDDK
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
NIEHS
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
NIGMS
National Institute of General Medical Sciences
NIMH
National Institute of Mental Health
NIMHD
National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities
NINDS
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
NINR
National Institute of Nursing Research
NLM
National Library of Medicine
OD
NIH Office of the Director
PHS
Public Health Service

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National Institutes of Health (NIH) Funding: FY1996-FY2022




Author Information

Kavya Sekar

Analyst in Health Policy


Acknowledgments
CRS Research Assistant Isaac Nicchitta provided valuable assistance in analysis and writing for this report.

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Congressional Research Service
R43341 · VERSION 40 · UPDATED
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