U.S. Armed Forces Abroad: Selected Congressional Votes Since 1982

This report summarizes selected congressional roll call votes related to instances in which U.S. Armed Forces have been sent abroad in potentially hostile situations. These votes reflect the type of congressional actions that observers maintain bear directly on issues affecting policy and the funding of troops abroad, often in the context of the War Powers Resolution, continued presence or withdrawal of troops, and the “use of force.” The cases of Lebanon (1982-1983), Grenada (1983), Panama (1989), the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991), Somalia (1992-1995), Haiti (1993-1996), Bosnia (1992-1998), Kosovo (1999), the terrorist attack against the United States (2001) (including the use of U.S. Armed Forces in Afghanistan), and the use of U.S. Armed Forces against Iraq (2002-2003) and Iraq and Afghanistan (2001-Present) are examined, as are the revolution in Libya and its aftermath, the uprising and war in Syria, and military action against the self-proclaimed Islamic State (or ISIS or ISIL). The roll call votes that are available online (since 1990 in the House and 1989 in the Senate) are hyperlinked in the text.

U.S. Armed Forces Abroad: Selected Congressional Votes Since 1982

Updated January 9, 2020 (RL31693)
Jump to Main Text of Report

Summary

This report summarizes selected congressional roll call votes related to instances in which U.S. Armed Forces have been sent abroad in potentially hostile situations. These votes reflect the type of congressional actions that observers maintain bear directly on issues affecting policy and the funding of troops abroad, often in the context of the War Powers Resolution, continued presence or withdrawal of troops, and the "use of force." The cases of Lebanon (1982-1983), Grenada (1983), Panama (1989), the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991), Somalia (1992-1995), Haiti (1993-1996), Bosnia (1992-1998), Kosovo (1999), the terrorist attack against the United States (2001) (including the use of U.S. Armed Forces in Afghanistan), and the use of U.S. Armed Forces against Iraq (2002-2003) and Iraq and Afghanistan (2001-Present) are examined, as are the revolution in Libya and its aftermath, the uprising and war in Syria, and military action against the self-proclaimed Islamic State (or ISIS or ISIL). The roll call votes that are available online (since 1990 in the House and 1989 in the Senate) are hyperlinked in the text.


Introduction

The President and Congress have historically played different roles when sending U.S. troops into hostile situations. The President has the power under Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution to use the Armed Forces to repel attacks. Congress under Article I, Section 8, has the power to declare war and raise and support the Armed Forces. The War Powers Resolution1 was enacted to ensure that the President and Congress share decisions where U.S. troops may become involved in hostilities.

This sharing of power has often resulted in controversy, particularly when troops are sent into situations where there has not been a formal declaration of war. In most instances, Congress has used its legislative prerogatives through funding mechanisms or declarations of policy either to affirm or to place limits on presidential action. In three instances since 1982, Congress has authorized the use of military force in advance of hostilities: the Persian Gulf War (1991), military operations in Afghanistan (2001), and the "use of force against Iraq" resolution (2002). In each case, however, the President has maintained that while he may have sought congressional consultation and support, the President has the constitutional authority as Commander in Chief to use force, including the Armed Forces of the United States, to protect U.S. national security interests. Additionally, the executive branch has long viewed congressional enactment of defense appropriations bills as de facto authorization for operations funded under those measures, although Congress has often included provisions stating that no separate authorization for the use of force is implied by the appropriation of funds.2

Related CRS products

CRS Report RL31133, Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications, by Jennifer K. Elsea and Matthew C. Weed.

CRS Report R42699, The War Powers Resolution: Concepts and Practice, by Matthew C. Weed.

CRS Report R42738, Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2019, by Barbara Salazar Torreon and Sofia Plagakis.

Report Content

This report describes the congressional debate that often surrounds the issue of employing the U.S. military abroad. Initially written in response to a congressional request for a list of votes on this topic from 1982-1992, this report has been updated as needed since that time. The floor votes included are those directly related to the use and funding of U.S. troops abroad, often in the context of the War Powers Resolution, or to their continued presence or withdrawal.

The laws, bills, and resolutions below are listed in the chronological order of the votes that were held. Links to the actual roll call votes are provided, when available (since 1990 in the House and 1989 in the Senate). These links include each Member's yea or nay vote.

In some cases, House or Senate votes are voice votes, and, thus, no roll call vote exists. Moreover, the ultimate disposition of amendments listed in the report (i.e., whether such amendments were incorporated into any final law) may not be self-evident. Some amendments may appear as considered; some may have been further amended during subsequent proceedings or in conference; some may have been deleted in conference when one chamber receded from that amendment. In other instances, only one chamber of Congress may have voted on a particular measure; for example, a House or Senate simple resolution is a measure that expresses nonbinding opinions on policies or issues and is effective only in the chamber in which it is proposed. It does not require concurrence by the other chamber or approval by the President.

Lebanon (1982-1983)

On September 29, 1982, President Reagan deployed 1,200 marines to serve as part of a multinational observer force to restore the sovereignty of the Lebanese government. By March 30, 1984, the mission had ended.

Related CRS products

CRS Report R44759, Lebanon, by Carla E. Humud.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

98th

S. 639
(P.L. 98-43)
Lebanon Emergency Assistance Act of 1983

Required the President to seek statutory authority for any substantial expansion of U.S. participation in the multinational peacekeeping force in Lebanon.

Measure passed Senate
May 20, 1983
(voice vote)

Measure passed House
June 2, 1983
276-76
(vote #153)

 

H.J.Res. 364
Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution

To provide statutory authority under the War Powers Resolution for continued U.S. participation in the multinational peacekeeping force in Lebanon for up to 18 months after enactment.

Measure passed House
September 28, 1983
270-161
(vote #356)

 

H.Amdt. 395 to H.J.Res. 364

Long substitute amendment requires the President to invoke the War Powers Resolution by the end of November, or at the end of any month thereafter, unless President certifies to Congress that a cease-fire was in effect and being observed by all parties, and that significant progress was being made in negotiations to broaden the base of Lebanese government.

Rejected in House
September 28, 1983
158-272
(vote #360)

 

S.J.Res. 159
(P.L. 98-119)
Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution

Authorizes the President to maintain U.S. Armed Forces in Lebanon as part of a multinational peacekeeping force for 18 months; determines that the requirements of Section 4(a)(1) of the War Powers Resolution became operational on August 29, 1983.

Measure passed House
September 29, 1983
253-156
(vote #370)

Measure passed Senate
September 29, 1983
54-46
(vote #274)

 

S.Amdt. 2231 to S.J.Res. 159

Baker motion to kill the Byrd amendment stating that U.S. Marines in Lebanon became engaged in hostilities on August 29, 1983, requiring the President to submit report to Congress under Section 4(a)(1) of the War Powers Resolution concerning hostilities, and extending for 60 days from enactment of the resolution the President's authority to keep U.S. forces in Lebanon.

Agreed to in Senate
September 29, 1983
55-45
(vote #269)

 

S.Amdt. 2228 to S.J.Res. 159

Baker motion to kill the Pell amendment to authorize the U.S. Marines to remain in Lebanon for an additional six months instead of 18.

Agreed to in Senate
September 29, 1983
62-38
(vote #270)

 

S.Amdt. 2239 to S.J.Res. 159

Baker motion to kill the Tsongas amendment stating that a purpose of the deployment of U.S. Marines in Lebanon was to help the Lebanese government "maintain a secure area from which to restore full control over its own territory."

Agreed to in Senate
September 29, 1983
56-42
(vote #271)

 

S.Amdt. 2240 to S.J.Res. 159

Baker motion to kill the Levin amendment stating that "actual or imminent hostilities involving U.S. armed forces" began on August 29, 1983.

Agreed to in Senate
September 29, 1983
54-45
(vote #272)

 

S.Amdt. 2233 to S.J.Res. 159

Baker motion to kill Eagleton amendment to allow the U.S. to take such "defensive measures as may be appropriate" to protect the multinational peacekeeping force in Lebanon rather than "protective" measures; would require the President to report to Congress periodically on the results of efforts to secure removal of all foreign forces from Lebanon.

Agreed to in Senate
September 29, 1983
66-34
(vote #273)

 

H.Amdt. 494 to
H.R. 4185
Department of Defense Appropriations for FY1984

Long amendment to prohibit funds for deployment of U.S. Armed Forces participating in the multinational peacekeeping force in Lebanon after March 1, 1984.

Rejected in House
November 2, 1983
153-274
(vote #441)

Grenada (1983)

On October 25, 1983, President Reagan sent U.S. Marines and Army troops to Grenada in order to protect American lives and restore law and order at the request of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States. All U.S. troops were removed from Grenada by December 15, 1983.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

98th

S.Amdt. 2462 to H.J.Res. 308
(P.L. 98-161)
Joint resolution increasing the statutory limit on the public debt

Hart amendment to invoke the War Powers Resolution with respect to American military involvement in Grenada.

Agreed to in Senate
October 28, 1983
64-20
(vote #321)

The Senate receded on inclusion of the amendment in conference committee consideration (H. Rpt. 98-566)

 

H.J.Res. 402

Declared that the requirements of Section 4(a)(1) of the War Powers Resolution became operative on October 25, 1983, when U.S. Armed Forces were introduced into Grenada.

Measure passed House
November 1, 1983
403-23
(vote #437)

Panama (1989)

On December 20, 1989, President George H.W. Bush deployed 14,000 U.S. military forces to Panama in order to protect American lives, restore Panamanian democracy, and apprehend General Manuel Noriega. Congress did not immediately react to the situation, as the 101st Congress, first session had ended on November 22, 1989; the second session of the 101st Congress did not begin until January 23, 1990. The 14,000 U.S. troops were removed from Panama by February 13, 1990.

Related CRS products

CRS In Focus IF10430, Panama: An Overview, by Mark P. Sullivan.

[Archived] CRS Report RL30981, Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations Through 2012, by Mark P. Sullivan.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

101st

H.Con.Res. 262

Expresses sadness over the loss of U.S. soldiers' lives as a result of Operation Just Cause and commends the President for his efforts to provide for the early return of the remaining U.S. troops from Panama.

Measure agreed to in House
February 7, 1990
389-26
(vote #12)

Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

On August 2, 1990, Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait, seized its oil fields, ousted the Kuwaiti leadership, installed a new government in Kuwait City, and massed troops on the Saudi Arabian border. On August 9, President Bush reported that he had deployed U.S. troops to the region. Legislation in late 1990 (101st Congress, second session) focused on imposing sanctions against Iraq, in seeking the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from the area, and in supporting the President in carrying out the provisions of the relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions. On January 12, 1991 (102nd Congress, first session), the Congress authorized the "use of force" against Iraq in advance of the outbreak of hostilities with Iraq on January 16.

Related CRS products

CRS Report RS21513, Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, by Kenneth Katzman.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

101st

S.Res. 318
Resolution to condemn Iraq's invasion of Kuwait

"Commends the President for his initial actions with respect to Iraq. Urges the President to seek ... additional multilateral actions involving air, sea, or land forces as necessary to maintain or restore international peace or security."

Measure agreed to in Senate
August 2, 1990
97-0
(vote #211)

 

H.J.Res. 658
United States Policy on Iraqi Aggression Resolution

Supports the deployment of U.S. Armed Forces to the Persian Gulf region and expresses appreciation to such forces.

Measure passed House
October 1, 1990
380-29
(vote #394)

101st

S.Con.Res. 147

Supports continued action by the President to deter Iraqi aggression and to protect American lives and interests in the region.

Measure agreed to in Senate
October 2, 1990
96-3
(vote #258)

102nd

H.J.Res. 77
(P.L. 102-1)
Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution

Joint resolution to authorize the use of United States Armed Forces pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 678.

Measure passed House
January 12, 1991
250-183
(vote #9)

 

H.Con.Res. 32

Finds that the Constitution vests all power to declare war in the Congress. Declares that any offensive action against Iraq must be explicitly approved in advance by the Congress.

Measure agreed to in House
January 12, 1991
302-131
(vote #7)

 

H.Con.Res. 33

Authorizes the continued use of American military force to enforce the United Nations economic embargo against Iraq, to defend Saudi Arabia from direct Iraqi attack, and to protect American forces in the region. Declares that (1) the Constitution requires the President to obtain authorization from the Congress before initiating new offensive military action or waging war against Iraq or Iraqi forces and (2) the Congress does not rule out the enactment at a later time of a declaration of war or other congressional authorization for the use of force.

Measure rejected in House
January 12, 1991
183-250
(vote #8)

 

S.J.Res. 1

Authorizes the use of American military force to enforce the United Nations economic embargo against Iraq, defend Saudi Arabia from direct Iraqi attack, and protect American forces in the region. Declares that (1) the Constitution vests all power to declare war in the Congress and (2) the Congress will expeditiously consider any presidential request for a declaration of war or for authority to use military force against Iraq.

Measure rejected by Senate
January 12, 1991
46-53
(vote #1)

 

S.J.Res. 2
Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution

Authorizes the President to use U.S. Armed Forces against Iraq pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 678.

Measure passed Senate
January 12, 1991
52-4
(vote #2)

Somalia (1992-1995)

On December 10, 1992, President George H.W. Bush reported that he had deployed U.S. troops into Somalia on December 8, in response to United Nations Security Council Resolution 794, which authorized the Secretary General to "use all necessary means to establish as soon as possible a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia" and to provide military forces for accomplishing this mission. U.S. troops were deployed to assist United Nations Forces in Somalia (UNOSOM) throughout 1993 and 1994, ending on March 3, 1995.

Related CRS products

CRS In Focus IF10155, Somalia, by Lauren Ploch Blanchard and Katherine Z. Terrell.

CRS Report R45428, Sub-Saharan Africa: Key Issues and U.S. Engagement, coordinated by Tomas F. Husted.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

103rd

S.J.Res. 45

Joint resolution authorizing the use of United States Armed Forces in Somalia pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 providing for a secure environment to deliver relief supplies into Somalia. The House reported version authorized U.S. troops under the War Powers Resolution, but terminated such authorization at the earlier of (1) end of one year from date of enactment of the act unless extended by Congress; or (2) expiration of the United Nations-led force in Somalia.

Measure passed Senate
February 4, 1993
(voice vote)

Measure passed House
May 25, 1993
243-179
(vote #183)

 

H.Amdt. 66 to
S.J.Res. 45

Gilman substitute amendment to reduce from one year to six months authorization for U.S. participation and to delete the section of the bill complying with the War Powers Resolution.

Rejected in House
May 25, 1993
179-248
(vote #179)

 

H.Amdt. 67 to
S.J.Res. 45

Roth amendment to end the U.S. troop authorization and financial aid in Somalia on June 30, 1993.

Rejected in House
May 25, 1993
127-299
(vote #180)

 

H.Amdt. 68 to
S.J.Res. 45

Solomon amendment to commend U.S. Armed Forces for establishing a secure environment for humanitarian relief in Somalia.

Agreed to in House
May 25, 1993
425-0
(vote #181)

 

H.Amdt. 68 to
S.J.Res. 45

Separate vote at request of Walker on amendment adopted by Solomon in Committee of the Whole to commend U.S. forces for establishing a secure environment for humanitarian relief in Somalia.

Agreed to in House
May 25, 1993
419-0
(vote #182)

 

S.Amdt. 790 to
S. 1298
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994

Byrd amendment to the Byrd amendment expressing sense of Senate that the President should outline goals, objectives, and duration of deployment of U.S. troops in Somalia and report to Congress by October 15, 1993; President should ask for and receive congressional authorization for continued deployment in Somalia by November 15, 1993; U.S. participation would terminate if Congress failed to authorize such continued involvement.

Agreed to in Senate
September 9, 1993
90-7
(vote #252)

 

H.R. 2401
(P.L. 103-160)
National Defense Authorization Act for FY1994

Adoption of National Defense Authorization Act for FY1994 including text of Byrd Amendment (S.Amdt. 790 to S. 1298) as Section 1512.

Measure passed House
September 29, 1993
268-162
(vote #474)

Measure passed Senate
October 6, 1993
(voice vote)

 

H.Amdt. 319 to
H.R. 2401

Gephardt amendment requiring the President to report to Congress by October 15, 1993, on goals, objectives, and duration of U.S. Armed Forces in Somalia and expressing sense of Congress that the President should seek congressional authorization by November 15, 1993, for continued deployment in Somalia.

Agreed to in House
September 28, 1993
406-26
(vote #463)

 

H.Amdt. 319 to
H.R. 2401

Separate vote at request of Walker on Gephardt amendment adopted in the Committee of the Whole (described above).

Agreed to in House
September 29, 1993
405-23
(vote #472)

 

 

Spence motion to recommit bill to House Armed Services with instructions to report back with amendment requiring the President to certify that it is vital and necessary to protect U.S. national interests before placing U.S. troops under control of a foreign national on behalf of the United Nations.

Rejected in House
September 29, 1993
192-238
(vote #473)

 

H.R. 3116
(P.L. 103-139)
Department of Defense Appropriations for FY1994

Section 8151 states the purposes for which Congress approves of the use of U.S. forces in Somalia

Conference report agreed to in House by voice vote on November 10, 1993; agreed to in Senate on same date

88-9

(vote #368)

 

 

Thurmond motion to kill McCain amendment (S.Amdt. 1043) to prohibit funding of U.S. military operations in Somalia except for withdrawal of all U.S. troops.

Agreed to in Senate
October 15, 1993
61-38
(vote #313)

 

S.Amdt. 1042 to H.R. 3116

Byrd amendment to prohibit funding of U.S. military operations in Somalia after March 31, 1994, except for limited purposes if the President requests and Congress authorizes an extension; requires U.S. forces to be under command of U.S. commanders.

Agreed to in Senate
October 15, 1993
76-23
(vote #314)

 

H.Con.Res. 170

Concurrent resolution directing the President pursuant to Section 5(c) of the War Powers Resolution to remove United States Armed Forces from Somalia by January 31, 1994.

Measure agreed to in House
November 9, 1993
(voice vote)

 

H.Amdt. 384 to
H.Con.Res. 170

Gilman amendment to change deadline for removal of U.S. troops in Somalia from March 31, 1994, to January 31, 1994.

Agreed to in House
224-203
November 9, 1993
(vote #555)

 

H.Amdt. 385 to
H.Con.Res. 170

Hamilton substitute amendment to change deadline for removal of U.S. troops back to March 31, 1994, from January 31, 1994; substituted by Gilman.

Agreed to in House
226-201
November 9, 1993
(vote #556)

 

H.R. 3759
(P.L. 103-211)
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for FY1994

Chapter 3 of the Act appropriates funds for Department of Defense operations in Somalia, Bosnia, Iraq, and Haiti.

Measure passed House
February 3, 1994
337-74
(vote #13)

Measure passed Senate
February 10, 1994
85-10
(vote #45)

 

H.Amdt. 424 to H.R. 3759

Frank amendment to delete $1.2 billion for peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance in Somalia, Bosnia, Iraq, and Haiti.

Rejected in House
February 3, 1994
158-260
(vote #8)

 

S.Amdt. 1453 to H.R. 3759

Feingold amendment to eliminate $1.2 billion for peacekeeping operations in Somalia, Bosnia, Iraq, and Haiti.

Rejected in Senate
February 10, 1994
19-76
(vote #40)

 

H.R. 4650
(P.L. 103-335)
Department of Defense Appropriations for FY1995

Section 8135 states that none of the funds appropriated by this Act may be used for the continuous presence in Somalia of U.S. military personnel, except for the protection of U.S. personnel, after September 30, 1994.

Measure passed Senate
August 11, 1994
86-14
(vote #282)

Agreed to in House

September 29, 1994

327-86

(vote #446)

 

S.Amdt. 2538 to H.R. 4650

Kempthorne amendment prohibiting funds from supporting the continued presence of U.S. troops in Somalia after September 30, 1994.

Agreed to in Senate
August 10, 1994
54-44
(vote #278)

Haiti (1993-1996)

On October 20, 1993, President Bill Clinton reported that U.S. ships had begun enforcing a United Nations embargo against Haiti. On September 19, 1994, President Clinton had deployed 1,500 troops to Haiti to restore democracy; that level was ultimately increased to over 20,000. By March 21, 1995, U.S. troops were reduced to under 5,300 and incorporated into the United Nations Multinational Force in Haiti. By September 21, 1995, they were reduced to under 2,500 personnel. U.S. troops ended their deployment to Haiti by April 17, 1996.

Related CRS products

CRS Report R45034, Haiti's Political and Economic Conditions, by Maureen Taft-Morales.

[Archived] CRS Report RL32294, Haiti: Developments and U.S. Policy Since 1991 and Current Congressional Concerns, by Maureen Taft-Morales and Clare Ribando Seelke.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

103rd

H.R. 3116
(P.L. 103-139)
Department of Defense Appropriations for FY1994

Section 8147 states sense of Congress that funds appropriated by the Act should not be obligated or expended for U.S. military operations in Haiti unless Congress has authorized such operations in advance or under certain conditions, including the President submitting a required report to Congress.

Conference report (including Mitchell amendment, see below) agreed to in House by voice vote on November 10, 1993; agreed to in Senate on same date 88-9

(vote #368)

 

S.Amdt. 1072 to H.R. 3116

Helms amendment to prohibit funding any U.S. military operations in Haiti unless Congress explicitly authorizes such action or the President certifies to Congress that U.S. citizens are in danger.

Rejected in Senate
October 21, 1993
19-81
(vote #321)

 

S.Amdt. 1074 to H.R. 3116

Mitchell amendment expressing sense of Congress that Congress should authorize all U.S. military operations in Haiti unless U.S. citizens are in imminent need of protection and evacuation or that the President reports that such deployment is justified by U.S. national security interests.

Agreed to in Senate
October 21, 1993
98-2
(vote #322)

 

H.R. 3759
(P.L. 103-211)
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for FY1994

Chapter 3 of the Act appropriates funds for Department of Defense operations in Somalia, Bosnia, Iraq, and Haiti.

Measure passed House
February 3, 1994
337-74
(vote #13)

Measure passed Senate
February 10, 1994
85-10
(vote #45)

 

H.Amdt. 424 to
H.R. 3759

Frank amendment deleting $1.2 billion for peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance in Haiti, Bosnia, Somalia, and Iraq.

Rejected in House
February 3, 1994
158-260
(vote #8)

 

S.Amdt. 1453 to
H.R. 3759

Feingold amendment eliminating $1.2 billion for peacekeeping operations in Haiti, Bosnia, Somalia, and Iraq.

Rejected in Senate
February 10, 1994
19-76
(vote #40)

 

H.R. 4301
National Defense Authorization Act for FY1995

House engrossed measure did not include the Goss amendment.

Measure passed House
June 9, 1994
260-158
(vote #226)

 

H.Amdt. 575 to H.R. 4301

Substitute amendment to the Goss amendment (see below) sought to express the sense of Congress that the U.S. should not attack Haiti except in a case of a clear and present danger.

Rejected in House
May 24, 1994
191-236
(vote #196)

 

H.Amdt. 574 to
H.R. 4301

Goss amendment expressing sense of Congress that the United States with the Organization of American States (OAS) and the United Nations should establish a safe haven for Haitian refugees on Ile de la Gonâve; establish legitimate Haitian administration to govern; the President should not undertake any military action against Haiti unless it presents a clear and present danger to the United States.

Agreed to in House
May 24, 1994
223-201
(vote #197)

 

H.Amdt. 574 to
H.R. 4301

Separate vote at request of Dellums on the amendment offered by Goss, previously voted on at roll call vote #197 above.

Rejected in House
June 9, 1994
195-226
(vote #224)

 

H.R. 4426
(P.L. 103-306)
Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations for FY1995

Mitchell amendment (S.Amdt. 2118) was included in the Senate engrossed version of the bill. The conference agreement on the Act removed the Senate language (H. Rept. 103-633).

Measure passed Senate
July 15, 1994
84-9
(vote #203)

 

S.Amdt. 2117 to H.R. 4426

Gregg amendment to prohibit military action in Haiti unless the operations are authorized in advance by Congress or necessary to protect U.S. citizens for national security interests.

Rejected in Senate
June 29, 1994
34-65
(vote #172)

 

S.Amdt. 2118 to H.R. 4426

Mitchell amendment expressing sense of Congress that Congress should authorize all U.S. military operations in Haiti unless U.S. citizens are in immediate need of protection or the President reports that such deployment is justified by U.S. national security.

Agreed to in Senate
June 29, 1994
93-4
(vote #173)

 

H.R. 4624
(P.L. 103-327)
Department of Veterans Affairs Appropriations for FY1995

 

Measure passed Senate
August 4, 1994
86-9
(vote #262)

 

S.Amdt. 2445 to H.R. 4624

Dole amendment expressing sense of Senate that United Nations Security Council Resolution 940 did not constitute authorization for deployment of U.S. forces in Haiti under the Constitution or the War Powers Resolution.

Agreed to in Senate
August 3, 1994
100-0
(vote #254)

 

H.R. 4606
{P.L. 103-333)
Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations for FY1995

McCain motion to kill Specter amendment (S.Amdt. 2460) barring the President from deploying U.S. troops to restore legitimately elected Haitian government unless authorized by Congress, unless vital to national security interests, or to protect lives of U.S. citizens.

Agreed to in Senate
August 5, 1994
63-31
(vote #263)

 

H.Con.Res. 290

Concurrent resolution commending the President and the special delegation to Haiti; supporting U.S. Armed Forces in Haiti; supporting an orderly withdrawal of U.S. forces as soon as possible.

Measure agreed to in House
September 19, 1994
353-45
(vote #424)

 

S.Res. 259

Resolution expressing sense of the Senate supporting U.S. forces in Haiti; commending the special delegation led by former President Carter; supporting lifting of economic sanctions on Haiti; supporting prompt and orderly withdrawal of all U.S. forces.

Measure agreed to in Senate
September 21, 1994
94-5
(vote #301)

 

S.J.Res. 229
(P.L. 103-423)
Joint resolution regarding United States policy toward Haiti

Joint resolution expressing sense of Congress for a prompt and orderly withdrawal of all U.S. forces from Haiti as soon as possible; requires President to submit reports to Congress on the scope and duration of U.S. mission in Haiti.

Measure passed Senate
October 6, 1994
91-8
(vote #323)

Measure passed House
October 7, 1994
(voice vote)

 

H.J.Res. 416
Limited Authorization for the United States-led Force in Haiti Resolution

Joint resolution expressing sense of Congress that all U.S. troops should be promptly and orderly withdrawn from Haiti as soon as possible; President should have sought congressional approval before deployment of troops; requires the President to submit statement of national security objectives of Operation Uphold Democracy within seven days of enactment.

Measure passed House
October 7, 1994
236-182
(vote #500)

 

H.Amdt. 922 to H.J.Res. 416

Gilman amendment expressing sense of Congress that President should not have ordered U.S. troops to occupy Haiti and should immediately begin the "safe and orderly withdrawal" of all U.S. forces; provides for consideration of joint resolution to be introduced January 3, 1995, which if enacted, would prohibit continued use of U.S. troops in Haiti within 30 days.

Rejected in House
October 6, 1994
205-225
(vote #497)

 

H.Amdt. 923 to H.J.Res. 416

Dellums amendment expressing sense of Congress that all U.S. troops should be promptly and orderly withdrawn from Haiti; President should have sought congressional approval before deploying troops; requires President to submit to Congress within seven days of enactment a statement on national security objectives of Operation Uphold Democracy and other reports on situation there.

Agreed to in House
October 6, 1994
258-167
(vote #498)

 

H.Amdt. 924 to H.J.Res. 416

Torricelli amendment authorizing the presence of U.S. troops in Haiti until March 1, 1995, unless President determines and certifies to Congress that continued presence is essential to protect U.S. citizens or vital to national security interests.

Rejected in House
October 7, 1994
27-398
(vote #499)

Bosnia (1992-1998)

The civil war in the former Yugoslav Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina resulted in U.S. military participation in various efforts over several years to halt the fighting. The United States participated in both United Nations and NATO actions without explicit congressional authorization. Beginning in 1992, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 770, which called on all nations to take "all measures necessary" to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance to Sarajevo. On August 11, 1992, the Senate passed S.Res. 330, which urged the President to work for such a resolution and pledged funds for participation, but also said that no U.S. military personnel should be introduced into hostilities without clearly defined objectives.

On the same day, the House passed H.Res. 554, which urged the Security Council to authorize measures, including the use of force, to ensure humanitarian relief. As the conflict in Bosnia continued and escalated over the next several years, U.S. troops were sent to participate in NATO and United Nations peacekeeping missions. Consequently, leaders in Congress began calling for greater congressional involvement in decisions.

In 1994, for example, the Senate passed S. 2042, which called for the United States to end unilaterally its arms embargo with Bosnia; the Senate also passed an amendment to S. 2042 which stated that no ground combat troops should be deployed to Bosnia unless previously authorized by Congress. The House did not act on the measure. With the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement for Bosnia on December 14, 1995, NATO took over the ground operation from UNPROFOR (United Nations Protection Force). Consequently, in late 1995, over 20,000 U.S. combat troops were sent to Bosnia as part of the NATO-led peacekeeping force. In December 1995, Congress considered and voted on a number of bills and resolutions, but the House and Senate could not come to consensus on any single measure. In 1996, President Clinton agreed to provide up to 8,500 ground troops to participate in the NATO-led follow-on force in Bosnia termed the Stabilization Force (SFOR).

Subsequent efforts by both the House and Senate to require the President to either limit funding for the Bosnia operations or to bring the troops home did not succeed. On March 18, 1998, for example, the House defeated by a vote of 193-225 H.Con.Res. 227, which would have directed the President to remove U.S. Armed Forces from the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, pursuant to Section 5(c) of the War Powers Resolution.

On July 22, 2002, President Bush reported to Congress that U.S. Armed Forces contributions to SFOR in Bosnia-Herzegovina were approximately 2,400 personnel. U.S. troops ended their mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina when SFOR was replaced by the European Union Force (EUFOR Althea) in 2004. The following table includes legislation of what was introduced and voted on during the 102nd Congress-105th Congresses (1992-1998).

Related CRS products

CRS Report R45691, Bosnia and Herzegovina: Background and U.S. Policy, by Sarah E. Garding

[Archived] CRS Report RS21774, Bosnia and the European Union Military Force (EUFOR): Post-NATO Peacekeeping, by Julie Kim.

[Archived] CRS Report 96-723, Bosnia Implementation Force (IFOR) and Stabilization Force (SFOR): Activities of the 104th Congress, by Julie Kim.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

102nd

S.Res. 330

Expresses the sense of the Senate that the President should call upon the United Nations to authorize all means, including multinational military action, to ensure the flow of humanitarian relief in Bosnia-Herzegovina and to gain access for the U.N. and International Red Cross personnel to refugee and war camps.

Measure agreed to in Senate
August 11, 1992
74-22
(vote #186)

 

S.Amdt. 2925 to S.Res. 330

Warner amendment to express the Senate's support for the six measures that President Bush said on August 6 that the Administration was taking to help resolve the Balkan Crisis.

Agreed to in Senate
August 10, 1992
90-5
(vote #184)

 

S.Amdt. 2929 to S.Res. 330

Stevens amendment to express the sense of the Senate that the United States will provide necessary funds for U.S. participation in humanitarian and multilateral military action in Bosnia-Herzegovina as mandated by the United Nations.

Agreed to in Senate
August 11, 1992
82-13
(vote #185)

103rd

H.R. 3116
(P.L. 103-139)
Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1994

Making appropriations for the Department of Defense for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1994. Includes Mitchell amendment as Section 8146.

Measure passed House
September 30, 1993
325-102
(vote #480)

Senate agreed to conference report
November 10, 1993
88-9
(vote #368)

 

S.Amdt. 1073 to H.R. 3116

Mitchell amendment to express the sense of Congress that none of the funds in the bill should be used to deploy U.S. troops in Bosnia-Herzegovina unless authorized by Congress, except for humanitarian missions started before October 20, 1993.

Agreed to in Senate
October 20, 1993
99-1
(vote #320)

 

S. 2042

A bill to remove the United States arms embargo of the government of Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Measure passed Senate
May 12, 1994
(voice vote)

 

S.Amdt. 1696

to S. 2042

Mitchell amendment "to direct the President to seek the immediate agreement of NATO allies to terminate the arms embargo against Bosnia-Herzegovina, direct the President to seek a U.N. Security Council resolution to terminate the arms embargo and ... authorize U.S. air power to implement NATO exclusion zones and to protect U.N. forces, but prohibit the deployment of U.S. ground combat forces without congressional authorization."

Agreed to in Senate
May 10, 1994
50-49
(vote #110)

103rd

S.Amdt. 1695

to S. 2042

Dole amendment to require the President to terminate the U.S. arms embargo of Bosnia-Herzegovina upon receipt of a request from that government for assistance in its right of self-defense and to prohibit interference with the transfer of conventional arms by the executive branch. The amendment also states that nothing in the amendment shall be interpreted as an authorization for the deployment of U.S. forces.

Agreed to in Senate
May 12, 1994
50-49
(vote #111)

104th

H.R. 2076
Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1996

Making appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and related agencies for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1996, and for other purposes. Gregg amendment included in enrolled bill as Section 409.

Measure passed House
July 26, 1995
272-151
(vote #585)

Measure passed Senate
September 29, 1995
(voice vote)

House adopted conference report
December 6, 1995
256-166
(vote #841)

Senate adopted conference report
December 7, 1995
50-48
(vote #591)

Vetoed by President
December 19, 1995

House failed to override veto
January 3, 1996
240-159
(vote #4)

104th

S.Amdt. 2842 to H.R. 2076

Gregg amendment to express the sense of the Senate that U.S. troops should not be deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina unless Congress approves the deployment or the temporary deployment as necessary to evacuate U.N. peacekeeping forces from imminent danger, to undertake air rescue operations, or to provide humanitarian supplies.

Agreed to in Senate
September 29, 1995
94-2
(vote #479)

 

H.Res. 247

"Expresses the sense of the House of Representatives to the deployment of the United States armed forces on the ground in the territory of the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina to enforce a peace agreement. Gilman motion to suspend the rules and adopt the resolution ... that a successful outcome for the Bosnia peace talks should not assume the deployment of U.S. troops, and that any deployment should be authorized by Congress."

Measure agreed to in House
October 30, 1995
315-103
(vote #745)

 

H.R. 2606

To prohibit the use of funds appropriated to the Department of Defense from being used for the deployment on the ground of U.S. Armed Forces in the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina as part of any peacekeeping operations, or as part of any implementation force, unless funds for such deployment are specifically appropriated by law.

Measure passed House
November 17, 1995
243-171
(vote #814)

Measure rejected in Senate
December 13, 1995
22-77
(vote #601)

 

H.R. 2770

To prohibit federal funds from being used for the deployment on the ground of U.S. Armed Forces in the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina as part of any peacekeeping operations, or as part of any implementation force.

Measure rejected in House
December 13, 1995
210-218
(vote #856)

 

H.Res. 302

Relating to the deployment of the U.S. Armed Forces in and around the territory of the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina to enforce the peace agreement between the parties to the conflict. "Declares that the House has serious concerns and opposes the President's policy to deploy U.S. ground troops to Bosnia ... and that the U.S. government should be impartial and evenhanded with all parties in the Bosnian conflict as necessary to ensure the safety of U.S. troops."

Measure agreed to in House
December 13, 1995
287-141
(vote #857)

 

S.Con.Res. 35

A concurrent resolution expressing the opposition of the Congress to President Clinton's planned deployment of United States ground forces to Bosnia while also expressing congressional support for the U.S. troops ordered by the President to help implement the Bosnia peace agreement.

Measure rejected in Senate
December 13, 1995
47-52
(vote #602)

 

H.Res. 306

Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that while some Members of Congress have questions and concerns about the deployment of U.S. Armed Forces to Bosnia, the House unequivocally supports the men and women of the U.S. Armed Forces who are serving there.

Measure rejected in House
December 14, 1995
190-237
(vote #858)

104th

S.J.Res. 44

A joint resolution expressing support for U.S. troops in Bosnia, but expressing reservations about the deployment of such troops. The measure would also limit the deployment to "approximately" one year and require the President to limit the use of U.S. troops in Bosnia to the enforcement of the military provisions of the peace agreement and provide an exit strategy from Bosnia that would include an international effort to achieve a military balance in Bosnia by arming the federation of Bosnia.

Measure passed Senate
December 14, 1995
69-30
(vote #603)

105th

H.R. 1119
(P.L. 105-85)
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998

"An act to authorize appropriations for FY1998 for military activities of the Department of Defense ... and for other purposes."

Conferees included agreed provisions on Bosnia-Herzegovina as Subtitle A of Title XII. Text of Buyer amendment was not included as adopted by the House.

Measure passed House,
June 25, 1997
304-120
(vote #236)

Measure passed Senate
July 11, 1997
(unanimous consent)

House adopted conference report
October 28, 1997
286-123
(vote #534)

Senate adopted conference report
November 6, 1997
90-10
(vote #296)

105th

H.Amdt. 204 to H.R. 1119

Hilleary substitute amendment to the Buyer amendment to prohibit the obligation of funds for ground deployment of U.S. troops in Bosnia after December 31, 1997, unless the President submits a report to Congress requesting an extension of funding. The Hilleary amendment would require the extension to be approved by a joint resolution of Congress and would permit deployment for an additional 180 days or until June 30, 1998.

[Appears as Amendment No. 9, printed in Part 1 of H.Rept. 105-137]

Rejected in House
June 24, 1997
196-231
(vote #233)

 

H.Amdt. 203 to H.R. 1119

Buyer amendment to prohibit funding for U.S. ground troops in Bosnia after June 30, 1998.

[Appears as Amendment No. 8, printed in Part 1 of H.Rept. 105-137]

Agreed to in House
June 24, 1997
278-148
(vote #234)

 

S. 936
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998

Expresses the sense of Congress that U.S. troops "should not participate in a follow-on force in Bosnia and Herzegovina after June 1998."

Measure passed Senate
July 11, 1997
94-4
(vote #173)

105th

H.R. 2266
(P.L. 105-56)
Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1998

Making appropriations for the Department of Defense for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1998, and for other purposes. Section 8132 of the enrolled bill/conference report would cut off funding for U.S. troops in Bosnia after June 30, 1998, but would permit the President to request further funding.

Provision was not affected by line item veto.

Measure passed House
July 29, 1997
322-105
(vote #338)

Measure passed Senate
July 29, 1997
(unanimous consent)

House agreed to conference report
September 25, 1997
56-65
(vote #442)

Senate agreed to conference report
September 25, 1997
93-5
(vote #258)

Became P.L. 105-56
October 8, 1997

Line item veto by the President
October 21, 1997

 

H.Con.Res. 227
Bosnia and Herzegovina U.S. Troop Removal bill

Directed the President, pursuant to Section 5(c) of the War Powers Resolution, to remove U.S. Armed Forces from the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Measure rejected in House
March 18, 1998
193-225
(vote #58)

 

S.Amdt. 2316 to Treaty 105-36
Protocols to the NATO Treaty of 1949 on Accession of Poland, Hungary, and Czech Republic

Craig amendment to add language to the resolution of ratification that would require Congress and the President to enact legislation specifically authorizing the continued deployment of U.S. troops in Bosnia before the United States ratifies the NATO expansion treaty.

Rejected in Senate
April 30, 1998
20-80
(vote #110)

105th

S.Amdt. 2328 to Treaty 105-36
Protocols to the NATO Treaty of 1949 on Accession of Poland, Hungary, and Czech Republic

B. Smith amendment to add language to the resolution of ratification that would require both houses of Congress to vote on legislation, prior to ratification of NATO expansion, that would authorize continued U.S. troop deployments to Bosnia.

Rejected in Senate
April 30, 1998
16-83
(vote #116)

 

H.R. 3616
(P.L. 105-261)
Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999

Frank motion to recommit the bill to the National Security Committee with instructions to report it back with an amendment that no funds appropriated for the Department of Defense for FY1999 may be used for the deployment of U.S. Armed Forces in the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina after December 31, 1998, unless a law has been enacted that explicitly authorizes the deployment of such Armed Forces.

Rejected in House
May 21, 1998
167-251
(vote #182)

 

S. 2057
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999

"An original bill to authorize appropriations for FY1999 for military activities of the Department of Defense ... and for other purposes."

Includes amended version of Thurmond amendment.

Measure passed Senate
June 25, 1998
88-4
(vote #181)

 

S.Amdt. 2975 to S. 2057

Thurmond amendment to express the sense of Congress that U.S. ground forces should not remain in Bosnia indefinitely, and that the President should work with NATO to withdraw U.S. forces "within a reasonable period of time."

Agreed to in Senate
June 24, 1998
90-5
(vote #170)

105th

S. 2132
Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1999

"An original bill making appropriations for the Department of Defense for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1999 ... and for other purposes."

Indefinitely postponed in the Senate
July 30, 1998
(unanimous consent)

 

 

McCain motion to table (kill) the Hutchison amendment (S.Amdt. 3413) that would require the President to reduce U.S. combat forces in Bosnia to 6,500 by February 2, 1999, and by 5,000 by October 1, 1999.

Agreed to in Senate
July 30, 1998
68-31
(vote #249)

Kosovo (1999)

On March 24, 1999, President Clinton ordered U.S. military forces to begin air strikes against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) in cooperation with the NATO-led operation. The strike was ordered in response to Yugoslavia's campaign of violence against ethnic Albanians in the province of Kosovo. On June 3, 1999, Yugoslavia agreed to a peace plan calling for withdrawal of Yugoslav forces from Kosovo to include an international peacekeeping force. On June 10, 1999, NATO air strikes were halted, and Yugoslav forces withdrew their military forces from Kosovo by June 20, 1999.

Congress, while not authorizing directly, and in advance, this military action, introduced and voted on several legislative measures related to deployment of U.S. military forces for combat or peacekeeping in the Balkan region. The House adopted H.Con.Res. 42 on March 11, 1999, which authorized the President to send troops as peacekeepers; the Senate passed a non-binding resolution (S.Con.Res. 21) on March 23, 1999, that expressed the sense of Congress that the President was authorized to conduct military air operations in cooperation with NATO allies against Yugoslavia. However, the House later defeated the Senate resolution, on April 28, 1999. Other House or Senate votes sent conflicting signals in addressing funding related to troop deployments in the region, declaration of war issues, and executive and congressional roles in sending U.S. military forces abroad. The following legislation is representative of what was introduced and voted on in the 106th Congress.

Related CRS products

CRS Insight IN11180, Kosovo's Election: Early Results May Signal Major Changes, by Sarah E. Garding.

[Archived] CRS Report R44979, Kosovo: Background and U.S. Relations, by Vincent L. Morelli.

[Archived] CRS Report R44955, Serbia: Background and U.S. Relations, by Vincent L. Morelli and Sarah E. Garding.

[Archived] CRS Report RL31053, Kosovo and U.S. Policy: Background to Independence, by Julie Kim and Steven Woehrel.

[Archived] CRS Report RL30127, Kosovo Conflict Chronology: September 1998-March 1999, by Julie Kim.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

106th

H.Res. 103

Provides for consideration of the concurrent resolution, H.Con.Res. 42, regarding the use of U.S. Armed Forces as part of a NATO peacekeeping operation implementing a Kosovo peace agreement. Motion to order the previous question (thus ending debate and the possibility of amendment) on adoption of H.Res. 103.

Measure agreed to in House
March 11, 1999
218-201
(vote #46)

 

H.Con.Res. 42
Peacekeeping Operations in Kosovo Resolution

A concurrent resolution authorizing the President to deploy U.S. Armed Forces personnel to Kosovo as part of a NATO peacekeeping operation implementing a Kosovo peace agreement, subject to certain limitations.

Measure agreed to in House
March 11, 1999
219-191
(vote #49)

 

H.Amdt. 25 to
H.Con.Res. 42

Fowler amendment to limit the deployment of U.S. Armed Forces to Kosovo and to not authorize the President to deploy ground forces as part of a NATO peacekeeping operation.

Rejected in House
March 11, 1999
178-237
(vote #48)

 

S. 544
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1999

An original bill making emergency supplemental appropriations and rescissions for recovery from natural disasters, and foreign assistance, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1999, and for other purposes. March 23, 1999: Cloture motion (thus limiting debate) on the Lott amendment (S.Amdt. 124) to the Hutchison amendment (S.Amdt. 81) to prohibit the use of funds for military operations in Yugoslavia unless Congress enacts specific authorizations in law for the conduct of those operations.

Cloture motion rejected in Senate
March 23, 1999
55-44
(vote #55)

Measure passed Senate
March 23, 1999
(voice vote)

106th

S.Con.Res. 21

A concurrent resolution authorizing the President of the United States to conduct military air operations and missile strikes against Yugoslavia.

Measure agreed to in Senate
March 23, 1999
58-41
(vote #57)

Measure rejected in House
April 28, 1999
213-213
(vote #103)

 

H.Res. 130

Expresses the support of the House of Representatives for the members of the U.S. Armed Forces who are engaged in military operations against Yugoslavia.

Measure agreed to in House
March 24, 1999
424-1
(vote #71)

 

H.R. 1141
(P.L. 106-31)
1999 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act

A bill making emergency supplemental appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1999, and for other purposes—provides $15 billion for Central American humanitarian relief, aid to Jordan, U.S. farmer assistance, and U.S. military and humanitarian operations in the Balkans.

Measure passed House
March 24, 1999
220-211
(vote #70)

Measure passed Senate, as amended, in lieu of S. 544
March 24, 1999
(voice vote)

House adopted conference report
May 18, 1999
269-158
(vote #133)

Senate adopted conference report
May 20, 1999
64-36
(vote #136)

106th

H.Res. 151

Provides for consideration of the bill (H.R. 1569) to prohibit the use of funds appropriated to the Department of Defense from being used for the deployment of ground elements of the U.S. Armed Forces in Yugoslavia unless that deployment is specifically authorized by law; for consideration of the concurrent resolution (H.Con.Res. 82) directing the President, pursuant to Section 5(c) of the War Powers Resolution, to remove U.S. Armed Forces from their positions in connection with the present operations against Yugoslavia; for consideration of the joint resolution (H.J.Res. 44) declaring a state of war between the United States and the Government of Yugoslavia; and for consideration of the concurrent resolution (S.Con.Res. 21) authorizing the President of the United States to conduct military air operations and missile strikes against Yugoslavia.

Measure agreed to in House
April 28, 1999
213-210
(vote #99)

 

H.R. 1569
Military Operations in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Limitation Act of 1999

A bill to prohibit the use of funds appropriated to the Department of Defense from being used for the deployment of ground elements of the U.S. Armed Forces in Yugoslavia unless that deployment is specifically authorized by law.

Measure passed House
April 28, 1999
249-180
(vote #100)

 

H.Con.Res. 82

A concurrent resolution directing the President, pursuant to Section 5(c) of the War Powers Resolution, to remove U.S. Armed Forces from their positions in connection with the present operations against Yugoslavia.

Measure rejected in House
April 28, 1999
139-290
(vote #101)

 

H.J.Res. 44

A joint resolution declaring a state of war between the United States and the government of Yugoslavia.

Measure rejected in House
April 28, 1999
2-427
(vote #102)

 

S.J.Res. 20

A joint resolution authorizing the President to use all necessary force and other means, in concert with the U.S. allies, to accomplish U.S. and NATO objectives in Yugoslavia.

Motion to table agreed to in Senate
May 4, 1999
78-22
(vote #98)

 

H.Res. 159

"Provides for consideration of the bill (H.R. 1664) making emergency supplemental appropriations for military operations, refugee relief, and humanitarian assistance relating to the conflict in Kosovo ... for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1999, and for other purposes."

Measure agreed to in House
May 6, 1999
253-171
(vote #116)

 

H.R. 1664
(P.L. 106-51)
Kosovo Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill

"A bill (as introduced) making emergency supplemental appropriations for military operations, refugee relief, and humanitarian assistance relating to the conflict in Kosovo ... for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1999, and for other purposes—provided $13.1 billion relating to Kosovo operations and other purposes (Kosovo-related supplemental funding was ultimately removed from this legislation and included in H.R. 1141)."

Measure passed House as amended
May 6, 1999
311-105
(vote #120)

 

H.Amdt. 68 to H.R. 1664

Obey amendment to provide the President's funding request for military operations in Kosovo, etc.

Rejected in House
May 6, 1999
164-260
(vote #118)

 

H.Amdt. 76 to H.R. 1664

Istook amendment to prohibit funding for the implementation of any plan to invade Yugoslavia with ground forces, except in time of war.

Rejected in House
May 6, 1999
117-301
(vote #119)

106th

S. 1059
(P.L. 106-65)
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000

"An original bill to authorize appropriations for FY2000 for military activities of the Department of Defense ... and for other purposes."

Measure passed Senate as amended
May 27, 1999
92-3
(vote #154)

Measure passed House, in lieu of H.R. 1401
June 14, 1999
(voice vote)

House adopted conference report
September 15, 1999
375-45
(vote #424)

Senate adopted conference report
September 22, 1999
(voice vote)

 

S.Amdt. 383 to

S. 1059

Specter amendment to direct the President, pursuant to the U.S. Constitution and the War Powers Resolution, to seek approval from Congress prior to the introduction of ground troops from the U.S. Armed Forces in connection with the present operations against Yugoslavia or funding for that operation will not be authorized.

Motion to table agreed to in Senate
May 25, 1999
52-48
(vote #145)

 

S.Amdt. 406 to

S. 1059

B. Smith amendment to prohibit, effective October 1, 1999, the use of funds for military operations in Yugoslavia unless Congress enacts specific authorization in law for the conduct of those operations.

Motion to table agreed to in Senate
May 26, 1999
77-21
(vote #151)

 

H.R. 1401
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000

"A bill to authorize appropriations for fiscal years 2000 and 2001 for military activities of the Department of Defense ... and for other purposes."

Measure passed House
June 10, 1999
365-58
(vote #191)

106th

H.Amdt. 160 to H.R. 1401

Souder amendment to prohibit any FY2000 funding for military operations in Yugoslavia.

Rejected in House
June 10, 1999
97-328
(vote #187)

 

H.Amdt. 161 to H.R. 1401

Skelton amendment to delete language which prohibits any funding for combat or peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia after September 30, 1999; retains language which requires the President to request supplemental appropriations in order to conduct combat or peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.

Agreed to in House
June 10, 1999
270-155
(vote #189)

Terrorist Attack against the United States Legislation (2001-Present)

On September 11, 2001, terrorists attacked the United States with a coordinated series of aircraft hijackings and suicide crashes into populated buildings. Two airplanes crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, causing their complete destruction. Another airplane crashed into the Pentagon near Washington, DC, and a fourth airplane crashed in southwestern Pennsylvania (near Shanksville) after passengers attempted to take control of the aircraft in order to prevent it from crashing into an important symbol of democracy and freedom, perhaps in the Washington, DC, area. Over 3,000 people lost their lives in these terrorist attacks.

Consequently, on September 14, 2001, Congress passed a joint resolution, which "authorizes the President to use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations, or persons." It further states that the act is intended to constitute specific statutory authorization within the meaning of the War Powers Resolution. President George W. Bush signed the joint resolution into law on September 18, 2001. On October 9, 2001, President Bush reported in a letter to Congress that U.S. Armed Forces had begun combat action in Afghanistan against the Al Qaeda terrorists and their Taliban supporters starting at 12:30 p.m. (EDT) on October 7, 2001.

Related CRS products

CRS Report R43983, 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force: Issues Concerning Its Continued Application, by Matthew C. Weed.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

107th

H.J.Res. 64
Authorization for Use of Military Force

Joint resolution to authorize the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the recent (September 11, 2001) attacks launched against the United States.

Measure passed House
September 14, 2001
420-1
(vote #342), House laid on the table, September 14, 2001

 

H.R. 3338

(P.L. 107-117)

Department of Defense and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States Act, 2002

Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2002—Appropriates funds for FY 2002 for the Department of Defense (DOD); and Emergency Supplemental Act, 2002—Appropriates funds for FY 2002 for emergency expenses to respond to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States.

Measure passed House November 28, 2001

406-20 (vote #458),

December 7, 2001 passed/agreed in Senate by voice vote

December 20, 2001 Conference report agreed to in House

408-6 (Vote # 510) and agreed to the Senate 94-4 (vote # 380)

January 10, 2002 signed into law

 

S.J.Res. 23
(P.L. 107-40)

Joint resolution to authorize the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the recent (September 11, 2001) attacks launched against the United States.

Measure passed Senate
September 14, 2001
98-0
(vote #281), House passed without objection, September 14, 2001

115th

S.Amdt. 871 to S.Amdt. 1003 to H.R. 2810

National Defense Authorization Act, FY 2018

Paul amendment would repeal the Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF) of 2001, P.L. 107-40.

Motion to table S.Amdt. 871 agreed to by yea-nay vote

61-36

(vote #195)

Use of Force against Iraq (2002-2003)

On October 10, 2002, after several days of debate, the House passed H.J.Res. 114, which authorized the use of military force against Iraq. The Senate had considered its own measure, S.J.Res. 45, beginning on October 3, but indefinitely postponed it, and instead passed H.J.Res. 114 on October 11, 2002. As enacted into law, the joint resolution provides authorization for the use of military force against Iraq and expresses support for the President's efforts to

(1) strictly enforce through the United Nations Security Council all relevant Security Council resolutions regarding Iraq; and

(2) obtain prompt and decisive action by the Security Council to ensure that Iraq abandons its strategy of delay, evasion, and noncompliance and promptly and strictly complies with all relevant Security Council resolutions.

In addition, it authorizes the President to use the U.S. Armed Forces to (1) defend U.S. national security against the continuing threat posed by Iraq; and (2) enforce all relevant Security Council resolutions regarding Iraq. It directs the President, prior to or as soon as possible (but no later than 48 hours) after exercising such authority, to make available to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President pro tempore of the Senate his determination that

(1) reliance on further diplomatic or peaceful means alone will not achieve the above purposes; and

(2) acting pursuant to this joint resolution is consistent with the United States and other countries continuing to take necessary actions against international terrorists and terrorist organizations, including those who planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

It declares that this section is intended to constitute specific statutory authorization for use of the Armed Forces, consistent with the requirements of the War Powers Resolution. Finally, it requires the President to report to Congress at least every 60 days on matters relevant to this resolution.

The war with Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom) began on March 19, 2003, with an aerial attack against a location where Iraqi President Saddam Hussein was suspected to be meeting with top Iraqi officials. U.S. and British troops entered Iraq on March 20, 2003, and while the invasion encountered resistance, particularly in its early stages, U.S. forces had largely gained control of Baghdad by April 9, 2003. The northern cities of Kirkuk and Mosul fell shortly afterward, and on April 14, 2003, U.S. troops entered Tikrit, Saddam's birthplace and the last major population center outside coalition control. On April 15, 2003, President George W. Bush declared that "the regime of Saddam Hussein is no more."

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

107th

H.J.Res. 114 (P.L. 107-243)

Joint resolution to authorize the use of United States Armed Forces against Iraq.

Measure passed House
October 10, 2002
296-133
(vote #455)

Measure passed Senate
October 11, 2002
77-23
(vote #237)

 

H.Amdt. 608 to H.J.Res. 114

B. Lee amendment that would urge the President to work through the United Nations to ensure that Iraq is not developing weapons of mass destruction, and to urge the use of peaceful means to resolve the issue, including the resumption of weapons inspections.

Rejected in House
October 10, 2002
72-355
(vote #452)

107th

H.Amdt. 609 to H.J.Res. 114

Spratt amendment to authorize the U.S. military to support any new U.N. Security Council resolution that orders the elimination, by force if required, of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, long-range missiles, and the means of producing such weapons. The President would be required to seek congressional authority before using military force against Iraq without such a U.N. resolution.

Rejected in House
October 10, 2002
155-270
(vote #453)

 

 

Kucinich motion to recommit the bill to the House International Relations Committee with instructions that it be reported back with language that would require the President, prior to the use of force, to report to Congress on the effect of war with Iraq, including estimates of its impact on the U.S. economy, Iraqi citizens, and international stability.

Rejected in House
October 10, 2002
101-325
(vote #454)

 

S.J.Res. 45

Joint resolution to authorize the use of United States Armed Forces against Iraq.

Indefinitely postponed by Senate
October 11, 2002
(unanimous consent)

 

 

McCain motion to table the Graham amendment (S.Amdt. 4857) to the Lieberman substitute amendment (S.Amdt. 4856). The Graham amendment would authorize the use of force against Iraq and five terrorist organizations. It would require the Administration to report to Congress that diplomatic options have been exhausted no later than 48 hours after action has begun. The President would be required to report to Congress at least every 60 days.

Agreed to in Senate
October 9, 2002
88-1
(vote #231)

107th

S.Amdt. 4869 to S.J.Res. 45

Byrd amendment to the Lieberman substitute amendment (S.Amdt. 4856). The Byrd amendment would provide for the termination of congressional authorization of the use of force 12 months after the resolution's enactment, unless the President certifies that an extension is necessary and Congress does not pass a joint resolution disapproving of the extension.

Rejected in Senate
October 10, 2002
31-6
(vote #232)

 

 

Motion to invoke cloture (thus limiting debate) on the Lieberman substitute amendment (S.Amdt. 4856) that would authorize the use of force against Iraq and require the Administration to report to Congress that diplomatic options have been exhausted no later than 48 hours after military action has begun. The President also would be required to submit a progress report to Congress at least every 60 days.

Agreed to in Senate
October 10, 2002
75-25
(vote #233)

 

S.Amdt. 4868 to S.J.Res. 45

Byrd amendment to the Lieberman substitute amendment (S.Amdt. 4856). The Byrd amendment would clarify that any authorization of the use of force against Iraq would not alter the constitutional authority of Congress to declare war. It also would clarify that no additional authority not directly related to a clear threat of imminent, sudden, and direct attack on the United States be granted to the President unless Congress authorizes it.

Rejected in Senate
October 10, 2002
14-86
(vote #234)

107th

S.Amdt. 4862 to S.J.Res. 45

Levin amendment to the Lieberman substitute amendment (S.Amdt. 4856). The Levin amendment would authorize the use of force against Iraq if it failed to comply with a new U.N. resolution that demanded unrestricted access for U.N. weapons inspectors in Iraq and authorized the use of military force by U.N. members to enforce the resolution. Congress could return to session at any time to promptly consider proposals related to Iraq if the U.N. failed to adopt such a resolution.

Rejected in Senate
October 10, 2002
24-75
(vote #235)

 

S.Amdt. 4865 to S.J.Res. 45

Durbin amendment to the Lieberman substitute amendment (S.Amdt. 4856). The Durbin amendment would authorize the use of military force to cover an "imminent threat" by Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, rather than a "continuing threat" by Iraq.

Rejected in Senate
October 10, 2002
30-70
(vote #236)

108th

S.Res. 95

A resolution commending the President and the Armed Forces of the United States of America in the conflict against Iraq.

Measure agreed to in Senate
March 20, 2003
99-0
(vote #61)

 

H.Con.Res. 104

A concurrent resolution expressing the support and appreciation of the nation for the President and the members of the Armed Forces who are participating in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Measure agreed to in House
March 21, 2003
392-11
(vote #83)

115th

S.Amdt. 871 to S.Amdt. 1003 to H.R. 2810

National Defense Authorization Act, FY 2018

Paul amendment would repeal the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) against Iraq, P.L. 107-243.

Motion to table S.Amdt. 871 agreed to by yea-nay vote

61-36

(vote #195)

War in Iraq and Afghanistan (2001-present)

U.S. military operations against Al Qaeda and Taliban forces in Afghanistan proceeded pursuant to the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force from October 2001 onward. U.S. military operations in Iraq proceeded pursuant to the 2002 Authorization for Use of Military Force in Iraq from March 2003 onward. On March 25, 2003, President George W. Bush requested $74.8 billion in the FY2003 Emergency Supplemental for the ongoing military operations in Iraq, postwar occupation, reconstruction and relief in Iraq, and international assistance to countries contributing to the war in Iraq or the global war on terrorism. The cost of the continued U.S. presence in Afghanistan and additional funds for homeland security were also included. H.R. 1559, enacted into law as P.L. 108-11 on April 16, 2003, provided $78.49 billion in funding for these purposes. The Senate passed H.R. 1559 in lieu of its version, S. 762, by unanimous consent.

On September 17, 2003, President Bush formally requested an additional $87 billion for the ongoing military operations and for reconstruction assistance in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere. H.R. 3289 (FY2004 supplemental appropriations for Iraq, Afghanistan, and the global war on terrorism) was enacted into law as P.L. 108-106 on November 6, 2003, providing $87.5 billion in funding. The House approved the conference agreement by a roll call vote on October 31, 2003, and the Senate approved the conference agreement by voice vote on November 3, 2003. Earlier, on October 17, 2003, the Senate had approved its own version of the measure, S. 1689, but vitiated its passage and returned the bill to the Senate Calendar.

Related CRS products

CRS Report R45025, Iraq: Background and U.S. Policy, by Christopher M. Blanchard.

CRS Report R45818, Afghanistan: Background and U.S. Policy, by Clayton Thomas

CRS In Focus IF10604, Al Qaeda and Islamic State Affiliates in Afghanistan, by Clayton Thomas

[Archived] CRS Report R41070, Al Qaeda and Affiliates: Historical Perspective, Global Presence, and Implications for U.S. Policy, coordinated by John W. Rollins.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

108th

H.R. 1559
(P.L. 108-11)
Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2003

A bill making emergency wartime supplemental appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2003, and for other purposes.

Measure passed House
April 3, 2003
414-12
(vote #108)

Measure passed Senate in lieu of S. 762
April 7, 2003
(unanimous consent)

House adopted conference report April 12, 2003
(voice vote)

Senate adopted conference report April 12, 2003
(unanimous consent)

 

S. 762
Supplemental Appropriations Act to Support Department of Defense Operations in Iraq for Fiscal Year 2003

An original bill making supplemental appropriations to support Department of Defense operations in Iraq, Department of Homeland Security, and related efforts for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2003, and for other purposes.

Measure passed Senate
April 3, 2003
93-0
(vote #125)

 

 

Cochran motion to table the Hollings amendment (S.Amdt. 479) that would express the sense of the Senate that the President should submit a report to the Senate Finance Committee on a plan to raise revenues to offset the funds in the bill spent on the war with Iraq.

Motion agreed to in Senate
April 3, 2003
79-18
(vote #121)

 

S.Amdt. 455 to S. 762

Kohl amendment to appropriate $600 million for food assistance to the people of Iraq.

Note: H.R. 1559 (P.L. 108-11) appropriated $369 million for this purpose.

Agreed to in Senate
April 3, 2003
67-26
(vote #124)

 

H.R. 3289
(P.L. 108-106)

Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense and for the Reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan, 2004

A bill making emergency supplemental appropriations for defense and for the reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2004, and for other purposes.

Measure passed House
October 17, 2003
303-125
(vote #562)

Measure passed Senate with an amendment
October 17, 2003
(unanimous consent)

House adopted conference report
October 31, 2003
298-121
(vote #601)

Senate adopted conference report
November 3, 2003
(voice vote)

 

H.Amdt. 409 to H.R. 3289

Obey amendment to require that half of all reconstruction aid to Iraq be in the form of loans.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole
October 16, 2003
200-226
(vote #546)

108th

H.Amdt. 407 to H.R. 3289

Obey amendment to transfer $3.6 billion in Iraq reconstruction funds for quality of life enhancements for U.S. service members.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole
October 16, 2003
209-216
(vote #547)

 

H.Amdt. 410 to H.R. 3289

Waxman amendment to reduce Iraqi funding in the bill for the importation into Iraq of petroleum products by $250 million.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole
October 16, 2003
197-224
(vote #548)

 

H.Amdt. 411 to H.R. 3289

Kirk amendment to strike the provision of the bill that would allow noncompetitive contracts to be reported to Congress seven days after the contract has been awarded in certain circumstances; executive agencies would be required to inform Congress of "no-bid" contracts before they are offered.

Agreed to in Committee of the Whole
October 16, 2003
405-20
(vote #549)

 

H.Amdt. 415 to H.R. 3289

Holt amendment to strike $900 million from the bill for importing petroleum products into Iraq.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole
October 16, 2003
169-256
(vote #551)

 

H.Amdt. 421 to H.R. 3289

Sanchez amendment to bar the Secretary of Defense from carrying out military construction projects in excess of $1.5 million outside Iraq without prior notification to Congress.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole
October 16, 2003
128-295
(vote #552)

 

H.Amdt. 422 to H.R. 3289

Kind amendment to reduce reconstruction funds for Iraq in the bill by 50%.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole
October 17, 2003
156-267, 1 Present
(vote #553)

 

H.Amdt. 423 to H.R. 3289

Stupak amendment to increase military pay in the bill by $265 million to cover $1,500 bonuses for each service member in Iraq and Afghanistan in FY2004.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole
October 17, 2003
213-213
(vote #554)

 

H.Amdt. 431 to H.R. 3289

Sherman amendment to require normal competitive bidding procedures for all government contracts relating to Iraq's oil infrastructure.

Agreed to in Committee of the Whole
October 17, 2003
248-179
(vote #557)

108th

H.R. 3289

Obey motion to instruct House conferees to insist on provisions in the Senate bill that would structure $10 billion of the $20.3 billion in reconstruction aid to Iraq in the form of loans subject to certain conditions (and for other purposes).

Motion agreed to in House
October 21, 2003
277-139
(vote #567)

 

H.R. 3289

Obey motion to recommit the conference report to the conference committee with instructions that it be reported back to the House with provisions that would put half the reconstruction aid to Iraq in the form of loans (and for other purposes).

Motion rejected in the House
October 31, 2003
198-221
(vote #600)

 

S. 1689
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Iraq and Afghanistan Security and Reconstruction Act, 2004

An original bill making emergency supplemental appropriations for Iraq and Afghanistan security and reconstruction for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2004, and for other purposes.

Measure passed Senate
October 17, 2003
87-12
(vote #400)

 

S.Amdt. 1794 to

S. 1689

Byrd amendment to eliminate $15.2 billion of the $20.3 billion allocated for Iraqi reconstruction efforts. The remaining $5.1 billion would be used for security, including public safety requirement, national security, and justice purposes.

Rejected in Senate
October 1, 2003
38-59
(vote #371)

 

S.Amdt. 1795 to

S. 1689

McConnell amendment to express the sense of the Senate thanking U.S. troops serving in Iraq and Afghanistan and extending condolences to the families of those who have been killed or injured.

Agreed to in Senate
October 2, 2003
98-1
(vote #372)

 

S. 1689

Stevens motion to table the Biden amendment (S.Amdt. 1796) that would offset Iraqi reconstruction costs by eliminating income tax cuts enacted in 2001 for the top 1% of earners.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 2, 2003
57-42
(vote #373)

 

 

Stevens motion to table the Leahy amendment (S.Amdt. 1803) that would remove the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq from Defense Department control and place it under the jurisdiction of the State Department within 60 days after the bill's enactment.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 2, 2003
56-42
(vote #374)

 

Stevens motion to table the Dodd amendment (S.Amdt. 1817) that would add $322 million to the bill's spending on battlefield clearance and safety equipment for U.S. troops in Iraq. The money would be offset by a reduction in Iraqi reconstruction funds.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 2, 2003
49-37
(vote #376)

108th

 

Division I of the Bingaman amendment (S.Amdt. 1830) that would authorize the Defense Department to award the Iraqi Liberation Medal to any person who served in any capacity in the Armed Forces in Southwest Asia in connection with "Operation Iraqi Freedom."

Rejected in Senate
October 14, 2003
47-48
(vote #378)

 

 

Stevens motion to table the Stabenow amendment (S.Amdt. 1823) that would reduce the amount provided for Iraqi reconstruction by $5.03 billion and redirect that funding for domestic programs. Also would express the sense of the Senate that Congress should consider an additional $5.03 billion in funding for Iraqi reconstruction during the fiscal 2005 budget and appropriations process.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 14, 2003
59-35
(vote #379)

 

 

Stevens motion to table the Dorgan amendment (S.Amdt. 1826) that would strike $20.3 billion in appropriations for Iraqi reconstruction funds and require the President to direct the head of the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq to establish an Iraq Reconstruction Finance Authority.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 14, 2003
57-39
(vote #380)

 

 

Stevens motion to table the Reed amendment (S.Amdt. 1834) that would authorize an additional 10,000 in Army personnel. Additional personnel would be required to be trained, incorporated into an appropriate force structure, and used for constabulary duty such as military police and light infantry. It would also require that $409 million be made available from the Iraqi Freedom Fund to fund the additional personnel.

Motion rejected in Senate
October 14, 2003
45-52
(vote #382)

 

S.Amdt. 1846 to

S. 1689

Byrd amendment to require the Coalition Provisional Authority to report to Congress quarterly on the costs related to reconstruction activities and the revenue provided by foreign nations and international organizations. It would also require the Comptroller General to conduct an ongoing audit of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) to evaluate the reconstruction and security activities in Iraq. (Title II of H.R. 3289 [P.L. 108-106] established the CPA Office of Inspector General).

Agreed to in Senate
October 15, 2003
97-0
(vote #383)

108th

S.Amdt. 1806 to

S. 1689

Graham amendment to express the sense of Congress that the removal of the government of Iraq under Saddam Hussein has enhanced the security of Israel and other U.S. allies. It was not included in the final measure, H.R. 3289.

Agreed to in Senate
October 15, 2003
95-2
(vote #384)

 

S. 1689

Stevens motion to table the Byrd amendment (S.Amdt. 1818) that would appropriate $5.1 billion in security funding immediately and up to $5 billion for Iraqi reconstruction funding before April 1. The remaining $10.2 billion in reconstruction funding could be released after April 1 as part of a separate appropriations bill—but only if the United Nations had adopted a new resolution authorizing a multinational military force under U.S. leadership in Iraq, with U.N. leadership in political and economic reconstruction. The President would also be required to provide a detailed reconstruction plan that includes an estimated schedule for the transfer of sovereignty to the Iraqi people and the withdrawal of troops.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 16, 2003
57-42
(vote #385)

 

 

Stevens motion to table the Lautenberg amendment (S.Amdt. 1868) that would prohibit the use of Iraqi reconstruction funds for any contact or financial agreement with an entity that pays deferred compensation to the President, Vice President, or a Cabinet-level official, or any entity in which the President, Vice President, or Cabinet-level official holds options to purchase more than 1,000 shares of stock.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 16, 2003
65-34
(vote #386)

 

S.Amdt. 1874 to

S. 1689

McConnell amendment to express the sense of the Senate that the Secretary of Defense should issue necessary regulations to implement and begin awarding the Global War on Terrorism Medal to members of the Armed Forces serving in Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Noble Eagle.

Agreed to in Senate
October 16, 2003
97-1
(vote #387)

 

S.Amdt. 1876 to

S. 1689

Nickles amendment to express the sense of the Senate that all countries that hold debt from loans for the former Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein should be urged to forgive their debt. (Section 2215(b) of H.R. 3289 [P.L. 108-106] includes reporting requirements on Iraqi debt).

Agreed to in Senate
October 16, 2003
98-0
(vote #388)

108th

S.Amdt. 1871 to

S. 1689

Bayh amendment to provide a total of $10.3 billion as a grant to rebuild Iraq, including $5.1 billion for security and $5.2 billion for reconstruction costs. The remaining $10 billion would be structured as a loan to be converted to a grant if 90% of all bilateral debt incurred by the former Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein has been forgiven by other countries (and for other related purposes).

Conferees did not include the measure in the conference report on H.R. 3289 [P.L. 108-106].

Agreed to in Senate
October 16, 2003
51-47
(vote #389)

S.Amdt. 1837 to

S. 1689

Durbin amendment to require that a federal employee who takes leave without pay in order to perform certain service as a member of the uniformed service or the National Guard, be reimbursed for the difference between their salary and the pay and allowances they receive while on duty.

Agreed to in Senate
October 17, 2003
96-3
(vote #390)

 

S. 1689

Stevens motion to table the Daschle amendment (S.Amdt. 1854) that would require the President to certify that future appropriations which exceed the amount in the bill are equal to or exceeded by contributions by the international community. The requirement could be waived if the President provides a report to Congress that determines the funding is in the national security interests of the United States.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 17, 2003
55-44
(vote #391)

 

 

Stevens motion to table the Landrieu amendment (S.Amdt. 1859) that would require the President to direct the head of the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq to establish an Iraq Reconstruction Finance Authority. The Authority would be required to obtain financing for the reconstruction of Iraq's infrastructure through the issuance of securities and loans and by collateralizing future revenue from its oil reserves.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 17, 2003
52-47
(vote #392)

 

S.Amdt. 1843

to S. 1689

Boxer amendment to reimburse service members who paid for meals while hospitalized as a result of injuries or illness while in combat or training since September 11, 2001.

Agreed to in Senate
October 17, 2003
99-0
(vote #393)

 

S. 1689

Stevens motion to table the Corzine amendment (S.Amdt. 1882) that would establish a 12-member independent, bipartisan commission to examine and report on the role of policy makers in the development and use of intelligence related to Iraq and Operation Iraqi Freedom. The amendment would authorize $5 million for the commission.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 17, 2003
67-32
(vote #395)

108th

 

Stevens motion to table the Byrd amendment (S.Amdt. 1819) that would limit the use of reconstruction funds for certain programs and projects, reduce reconstruction funding by $1.65 billion, and reallocate the funds to other purposes, such as destroying conventional weapons in Iraq and accelerating reconstruction in Afghanistan.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 17, 2003
51-47
(vote #396)

 

Stevens motion to table the Byrd amendment (S.Amdt. 1886) that would prohibit the use of funds in the bill for the involuntary deployment overseas for Operation Iraqi Freedom of members of the National Guard and Reserves who have been involuntarily deployed for six months or more during the past six years.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 17, 2003
82-15
(vote #397)

 

 

Stevens motion to table the Byrd amendment (S.Amdt. 1888) that would strike a provision in the bill that allows the President to reallocate funds for the reconstruction of Iraq and insert a provision that would require the President to seek additional funding in subsequent appropriations bills.

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 17, 2003
49-46
(vote #398)

 

 

Stevens motion to table the Brownback amendment (S.Amdt. 1885) that would decrease the amount in the bill for Iraqi reconstruction by $600 million and increase the amount available to the Iraqi Civil Defense Corps by $50 million (and for other purposes).

Motion agreed to in Senate
October 17, 2003
55-43
(vote #399)

 

H.Res. 557

Commends the members of the U.S. Armed Forces and Coalition forces for liberating Iraq and expresses its gratitude for their valiant service.

Agreed to in House
March 17, 2004
327-93, 7 Present (vote #64)

 

H.Res. 627

Expresses deep appreciation to the members of the Armed Forces who have selflessly served, or are so serving, in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Agreed to in House
May 6, 2004
365-50
(vote #150)

 

S. 2400
(P.L. 108-375)
Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005.

Authorizes the Secretary, during FY2005 through 2009, to increase as necessary by up to 30,000 the end strength authorized for the Army to support the Army's operational mission in Iraq and Afghanistan and to achieve Army transformational reorganization objectives. Requires a fiscal year's budget to be amended to reflect any such increase. Authorizes supplemental appropriations of $25 billion for the Department of Defense for FY2005, to be available only for activities in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Allocates such funds among specified military department and defense-wide accounts. Allows such authorization only to the extent that a budget request is transmitted from the President to Congress that includes a designation of the requested amount as an emergency and essential to support activities in such countries. Provides certain transfer authority limits. Directs the Secretary to report monthly to the defense and appropriations committees on the use of such authorized funds.

Measure passed Senate
June 23, 2004
97-0
(vote #146)

108th

S.Amdt. 3260

to S. 2400

Warner amendment to authorize to be appropriated for the Department of Defense for FY2005, $25 billion, to be available only for activities in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Agreed to in Senate
June 2, 2004
95-0
(vote #106)

 

S.Amdt. 3379

to S. 2400

Biden amendment to provide funds for the security and stabilization of Iraq by suspending a portion of the reduction in the highest income tax rate for individual taxpayers.

Rejected by Senate
June 17, 2004
44-53
(vote #130)

 

H.Res. 691

Expresses gratitude to the U.S. Armed Forces for their ongoing valiant service to their country; offers continued support to the U.S. Armed Forces; and reaffirms that the U.S. Armed Forces operating in Iraq after June 30, 2004, will remain under the full authority and control of their American commanders.

Measure agreed to in House
June 25, 2004
352-57
(vote #319)

 

H.R. 4613
(P.L. 108-287)
Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2005.

Appropriates additional funds, to be designated for overseas contingency operations, to the Department of Defense for military personnel, operation and maintenance, and procurement (including National Guard and reserve equipment).

Byrd amendment (S.Amdt. 3502) included as Section 8135.

Measure passed House
June 25, 2004
410-12
(vote #418)

Measure passed Senate
July 22, 2004
96-0
(vote #163)

 

S.Amdt. 3502 to H.R. 4613

Byrd amendment to express the sense of the Senate that any request for funds for a fiscal year for an ongoing military operation overseas, including operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, should be included in the annual budget of the President; and that any funds provided for such a military operation should be provided in appropriations Acts for such fiscal year through appropriations to specific accounts set forth in such acts.

Agreed to in Senate
June 24, 2004
89-9
(vote #147)

 

H.R. 4200
(P.L. 108-375)
Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005

Authorizes the Secretary of Defense, during FY2005 through 2009, to increase, by up to 30,000 for the Army and 9,000 for the Marine Corps, the end strength authorized to support operational missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. Authorizes, during FY2005, the use of up to $300 million from the Department of Defense O&M funds to provide funds for the Commanders' Emergency Response Program for enabling military commanders in Iraq to respond to urgent humanitarian relief and reconstruction requirements, and for a similar program to assist the people of Afghanistan.

Measure passed House
October 9, 2004
359-14
(vote #528)

109th

H.R. 1268
(P.L. 109-13)
FY2005 Supplemental Appropriations for Iraq and Afghanistan, Tsunami Relief, and Other Activities.

Provides funds for ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Expresses the sense of the Senate that (1) any request for funds for a fiscal year after 2006 for an ongoing military operation overseas, including those in Afghanistan and Iraq, should be included in the annual budget of the President submitted to Congress; (2) the President should submit to Congress an amendment to the 2006 budget setting forth detailed cost estimates for such operations; and (3) any funds for such purposes should be provided in appropriations Acts through appropriations to specific accounts. Requires additional information concerning such operations, including Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, to be included in reports required under both the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense and for the Reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan, 2004, and the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2005.

Includes Byrd amendment (S.Amdt. 464) as Section 1024, expressing sense of the Senate.

Conference report adopted by House
May 5, 2005
368-58, 1 Present
(vote #161)

Conference report adopted by Senate
May 10, 2005
100-0
(vote #117)

 

S.Amdt. 464 to H.R. 1268

Byrd amendment that states that it is the sense of the Senate that any request for funds for a fiscal year after FY2006 for an ongoing military operation overseas, including operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, should be included in the President's annual budget.

Agreed to in the Senate
April 18, 2005
61-31
(vote #96)

109th

H.Amdt. 214 to H.R. 1815

National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006

Woolsey amendment to express the sense of Congress that the President should develop a plan for the withdrawal of U.S. military forces from Iraq and submit this plan to the congressional defense committees.

Rejected in House
May 25, 2005
128-300
(vote #220)

 

H.Res. 383

Commends U.S. and coalition forces for liberating the Iraqi people from the repressive regime of Saddam Hussein and for their ongoing efforts in support of Iraq's freedom and stability.

Measure agreed to in House
July 27, 2005
426-0
(vote #438)

 

S. 1042
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006

Authorizes emergency supplemental appropriations to the Department of Defense for FY2006 for operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the global war on terrorism.

Measure passed Senate
November 15, 2005
98-0
(vote #326)

 

S.Amdt. 2518 to S. 1042

Warner amendment to clarify and recommend changes to the policy of the United States on Iraq. States that calendar year 2006 should be a period of significant transition to full Iraqi sovereignty, with Iraqi security forces taking the lead for the security of a free and sovereign Iraq, thereby creating the conditions for the phased redeployment of United States forces from Iraq, and that United States military forces should not stay in Iraq any longer than required.

Amendment was amended in conference (see H.Rept. 109-360) and included as Section 1227 of H.R. 1815 (P.L. 109-163).

Agreed to in Senate
November 15, 2005
79-19
(vote #323)

 

S.Amdt. 2519 to S. 1042

Levin amendment to clarify and recommend changes to the policy of the United States on Iraq. States that calendar year 2006 should be a period of significant transition to full Iraqi sovereignty, with Iraqi security forces taking the lead for the security of a free and sovereign Iraq, thereby creating the conditions for the phased redeployment of United States forces from Iraq, and that United States military forces should not stay in Iraq indefinitely.

Rejected in Senate
November 15, 2005
40-58
(vote #322)

 

H.Res. 571

Expresses the sense of the House of Representatives that the deployment of U.S. forces in Iraq be terminated immediately.

Measure rejected in House
November 18, 2005

3-403, 6 Present
(vote #608)

 

H.Res. 612

Expresses the commitment of the House of Representatives to achieving victory in Iraq.

Measure agreed to in House
December 16, 2005 279-109, 34 Present
(vote #648)

109th

H.R. 2863
Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2006

Appropriates additional funds, to be designated for contingency operations related to the global war on terrorism. Authorizes amounts for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan to be used for the purchase of heavy and light armored vehicles. Allows O&M funds appropriated in this title to be used to provide supplies, services, transportation, and other logistical support to coalition forces supporting military and stability operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Measure agreed to in House
December 19, 2005
308-106, 2 Present
(vote #669)

Measure agreed to in Senate
December 21, 2005
93-0
(vote #366)

 

H.R. 4939
(P.L. 109-234)
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Hurricane Recovery, 2006

Prohibits the use of funds under this title to establish permanent U.S. military bases in Iraq, or to exercise U.S. control over Iraqi oil infrastructure or resources. (§1204)

Makes emergency supplemental appropriations to the Department of Defense for: military personnel; operation and maintenance; the Afghanistan Security Forces Fund; the Iraq Security Forces Fund; the Iraq Freedom Fund; the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Fund; procurement; research, development, test and evaluation.

Expresses the sense of the Senate that (1) any request for funds for a fiscal year after 2007 for ongoing military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq should be included in the annual budget of the President submitted to Congress; (2) such request should include a detailed justification of anticipated uses of the funds; and (3) any funds provided in a fiscal year for ongoing military operations overseas should be provided in appropriations Acts through appropriations to specific accounts. (§1313)

Measure passed House
March 16, 2006
348-71
(vote #65)

Measure passed Senate
May 4, 2006
77-21
(vote #112)

House adopted conference report
June 13, 2006
351-67
(vote #257)

Senate adopted conference report
June 15, 2006
98-1
(vote #171)

 

H.R. 5122
(P.L. 109-364)
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007

Title XV authorizes estimated future emergency supplemental appropriations for the Department of Defense for FY2007 to provide funds for additional costs due to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

Measure passed House
May 11, 2006
396-31
(vote #145)

Measure passed Senate (with amendment)
June 22, 2006
(unanimous consent)

Conference report adopted by House
September 29, 2006
398-23
(vote #510)

Conference report adopted by Senate
September 30, 2006
(unanimous consent)

109th

H.R. 5631
(P.L. 109-289)
Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2007

Title IX authorizes the Secretary of Defense to use specified Operations & Maintenance funds to support U.S. military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Measure passed House
June 20, 2006
407-19
(vote #305)

Measure passed Senate (amended)
September 7, 2006
98-0
(vote #239)

Conference report adopted by House
September 26, 2006
394-22
(vote #486)

Conference report adopted by Senate
September 29, 2006
100-0
(vote #261)

 

H.Res. 861

Declares that it is not in the national security interest of the United States to set an arbitrary date for withdrawal or redeployment of United States Armed Forces from Iraq.

Measure agreed to in House
June 16, 2006
256-153
(vote #288)

 

S.Amdt. 4320

to S. 2766
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007

Levin amendment expressing the sense of Congress that the President should begin phased redeployment of United States forces from Iraq in 2006.

Rejected in Senate
June 22, 2006
39-60
(vote #182)

 

S.Amdt. 4442

to S. 2766
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007

Kerry amendment to require the redeployment of United States Armed Forces from Iraq by July 1, 2007.

Rejected in Senate
June 22, 2006
13-86
(vote #181)

110th

H.R. 1
Implementing the 9/11 Commission Recommendations Act of 2007

(§1441) Declares that it shall be the policy of the United States to vigorously support the government of Afghanistan by providing increased assistance and the continued deployment of United States troops as long as the Afghan government supports such United States involvement.

Measure agreed to in House
January 9, 2007
299-128
(vote #15)

 

S.Con.Res. 2

Expresses the sense of Congress that it is not in the U.S. national interest to deepen its military involvement in Iraq, particularly by increasing the U.S. military presence in Iraq.

Failure to invoke cloture in Senate
February 1, 2007
0-97
(vote #43)

110th

S. 470

Expresses the sense of Congress that the Senate disagrees with the plan to augment our forces in Iraq by 21,500 and that Congress should not take any action that will endanger U.S. military forces in the field.

Failure to invoke cloture in Senate February 5, 2007
49-47
(vote #44)

H.Con.Res. 63

Disapproving of the decision of the President announced on January 10, 2007, to deploy more than 20,000 additional United States combat troop to Iraq.

Measure agreed to in House
February 16, 2007
246-182
(vote #99)

 

S. 574

Expresses the sense of Congress that Congress and the American people will continue to support and protect U.S. Armed Forces members who are serving in Iraq; Congress disapproves of President Bush's decision announced on January 10, 2007, to deploy over 20,000 additional U.S. combat troops to Iraq.

Failure to invoke cloture in Senate
February 17, 2007
56-34
(vote #51)

 

S.J.Res. 9

Directs the President to begin the phased redeployment of U.S. forces from Iraq within 120 days of enactment of this joint resolution with the goal of redeploying by March 31, 2008, all U.S. combat forces from Iraq.

Measure rejected in Senate
March 15, 2007
48-50
(vote #75)

 

S.Res. 107

Declares that the President and Congress should not take any action that will endanger U.S. Armed Forces; and will provide necessary funds for training, equipment, and other support for troops in the field.

Measure agreed to in Senate
March 15, 2007
96-2
(vote #76)

 

S.Con.Res. 20

Expresses the sense of Congress that Congress should not take any action that will endanger U.S. military forces in the field, including the elimination or reduction of funds for troops in the field.

Agreed to in Senate
March 15, 2007
82-16
(vote #77)

H.R. 1591
U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007

Makes emergency supplemental appropriations for the Department of Defense for FY2007 for contingency operations directly related to the global war on terror.

Prohibits any funds from being obligated or expended by the U.S. government to establish any military installation or base for the permanent stationing of U.S. Armed Forces in Iraq.

Prohibits funds from being used to deploy any unit of the Armed Forces to Iraq unless the chief of the military department concerned has certified that such unit is fully mission capable.

Prohibits funds from being used to initiate, execute, or continue any order that has the effect of extending the deployment for Operation Iraqi Freedom of any unit of the Army, Army Reserve, or Army National Guard beyond 365 days; or Marine Corps or Marine Corps Reserve beyond 210 days.

Outlines specified determinations, relating to actions of the government of Iraq, which must be made by the President to Congress on or before July 1, 2007. Requires that, if the President fails to make any of the determinations, the Secretary of Defense shall commence the redeployment of U.S. Armed Forces from Iraq no later than such date, with a goal of completing such redeployment within 180 days. Requires that, if the President makes all such determinations, the Secretary shall commence such redeployment no later than October 1, 2007, with a goal of completing that redeployment within 180 days.

Makes funds immediately available to plan and execute a safe and orderly redeployment.

Measure passed House
March 23, 2007
218-212, 1 present
(vote #186)

Measure passed Senate
March 29, 2007
51-47
(vote #126)

Conference report adopted by House
April 25, 2007
218-208, 2 present
(vote #265)

Conference report adopted by Senate
April 26, 2007
51-46
(vote #147)

House failed to override veto
May 2, 2007
222-203, 1 present
(vote #276)

110th

S.Amdt. 643
to H.R. 1591

To strike language that would tie the hands of the Commander-in-Chief by imposing an arbitrary timetable for the withdrawal of U.S. forces from Iraq.

Rejected in Senate
March 27, 2007
48-50
(vote #116)

 

Motion to Instruct House Conferees on H.R. 1591

Motion to instruct House conferees to include language insisting on House-passed provisions concerning redeployment of U.S. troops in Iraq and restrictions on their use in Iraq after redeployment.

Motion agreed to April 19, 2007 215-199 (vote #235)

 

H.R. 2237

Requires the Secretary of Defense to commence the redeployment of U.S. forces deployed in Iraq and prohibits any funds from being used to further deploy U.S. forces to Iraq after completion of the redeployment.

Measure failed of passage in House
May 10, 2007
171-255
(vote #330)

 

H.R. 2206
(P.L. 110-28)
U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007

Makes emergency supplemental appropriations for the Department of Defense for FY2007. Requires the President to direct the orderly redeployment of U.S. forces from Iraq if the components of the Iraqi government reach a consensus directing a redeployment of U.S. Forces. Makes findings regarding progress in Iraq, establishes benchmarks to measure progress, and requires related reports. Prohibits any funds from being obligated or expended by the U.S. government to establish any military installation or base for the permanent stationing of U.S. Armed Forces in Iraq.

Measure passed House
May 10, 2007
221-205
(vote #333)

Measure passed Senate by voice vote
May 17, 2007

Motion to concur in House amendments agreed to in Senate May 24, 2007 80-14 (vote #181)

110th

S.Amdt. 1098 to S.Amdt. 1097, H.R. 1495
Water Resources Development Act of 2007

"The President shall commence the ... redeployment of United States forces from Iraq ... not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act. No funds ... may be obligated or expended to continue the deployment in Iraq of members of the United States Armed Forces after March 31, 2008."

Failure to invoke cloture in Senate
May 16, 2007
29-67
(vote #167)

 

S.Amdt. 1134 to H.R. 1495

Water Resources Development Act of 2007

Requires the President to withhold funding for military operations in Iraq if the Iraqi government fails to meet certain benchmarks. The President could waive the requirement by submitting a written justification to Congress.

Failure to invoke cloture in Senate May 16, 2007 52-44 (vote #168)

 

H.R. 1585
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008

Amends the Warner Act to make permanent the prohibition on the establishment of permanent military installations in Iraq. Authorizes appropriations for the Department of Defense for FY2008 to provide additional funds for Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

Measure passed House
May 17, 2007
397-27
(vote #373)

H.Amdt. 186 to H.R. 1585

Andrews amendment to forbid funds authorized in the bill for the Iraq and Afghanistan wars from being used to plan a contingency operation in Iran.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole May 16, 2007 202-216 (vote #364)

 

H.Amdt. 187 to H.R. 1585

DeFazio amendment stating that no prior law authorizes the use of military force against Iran, and prohibiting the use of funds authorized in the Act or any other law from being used to carry out military action against Iran unless specifically authorized by Congress or in the case of a national emergency caused by an attack by Iran on the United States, its territories or possessions, or its Armed Forces.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole May 16, 2007 136-288 (vote #365)

 

S.Amdt. 2012
to H.R. 1585

To specify minimum periods between deployment of units and members of the Armed Forces for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

Failure to invoke cloture in Senate
July 11, 2007
56-41
(vote #241)

110th

S.Amdt. 2032
to H.R. 1585

To limit the length of deployment of members of the Armed Forced for Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Rejected in Senate
July 11, 2007
52-45
(vote #243)

 

S.Amdt. 2078
to H.R. 1585

To express the sense of Congress that the dwell time between extended operational deployments of members of the Armed Forces should be no less than 12 months for regular forces and no less than 5 years for reserve forces.

Rejected in Senate
July 11, 2007
41-55
(vote #244)

 

S.Amdt. 2087 to H.R. 1585

Amendment would mandate a drawdown and redeployment of U.S. forces in Iraq, with certain exceptions, by the end of April 2008, with redeployment beginning within 120 days of enactment.

Failure to invoke cloture in Senate July 18, 2007 52-47 (vote #252)

 

S.Amdt. 2924 to substitute amendment S.Amdt. 2011 to H.R. 1585

Requires redeployment of most U.S. troops from Iraq beginning within 90 days of enactment, and bars use of funds for deployment of U.S. service members to Iraq after June 30, 2008, with certain exceptions.

Rejected in Senate September 20, 2007 28-70 (vote #345)

 

S.Amdt. 2898 to substitute amendment S.Amdt. 2011 to H.R. 1585

Requires reduction of U.S. forces in Iraq within 90 days of enactment and within nine months of enactment, the transition of U.S. forces in Iraq to a limited presence for certain specified types of missions.

Rejected in Senate September 21, 2007 47-47 (vote #346)

H.R. 2956

Directs the Secretary of Defense to commence the reduction of the number of Armed Forces in Iraq beginning no later than 120 days after the enactment of this Act and complete the reduction and transition to a limited presence in Iraq by no later than April 1, 2008.

Measure passed House
July 12, 2007
223-201
(vote #624)

 

H.R. 2929

Declares that it is the policy of the United States not to establish any military installation or base providing for the permanent stationing of U.S. Armed Forces in Iraq.

Measure passed House
July 25, 2007
399-24
(vote #717)

 

H.R. 3159

Prohibits any unit of the regular Armed Forces from being deployed for Operation Iraqi Freedom unless the period between the most recent previous deployment and a subsequent deployment is equal to or longer than the period of the most recent previous deployment. Expresses the sense of Congress that the optimal minimum period between such deployments should be equal to or longer than twice the period of the most recent previous deployment.

Measure passed House
August 2, 2007
229-194, 3 present
(vote #796)


110th

H.R. 3222
Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2008

(§8103) "None of the funds appropriated or otherwise made available by this or any other Act shall be obligated or expended by the United States Government ... to establish any military installation or base for the purpose of providing for the permanent stationing of United States Armed Forces in Iraq."

(§8106) "Any request for funds for a fiscal year after FY2008 for an ongoing military operation overseas, including operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, shall be included in the annual budget of the President for such fiscal year as submitted to Congress."

Measure passed House
August 5, 2007
395-13
(vote #846)

 

H.R. 3087

A bill to require the Secretary of Defense to submit to the congressional defense committees a report describing the status of planning for redeployment of U.S. forces from Iraq. Report to be due within 60 days of enactment and every 90 days thereafter.

Motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill agreed to in House October 2, 2007

377-46 (vote #927)

H.R. 4156

Iraq War Supplemental Appropriations

A provision would require U.S. troops to begin withdrawing from Iraq within 30 days of enactment and most troops to be withdrawn by December 15, 2008.

Motion to recommit the bill to committee with instructions it be reported back immediately after striking troop withdrawal provisions rejected in House November 14, 2007 192-231 (vote #1107)

Measure passed House November 14, 2007 218-203, 1 present (vote #1108)

Failure to invoke cloture in Senate November 16, 2007 53-45 (vote #411)

 

S.Amdt 3875 to S.Amdt. 3874 to H.R. 2764

Omnibus Appropriations for FY2008

Amendment 3875 would require phased redeployment of U.S. troops from Iraq within 90 days after enactment and bar use of funds for deployment nine months after enactment, with certain specified exceptions. Amendment 3874 would replace the $31 billion in funding for the Afghanistan war included in the bill with $70 billion available for unrestricted use in conducting the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

By unanimous consent, it was agreed to raise the majority requirement for adoption of the amendment to 60 votes. Amendment 3875 was subsequently withdrawn.

S.Amdt. 3874 agreed to in Senate

December 18, 2007

70-25

(vote #439)

S.Amdt. 3875 subsequently rejected in Senate

December 18, 2007, 24-71 (vote #437)

110th

S.Amdt. 3876 to S.Amdt. 3874 to H.R. 2764

Omnibus Appropriations for FY2008

Amendment 3876 expressed the sense of Congress that the missions of U.S. Armed Forces in Iraq should be of a more limited nature, with the goal of transition to full Iraqi control by the end of 2008. Amendment 3874 would replace the $31 billion in funding for the Afghanistan war included in the bill with $70 billion available for unrestricted use in conducting the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

By unanimous consent, it was agreed to raise the majority requirement for adoption of the amendment to 60 votes. Amendment 3876 was subsequently withdrawn.

Rejected in Senate December 18, 2007 50-45 (vote #438)

S. 2633

Troop Redeployment from Iraq

Motion to invoke cloture on S. 2633, a bill forbidding the use of funds for deployment of U.S. troops in Iraq, with specified exceptions, 120 days after enactment.

Motion agreed to February 26, 2008 70-24

(vote #33)

Motion to proceed to consideration subsequently withdrawn

 

H.R. 2642

Supplemental Appropriations

P.L. 110-252

Motion to concur in the Senate amendments with House amendment no. 2. Would require withdrawal of troops from Iraq within 30 days of enactment, with a goal of full withdrawal of combat troops by December 2009. Would require Congress to authorize any U.S.-Iraqi agreement committing U.S. forces. Would prohibit deployment of any units not rated as fully mission-capable, subject to Presidential waiver. Would prohibit interrogation techniques not authorized in the Army Field Manual, and would prohibit establishment of a permanent base in Iraq.

Motion agreed to in House May 15, 2008 227-196

(vote #329)

 

H.R. 2642

Supplemental Appropriations

P.L. 110-252

Motion to concur in the House amendments to the Senate amendment to the House amendments to the Senate amendment to the bill making supplemental appropriations for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, which included a provision barring the establishment of permanent U.S. bases in Iraq.

Motion agreed to in Senate, clearing the bill for the President June 26, 2008 92-6 (vote #162)

111th

Note: From the 111th Congress forward, votes on simple funding or authorization for overseas contingency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have not been included.

H.Amdt. 262 to H.R. 2647

National Defense Authorization Act for FY2010

McGovern amendment to require the Defense Department to submit a report to Congress no later than December 31, 2009, presenting an exit strategy for U.S. Armed Forces conducting the war in Afghanistan.

Amendment rejected in the Committee of the Whole June 25, 2009 138-278 (vote #453)

111th

H. Con Res. 248

Afghanistan Troop Withdrawal

Concurrent resolution would direct the President to withdraw U.S. forces from Afghanistan within 30 days of adoption, or by December 31, 2010, if the President determines that withdrawal within 30 days cannot be safely accomplished.

Rejected in the House March 10, 2010 65-356 (vote #98)

 

Motion to concur in Senate amendments to H.R. 4899 with House amendments

Supplemental Appropriations

Fourth portion of a divided question, consisting of a House amendment that would limit military funding for Afghanistan to activities related to the protection and safe withdrawal of U.S. troops and civilian and military personnel.

Motion rejected in the House July 1, 2010 100-321 (vote #432)

 

Motion to concur in Senate amendments to H.R. 4899 with House amendments

Supplemental Appropriations

Fifth portion of a divided question, consisting of a House amendment to require the President to present a new National Intelligence Estimate on Afghanistan to Congress by January 31, 2011, and also a plan for the redeployment of U.S. forces from Afghanistan by April 4, 2011.

Motion rejected in the House July 1, 2010 162-260 (vote #433)

 

H. Con. Res. 301

Pakistan Troop Withdrawal

Concurrent resolution would direct the President to remove U.S. Armed Forces from Pakistan within 30 days of adoption, or by December 31st, 2010, if the President determines that this could not be accomplished safely within 30 days.

Rejected in the House July 27, 2010 38-372 vote #473)

112th

H.Amdt. 93 to

H.R. 1

Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, 2013

Nadler amendment would require that no more than $10 billion of funds made available in the bill be used for U.S. military operations in Afghanistan.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole February 18, 2011 98-331 (vote #91)

 

H.Amdt. 257 to

H. Con. Res. 34

FY2012 Budget Resolution- Congressional Progressive Caucus substitute

Grijalva substitute amendment assumes the end of emergency supplemental appropriations for overseas contingency operations beginning in 2013, consistent with U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan and Iraq.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole April 15, 2011 77-347 (vote #274)

 

H.Amdt. 327 to H.R. 1540

National Defense Authorization Act for FY2012

Amash amendment would strike that section of the bill that would "affirm" that the U.S. is engaged in armed conflict with al Qaeda, the Taliban, and their associates, and that those forces threated the U.S. and its citizens. Would also affirm the authorization for use of military force in Afghanistan and the authority to detain "belligerents" until hostilities end.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole May 26, 2011 187-234 (vote #361)

112th

H.Amdt. 330 to H.R. 1540

National Defense Authorization Act for FY2012

Chaffetz amendment would require the Secretary of Defense to begin a phased withdrawal of U.S. forces operating in Afghanistan, except for those involved in small, targeted counterterrorism missions. Would require a withdrawal plan to be submitted to Congress by the Secretary within 60 days of enactment.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole May 26, 2011 123-294 (vote #364)

 

H.Amdt. 385 to H.R. 2017

Homeland Security Appropriations for FY2012

Sherman amendment would bar the use of funds in the bill to contravene the War Powers Resolution.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole June 2, 2011 208-213 (vote #394)

 

H.Amdt. 414 to H.R. 2055

Military Construction-VA Appropriations for FY2012

Sherman amendment would bar the use of funds in the bill to contravene the War Powers Resolution

Included as Section 8129 in engrossed version of H.R. 2055 (P.L. 112-74)

Adopted in Committee of the Whole June 13, 2011 248-163 (vote #415)

 

H.Amdt. 525 to H.R. 2219

Defense Appropriations for FY2012

Lee amendment would reduce funding of overseas contingency operations and aid to Afghanistan and Pakistan by $33 billion, with the aim of reducing funding for the war in Afghanistan.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 7, 2011 97-322 (vote #502)

 

H.Amdt. 526 to H.R. 2219

Defense Appropriations for FY2012

Garamendi amendment would reduce funding of overseas contingency operations and aid to Afghanistan and Pakistan by $20.9 billion, with the aim of reducing funding for the war in Afghanistan.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 7, 2011 133-295 (vote #503)

 

H.Amdt. 528 to H.R. 2219

Defense Appropriations for FY2012

Nadler amendment would reduce funding for the Army's maintenance and operations account for overseas contingency operations by $15 million, and increase it by the same amount, with the aim of requiring that at least $15 million be used for insulating forward operating bases in Afghanistan.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 7, 2011 174-251 (vote #504)

 

H.Amdt. 529 to H.R. 2219

Defense Appropriations for FY2012

Poe amendment would direct a $1 billion reduction from a fund to reimburse allies for support in the Afghanistan war. Funds would be transferred to the bill's spending reduction account.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 7, 2011 131-297 (vote #505)

112th

H.Amdt. 530 to H.R. 2219

Defense Appropriations for FY2012

Lee amendment to eliminate the $5 billion in funding for the Overseas Contingency Operation Transfer Fund and move those funds to the bill's spending reduction account.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 7, 2011 114-314 (vote #506)

 

H.Amdt. 553 to H.R. 2219

Defense Appropriations for FY2012

Sherman amendment would prohibit the use of funds in the bill to contravene the War Powers Resolution.

Included as Section 8129 in engrossed version of H.R. 2055 (P.L. 112-74)

Adopted in Committee of the Whole July 7, 2011 316-111 (vote #518)

 

H.Amdt. 567 to H.R. 2219

Defense Appropriations for FY2012

Flake amendment to reduce funding for the Overseas Contingency Operations Transfer Fund by $3.6 billion.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 8, 2011 118-295 (vote #526)

 

S.Amdt. 1064 to S. 1867

National Defense Authorization Act for FY2012

Paul amendment would repeal the 2002 authorization for use of military force against Iraq.

Rejected in Senate November 29, 2011 30-67 (vote #211)

 

S.Amdt. 1274 to S. 1867

National Defense Authorization Act for FY2012

Sessions amendment would clarify that the President retains the option to detain persons captured under authority of the 2001 authorization for use of military force in Afghanistan until the end of the conflict.

Rejected in Senate December 1, 2011 41-59 (vote #217)

 

H.Amdt. 1103 to H.R. 4310

National Defense Authorization Act for FY2013

Lee amendment would limit the use of funds provided for operations in Afghanistan to the purpose of facilitating a safe and orderly withdrawal.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole May 17, 2012 113-303 (vote #264)

 

H.Amdt. 1414 to H.R. 5856

Defense Appropriations for FY2013

Lee amendment would reduce funding for overseas contingency operations by $20.8 billion and would limit the use of funds provided for operations in Afghanistan to the purpose of facilitating a safe and orderly withdrawal. The reductions not apply to Defense Health Program, Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities, Defense, Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Fund, Office of the Inspector General.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 18, 2012 107-312 (vote #485)

 

H.Amdt. 1430 to H.R. 5856

Defense Appropriations for FY2013

Garamendi amendment would reduce funding in the Overseas Contingency Operations account by $12.7 billion, the reductions not to apply to the Afghanistan Security Forces fund, the Defense Health Program, Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities-Defense, Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Fund, or the Office of the Inspector General.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 19, 2012 137-278 (vote #494)

112th

S.Amdt. 3096 to S. 3254

National Defense Authorization Act for FY2013

Merkley amendment would express the sense of Congress that security operations in Afghanistan should be transferred to the Afghan government by mid-summer 2013 and that combat operations by U.S. forces should end no later than December 31, 2014.

Amendment was amended in conference (see H. Rept. 112-705) and included as Section 1226 of H.R. 4310 (P.L. 112-239)

Adopted in Senate November 29, 2012 62-33 (vote #210)

113th

H.Amdt. 34 to H. Con. Res. 25

FY2014 Budget Resolution- Congressional Progressive Caucus Substitute

Grijalva substitute amendment would assume, among other assumptions, the elimination of funding for overseas contingency operations after FY2015.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole March 20, 2013 84-327 (vote #85)

 

H.Amdt. 36 to H. Con. Res. 25

FY2014 Budget Resolution-

House Democratic substitute

Van Hollen substitute amendment would assume, among other assumptions, no funding for overseas contingency operations after FY2014.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole March 20, 2013 165-253 (vote #87)

 

H.Amdt. 149 to H.R. 1960

National Defense Authorization Act for FY2014

McGovern amendment would require that the accelerated transition of combat operations from U.S. forces to the Afghan government be completed no later than the end of 2013, and the accelerate transition of military and security operations by the end of 2014. Also would express the sense of Congress that if the President determines the presence of U.S. troops is necessary in Afghanistan beyond the end of 2014, Congress should vote to authorize such deployment no later than June 2014.

Included with clarifying amendment as Section 1222 of H.R. 3304, P.L. 113-66.

Adopted in the Committee of the Whole June 13, 2013 305-121 (vote #226)

 

H.Amdt. 171 to H.R. 1960

National Defense Authorization Act for FY2014

Van Hollen amendment would reduce the amount authorized for the Overseas Contingency Operations account by $5.04 billion and specify that the savings be used for deficit reduction.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole June 14, 2013 191-232 (vote #240)

 

H.R. 1960

National Defense Authorization Act for FY2014

As amended, contains a provision stating that it is U.S. policy that the President shall transfer combat operations from U.S. forces to Afghanistan by the end of 2013 and complete an accelerated transition of military and security operations by the end of 2014.

Passed the House June 14, 2013 315-108 (vote #244)

 

H.Amdt. 392 to H.R. 2397

Defense Appropriations for FY2014

Mulvaney amendment would reduce the Overseas Contingency Operations account by $3.5 billion. National Guard and Reserve funding would not be affected.

Adopted in Committee of the Whole July 24, 2013 215-206 (vote #403)

113th

H.Amdt. 407 to H.R. 2397

Defense Appropriations for FY2014

Schiff amendment would bar funding from the bill for the use of military force after December 31, 2014, pursuant to the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force (P.L. 107-40).

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 24, 2013 185-236 (vote #410)

 

H.Amdt. 613 to H. Con Res. 96

FY 2015 Budget Resolution- Congressional Black Caucus Substitute

Moore substitute amendment setting budget priorities, including ending spending from the Defense Department Overseas Contingency Operations account.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole April 9, 2014 116-300 (vote #172)

 

H.Amdt. 614 to H. Con. Res. 96

FY 2015 Budget Resolution- Congressional Progressive Caucus Substitute

Grijalva substitute amendment setting budget priorities, including the elimination of funding for Overseas Contingency Operations after FY 2015.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole April 9, 2014 89-327 (vote #173)

H.Amdt. 680 to H.R. 4435

National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2015

Schiff amendment to suspend the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) effective 12 months from the bill's date of enactment

Rejected in Committee of the Whole May 22, 2014 191-233 (vote #237)

 

H.Amdt. 908 to H.R. 4870

National Defense Appropriations Act for FY 2015

Lee amendment to bar the use of any funds for combat operations in Iraq.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole June 19, 2014 165-250 (vote #325)

 

H.Amdt. 912 to H.R. 4870

National Defense Appropriations Act for FY 2015

Lee amendment would prohibit the obligation or expenditure of any funds under the bill pursuant to the 2002 Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution (P.L. 107-243).

Rejected in Committee of the Whole June 19, 2014 182-231 (vote # 326)

 

H.Amdt. 922 to H.R. 4870

National Defense Appropriations Act for FY 2015

Lee (CA) amendment would bar the use of funds for any military operations under the 2001 AUMF after December 31, 2014.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole June 19, 2014 157-260 (vote # 330)

 

H.Amdt. 928 to H.R. 4870

National Defense Appropriations Act for FY 2015

Lee amendment to prohibit use of funds in the bill for combat operations in Afghanistan.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole June 20, 2014 153-260 (vote #332)

 

H. Con. Res. 105

Iraq Combat Prohibition

Vote on resolution to prohibit the President from deploying or maintaining U.S. Armed Forces in a sustained combat mission in Iraq without specific statutory authorization.

Adopted July 25, 2014 370-40 (vote #452)

114th

H.Amdt. 1036 to H.R. 4909

National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2017

Ellison amendment would strike provisions in the bill urging the President to expand the mission in Afghanistan.

Failed on passage

May 18, 2016

131-292

(vote #212)

Revolution and Aftermath in Libya

The 2011 uprising against Libyan dictator Muammar Qadhafi prompted calls for Western military assistance to the rebels, initially in the form of a no-fly zone to prevent regime aircraft from attacking rebel forces and civilians. As the revolt progressed, air strikes were conducted by U.S. and NATO forces against regime targets under Operation Odyssey Dawn and Operation Unified Protector. The Qadhafi government was overthrown and Qadhafi himself was killed, leading to the lifting of strict regime political control in Libya but also to an uncertain security environment in which rival militias competed in the absence of any strong central authority. U.S. military operations began in March 2011 and ended in October 2011. A September 11, 2012, armed attack on a U.S. diplomatic compound in Benghazi, Libya resulted in the deaths of four Americans, including the U.S. ambassador.

Related CRS products

CRS Report RL33142, Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy, by Christopher M. Blanchard.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

112th

H.Amdt. 333 to H.R. 1540

National Defense Authorization Act for FY2012

Conyers amendment would bar the use of funds authorized in the bill from being used to deploy, establish, or maintain U.S. Armed Forces or contractors in Libya unless their purpose is to rescue a servicemember from imminent danger.

Adopted in Committee of the Whole May 26, 2011 416-5 (vote #366)

 

H. Res. 292

Use of Ground Forces in Libya

Resolution would direct the transmission of certain documents to the House and direct the President to submit a report on military activities in Libya within 14 days. It states that no "compelling rationale" for U.S. action in Libya has been provided, that Armed Forces should be used only to defend and advance U.S. national security interests, and that ground forces should not be deployed in Libya unless to rescue servicemembers in imminent danger.

Adopted June 3, 2011 268-145 (vote #411)

 

H. Con. Res. 51

Libya Troop Withdrawal

Would direct the President, pursuant to the War Powers Resolution, to withdraw U.S. forces from Libya within 15 days of adoption.

Rejected June 3, 2011 148-265 (vote #412)

 

H. J. Res. 68

Libya Use of Force Authorization

Provides a one-year authorization for the limited use of military force in support of NATO's mission in Libya. States the opposition of Congress to the presence of U.S. forces on the ground in Libya, except to protect U.S. officials or rescue troops. Directs the President to provide regular briefings and consultation to Congress.

Rejected June 24, 2011 123-295 (vote #493)

112th

H.Amdt. 542 to H.R. 2219

Defense Appropriations for FY2012

Cole amendment would prohibit the use of funds in the bill for training, equipping, advising, or otherwise supporting groups or individuals engaged in military activities in Libya unless they are part of a nation's official armed forces.

Adopted in Committee of the Whole July 7, 2011 225-201 (vote #513)

 

H.Amdt. 543 to H.R. 2219

Defense Appropriations for FY2012

Amash amendment to bar use of funds in the bill to fund the use of military force in Libya.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 7, 2011 199-229 (vote #514)

 

H.Amdt. 544 to H.R. 2219

Defense Appropriations for FY2012

Rigell amendment would bar funds from being used for Operation Odyssey Dawn and Operation Unified Protector.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 7, 2011 176-249 (vote #515)

 

H.Amdt. 555 to H.R. 2219

Defense Appropriations for FY2012

Gohmert amendment would bar the use of funds in the bill to support military operations, including those of NATO and the United Nations, in Libya and Libyan airspace.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 7, 2011 162-265 (vote # 520)

 

H.Amdt. 579 to H.R. 2219

Defense Appropriations for FY2012

Kucinich amendment would bar the use of funds in the bill for military actions in Libya unless they take place under a declaration of war against Libya pursuant to Article I of the Constitution.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole July 8, 2011 169-251 (vote #530)

Uprising and Armed Conflict In Syria

What began as protests, then an internal armed uprising in Syria in 2011 became a broader conflict, with various factions of Syrian rebels and foreign fighters joined in combat with each other as well as with the forces of the Assad regime, itself aided by fighters from outside Syria. In summer 2013 the Obama Administration announced that the U.S. intelligence community had determined "with high confidence" that the Assad regime had used chemical weapons attacks against its own people, resulting in mass casualties. The United States has been providing nonlethal materiel support to selected opposition groups, and a congressionally authorized U.S. train-and-equip program continues. See section below, "Military Action against the Islamic State (ISIS, ISIL)."

Related CRS products

CRS Report RL33487, Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response, coordinated by Carla E. Humud.

CRS In Focus IF11080, Syria Conflict Overview: 2011-2018, by Carla E. Humud.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

113th

116th

H.Amdt. 162 to H.R. 1960

National Defense Authorization Act for FY2014

H. Con. Res. 77

Directing the President pursuant to section 5(c) of the War Powers Resolution to remove United States Armed Forces from hostilities in the Syrian Arab Republic that have not been authorized by Congress.

Gibson amendment to strike a provision in the bill that would express the sense of Congress that the Syrian conflict poses a threat to the national security interests of Israel and that the President should consider options leading to the removal of President Assad and plan for rendering assistance to forces fighting the Assad regime.

Directs the President to remove the Armed Forces from Syria, except for those engaged in operations against al Qaeda or associated forces, unless a declaration of war or specific authorization is enacted.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole June 14, 2013 123-301 (vote #234)

Rule H. Res. 739 passed in the House, which allowed the Rules Committee to discharge H. Con. Res 77 on December 11, 2019

December 4, 2019

(vote #646)

Military Action against the Islamic State (ISIS, ISIL)

One group rose to prominence in the fighting against the Assad regime: the self-proclaimed "Islamic State," also known as ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria) and ISIL (Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant). A lineal descendant or continuation of the insurgent group al-Qaeda in Iraq, some of its senior operatives gained experience fighting American forces in Iraq. Particularly noted for sophisticated online media releases and extremely brutal tactics, the Islamic State in its self-released videos showed numerous massacres and beheadings, including those of a number of captured Westerners. It made significant territorial gains in Syria and also in Iraq, where its forces captured refineries and banks, thereby acquiring a self-financing capacity. The Iraqi military suffered high personnel losses through casualties and desertions, as well as enormous losses of materiel.

After a series of online releases depicting the beheadings of American captives of the Islamic State, and in the wake of the success of the Islamic State campaign in Iraq and Syria, President Obama authorized a program of aid to anti-Islamic State forces, particularly the Iraqi military and the Kurds. In cooperation with a coalition of allies, he ordered air strikes designed to assist Iraqi and Kurdish forces battling the Islamic State and degrade Islamic State military capabilities.

The Islamic State has suffered extensive territorial losses in the combined campaign and today controls far less territory in Syria and Iraq than at the height of its power, but the potential for terrorist acts committed by Islamic State foreign fighters returning to their countries of origin is a matter of concern for antiterrorism and police authorities.

Related CRS products

CRS Report R43612, The Islamic State and U.S. Policy, by Christopher M. Blanchard and Carla E. Humud.

CRS Report R43760, A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals, by Matthew C. Weed.

CRS Report R44135, Coalition Contributions to Countering the Islamic State, by Kathleen J. McInnis.

CRS In Focus IF10604, Al Qaeda and Islamic State Affiliates in Afghanistan, by Clayton Thomas.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

113th

H.Amdt. 1141 to H.J. Res. 124

Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015

McKeon amendment to authorize the training and equipping of "appropriately vetted" Syrian rebel groups to defend against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) attacks. Amendment would bar use of the amendment to justify sending U.S. Armed Forces into hostile situations and would require the President to report to Congress under the War Powers Resolution any use of U.S. Armed Forces abroad. Authority for the training and equipping provisions would expire December 11, 2014, or earlier if replacement defense authorization legislation is enacted.

Adopted September 17, 2014 273-156 (vote #507)

 

H.R. 3979

National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2015

Motion to concur in the Senate amendment to the House amendment to the bill, which includes authorization for the appropriation of an additional $5.1 billion in funding for opposition to the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.3

Motion agreed to December 4, 2014 300-119 (vote #551)

 

H.R. 83

Fiscal Year 2015 Omnibus Appropriations

Motion to concur in the Senate amendment to the bill with a House amendment that includes funding for operations against the Islamic State as well as other counterterrorism operations.

Motion agreed to December 11, 2014 219-206 (vote #563)

 

H.R. 3979

National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2015

Motion to concur in House amendment to Senate amendment to the bill, which authorizes the appropriation of $5.1 billion in funding for opposition to the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.

Motion agreed to December 12, 2014 89-11 (vote #325)

 

H.R. 83

Fiscal Year 2015 Omnibus Appropriations

Motion to concur to the House amendment to the Senate amendment to the bill, which includes funding for operations against the Islamic State, as well as other counterterrorism operations.

Motion agreed to December 13, 2014 56-40 (vote #354)

114th

H.R. 1735

National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2016

Among its provisions, bill authorizes $715 million for aid to Iraqi forces fighting ISIL, but requires that 25 percent of those funds be provided directly to Kurdish Peshmerga and quasi-independent Sunni forces. Also authorizes $600 million for training and equipping Syrian opposition forces.

Not included in final version.

Passed House May 15, 2015 269-151 (vote #239)

 

H. Amdt. 479 to H.R. 2685

Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2016

Schiff amendment would prohibit use of funds for Operation Inherent Resolve against the Islamic State in absence of a law authorizing use of military force against the Islamic State after March 31, 2016.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole

June 11, 2015

196-231

(vote #346)

114th

H. Amdt. 482 to H.R. 2685

Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2016

Lee (CA) amendment would prohibit expenditure or obligation of funds under the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) after December 31, 2015.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole

June 11, 2015

157-270

(vote #347)

 

H. Amdt. 484 to H.R. 2685

Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2016

Lee (CA) amendment would bar use of funds pursuant to the Iraq AUMF of 2002.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole

June 11, 2015

165-264

(vote #348)

 

H. Amdt. 1033 to H.R. 4909

National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2017

Lee amendment to repeal the 2001 AUMF 90 days after enactment of this Act.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole

May 18, 2016

138-285

(vote #210)

 

H. Amdt. 1215 to H.R. 5293

Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2017

McGovern amendment would bar funds for operations of U.S. Armed Forces in Iraq or Syria until enactment of an authorization for the use of military force for such operations.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole

June 16, 2016

135-285

(vote #329)

 

H. Amdt. 1216 to H.R. 5293

Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2017

Lee amendment to require a specific AUMF for anti-ISIL operations by April 30, 2017.

Rejected in Committee of the Whole

June 16, 2016

146-274

(vote #330)

 

H.Amdt. 1214 to H.R.5293

Department of Defense Appropriations Act for FY 2017

Gabbard amendment to prohibit use of funds for the Syria Train and Equip Program.

Failed to pass

June 16, 2016

135-283

(vote #328)

Hostilities in Yemen

Beginning in March 2015, Saudi Arabia and a coalition of partner countries (including the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Senegal, and Sudan) engaged in conflict in Yemen against the Ansar Allah/Houthi movement and followers of the late president of Yemen, Ali Abdullah Saleh. The United States has been providing logistical and intelligence support, for a time including air-to-air refueling. Refueling operations ended in early November 2018.4 Civilian casualties in the conflict have been a matter of concern and congressional debate, along with humanitarian conditions in general in Yemen.

Related CRS Products

CRS Report R43960, Yemen: Civil War and Regional Intervention, by Jeremy M. Sharp.

CRS Report R45046, Congress and the War in Yemen: Oversight and Legislation 2015-2019, by Jeremy M. Sharp, Christopher M. Blanchard, and Sarah R. Collins.

Congress

Bill and Title

Description and Comments

Votes

115th

S.J.Res. 54

Removal of U.S. forces from hostilities in Yemen not authorized by Congress

Motion to table a motion to discharge Senate Foreign Relations Committee from further consideration of the resolution

Motion to discharge Senate Foreign Relations Committee from further consideration of the resolution

Motion to table agreed to March 20, 2018

55-44

(vote #58)

Motion to discharge agreed to November 28, 2018

63-37

(vote #250)

 

 

Motion to proceed to consideration of S.J.Res.54.

Agreed to

December 12, 2018

60-39

(vote #261)

 

 

Point of order that amendments offered under 50 U.S.C. 1546a be germane to the underlying joint resolution to which they are offered.

Well taken

December 12, 2018

96-3

(vote #262)

 

S.Amdt. 4080 to S.J.Res. 54

Young amendment to clarify that this resolution prohibits United States Armed Forces from refueling non-United States aircraft conducting missions as part of the ongoing civil war in Yemen.

Agreed to

December 13, 2018

58-41

(vote #263)

 

S.Amdt. 4096 to S.J.Res. 54

Cornyn amendment to provide that nothing in the joint resolution shall be construed to influence or disrupt any military operations and cooperation with Israel.

Agreed to December 13, 2018

99-0

(vote #264)

 

S.Amdt. 4098 to S.J.Res. 54

Cotton amendment to clarify that the requirement to remove United States Armed Forces does not apply to forces engaged in operations to support efforts to disrupt Houthi attacks against locations outside of Yemen, such as ballistic missile attacks, unmanned aerial vehicle attacks, maritime attacks against United States or international vessels, or terrorist attacks against civilian targets.

Not agreed to

December 13, 2018

45-54

(vote #265)

 

S.Amdt. 4090 to S.J.Res. 54

Cornyn amendment to require a report assessing risks posed by ceasing support operations with respect to the conflict between the Saudi-led coalition and the Houthis in Yemen.

Agreed to by voice vote

December 13, 2018

 

S.Amdt. 4095 to S.J.Res. 54

Cornyn amendment to require a report assessing the increased risk of terrorist attacks in the United States if the Government of Saudi Arabia were to cease Yemen-related intelligence sharing with the United States.

Agreed to by voice vote

December 13, 2018

 

S.Amdt. 4097 to S.J.Res. 54

Cotton amendment to clarify that the requirement to remove United States Armed Forces does not apply to the provision of materials and advice intended to reduce civilian casualties or further enable adherence to the Law of Armed Conflict.

Request for unanimous consent not agreed to by voice vote

December 13, 2018

 

 

 

Passed Senate with amendments December 13, 2018

56-41

(vote #266)

 

H.Con.Res. 81

Representative Collins asked unanimous consent that the provisions of section 7 of the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1546) shall apply to H.Con.Res. 81 not earlier than November 2, 2017, but on the same terms that would have adhered on October 13, 2017. Agreed to without objection.

House agreed without objection November 11, 2017

 

H.Res. 599

Denounces the conduct of activities in Yemen and areas affected by the conflict that are inconsistent with the laws of armed conflict, including the deliberate targeting of civilian populations or the use of civilian human shields, inter alia.

Agreed to

November 13, 2017

366 - 30, 1 Present

(vote #623)

 

H.Con.Res. 142

Section 4 states: "The provisions of section 7 of the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1546) shall not apply to House Concurrent Resolution 138."

H.Con.Res. 138 would have directed the President pursuant to section 5(c) of the War Powers Resolution to remove United States Armed Forces from hostilities in the Republic of Yemen that have not been authorized by Congress.

Agreed to

November 14, 2018

201-187

(vote #418)

 

H.Res. 1176

Providing for consideration of the conference report to accompany the bill (H.R. 2) to provide for the reform and continuation of agricultural and other programs of the Department of Agriculture through fiscal year 2023, and for other purposes.

House considered this rule with provision in Section 2 stating "The provisions of section 7 of the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1546) shall not apply during the remainder of the One Hundred Fifteenth Congress to a concurrent resolution introduced pursuant to section 5 of the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1544) with respect to the Republic of Yemen."

Agreed to

December 12, 2018

206 - 203

(vote #432)

On ordering the previous question Agreed to

December 12, 2018

220 - 191

(vote #431)

Sources Consulted

CRS In Focus IF10539, Defense Primer: Legal Authorities for the Use of Military Forces, by Jennifer K. Elsea.

CRS Report R41989, Congressional Authority to Limit Military Operations, by Jennifer K. Elsea, Michael John Garcia, and Thomas J. Nicola.

CRS Report R42699, The War Powers Resolution: Concepts and Practice, by Matthew C. Weed.

CRS Report R42738, Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2019, by Barbara Salazar Torreon and Sofia Plagakis.

CRS Report RL32492, American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics, by Nese F. DeBruyne.

CRS Report RL31133, Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications, by Jennifer K. Elsea and Matthew C. Weed.

Congress.gov at http://www.congress.gov/.

Congressional Quarterly searchable online floor vote database at http://www.cq.com.

Congressional Quarterly Almanac. Washington, CQ Press. Annual.

CQ Weekly. Washington, CQ Press. Various issues.

Author Contact Information

Barbara Salazar Torreon, Senior Research Librarian ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])
Carla Y. Davis-Castro, Research Librarian ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Insert Acknowledgments Here

Footnotes

1.

P.L. 93-148, November 7, 1973. For more detailed contextual and legislative history information, see CRS Report R42699, The War Powers Resolution: Concepts and Practice, by Matthew C. Weed.

2.

See Authorization for Continuing Hostilities in Kosovo, 24 Op. O.L.C. 327, 332.

3.

CRS Report R43788, Defense: FY2015 Authorization and Appropriations, by Pat Towell. See Figure 1. OCO Funding for Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan in the Notes: "The FY2015 column does not reflect the November 10, 2014, request for an additional $5 billion to combat the Islamic State."

4.

"Trump Administration to end refueling of Saudi-coalition aircraft in Yemen conflict," Washington Post, November 10, 2018.