International Support for the U.S.-Led War on Terrorism

Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, the U.S.-led war on terrorism has evolved from ridding Afghanistan of the ruling Taliban regime and seeking to prevent Al Qaeda from using the nation as a base for worldwide operations to encompass confronting and defeating terrorism in a number of countries. Many countries and international organizations have become involved in the war on terrorism, ranging from military support and basing rights to reconstruction assistance and diplomatic support.

This report summarizes international support for the ongoing war on terrorism, based largely on information from open source materials regarding the diplomatic, intelligence, law enforcement, financial, and military contributions of international organizations and individual nations. The report does not cover international contributions to postwar Iraq or involvement in the U.S.-led coalition in the Iraq war. (See CRS Report RL31843(pdf) , Iraq: Foreign Stances Toward U.S. Policy .)

Order Code RL31152 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web International Support for the U.S.-Led War on Terrorism Updated August 8, 2003 -name redacted-, Huda Aden, and -name redactedForeign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division -name redactedSpecialist in National Defense Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress International Support for the U.S.-Led War on Terrorism Summary Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, the U.S.-led war on terrorism has evolved from ridding Afghanistan of the ruling Taliban regime and seeking to prevent Al Qaeda from using the nation as a base for worldwide operations to encompass confronting and defeating terrorism in a number of countries. Many countries and international organizations have become involved in the war on terrorism, ranging from military support and basing rights to reconstruction assistance and diplomatic support. This report summarizes international support for the ongoing war on terrorism, based largely on information from open source materials regarding the diplomatic, intelligence, law enforcement, financial, and military contributions of international organizations and individual nations. The report does not cover international contributions to postwar Iraq or involvement in the U.S.-led coalition in the Iraq war. (See CRS Report RL31843, Iraq: Foreign Stances Toward U.S. Policy.) For additional information on the U.S. and international response to terrorism, as well as further country or regional discussions, see the CRS Terrorism Electronic Briefing Book at:[http://www.congress.gov/brbk/html/ebter1.html]. Contents Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 International Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Regional Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Appendix: Links for Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 U.N. Action Against Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 U.N. Security Council Resolutions Regarding Afghanistan . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Counter- terrorism Resolutions and Actions by Country and Region . . . . . 45 Groups Allegedly Affiliated with Al Qaeda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 List of Tables Table 1. Status of Key Al Qaeda-Linked Suspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 2. Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) Actual and Expected Donor Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Table 3. Direct Foreign Military - Related Support (Offered or Provided) for the U.S.-Led War in Afghanistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Table 4. Detail of Foreign Military - Related Support (Offered or Provided) for the US-Led War in Afghanistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Table 5. Counter-Terrorism Measures Approved or Considered . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 International Support for the U.S.-Led War on Terrorism Overview The U.S.-led war on terrorism1 has received broad-based international support. Initially, this effort focused primarily on ridding Afghanistan2 of the ruling Taliban regime and the Al Qaeda terrorist network. Today, the United States is involved in counter-terrorism activities around the world, including places such as the Horn of Africa,3 the former Soviet state of Georgia, and Southeast Asia,4 particularly the Philippines. As the war on terrorism has expanded, U.S. officials have indicated there might be “increased reliance on covert operators, as opposed to a third full-fledged military campaign,” similar to operations in Pakistan and Yemen.5 There has also been discussion of a possible U.S. military presence in Palestine territories and Israel to help quell the terrorist violence that threatens the Administration’s Middle East plan there.6 Additionally, Indonesia, North Korea, Iran, and Syria are still widely cited as 1 The first U.S. action in the war on terrorism occurred on September 15, 2001, when President Bush authorized a partial mobilization of the Reserves and National Guard for homeland defense and civil support missions (Operation Noble Eagle). Congress then passed a Joint Resolution (S.J. Res. 23) authorizing the use of U.S. Armed forces. President Bush signed this into law (P.L. 107-40) on September 18, 2001. The U.S. military forces first attacked targets in Afghanistan on October 7, 2001. 2 For further reading on U.S. policy in Afghanistan, see CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Current Issues and U.S. Policy Concerns. 3 The Pentagon has initiated a new counter-terrorism operation under the newly formed command of the Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa. Countries covered under this command include Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. Approximately 2,000 U.S. armed services personnel have been deployed to camp Lemonier Djibouti since the end of December 2002. The Task Force has not yet launched any major combat operations. 4 According to the Washington Times on May 2, 2003, documents uncovered since the ousting of Taliban forces have revealed an Al Qaeda-related group in Asia referred to by U.S. intelligence as Jemaah Islamiah (JI). Discovered documents have already helped block an attack in Singapore as well as provided information on the groups plans in pro-Western governments of Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. JI is suspected of the Bali nightclub bombing in 2002. 5 War on Terrorism in ‘cleanup’ phase, Washington Times, May 2, 2003. 6 “Profile: Diplomatic Efforts to Forum Truce Between Israel and Militant Palestinian (continued...) CRS-2 possible terrorist “hot spots.” Questions have been raised concerning North Korea and Iran, which have existing nuclear weapons’ programs, and Syria because of reports that Iraqi leaders may have hidden weapons of mass destruction there.7 This report does not treat the possibility of an expanding list of “rogue” states, but instead focuses on global support for the U.S.-led war against international terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda. Some believe there is an inescapable connection between the global war on terrorism and the recent war in Iraq. President Bush has asserted that the war against Iraq was both a “victory” and “a crucial advance in the campaign against terror.”8 Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz further characterized the security of Iraq as “the central battle in the global war on terror.”9 Others doubt Administration assertions that Hussein had an extensive chemical or biological weapon’s stockpile or a nuclear weapon program, and skepticism about Administration charges that Hussein would have been likely to share those weapons with terrorist organizations. Since the war in Iraq, “U.S. teams . . . are attempting to uncover linkages, if any, between the former regime of Saddam Hussein and Al Qaeda, but little evidence has been presented thus far and many experts are skeptical that such linkage existed.”10 Although widespread international disagreement concerning the rationale for the U.S.-led war against Iraq may have potentially threatened the level of cooperation on the war on terrorism, this threat has not materialized in any obvious way. This report does not, however, address the issues surrounding the justification for a U.S.-led invasion against Iraq.11 Since the start of the war on terrorism in September 2001, the number of terrorists attacks and fatalities linked to terrorism have declined. According to the Patterns of Global Terrorism report,12 terrorist attacks numbered 199 in 2002, compared to 355 in 2001. Despite some reported indications of progress, the Al Qaeda network has apparently “regrouped” in an attempt to oppose the U.S. military presence in Afghanistan, Iraq, and elsewhere in the region, as well as U.S. involvement in the Middle East peace process. With nearly an estimated third of the senior Al Qaeda members now reportedly captured or killed as well as the loss of 6 (...continued) Groups Continue,” NPR. All Things Considered, June 16, 2003. 7 For further reading, see CRS Issue Brief IB92075, Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues. 8 White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “President Bush Announces Combat Operations in Iraq have Ended,” May 1, 2003. 9 U.S. Department of State, Defense Link, “Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz Interview on CBS Face the Nation,” News Transcript, July 27, 2003. 10 For further reading, see CRS Electronic Briefing Book, Terrorism, page on “Al Qaeda” at [http://www.congress.gov/brbk/html/ebter131.htm]. 11 For further reading, see CRS Report RS21325, Iraq: Divergent Views on Military Action, March 31, 2003. 12 U.S. Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, April 2003, [http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2002/pdf]. CRS-3 Afghanistan as a base, and the assets of more than $125 million in terrorist related financial assets frozen from 166 countries,13 Al Qaeda has proven itself capable of adapting to changing circumstances, including replacing some key leaders and decentralizing parts of its operations. (For further reading, see CRS Report RS21529, Al Qaeda and the Iraq Conflict.) In May 2003, the twin terrorist attacks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and Casablanca, Morocco (the first major incidents since the Iraq war) tempered optimism that Al Qaeda was crippled and unable to launch major terrorist strikes.14 Before then, the targets appeared to have shifted from high-profile Western targets to “soft” targets in Muslim countries. The coordination of suicide attacks and car bombs also represents an apparent tactical shift. The war on terrorism is not only global in reach, but it is being fought by a coalition of nations on many fronts, including diplomatic, intelligence, law enforcement, financial, and military. Since the attacks in Morocco and Saudi Arabia, renewed diplomatic support for the war on terrorism, especially from key allies in the Middle East, has apparently strengthened the coalition as the threat posed by terrorism became more evident.15 The work by U.S. and foreign intelligence and law enforcement officials have resulted in the capture of a number of top Al Qaeda operatives, including Khalid Sheik Mohammed, Ramzi Binalshibh, and Abu Zubeida. Since September 11, more than 3,000 Al Qaeda members have reportedly been taken into custody.16 Others implicated in the September 11 conspiracy have also been captured or arrested abroad. (For more on the status of key Al Qaeda-linked suspects, see Table 1.) Although the arrests of key Al Qaeda suspects have dominated recent headlines, no less important, is the crackdown on terrorist financing. The March 2003 arrest of Mustafa Ahmed al-Hawsawi and the January 2003 arrest of a Yemeni cleric, Sheik Mohammed Ali Hasan Al-Moayad, have reportedly helped disrupt the terrorist financial machinery.17 Al-Hawsawi is believed to have set up the bank accounts used by the September 11 hijackers, and al-Moayad has been tied to Brooklyn’s Al Farouq 13 Ibid. 14 Elliott, Michael. “Why the War on Terror Will Never End: Bomb attacks in Riyadh and Casablanca suggest that even on the run, Al-Qeada is a resilient threat to the West,” Time, May 18, 2003. 15 At the start of the war on terrorism, President Bush identified two coalition objectives: “to do everything possible to eliminate the threat posed by international terrorism; to deter states from supporting, supporting, harboring or acting complicity with international terrorist groups.” U.S. White House. “Campaign Against Terrorism: A Coalition Update,” Report, 2003. 16 U.S. Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, April 2003, [http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2002/pdf]; See also CRS Report RS21529, Al Qaeda and the Iraq Conflict. 17 “The Cash Squeeze on Terror Inc,” BusinessWeek Online, March 17, 2003. CRS-4 mosque, which allegedly provided material support for terrorist operations.18 Adel Batterjee, a Saudi businessman and founder of Chicago-based Benevolence International Foundation, one of the largest Islamic charities in the U.S., continues to be sought by investigators as is Al Qaeda’s financial mastermind, Sheik Said alMasri, who remains at-large.19 According to the Terrorist Asset Report,20 The U.S. Department of Treasury has blocked the assets of terrorists “organization/related designees,”21 totaling $6,270,521. And nearly $124 million in suspected assets have been frozen worldwide.22 In an effort to disrupt terrorist financing, President Bush signed Executive Order 13224 on September 23, 2001. The Order initially froze all U.S.based assets of 27 organizations and individuals, and further authorized the Secretary of the Treasury or Secretary of State to add to that list. (For further reading, see CRS Report RL31658, Terrorist Financing: The U.S. and International Response.) On the military front, nearly 11,00023 soldiers from more than 23 nations remain in Afghanistan in search of remnants of Taliban and Al Qaeda forces in an effort to further disable the terrorist network.24 Other military actions in connection to the war on terrorism continue to be conducted. Training missions and operations with Pakistani special forces are ongoing near the Afghan/Pakistan border, as well as with forces in the Philippines, Georgia, Yemen, and Djibouti in order to bolster command and control operations against Al Qaeda and other international terrorists. Despite efforts in Afghanistan, the security situation remains tenuous for international peacekeepers. As remnants of Taliban and Al Qaeda allies have been driven from Kabul, they have waged a “spring offensive” from the southern province of Afghanistan against peacekeepers challenging the foreign military presence in Afghanistan and the war in Iraq.25 ISAF Commander Norbert van Heyst has reported increasing level of attacks throughout the country since March 2003.26 18 Ibid; United States Mission to the European Union, “Arrest of Al Qaeda Leader Seen as Blow to Global Terrorist Network,” March 4, 2003. 19 Op.Cit. 20 U.S. Department of Treasury, Terrorist Assets Report, Calendar Year 2002, Annual Report to Congress on Assets in the United States of Terrorist Countries and International Terrorism Program Designee, 2003. 21 These organizations/designees include: Al Qaeda, Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Kahane Chair, and Taliban. 22 “The Cash Squeeze on Terror Inc,” BusinessWeek Online, March 17, 2003. 23 Exact figures on force size fluctuates between reporting sources. Troop size ranges from 10,000 to 11,000. 24 Pittman, Todd. “Top American Official to reassure Karzai of U.S. commitment to Afghanistan.” Associated Press. May 9, 2003. 25 U.S. Target Militants Leaders in Southern Afghan Assault, Washington Post, March 21, 2003. 26 “Attacks in Afghanistan doubled in May-ISAF commander,” Agence France-Presse, July (continued...) CRS-5 General Akin Zorlu, formerly the Turkish commander of the ISAF,27 handed over command to Germany and the Netherlands on February 10, 2003. Germany and the Netherlands will remain in charge until August 2003, when NATO28 will assume command of the ISAF. The ISAF has completed 176 projects, with another 44 reported as ongoing and 38 more under planning.29 Reconstruction efforts have aimed at improving health, education, and the infrastructure within Kabul. One of the most significant military efforts has been the ongoing destruction of caches of Sovietmade missiles, which began May 12 and was expected to be completed on June 9, 2003.30 A number of countries and organizations continue to assist in the reconstruction of Afghanistan. At the second international donor31 meeting in March 2003, donors pledged $1.7 billion for fiscal year 2003.32 (For a detailed summary of contributions toward the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF), see Table 2.) (For more details on Afghanistan reconstruction, see CRS Report RL31759, Reconstruction Assistance in Afghanistan: Goals, Priorities, and Issues for Congress.) Since December 2002, efforts in Afghanistan have focused on diplomacy, intelligence, law enforcement, and reconstruction assistance — supported by limited military operations. As a result, the following country overviews do not include a detailed discussion of earlier military efforts in Afghanistan. Instead, foreign military support to Operation Enduring Freedom is outlined in Table 3 and Table 4. 26 (...continued) 2, 2003. 27 The last updated report (December 2002) listed 23 nations as participants to the ISAF. The number has been varying from 18-29. Exact figures fluctuate between reporting sources. Similarly, force size fluctuates, ranging from 4,500-5000 troops. 28 This will be the first “out of area” European mission for NATO in the history of Europe. 29 Pittman, Todd. “Top American Official to reassure Karzai of U.S. commitment to Afghanistan,” Associated Press, May 9, 2003. 30 The cache of more than 200 Soviet missiles is the legacy of two decades under Soviet occupation in the 1980s. 31 The 22 donors include: Bahrain, Canada, Denmark, European Commission, Finland, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States. 32 “Donor Pledges $1.7 billion for fiscal 2003,” Japan Economic Newswire, March 17, 2003. CRS-6 This report does not list all the measures taken, but provides a fairly detailed summary of international support related to the war on terrorism by country and major international organizations,33 both governmental and nongovernmental. The report will be updated as necessary. Response International Organizations United Nations (UN). The United Nations has played an important role in establishing global standards against terrorism, including active monitoring of nations’ implementation of those standards. The Security Council’s Counterterrorism Committee has been monitoring nations’ commitment and adoption of Security Council Resolution 1373 on money laundering. Since the attacks on 9/11, the committee received 343 status reports from nations on their progress in implementing the United Nations resolutions on terrorism, and has offered feedback in 243 detailed letters to states. The committee is devising a plan of action for countries that did not submit reports. World Bank (WB). In May 2002, the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) was established, which is administered by the World Bank, and jointly managed by UNDP, the Asian Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank, and the World Bank. The ARTF assists the Afghanistan Interim Administration in funding reconstruction projects and covering expenses, such as salaries for civil servants, health workers, teachers, and police. Donations have also helped clear Afghanistan’s debt with the World Bank, making it eligible to borrow from the World Bank for the first time since 1979. The World Bank has approved an interestfree loan of $108 million to Afghanistan to fund the Emergency Transport Rehabilitation Project. The project’s objective is to overcome transportation barriers in Afghanistan, like disintegrating pavements, damaged tunnels, and collapsed bridges.34 At the Tokyo conference on reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan, the World Bank pledged a total of $570 million, parts of which will be disbursed as grants and the rest as long-term, zero-interest credits. The International Conference on 33 From open sources, it is often difficult to determine the specific type and amounts of assistance individual countries have provided. Some statistics in the media are reported, but no details are available. Similarly, it is sometimes difficult to discern exactly what the United Sates has requested of other countries, and precisely what other countries have pledged . Secretary of Defense Ronald Rumsfeld has declined to openly describe the support being given to the United States, stating instead that each country is doing what they’re doing slightly differently, and have their own way of characterizing it. Secretary Rumsfeld further said that “the mission determines that coalition, the coalition must not determine the mission.” (Cahlink, George, “War on terrorism is history in the making, general says,” Daily Briefing, GovExec.com, October 18,2001.) Some pledges of support, therefore, continue to be ambiguous or deliberately vague. 34 DevNews Media Center, March 12, 2003. CRS-7 Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan was held in Tokyo January 21-22, 2002. Ministers and representatives from 61 countries and 21 international organizations attended. The conference was chaired by Japan, the United States, the European Union, and Saudi Arabia. Afghan representatives, including President Karzai, presented their plans for the reconstruction of their country. In support of these plans, donor countries pledged more than $1.8 billion for 2002. Some made multi-year pledges. The cumulative amount was more than $4.5 billion. The World Bank became the principal administrator of the trust fund, superceding the UNDP. The United Nations and international financial institutions, such as the World Bank, played a key role in organizing and leading the conference.35 Regional Organizations Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). In February 2003, 300 representatives from the 21 member countries of APEC renewed their commitment to combat terrorism in a two-day meeting in Bangkok. They established a CounterTerrorism Task Force with a “focus on port, maritime and aviation security, and other means of ensuring secure trade.”36 The Task Force facilitates access to information on counter-terrorism measures for member countries and encourages increased cooperation between law enforcement officials and between the public and private sectors. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The Police Chiefs of ASEAN nations agreed on January 22, 2003 to establish an ASEAN AntiTerrorism Task Force to curb terrorist activity and collaborate in response to terrorist attacks. National task forces are expected to conduct risk assessments and facilitate international cooperation on examination of witnesses, searching and seizing of evidence, evacuating and treating victims, and conducting forensic examinations and criminal investigations. (For further reading, see CRS Report RL31672, Terrorism in Southeast Asia.) European Union (EU). The EU is actively promoting cooperation between member states on the intelligence front of the fight against terrorism, including the development of a common European arrest warrant. Other efforts include devising a common definition of terrorism and money laundering, requiring the reporting of suspicious financial transactions, and developing a common list of terrorist organizations. In a show of collaboration, intelligence services, judicial authorities, and various EU agencies, including Eurojust and Europol, have been engaging in inter-agency dialogue to better combat terrorism. Europol organized a special antiterrorist team that will cooperate with its U.S. counterparts.37 (For further reading, see CRS Report RL31509, Europe and Counterterrorism: Strengthening Police and Judicial Cooperation.) 35 36 37 Tokyo Conference: [http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/middle_e/afghanistan/min0201/]. Agence France Presse, February 25, 2003. Europol: http://www.europol.eu.int/home.htm. CRS-8 The European Union continues to play a role on the reconstruction of Afghanistan. In Tokyo, at the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan, the EU pledged 2.3 billion Euros (about $2.27 billion) for reconstruction over the period from 2002 -2006. For 2002, up to 200 million Euros (about $197 million) have been pledged together with similar yearly contributions for the period 2003-2006.38 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In a landmark decision on April 16, 2003, NATO agreed to assume leadership of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). For the first time, NATO will oversee a mission outside of the North Atlantic region. NATO will succeed Germany/Netherlands in its command of the ISAF on August 11, 2003. This command was formerly held by Turkey and Great Britain. NATO member countries have already contributed 95 percent of the troops deployed to ISAF.39 In March 2003, NATO naval forces began monitoring merchant ships in the Straits of Gibralter. Earlier in October 2001, NATO’s naval fleet, consisting of nine ships from eight countries, patrolled the eastern Mediterranean, in conjunction with a separate NATO-member fleet off the eastern coast of Africa. To date, NATO’s maritime forces continue to escort and to monitor merchant ships and to document suspicious activities. NATO forces have monitored more than 25,000 ships in the region. Countries40 Afghanistan. After decades of foreign occupation, civil strife and devastation, Afghanistan’s major task is to rebuild its economy and infrastructure. On June 13, 2002, Hamid Karzai was elected by the Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) as head of the Afghan Transitional Authority. The new Afghan administration approved the stationing of ISAF troops near Kabul, regarding it as a sign of global commitment to peace in their country. President Hamid Karzai has taken the lead in his country’s reconstruction process. At the recent donor conference in March 2003, he presented a reconstruction budget, totaling of $1.7 million for the coming fiscal year.41 Albania. Albania has been fighting the war on terrorism on three fronts: intelligence-sharing, law enforcement, and financial. On the intelligence and law enforcement front, Albanian police and justice authorities are strengthening background checks and implementing tighter immigration controls. Al Qaeda fighters are reported to have been infiltrating the ranks of ethnic Albanian guerrilla forces in Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo. 38 EU and Afghanistan: [http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/afghanistan/docs/tokyo.htm]. 39 “Afghanistan: NATO prepares to take ISAF command,” Reliefweb, July 18, 2003. 40 See footnote 33. 41 Xinhua (Chinese News Agency), March 16, 2003. CRS-9 On the financial front, Albania froze the accounts and assets of Jasin Kadi, a Saudi businessman with major business holdings in Albania. Kadi, thought to support Al Qaeda, is linked to suspected terrorist Abdel Latifi, whom Albania extradited in November 1999. In addition, the bank accounts of several Arab companies, which were being administered by the Arab-Albanian Islamic Bank and the International Trade Bank of Malaysia, have now been frozen. Al Qaeda accounts were among them. Algeria. A special security force unit of the People’s National Army (ANP) continues to seek the release of the 15 remaining European tourist being held hostage by armed groups, allegedly linked to Al Qaeda. Despite reports of their reported release on May 19, 2003, their exact whereabouts or status of release remains unknown.42 Ten of the 32 hostages were freed in May 2003 when security forces launched an assault against the armed groups, which uncovered 13 Egyptianmade rocket-launchers. This armed recovery confirmed allegations made in July of 2002 by U.S. intelligence services of the possible use of Algeria as a rear base for remaining Al Qaeda operatives.43 Other efforts by Algerian officials have resulted in the arrest of nine members of the Salafi Group for Call and Combat, including Mansouri Meliani, Saad Maouchi, and Llhouari Maouchi in October 2002.44 In a September 12, 2002 raid in Batna, Emad Abdelwahid Ahmed Alwan, also known as Abu Mohammed, was killed. Alwan was allegedly one of Al Qaeda’s top operatives in Africa. Australia. Australia has committed $524 million in support of the fight against terrorism for 2001-2003 and another $40 million to aid in rebuilding Afghanistan. Austria. Austria has provided financial support toward the war on terrorism in the amount of $329 million, channeled through the EU. Austria has also donated $1 million in emergency aid to Afghanistan and has given 10 scholarships to Afghan women. Belgium. Belgian authorities arrested Jerome Courtailler, brother of David Courtailler. The brothers are accused of ties to Al Qaeda.45 In December 2001, Tarek Maaroufi was arrested for planning to bomb the U.S. Consulate in Milan and for his role in the assassination of Massoud.46 On September 13, 2001, Belgian authorities arrested Nizar Trabelsi for “attempting to use explosives, association with criminals, possession of arms of war and holding false documents.”47 Trabelsi led a terror cell in Brussels and is linked to an attempted attack on NATO’s Brussels headquarters. 42 “Hope for hostages,” Daily Telegraph, July 18, 2003. 43 BBC Monitoring International Reports, May 18, 2003. 44 BBC, October 14, 2002. 45 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002. 46 Sydney Morning Herald, July 20, 2002. 47 Agence France Presse, October 3, 2001. CRS-10 In assistance to Afghanistan, Belgium led the largest humanitarian assistance mission, which provided 198,413 pounds of high protein food supplement to feed starving children there. This mission reportedly set the standards for later humanitarian operations. A Belgian Air Force aircraft delivered this supplement, and a Belgian airbus was used to supply 250,000 vaccinations for children. Bosnia. On the law enforcement and intelligence front, Bosnian police arrested two Egyptian terrorists in July 2002, Al Sherif Hassan Mahmoud Saad and Al Hussein Arman Ahmed, suspected of having close ties to bin Laden.48 Besides intelligence and investigative efforts, the Bosnian government has frozen the assets of several Islamic charities and foundations suspected of having ties to Al Qaeda and bin Laden, including the Benevolence International Foundation, AlHaramain Islamic Foundation, and the Global Relief Fund.49 Brazil. Brazil has been investigating several possible links to terrorism within its territory. Brazil detained Assad Ahmad Barakta, a Lebanon native suspected of funding Hezbollah. Barakta is on the U.S. list of wanted terror financiers.50 Bulgaria. Although unconfirmed, Bulgaria reportedly responded favorably to requests to send its instructors in the continued effort to rebuild a new Afghan army.51 The Bulgarian government also issued orders to all Bulgarian commercial banks and financial institutions to check and freeze any possible accounts or assets possessed by persons or organizations designated on the U.S. terrorist list. A similar order has been issued to the Customs Agency to check customs records against the same lists. In addition, new measures to tighten arms export control, oversee trade in dual-use goods, and strengthen border and customs controls are also reported. Cambodia. Cambodia has contributed to the financial war on terrorism, as well as assistance to Afghanistan. The National Bank of Cambodia (NBC) has instructed all financial and banking institutions to freeze assets of persons and entities involved in terrorist activities, as listed by the U.N. Security Council and the United States. The NBC has also issued orders to prohibit transactions with persons or entities considered having links to terrorism. In assistance to Afghanistan, the Cambodian government has offered to share its de-mining expertise with the new Afghan government. Canada. Beginning in August 2003, Canada will deploy 3,000 troops to Afghanistan over a period of a year as part of the ISAF peacekeeping mission. On August 17, 2003, Canadian Brigadier General Peter Devlin succeeded Germany’s 48 Reuters, July 26, 2002. 49 U.S. Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, April 2003. www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2002/pdf. 50 51 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002. “Bulgarian Army Chief says Participation in Building New Afghan Army “Almost Certain,”“ Financial Times Information, May 15, 2003. CRS-11 Brigadier General Werner Freer as commander of the Kabul Multinational Brigade, responsible for providing security for the reestablishment of the community in Kabul and surrounding areas. The Brigade is part of the ISAF. Besides peacekeeping support, Canadian authorities have custody over Nageeb Abdul Jabar Mohammed Al-Hadi for suspected connection with the September 11 attacks.52 In December 2001, Nabil Al- Marabh was arrested while trying to illegally cross the U.S.-Canadian border, and was returned to Canada to answer forgery charges. Al- Marabh allegedly transferred money and documents to Atta and alShehhi, two of the September 11 hijackers. He is also the suspected leader of the Toronto-based Al Qaeda cell.53 In terms of Afghan reconstruction, Canada has provided $116.5 million in humanitarian assistance. As of July 2002, nearly $58 million had been allocated to support emergency relief and reconstruction in Afghanistan in the form of medical, food, and refugee assistance. Chile. To date, Chile has sustained its effort in intelligence-sharing and investigations, as well as fighting against terrorist financing. Chilean authorities detained 11 Lebanese nationals for alleged ties to Ahhad Mohamed Barracked, suspected by Interpol of financing Al Qaeda or Hezbollah.54 China. See People’s Republic of China Cyprus. Nationally, Cyprus has created a Mobile Immediate Action Unit to combat terrorism. This Unit consists of a specially trained antiterrorist squad as well as police officers skilled in investigating terrorist activities. The Unit is acting in cooperation with European, neighboring, and other countries. Egypt. The Mubarak regime has stepped up arrests and prosecutions of Islamist militants, including some accused of funding terrorism groups, such as Hamas. Ayman Al-Zawahiri was sentenced to death in absentia in Egypt for plotting anti-government activities. Al-Zawahiri, a key figure linked to the September 11 terrorist attacks, served as second in command to Osama bin Laden. Al-Zawahiri has led an Egyptian Islamic group for the past ten years which seeks to topple the Mubarak regime. Finland. In terms of assistance to Afghanistan, Finland pledged 10 million Euros (about $8.8 million) annually over a three-year period to the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund during the Tokyo conference. . 52 Agence France Presse, September 8, 2002. 53 The News Tribune, September 29, 2002. 54 Op.Cit. CRS-12 France. French authorities apprehended Karim Mehdi, of Moroccan descent, in connection to ongoing investigations of the September 11 terrorist attacks.55 Mehdi is believed to be connected to the Al Qaeda network operating out of Hamburg, Germany. Other efforts have included the detention of people on terror related charges. In October 2001, Djamel Beghal, alleged to be Al Qaeda’s Paris chief, was extradited to France56 after being arrested by U.A.E. authorities in July 2001.57 After the September 11 attacks, Kamel Daoudi was arrested in Britain and later extradited to France.58 Daoudi allegedly maintained communication between Al Qaeda cells via the Internet.59 Eleven suspected members of Tafkir al-Hijra, a fundamentalist Islamic group linked to Al Qaeda, have been arrested by French authorities. David Courtailler was also arrested for his connections to Moussaoui and the Al Qaeda bombing of the American embassy in Kenya.60 Georgia. On the law enforcement and intelligence front, special forces in Georgia captured 15 Arab militants linked to Al Qaeda, including Saif al- Islam el Masry, and turned them over to the United States in October 2002. Germany. Germany currently shares joint command with the Netherlands of the ISAF. The German contingent totals 2,25061 in number, comprising more than half of the ISAF troops. In terms of military assistance to Afghanistan, Germany is taking the lead in international support for building an Afghan police force. It donated $9.4 million to train and to equip the Afghan police force. In addition to providing funds, busses, and trainers, Germany has also worked with the United States to employ Afghan war widows to make uniforms for the Kabul police. Germany has also provided a wide range of reconstruction and humanitarian aid. In 2001, Germany provided $46.2 million in humanitarian aid and developmentoriented assistance to Afghanistan. It also chaired the Afghanistan Support Group, a coordination mechanism for humanitarian donors. At the Tokyo Conference, Germany pledged $69.4 million in 2002 and a total of $278 million for reconstruction efforts over the next four years. Germany was one of the first nations to contribute to the Afghanistan Interim Authority Fund, a trust fund within the U.N. framework to support the work of the Interim Government, with a contribution of $1.7 million. Germany served as host of the U.N. Talks on Afghanistan, which produced the Bonn 55 Associated Press, June 5, 2003. 56 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002. 57 Toronto Star, January 8, 2002. 58 The Guardian, September 5, 2002. 59 Agence France Presse, January 17, 2002. 60 The Ottawa Citizen, August 11, 2002. 61 On July 30, 2003, the German Embassy provided such figure. CRS-13 Agreement, a blueprint for the political stabilization of Afghanistan over the next three years. Since September 11, German law enforcement officials have arrested several key suspected terrorists. On October 10, 2002, German police arrested Abdelghani Mzoudi in Hamburg for allegedly providing logistical support to the September 11 hijackers.62 Also in October 2002, Mounir el Motassadeq was charged with 300 counts of aiding and abetting murder and accused of belonging to the Hamburg cell that led the September 11 attacks.63 Motassadeq was arrested in Hamburg in November 2001.64 In October 2001, Mohammed Awani Ben Belgacem was arrested by German authorities and later extradited to Italy.65 Belgacem, reportedly a senior Al Qaeda member, was accused of obtaining chemical weapons and explosives for Al Qaeda’s European cells.66 Honduras. According to Honduran officials, “the country is in good standing with a recent evaluation of its programs to prevent financing of terrorism and asset laundering.” (Tegucigalpa La Tribuna (Internet Version-WWW) in Spanish [http://www.latribuna.hn].) Hungary. In terms of reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan, Hungary has promised $1 million in humanitarian aid to Afghanistan. So far, it has delivered approximately $364,000, and the remainder will be delivered over the course of 2003. India. Besides providing intelligence information about terrorist training camps used by Osama bin Laden supporters, India has contributed to the law enforcement front. Indian police arrested four Harkat-ul-Jehadi-e-Islami (HUJI) terrorists, including Aftab Ahmed Ansari wanted for the bombing of a U.S. Embassy office in Calcutta in October 2002.67 In April 2002, Indian authorities arrested Al Qaeda member Mohammed Afroz Abdul Razzak.68 Razzk is accused of playing a role in the Al Qaeda plot to attack the British parliament and other London targets on September 11, 2001.69 In reconstruction aid to Afghanistan, India pledged $100 million at the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan in Tokyo. 62 BBC News, October 10, 2002. 63 ABCnews.com, October 22, 2002. 64 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002. 65 La Padania, March 2, 2002. 66 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002. 67 The Miami Herald 9/8/02, Asia Pulse, October 11, 2002. 68 Agence France Presse, September 14, 2002. 69 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002. CRS-14 Indonesia. Police in Indonesia are quietly stepping up cooperation with countries in the region. Indonesia has established tripartite cooperation with Malaysia and the Philippines in addition to a bilateral agreement with Australia concerning information and intelligence-sharing to combat terrorism. Bali bomb investigators arrested several key suspects with alleged ties to Al Qaeda. The trial of the first of these suspects, Ambrose, began May 12, 2003. The alleged mastermind of the Bali blasts, Imam Sumatra, was arrested in February 2003 and awaits trial.70 On October 12, 2002, two coordinated bombs killed about 190 people on the Indonesian island of Bali. One of these bombings, near the U.S. consular office, indicates the United States may have been specifically targeted.71 In April 2003, 18 suspected members of Jemaah Islamiah (JI) were arrested, including the group’s leader, who is said to have links with Al Qaeda. In mid-October 2002, Indonesian authorities reportedly questioned Abu Bakar Bashir, prominent Muslim cleric with alleged terrorist links.72 Bashir is an alleged leader of the militant Jemaah Islamiah (JI), a terrorist group reportedly linked to Al Qaeda, which seeks to establish a South East Asian Islamic state. Indonesian police continue to crack down on Islamic militants belonging to JI. Muhammad Saad Iqbal Madni was also arrested in Jakarta and handed over to U.S. authorities.73 In late 2002, the Indonesian government declared fundamentalist Islamic group JI a terrorist organization linked to Al Qaeda and one that allegedly helped carry out the Bali bombings.74 On June 5, 2002, the Indonesian police arrested an alleged Al Qaeda financier, who operates under the name of Omar al-Farouq. In September 2002, information provided by Omar al-Farouq led to the arrest of a German citizen Seyam Reda, who is suspected of links to Al Qaeda. Prior to Reda’s arrest, the Indonesian authorities had agreed to turn over suspects to the United States for questioning elsewhere, but now the Government of Indonesia has decided to detain and interrogate Reda in Indonesia. Iran. On a diplomatic front, the United States and Iran have recently conducted talks on issues of common concern. Under the auspices of the United Nations, United States and Iranian officials met in May 3, 2003 in Geneva to discuss issues concerning Afghanistan, Iraq, Middle East peace process, and terrorism. This is the 70 Seth Mydas, “Bali Bombing Case Opens with Morning-Long Indictment,” New York Times, May 13, 2003. (See also CRS Report RL31672, Terrorism in Southeast Asia.) 71 U.S. Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, April 2003. www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2002/pdf. 72 Economic Intelligence Unit, October 18, 2002. 73 The Washington Post, October 6, 2002. 74 The New York Times, October 16, 2002. CRS-15 first in a series of expected talks. While the talks were amicable, they do not represent renewed diplomatic relations between the countries.75 Additionally, Iran turned over 16 suspected Al Qaeda fighters to Saudi Arabia in June 2002. These fighters had sought refuge in Iran after fleeing Afghanistan. “In May [2002], anti-American clerical leaders deported six Saudi citizens suspected of Al Qaeda membership to Saudi Arabia.”76 In February 2002, Iranian authorities arrested 150 foreign nationals suspected of being Al Qaeda members.77 Despite these apparent forward steps, some U.S. officials maintain that Iran is assisting and sheltering Al Qaeda leaders and fighters. Iran remains an active supporter of the interim government in Afghanistan, recently signing five memoranda of understanding with the Afghan government, outlining political, economic, and cultural cooperation. Iran offered support in improving Afghan infrastructure, combating poppy-production, and training Afghan police, army, and journalists. The Iranian government has also begun construction of a road between Herat and Eslam Qala in Afghanistan. In Tokyo at the International Conference on Reconstruction to Afghanistan, Iran pledged $560 million over the next five years. Israel. Israel’s main contribution to the U.S. war on terrorism has been continued intelligence cooperation, which was considered extensive even before September 11. Referring to shared intelligence information, Prime Minister Sharon stated that Israel was “assisting but not participating” in the war effort. In view of this, Israeli consultants have advised American officials, security experts, and business leaders about homeland security preparations, and Israeli special forces have reportedly helped train their U.S. counterparts concerning the workings of known Islamic terrorist groups. Italy. Besides military support, Italy’s contribution to the war on terror ranges from security stabilization and humanitarian assistance to law enforcement and intelligence cooperation. In reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan, Italy has provided more than $33 million in humanitarian assistance. Italy is also engaged in rebuilding the Afghan judiciary. On the law enforcement and intelligence front, Italian police arrested 28 Pakistanis suspected of having ties with Al Qaeda in May 2003. Police officials found 28 ounces of explosives, long fuses, and detonators at the scene of the raid. In October 2002, trials began in Milan for terrorists suspects, including Abdelkader Mahmoud Es Sayed, who is being tried in absentia. Three of Es Sayed’s associates, including Yassine Chekkouri, Abdelhalim Hafed Remadna, and Nabil Benattia, are on trial for their involvement in suspect activities involving the Milan Islamic 75 “U.S. in ‘Useful’ Talks with Iran; The meetings have focused recently in Iraq, Middle East peace efforts and terrorism,” Los Angeles Times, May 13, 2003. 76 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002. 77 CNN.com, February 14, 2002. CRS-16 Cultural Institute.78 In the July 2002, Police in Milan arrested nine people on charges of providing logistical support and false papers to Al Qaeda members, including Said Kazdali and Mohammed Kazdali. In February 2002, Essid Sami Ben Khamias, an Al Qaeda leader and suspected associate of Atta, was convicted in Italian court. Khamias was arrested in Milan in April 2001. He was also tried in absentia in Tunisia, convicted of assisting the terrorist network, and sentenced to 20 years in prison. Japan. In assistance to Afghanistan, Japan has provided relief supplies for Afghan refugees, including 1,840 tents and 18,000 blankets to the U.N. Refugee Agency (UNHCR) in Pakistan. At the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan, Japan pledged to provide $250 million in 2002 and $500 million over the next two and one-half years. On December 22, 2001, the Japanese government pledged $1 million to the U.N. Afghanistan Interim Authority Fund that was established within the U.N. Development Program (UNDP). Jordan. After being arrested in Syria, Raed Hijazi was extradited to Jordan, when he was condemned to death on February 11, 2002 for planning attacks against U.S. and Jewish tourists visiting Jordan.79 Hijazi has also been linked to several of the September 11 hijackers. Kazakhstan. In a show of continued support for the war on terrorism, Kazakhstan has provided access of its Shymkent airport to Norway and Denmark for antiterror operations in Central Asia and Afghanistan.80 Under this provision, the two countries may make unscheduled landings. Kuwait. Administration officials have praised Kuwait for actions taken to freeze the financial assets of terrorist and their supporters. In recent months, the government of Kuwait has taken control of all domestic charities in an attempt to monitor assets that may be filtered to terrorist groups. Kuwait’s government has agreed to fully cooperate with U.S. inter-agency teams, including FBI, IRS, and Departments of States, Justice, and Treasury, attempting to trace the money trail from Kuwaiti companies, charities, and organizations to terrorist groups. Kyrgyzstan. Under the U.N. World Food Program (WFP), Kyrgyzstan — along with Russia and Tajikistan — has delivered 16,500 tons of flour and wheat to the northern provinces of Afghanistan for emergency postwar relief. Latvia. In human assistance to Afghanistan, Latvia has sent blankets, candles, and buckets to Afghan refugees for emergency postwar relief. Lebanon. On October 16, 2001, Lebanese authorities arrested Daniel Samarji and Bilal Othman, suspected of Isbat al-Ansar membership and charged with 78 Chicago Tribune, October 8, 2002. 79 Agence France Press, November 14, 2002. 80 Agence France Press, May 8, 2003. CRS-17 planning terrorist acts and trading arms.81 Lebanese authorities claim that the two suspects belong to a group on the U.S. list of terrorist organizations.82 Lithuania. In assistance to Afghanistan, the Lithuanian government has allocated emergency humanitarian assistance funding for Afghan refugees. Additionally, the Lithuanian government has arrested alleged Hamas and Hizballah operatives, and has seized terrorists funds wired to a Lithuanian bank. Luxembourg. Luxembourg made financial contributions to the Afghan National Army Trust Fund. Malaysia. In October 2002, Malaysian forces arrested Ahmed Ibrahim Bilal, charged with conspiracy to conspire with Al Qaeda, who was later extradited to the United States.83 In April 2002, Malaysian police arrested 14 members of an Islamic extremist group linked to the Al Qaeda terror network (Malaysia Mujahiddeen group - KMM), including Sejahratul Dursina, wife of Yazid Sufaat, who is suspected of abetting the 9/11 hijackers, planning the Bali attacks, and making bombs for Jemaah Islamiah. In December 2001 and January 2002, Malaysian authorities detained 47 suspects linked to Al Qaeda, including Yazid Sufaat.84 Malaysia’s Internal Security Act allows authorities to detain without trial anyone it suspects of threatening national security.85 Morocco. On the heels of the 2003 Riyadh attacks, Morocco became the next target for a terrorist attack. On May 17, 2003, suicide bombings left approximately 41 dead. Local fundamentalists are reportedly believed to be behind the bombings in Casablanca. Moroccan investigators arrested eight of the 14 suspects, all identified as Moroccans and allegedly connected to “earlier killings of people it called ‘nonbelievers’.”86 Such cooperative efforts led to the arrest of Mohammed Heidar Zammar by Moroccan Police and his extradition to Syria.87 Moroccan officials detained Abu Zubair, a senior Al Qaeda leader and associate of Abu Zubaydah. In June 2002, Moroccan authorities arrested alleged Al Qaeda members, including Zuhair Hilal 81 NewsMax.com, October 16, 2001. 82 Ibid. 83 CNN.com, October 8, 2002. 84 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002. 85 CNN.com, April 18, 2002. 86 Richburg, Keith B. “Most of Suicide Bombers Identified as Moroccans; Links Sought to Earlier Killings of ‘Nonbelievers’ by Local Extremists,” The Washington Post, May 19, 2003. 87 The Independent, September 16, 2002. CRS-18 Mohamed al-Tbaithi, Hilal Jaber Aouad al- Assiri, and Abdullah M’Sfer Ali alGhamdi.88 The Netherlands. Germany and the Netherlands are in joint command of the ISAF until August 11, 2003. Since September 11, the Netherlands has pledged $153 million for humanitarian and reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan, most of which has already been disbursed.89 Civil Military Operations (CMO), in cooperation with the Netherlands Armed Forces and the Afghanistan Interim Authority, have rebuilt three schools in Kabul. The Netherlands CMO has built a playground at Lycee Botkhak elementary school in Kabul. Plans to finance and rebuild additional schools and water projects in Afghanistan are underway. Besides assistance to Afghanistan, Dutch authorities have charged four men suspected of working for Djamel Beghal in France with targeting the U.S. embassy in Paris and a U.S. military base in Belgium.90 On August 30, 2002, Dutch authorities arrested eight people suspected of recruiting combatants for Al Qaeda, including Mohammed Berkous, Jerome Courtailler, Saaid Ibrahim, and Amine Mezbar.91 Courtailler is the alleged leader of the Rotterdam Al Qaeda cell.92 On February 27, 2002, Amor ben Mohamed Sliti, the alleged leader of an Al Qaeda assassination team, was arrested in the Netherlands after being extradited from Iran.93 New Zealand. New Zealand is contributing about $190,000 to projects identified in the U.N. Immediate and Transitional Assistance Program and about $120,000 for New Zealand NGO activities in Afghanistan. New Zealand has already contributed about $480,000 to the U.N. Consolidated Appeal for Afghanistan. New Zealand was the first non-European country to join Afghanistan’s international peacekeeping force, which continued to provide personnel support through 2002. New Zealand has also been forthcoming with intelligence support. New Zealand’s Waihopai monitoring station is part of the five-nation ECHELON intelligence-gateway network. New Zealand’s counter-terrorism police are cooperating with Italian and U.S. officials to investigate potential links between cyanide threats to U.S. Embassies in New Zealand and Rome. Norway. Besides military support, Norway is participating in the ISAF with the deployment of mine clearing experts. An area of 750,000 square meters at the Kandahar and Bagram airfields and their surroundings were cleared of mines by Norwegian personnel. In a joint unit with the Netherlands and Denmark, Norway provided tactical airlift and humanitarian assistance. Norway has also donated 88 CNN.com, June 17, 2002. 89 On July 25, 2003, the Netherlands embassy provided current figures on assistance to Afghanistan. 90 Agence France Presse, September 14, 2002. 91 Ibid. 92 The Columbian, September 3, 2002. 93 The Times, February 28, 2002. CRS-19 supplies and equipment for a 700-man light infantry battalion in an effort to rebuild the Afghan army. At the Tokyo International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan, Norway pledged $40 million to support the Afghanistan reconstruction effort. On January 1, 2002, Norway became the chair of the donor organization Afghanistan Support Group. Pakistan. At the request of the United Nations, in 2003 Pakistan froze the bank accounts of a Kuwaiti charity, Lajna al-Dawah al-Islamia, which reportedly is linked to Al Qaeda. In April and May 2003, Pakistan arrested ten men suspected of having ties with Al Qaeda, including Waleed Mohammad bin Attash. Bin Attash is suspected of involvement in the bombing of the USS Cole and the September 11 attacks.94 Pakistani authorities found 150kg of explosives and 200 detonators in his possession. In doing so, Pakistani officials believe they foiled a major Al Qaeda attack. Pakistan has provided broad-based support for CIA and FBI searches for Al Qaeda members, which led to a number of arrests. The most significant arrest to the war on terror was that of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, a senior member of the Al Qaeda leadership and reported mastermind of the September 11 attacks. He is now in U.S. custody. Other arrests in 2002 included: Abdul Wahid, an Al Qaeda suspect;95 six Islamic militants, including Sharib Ahmad, who allegedly organized the June 14 car bomb attack on the U.S. consulate;96 ten suspected terrorists, including Ramzi Binalshibh, friend and roommate of Atta, an alleged September 11 plotter;97 Sheikh Ahmed Salim, who reportedly directed and funded Al Qaeda in Pakistan;98 and Abu Zubeida, Al Qaeda’s logistical planner for the September 11 attacks and alleged to be a top lieutenant of Osama bin Laden.99 Zubeida is now in American custody. Pakistan has also outlawed a number of extremists’ organizations, including Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Tehrik-i-Jafria Pakistan, and Tekrik-i-Nifaz-i-Shariat-Mohammadi. In Tokyo at the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan, Pakistan pledged to donate $100 million over five years, and the private joint-venture Premier-Shell Pakistan has committed $200 million in aid for the rehabilitation of Afghan refugees. 94 World Markets Research Centre, March 1, 2003. 95 Reuters, October 24, 2002. 96 U.S. News and World Report, September 30, 2002. 97 Ibid. 98 The Independent, September 16, 2002. 99 Los Angeles Times, April 1, 2002. CRS-20 Paraguay. Paraguay has joined with Argentina and Brazil, in a collaborative effort, to investigate the possibility of Hezbollah and Hamas fund-raising and other terrorist activity in the Tri-Border Area (TBA).100 People’s Republic of China (PRC). In renewed diplomatic support to the war on terrorism, China announced in March 2003 that terrorism would be the focus of its “Strike Hard” anti-crime campaign, giving new impetus to the newlyestablished antiterrorism bureau in the Ministry of Public Safety.101 Besides support on intelligence matters, U.S. and PRC officials regularly hold expert-level consultations on combating terrorist financing, conduct semiannual counter-terrorism consultations, and share information through law enforcement channels. China has pledged to cut off financial flows to terrorists. In Macau, financial authorities have directed banks to search for terrorist accounts. China also announced that it will provide $150 million in assistance to Afghanistan for its reconstruction. Peru. On May 25, 2002, the Peruvian police arrested three Shining Path suspects for their role in the car bombing, which took place outside the U.S. Embassy on March 20, 2002.102 Philippines. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo committed her country’s full support to the United States, including intelligence sharing, unconditional overflight permission, uses of military facilities, logistical support, food, medicine, and medical personnel following September 11. The Filipino government has been combating Abu Sayyaf, a group known to have connections to Osama bin Laden. On June 21, 2002, Filipino soldiers killed Abu Sabaya, a top leader of Abu Sayyaf, and captured some Abu Sayyaf members. On April 18, 2002, Filipino authorities sentenced Indonesian bomb expert Fathur Rohman al-Ghozi, a member of Jemaah Islamiah (JI), to up to 12 years in prison for holding two fake passports and possession of explosives.103 President Arroyo ordered the release104 of Abdul Jamal Balfas and Tamsil Linrung for insufficient evidence related to charges of explosive possession, but Philippine court found Agus Dwikarna 100 The TBA, the shared border of Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina, “has long been characterized as a regional hub for Hizballah and Hamas fund-raising activity” although not substantiated by intelligence sources, according to Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, April 2003. 101 “Chinese Authorities Make Crime Terrorism Focus of Crime Crackdown,” Dow Jones International News, March 11, 2003. Jiang Zhuqing and Liu Li,”China Joins Frontline Fight Against Terrorism,” China Daily, March 11, 2003. 102 Associated Press, June 12, 2002. 103 CNN.com, April 19, 2002. 104 “Indonesian militant seeks acquittal in Philippine court,” Agence France-Presse, August 23, 2002. CRS-21 guilty of explosives violations.105 On September 14, 2002, Usakar Mukawat, a suspected member of Jemaah Islamiah, was arrested for allegedly taking part in the April bomb attacks in General Santos.106 In October 2002, Filipino authorities arrested Abdulmukim, the alleged head of the explosives team for Abu Sayyaf in Manilia.107 Other bombings subsequently occurred in Mindanao cities, including one which killed a U.S. special forces soldier in October 2002.108 President Bush lauded the decision of the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs to ask Iraqi diplomat Husham Hussain to leave the country February 7, 2003, following new Philippine intelligence reports that Hussain has links to Abu Sayyaf.109 Qatar. In terms of assistance to Afghanistan, Qatar has provided aid to the National Army and a promise to build two hospitals. Republic of China (Taiwan). In assistance to Afghanistan, the government of Taiwan donated over $100 million in aid to Afghanistan and victims of the September 11 attacks. Taiwan-based nongovernmental organizations have also donated over $13 million in humanitarian and relief supplies.110 Romania. Romania’s motorized infantry battalion serving in Afghanistan was extended until December 2003. In support of the Afghan National Army, Romania has contributed a large quantity of training equipment: 1,000 AK-47 assault rifles, 300,000 rounds of ammunition, magazines and cleaning sets. Romania has also established a National Coordination Center to facilitate the movement of land, air, and naval forces of NATO countries. Russia. In assistance to Afghanistan, Russia has cleaned out and reconstructed the Salang Tunnel, a tunnel connecting the northern and southern provinces of Afghanistan. In January 2002, the tunnel opened for regular traffic, allowing transportation of thousands of tons of food, medicine, and supplies. Also, in January 2002, a joint Russian-German project completed the construction of a pontoon passage across Pianj River, which opened a continuous route from Tajikistan to the central region of Afghanistan for delivery of international humanitarian assistance. The Russian government also opened three Russian air corridors for humanitarian assistance to the war zone. Russia has already transported more than 420,000 tons of food and 2,100 tons of medicine to Afghanistan. In November 2001, Russia 105 CNN.com, May 12, 2002. 106 U.S. News and World Report, September 30, 2002. 107 The Washington Post, November 15, 2002. 108 “American, Filipino Soldier Killed in Zambo Blast, 21 Injured,” Minda News, October 2, 2002. 109 110 Ferdie J. Maglalang, “Bush Lauds Arroyo,” Manila Bulletin, February 13, 2003. “Taiwan Has Made Significant Contributions to War on Terrorism,” Central News Agency, January 25, 2003. CRS-22 established the first coalition hospital in Kabul, treating more than 6,000 patients. In January 2002, the hospital was turned over to local authorities. Russian special forces and former Soviet special forces have passed on strategically significant advice regarding Operation Enduring Freedom based on their combat experiences in Afghanistan. Russia has supplied maps of cave complexes in Afghanistan. Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia pledged to increase cooperation in the fight against terrorism following the May 12, 2003 bombings of three Western housing compounds in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, which left nearly 34 dead, including eight Americans and nine attackers. Saudi Arabia’s Interior Minister Nayef reported that at least 30 suspects have been identified with links to the bombings, but the total number of arrests remains unclear.111 Earlier on May 6, 2003, police raided a suspected hideout, uncovering a large weapons cache, linked to the same militants thought to be responsible for the Riyadh bombings. Although the Saudis have recently been more cooperative with U.S. investigators, FBI agents have been limited to inspection of the Riyadh blast area only.112 Still, the Saudi government and the United States continue to publicly limit details of Saudi cooperation in response to internal criticism of the foreign presence in Saudi Arabia and other middle eastern countries. Prior to the May attacks, Saudi Arabia, home to the bin Laden family, reportedly provided the United States with intelligence information and has allowed overflights, refueling operations, and logistical support for U.S. operations. Reports indicate that Saudi Arabia allowed the use of Prince Sultan Air Base for coordination of air operations over Afghanistan. Recent reports suggest that the Saudis have moved to restrict the funding of identified terrorist groups. The Saudi regime has frozen terrorist assets in the country and indicates plans to investigate fund raising and money laundering as a connection to terrorist activity. In the first such joint U.S.-Saudi designation, Saudi Arabia, in early March 2002, shut down branches of the Riyadh-based charity, Al-Hartman Islamic Foundation, in Somalia and Albania. In Tokyo at the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia pledged $220 million in humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan over the next three years. Singapore. A joint statement issued by President Bush and Singapore’s Prime Minister Goh Chock Tong in Washington on May 7, 2003 reaffirmed Singapore’s commitment to redouble antiterrorism efforts both bilaterally and through 111 Simpson, Cam. “Saudis arrest 4 in blasts; Suspects, some dead attackers linked to Al Qaeda,” Chicago Tribune, May 19, 2003; “Saudis Arrest Five More in bombing Probe,” Associated Press, June 14, 2003. 112 Ibid. CRS-23 multilateral organizations.113 On September 16, 2002, Singaporean authorities announced the arrest of 21 men, allegedly members of Jemaah Islamiah. The men had been arrested in August for reportedly planning to bomb U.S. embassies.114 Police detained 13 members of an Al Qaeda-linked group that planned a string of seven truck bombings against the U.S., Israeli, and Australian embassies.115 In December 2001, Singapore’s Internal Security Department arrested 15 suspects for alleged involvement in plans to bomb several American sites in Singapore. Singapore has also taken measures to combat terrorism include banning militant Muslim groups in Singapore and introducing legislation to prevent money laundering. Slovenia. Slovenia donated over 80 metric tons of arms and ammunition for equipping and training the Afghan National Army. It also provided de-mining and mine victims assistance. South Korea. South Korean C-130s have flown 18 flights between Seoul and Diego Garcia to transport over 45 tons of humanitarian relief supplies valued at $12 million. South Korea has also pledged $45 million in aid to Afghanistan over a 30month period. This will be used to help rebuild Afghanistan’s medical, education, and economic infrastructure. In March 2002, Kim Sang-tae, director of the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA), was dispatched to Kabul to serve as a resident official. He will serve as liaison for the South Korea’s reconstruction projects in Afghanistan and will open a Korean mission in Kabul. Spain. Spain has apprehended over 20 individuals thought to have links to Al Qaeda. In January 2003, Spain arrested 16 suspected terrorists in a major raid that involved more than 150 antiterrorism police officers. Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar referred to the arrests as an ‘extraordinarily important strike in the war against terror’.116 Bomb-making materials were found at the scene of the arrest, and Prime Minister Aznar stated that police thwarted a ‘major terrorist attack’.117 Although Spain provides police intelligence support to the war on terrorism, Spanish authorities are reluctant to extradite Al Qaeda terrorist suspects to the United States to face military tribunals. On July 17, 2002, Spanish police arrested three suspected Al Qaeda members of Syrian origin, including Ghasoub al-Abrash, Abdalrahman Alarnaot, and Mohamed Khair. Khair was an alleged Al Qaeda financier, forced to leave Syria due to his membership in the Muslim Brotherhood.118 In November 2001, Spanish authorities arrested 18 members of two Al Qaeda cells, including Yusuf Galan and Imad Eddin Barakat Yarkas (a.k.a. Abu Dahdah), alleged 113 Agence France-Presse, May 7, 2003. 114 U.S. News and World Report, September 30, 2002. 115 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002. 116 BBC News, January 24, 2003. 117 Ibid. 118 The Christian Science Monitor, July 17, 2002. CRS-24 leader of Al Qaeda’s Spanish cells. Yarkas helped recruit pilots who committed the September 11 attacks on the United States. He had contacts with Mohammed Haydar Zammar, who recruited Mohammed Atta for the September 11 attacks.119 Spanish authorities have also arrested Mohammed Bensakhria, aide to bin Laden and probable associate of Atta. Sweden. As a neutral country, Sweden is prohibited from taking part in any military action, but has contributed to the ISAF and shared intelligence with the United States and its allies. On August 29, 2002, Kerim Chatty, an alleged Al Qaeda supporter, was arrested for carrying a gun when he attempted to board a Ryanair flight from Stockholm to England. 120 In terms of aid to Afghanistan, Sweden has pledged $100 million in humanitarian aid and reconstruction assistance for the period 2002-2004. At the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan, Sweden pledged over $13 million in assistance. In the fall of 2002, Swedish engineers and a locally recruited workforce began construction of three bridges along the road between Jalalabad and Kabul. Sweden is hosting and chairing the Stockholm Process, aimed at making the U.N. Security Council’s sanctions more effective. Sweden is also an active participant in the multilateral Financial Action Task Force, and has supported recent proposals to strengthen the instruments to combat terrorism financing. To this end, Sweden has frozen funds and assets belonging to entities and individuals named on lists pursuant to U.N. resolutions. Switzerland. Despite policies of neutrality and customer confidentiality, Switzerland, a global center for banking and finance, took strict measures against terrorist financing. Switzerland complied with the U.N. resolutions on terrorist financing, and by September 2002, it had frozen 72 bank accounts and $22.64 million in assets possibly connected to the Taliban, bin Laden, and supporters of Al Qaeda.121 Also in September 2002, the Swiss attorney general visited Washington, D.C. to reinforce the country’s commitment to the global war on terrorism. To this end, U.S. and Swiss officials signed a new accord improving and increasing cooperation between the two countries.122 Additionally, on January 2003, Swiss authorities gave the United States records of a Swiss account owned by the Islamic Benevolence International Foundation, which is believed to have links with Al Qaeda. In assistance to Afghanistan, Switzerland pledged $18 million over two years at the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan in Tokyo. 119 El Pais, October 15, 2002. 120 U.S. News and World Report, September 30, 2002. 121 “Swiss holds $22 mln in ‘terror’ funds,” Reuters News, September 12, 2002. 122 Sands, David R. “Swiss attorney general says bin Laden has lots of cash,” Washington Times, September 5, 2002. CRS-25 Syria. In a renewed show of cooperation, Syrian authorities delivered Farouk Hijazi to U.S. authorities at the Iraqi border in late April 2003.123 Hijazi, “a long time Iraqi spy” and a suspect in the assassination plot against former President George Bush, is believed to be the number three person in Iraq’s intelligence apparatus, “responsible for overseeing foreign covert operations for Hussein.”124 James Woolsey, former CIA director, said that “Hijazi’s capture was the biggest catch so far...and that Hijazi is a key link between Hussein and terrorist organizations, including Al Qaeda.”125 Syria has also reportedly shared extensive intelligence on Islamic radicals with possible Al Qaeda connections. In August 2002, Nabil al-Marabh was sentenced to eight months in jail for illegally entering the United States to be followed by deportation to Syria.126 In June 2002, Syrian officials announced that they had arrested Mohammed Heidar Zammar, an associate of Mohammed Atta and accomplice in the September 11 attacks, who had been extradited to Syria from Morocco. 127 Syrian officials extradited bin Laden aide and associate Rifai Ahmed Taha to Egypt. Taiwan. See Republic of China. Thailand. Thailand is spearheading APEC counter-terrorism capacitybuilding efforts in preparation for the annual APEC leaders’ meeting scheduled for Bangkok in October 2003. Nationally, Thailand tightened its antiterrorism measures following intelligence reports, which reported that Thailand was one of 11 nations targeted by Iraqi sleeper-cell agents for attacks following the U.S.-led war in Iraq.128 The Thai government also pledged to exchange intelligence information in order to block financial flows to terrorists. The Thai government’s cooperation includes identifying terrorist assets, reinforcing money laundering legislation, and passing new antiterrorism measures. It is also involved in operation and coordination efforts of the multilateral cooperation on anti-money laundering, called the EGMONT GROUP, and is a member of the Asia-Pacific Group on Money Laundering. Thailand has expressed interest in joining the intelligence-sharing network recently established between Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. In terms of aid to Afghanistan, Thailand donated 3,000 metric tons of rice through the U.N. World Food Program and the Thai Red Cross Society donated 10,000 blankets to Afghanistan in November 2001. 123 Los Angeles Times, April 26, 2003. 124 Ibid. 125 Ibid. 126 New York Times, September 4, 2002. 127 The New York Times, June 19, 2002. 128 “Thailand Among 11 Countries on Iraq’s Hit List,”Straits Times, April 1, 2003. CRS-26 Tunisia. In early March 2003, President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali called for an international conference on terrorism to “establish an international code of ethics to which all parties will be committed. This code will help establish a responsible dialogue that transcends double standards and defines common denominators for combating terrorism.”129 As a result of intelligence-sharing, a Tunisian military court convicted Jaber Trabelsi in June 2002 of being a member of al-Sunna wal Djamaa, an Islamic militant group linked to Al Qaeda. Trabelsi was sentenced to eight years in prison followed by five years of house arrest.130 Additionally, Belgacem Nawab was arrested in connection for the April Bombing of a synagogue in Djerba.131 Tunisian authorities extradited Samem Zirda, alleged Al Qaeda member, to the United States.132 The same court convicted 34 Islamic militants of Al Qaeda links in January 2002, including contacts with the network’s ‘Milan cell’ suspected of recruiting militants and training them in Afghanistan. The court sentenced these men to eight to 20 years in prison.133 Almost all of these suspects were tried in absentia, including Essid Sami Ben Khemais (who may have known the hijacker Atta), who was arrested in Italy in April for an alleged plot to launch a poison chemical attack in Europe. Turkey. Turkey assigned five ships to participate in NATO counter-terrorism operations in the Mediterranean Sea. In assistance to Afghanistan, Turkey pledged $5 million over five years for reconstruction, based on commitments made at the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan in Tokyo. Turkey also increased security along its borders, enabling border guards to arrest Al Qaeda operatives. In February 2002, Turkish officials arrested three Al Qaeda suspects believed to have been en route to Israel to carry out a suicide bomb attack. The suspects included Mustafa Hasan, Ahmet Mahmud, and Firas Suleiman.134 Notably, Turkey allowed the United States to transport Guantanamo detainees through Turkish bases. Turkmenistan. On the humanitarian front, Turkmenistan allowed U.N. agencies to set up cross-border operations to move emergency aid from the eastern city of Turkmenabad to Andkhvoy in northern Afghanistan. Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld commented that Turkmenistan’s significant contribution to the 129 “President Ben Ali Calls for an International Conference on Terrorism,” Africa News, March 5, 2003. 130 Reuters, June 27, 2002. 131 Agence France Presse, September 14, 2002. 132 Ibid. 133 Ibid. 134 BBC News, February 14, 2002. CRS-27 humanitarian effort in Afghanistan “has undoubtedly saved the lives of the Afghan people.”135 United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE support includes law enforcement, intelligence, and assistance to Afghanistan. On the law enforcement and intelligence front, Djamel Beghal, alleged to be Al Qaeda’s Paris chief, was extradited to France in October 2001.136 Beghal had been arrested by U.A.E. authorities in July 2001.137 Kamel Daoudi was also arrested in October 2001 for playing a logistical role in the September 11 attacks. Daoudi was extradited to Paris.138 In terms of aid to Afghanistan, UAE pledged $36 million at the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan to Tokyo. United Kingdom. Britain pledged £200 million (about $282 million) in aid over the next five years for reconstruction. Since September 11, £60 million (about $85.5 million) has been provided by the UK for humanitarian assistance, including allocations to U.N. agencies, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and other NGOs. Since September 11, British authorities have arrested eleven people connected to Al Qaeda, including Amar Makhloulif, accused of being one of Britain’s Al Qaeda leaders. British authorities have agreed to extradite Makhloulif to the United States. On September 21, 2001, British authorities arrested Lofti Raissi, who allegedly trained some of the September 11 hijackers. He was released due to a lack of substantial evidence, but U.S. authorities are still pursuing Raissi as a suspect. Uzbekistan. Uzbek authorities reopened the country’s border crossing with Afghanistan, the Friendship Bridge at Termez, facilitating the safe flow of humanitarian assistance to the Afghan people. Prior to the reopening of the bridge, some aid groups were forced to haul supplies on lengthy trips through Turkmenistan and then into Afghanistan. Vietnam. In terms of aid to Afghanistan’s reconstruction, the government pledged an aid package worth $300,000. This package includes food, medicines, and other forms of humanitarian assistance. Yemen. FBI information led Yemeni officials to the arrest of 30 militants thought responsible for the slaying of American missionaries.139 Official state news sources report that Yemen has taken action to move against foreigners who are studying in the country’s religious schools and are thought to be tied to Al Qaeda. Over 100 foreigners from countries including Indonesia, Pakistan, Egypt, Libya, Britain, France, and Somalia have been arrested and deported for overstaying their 135 AFIS, April 28, 2002. 136 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002. 137 Toronto Star, January 8, 2002. 138 The Guardian, September 5, 2002. 139 Kelley, Jack. “Yemen Arrests 30 Militants,” USA Today, January 2, 2003. CRS-28 visas and for other questionable activities. In late October 2002, Yemeni authorities detained 20 people in connection with the attack on the French oil tanker Limburg.140 On November 2, 2002, Qaed Senyan al-Harithi (a.k.a. Abu Ali) was reportedly killed in a car explosion in the Marib province.141 Since September 11, Yemen has increased its intelligence cooperation by attempting to track down members of Al Qaeda and stepping up cooperation in the USS Cole bombing investigation. Yemeni authorities arrested 85 people with suspected links to Al Qaeda and the October 2000 attack on the USS Cole. In December 2001, government forces launched operations in the country’s Marib region in search of suspected Al Qaeda operatives. Although the offensive did not lead to the capture of Al Qaeda leaders, it demonstrated what is generally considered a good faith effort on the part of Yemen to cooperate in the war on terrorism. 140 The Washington Post, October 31, 2002. 141 The Washington Post, November 4, 2002. CRS-29 Table 1. Status of Key Al Qaeda-Linked Suspects At-Large Captured Presumed Dead or Killed Osama bin Laden Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Mohammed Atef Ayman al-Zawahiri Abu Zubaydah Al-Qaed Senyan al-Harthi Shaikh Saiid al-Masei Ramzi Binalshibh Mohammed Saleh Saif al-Adel Mohammed Haydar Zammar Tariq Anwar al-Sayyid Ahmad Abu Mohammed al-Masri Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri Abu Jafar al-Jaziri Sulaiman Abu Ghaith Anas al-Liby Abu Salah al-Yemeni Thirwat Salah Shirhata Omar al-Faraq Hamza al-Qatari Abu Musab Zarqawi Mohsen F Abu Ali Harthi Amin at-Haq Homamed Sadeek Odeh Mahfouz Ould Walid Abu Zubair Haili Ridwuan Islamuddin Zacarias Moussaoui Zaid Khayr Mohammed Salah Midhat Mursi Tawfiq Attash Khallad Abu Hafs the Mauritanian Abd al-Libi al-Iraqi Ahmad Said al-Kadr Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi Mohammed Jamal Khalifa Mounir el-Motassadeq Saad al-Sharif Richard Reid Abu Basir al-Yemeni Mohammed Omar Abdel-Rahman Abd al-Aziz al-Jamal Ahmad Omar Abdel-Rahmn Bilal bin Marwan Shaikh Siid Saqar al-Jadawi Abdul Rahim Riyadh Saad bin Laden Nizar Trabelsi Sa’id Bahaji Djemal Beghal Mohamed Bensakhria Kamel Daoudi Zakariya Essabar David Courtailler Mustafa Ahmed al — Hisawi Yusuf Galan Ridvan Isamuddin (Hambali) Raed Hijazi Abu Walid Nabil al-Marabh Abu Qatada Essid Sami Benkhemais Imad Eddin Barakat Yarkas Sources: Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Most Wanted Terrorists, [http://www.fbi.gov/mostwant/terrorists/fugitives.htm]. Efreedom News, Al Qaeda and the Taliban, [http://www.efreedomnews.com]; Who’s Who in Al Qaeda, BBC News, [http://www.bbc.co.uk]; and Wanted in War on Terrorism, USA Today, March 3, 2003. Note: Suspects include those individuals appearing on the U.S. terrorist’s list and the FBI most wanted as well as those linked to the September 11 attacks. Other arrests are discussed throughout the report. Mamoun Darkazanli and Mohammed Belfas, although generally presumed to have connections with Al Qaeda, have not been arrested due to insubstantial evidence. CRS-30 Table 2. Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) Actual and Expected Donor Contributions (As of May 31, 2003) (Afghan Solar Year) US$ Million Donor* Bahrain Canada Denmark European Commission Finland Germany India Iran Ireland Italy Japan MoF Japan MoFA Korea Kuwait Portugal Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Saudi Arabia Sweden Switzerland Turkey UK U.S. TOTAL SY1381 Total Paid-in (3/21/20023/20/2003) 0.504 0.504 SY1382 Total Paid-in (3/21/20033/20/2004) 0.000 17.394 5.000 15.870 27.780 10.000 67.746 10.386 5.000 15.026 10.386 5.000 51.876 2.792 10.068 0.000 0.200 1.000 17.000 2.500 2.500 2.000 5.000 0.200 1.000 33.667 6.818 10.000 3.103 0.673 0.500 15.078 38.000 190.867 2.792 21.068 0.000 1.200 2.650 17.000 2.500 2.500 2.000 10.000 0.200 1.000 72.167 21.518 10.000 9.103 0.673 0.500 70.903 58.000 411.804 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 5.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 7.825 0.000 43.237 0.000 11.000 0.000 1.000 1.650 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 5.000 0.000 0.000 38.500 14.700 0.000 6.000 0.000 0.000 55.825 20.000 220.937 SY1381 Expected SY1382 Expected 0.000 Source: World Bank, [http://www.worldbank.org/artf] * The table lists only those pledges that have been formally confirmed. Note: Solar Year represents Afghanistan’s budgeting cycle, which begins March 21, 2002 and ends March 20, 2003. CRS-31 Table 3. Direct Foreign Military - Related Support (Offered or Provided) for the U.S.-Led War in Afghanistan Country Afghanistan Albania Australia Combat Troopsa Military Equipment Xa Elite commando detachment and 30 special forces 850-1,300 troops; elite Special Air Services, 150 special forces troops Austria Azerbaijan Bahrain X Belgium X Bulgaria Canada Non-Combat Units X Small arms, ammunition, mortars, and shells to equip one battalion of the Afghan National Army National command element, offered troops to ISAF, and representatives to CENTCOM 72 soldiers to ISAF 30 military personnel to ISAF Maintains fighter units on continuous alert to provide combat air patrols One officer to CENTCOM, one to Regional Air Movement Control Center as deputy chief of operations, 50 troops to ISAF, and four aircrews to support homeland security efforts at Tinker Air Force Base Deployed peacekeepers and 40-person Nuclear, Biological, Chemical (NBC) decontamination unit to support ISAF Command unit, 50 personnel at CENTCOM, specialized ground forces in a component of JTF-2, 175 National Support Unit provides administrative and logistical support to Operation Apollo, and light infantry battle group deployed as part of TF Rakkasan with 830 personnel Two KB 707 tanker aircraft (with support crew), four F/A-18 aircraft (with support crew), two frigates, amphibious landing ship, two P-3 Orion long range maritime patrol aircraft, and C-130 aircraft C-130 Air Force aircraft with crew, including maintenance Access to excavation and construction equipment and supplied Afghan Interim Government with arms and ammunition on an assistance basis Six warships, several Sea King helicopters, six Air Force planes, CF-18 fighter jets, three humanitarian assistance ships, CC 150 Polaris, three C-130 aircraft, two CP 140 Aurora aircraft, and 12 COYOTE armored reconnaissance vehicles CRS-32 Country Combat Troopsa Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Ethiopia Estonia X Finland France 4,200 troops to Afghanistan and Manas Airfield in Kyrgyzstan Germany 3,900 troops (including special forces) Non-Combat Units Three personnel at CENTCOM, 250 specialists trained in anti-chemical protection, special task force unit on antiterrorism, 150 medical personnel (including doctors) to support ISAF, and peacekeeping troops in the Balkans through a joint battalion of Czech and Slovak troops 77 C-130 aircraft crew and personnel, 100 special operation forces troops, five personnel at CENTCOM, 34 troops to ISAF, working in mine clearing, military police, and ISAF staff Three representatives to CENTCOM Liaison officers to CENTCOM Two explosive detection canine units for airbase operations Liaison team to CENTCOM and civil-military cooperation unit with 30 officers 15 personnel to CENTCOM, 60 French instructors for training an Afghan army battalion, and 520 troops to ISAF (areas of mine clearing, ground troops, helicopter pilots, and hospital staff) 50 reconnaissance crew; medical crew; NATO AWAC crews, and 1,200 soldiers to ISAF Military Equipment TU-154 aircraft to transport persons and cargo and 1,000 military uniforms to the Afghan National Army C-130 Aircraft and six F16 aircraft to Manas Ten cargo handlers as part of Danish contingent to Manas Only carrier battle group, six Mirage-2000 fighter planes, air reconnaissance assets, refuelers, C-160 and C-130 for humanitarian assistance and mission air support, and two KC-135 aircraft deployed for aerial refueling to Manas Combat ships and maritime aircraft, armored reconnaissance vehicles, and “Flying Hospital” (medical evacuation Airbus A130) CRS-33 Country Combat Troops Greece Guatemala Hungary Ireland Italy 2,700 troops, additional 1,000 offered, and 1,475 sent to the Gulf Military Equipment Three personnel at CENTCOM, one air force officer assigned as operations officer of the RAMCC, one Naval liaison officer deployed to Bahrain, team of Navy commandos to CENTCOM (AOR), engineering company of 112 men, and 56 security support team 30 soldiers as part of Central American contingent for humanitarian work Health unit Seven personnel participating in ISAF Frigate (with 210 crew members), one S-70 BA Aegean Hawk helicopter, countermine ship, offered two more vessels, Air Force sorties, 64 engineering vehicles, and two C-130 transport aircraft 13 personnel at CENTCOM, 400 troops participating in ISAF, and engineering team deployed to Bagram for the repair of the runway 1,500 troops (Self-Defense Forces) provided logistical support, 1,200 personnel dispatched to the Indian Ocean to provide at-sea refueling Offered troops for peacekeeping operations, two representatives to CENTCOM, “Aardvark” mine clearing unit, planning officer to RAMCC, and medical support at a hospital in Mazer-e-Sharif Officers to CENTCOM for training Liaison officer to CENTCOM Three representatives to CENTCOM Five representatives to CENTCOM Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kuwait Kyrgystan Lativa Non-Combat Units Pledged 12 soldiers to Kyrgyzstan Military medics to ISAF Armored regiment, reconnaissance and transport planes, warships and vehicles to check for biological and chemical weapons, carrier battle group, three C-130 aircraft, one Boeing 707, one AN124, and one IL-76 Three destroyers, two oiler supply ships, C-130 fleet, and U-4 aircraft provided airlift support Ten cargo handlers CRS-34 Country Combat Troops Lithuania Macedonia Malaysia The Netherlands Offered 1,400 troops New Zealand Special Air Service (SAS) troops Norway Poland Portugal Qatar Non-Combat Units 12 military medical personnel as part of a Czech field hospital, 40 special operation forces, and representative to CENTCOM Two officers taking part in the ISAF as part of the Turkish contingent Medical team to help Afghan refugees in Pakistan 485 personnel, including 224 military personnel to ISAF, personnel at CENTCOM, military personnel accompanied various aircraft and naval ships (35 in the Carribean with a P-3C Orion, 166 on the HNLMS Van Galen, 30 in Kyrgyzstan with a C-130, one in Qatar with a KDC-10 tank/transport aircraft, and 23 in United Arab Emirates with a P-3C Orion) 30 soldiers participate in ISAF, seven-person air loading team to support the ISAF, and six personnel are staff officers in the ISAF. 162 personnel to support operations in Afghanistan, six personnel at CENTCOM; special forces; 20 personnel to ISAF (including mine clearing experts and an engineering unit) 275 troops (including military engineers, chemical and biological weapons specialists); five personnel at CENTCOM; combat engineers and logistics platoon forces; and Polish demining crews Liaison representatives to CENTCOM, eight personnel deployed to ISAF, medical team with two doctors, three nurses, and three technicians Three representatives to CENTCOM Military Equipment Six fighter planes, support planes, three frigates, two minesweepers, a submarine, deployed six F-16 aircraft to Manas, and C-130 carried out humanitarian assistance flights C-130 aircraft for humanitarian efforts and logistics 15 hardened vehicles, C-130 transport aircraft, six F-16 aircraft to Manas, and supplies and equipment for the Afghan army C-130 with crew and maintenance team, including 15 personnel CRS-35 Country Romania Combat Troops 450 soldiers Russia Slovakia South Korea Spain Sweden 450 military personnel Non-Combat Units Infantry battalion of 405; nuclear, biological, and chemical company of 70, and 10 staff officers; three liaison officers to CENTCOM; 58 troops, including police and intelligence officers to the ISAF; and mine and clearing equipment and engineers Liaison officers to CENTCOM and mine clearing experts Liaison officer to CENTCOM, 40 strong peacekeeping unit to ISAF, special forces regiment, NBC reconnaissance units, and a mobile field hospital Five personnel to CENTCOM and Level II hospital with 90 personnel Nine personnel at CENTCOM; staff officers to Permanent Joint Headquarters (PJHQ) and European Command; 30 personnel to ISAF in the areas of engineering, explosive ordnance disposal, logistics, helicopter support, and air transport support; and maintained a 50-person hospital at Bagram Two representatives to CENTCOM, intelligence unit of 45 to ISAF, 20 professionals from the Swedish Rescue Services Agency to assist in logistical support for humanitarian aid distribution, and 31 soldiers to the ISAF Military Equipment C-130 aircraft and training equipment for the Afghan National Army (1,000 AK47 assault rifles, 300, 000 rounds of ammunition, magazines and cleaning sets) Soviet-made guns, artillery, and tanks to Northern Alliance Naval vessel and C-130 One hercules airplane and two helicopters, one P-3B to Djibouti, two C-130s (offered another C-130) to Manas, one supply ship deployed to CENTCOM region, SAR helicopters, and two frigates to the CENTCOM region. CRS-36 Country Combat Troops Thailand Turkey United Arab Emirates (UAE) 23,000 troops, 1,700 person infantry battleUnited Kingdom group skilled in mountain and cold-weather combat Uzbekistan Non-Combat Units Military engineering battalion task force of 1,000 for infrastructure construction and de-mining efforts, military medical officers for peacekeeping forces, offered experts in prosthetic limbs, assistance to train people with disabilities, and training in sustainable development Special forces and equipment to train antiTaliban fighters, three personnel to CENTCOM, 90 special forces to train Northern Alliance forces, 1,400 troops to ISAF, three officers and one noncommissioned officer to ISAF headquarters, personnel assisting in training and equipping Afghan National Guard, Air Force personnel conducted site surveys for humanitarian assistance, Close Air Support, and airborne operations Three personnel to CENTCOM, 200 Royal Marine commandos trained in mountain and winter warfare on “stand-by,” 400 commandos placed on “high readiness,” elite Special Air Service and reinforced by 100 British commandos, 40 personnel to CENTCOM, led ISAF with 1,800 troops Four representatives to CENTCOM Military Equipment KC-135 aerial refueling, ambulance, minibus, a mortar gun, and other armored vehicles to ISAF C-130 aircraft for humanitarian assistance Heavy tanks; self-propelled guns and missile launchers; three dozen warships, including its largest aircraft carrier with a squadron of Harrier jets and an assault ship with marines and army commandos; and 11-ship naval armada Leased IL-76 transport aircraft a. The “x” signifies contributions, though no specific amount was indicated. CRS-37 Table 4. Detail of Foreign Military - Related Support (Offered or Provided) for the US-Led War in Afghanistan Country Basing Rights Afghanistan Bagram Albania Maritime Access Overflight Rights Other Facilities a and Post-War Aid X X Airports Austria X (and transit flights) Azerbaijan Bahrain X X Bangladesh Bulgaria X X Hosts the headquarters of U.S. Navy’s Fifth Fleet, Bahrain royal air base houses U.S. aircraft, agreed to house officers of the Marine Central Command X Refueling facilities X (for military and humanitaria n aircraft) Hosted deployment of six U.S. KC-135 aircraft and 200 support personnel at Burgas Cambodia X Cyprus Airport facilities Czech Republic Djibouti X (air space en route to conflict zone) X X Egypt Ethiopia Landing facilities to U.S. aircraft X Landing support and hosts Coalition forces from France, Germany, the U.K., and the United States X X X France X Georgia X Germany X Greece X Hungary X Site Surveys X Landing clearances Iceland Keflavik airport Ireland Airfields Jordan X X Kazakhstan Kenya X X X X Airport and offer to host U.S. troops; allows use of Shymkent airport by Denmark and Norway for antiterrorism operations CRS-38 Country Kuwait Basing Rights Maritime Access X (Camp Doha and Ali Salem and Ahmed Al Jaber) Overflight Rights X Kyrgyzstan Lativa Other Facilities a and Post-War Aid Manas international airport and road and rail infrastructure for humanitarian assistance X X X Lithuania Airports Malaysia X Moldova X Oman Chisinau Airport Airfields at Seeb, Thumrait, and Masirah Island Philippines X X Portugal X Landing rights at Lajes Air Base Romania X Air, land, and maritime facilities Russia X Allowed U.S. troops to be based in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan Qatar Saudi Arabia X (AlUdeid) Prince Sultan Air Base Slovakia X X Tajikistan Three air bases (transit point) Turkey Eight air bases, including Incirlik Turkmenistan X X (for humanitarian aid) Ukraine X X United Arab Emirates (UAE) X X Uzbekistan X Refueling support for humanitarian support Hosted 1,500 U.S. troops a. Allowing use of the country’s infrastructure and other assets, including training and interviewing facilities. CRS-39 Table 5. Counter-Terrorism Measures Approved or Considered Organization/ Country Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) International Regional National Eight Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing APEC Leaders Statement on Counter-terrorism European Union (EU) Organization of American States (OAS) Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Albania U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 Algeria U.N. Res. 54/109 Angola Antigua & Barbuda Argentina U.N. Sec. Res. 1373 U.N. Res. 54/109 Australia U.N. Res. 52/164 Regional framework for fighting transnational crime and ASEAN plan of action; Declaration on Joint Action to Counter Terrorism; and Support to APEC declaration EU Directive on Combating Money Laundering Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance and Hemispheric Cooperation to Prevent, Eliminate, Combat Terrorism Resolution, InterAmerican Committee Against Terrorism, and InterAmerican Convention Against Terrorism Antiterror policy and Counter-terrorism plan (Bucharest Conference December 2001) Counter-terrorism body in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan OAU “Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism” Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism Cooperation with Brazil and Paraguay ANZUS Security Treaty Antiterrorism legislation Antiterrorism financing Financial Intelligence Unit Antiterrorism legislation and Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Center (AUSTRAC) CRS-40 Organization/ International Country Austria U.N. Res. 54/109 Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 U.N. Res. 54/109 and 1333 Belize U.N. Res. 54/109 Brazil Bulgaria Financial Intelligence unit; Antiterrorism financing Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism Antiterrorism financing OAU “Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism” U.N. Sec. Res. 1386 and 1373 Antiterrorism financing Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cyprus Denmark Djbouti Dominica Dominican Republic International Obligations Order 2001 Antiterrorism financing Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism Regional Migration Conference (RMC) “Declaration Against Terrorism”; Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism OAS “Resolution Strengthening Cooperation to Prevent, Combat, and Eliminate Terrorism” Cooperation with Argentina and Paraguay U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 Burkina Faso Cambodia National U.N. Sec. Res. 1386 and 1373 Barbados Bolivia Regional All U.N. conventions and protocols relating to terrorism U.N. Res. 54/109, also party to three other U.N. conventions U.N. Res 52/164 RMC “Declaration Against Terrorism” U.N. 54/109 and 52/164 U.N. Res. 54/109 and 52/164 Anti-Terrorism Act and Public Safety Act Antiterrorism financing Financial Information and Analysis Unit Antiterrorism financing Antiterrorism financing Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism Act U.N. Res. 1373 RMC “Declaration Against Terrorism” CRS-41 Organization/ International Country Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Finland Regional RMC “Declaration Against Terrorism” Antiterrorism financing U.N. Sec. Res. 1386 and 1373 U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 France Germany Ghana U.N. Res. 54/109 Grenada U.N. Sec. Res. 1373 Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism RMC “Declaration Against Terrorism” Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism RMC “Declaration Against Terrorism” Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance 2001 Trilateral Agreement with Malaysia and Philippines on Terrorism and Transnational Crimes Israel Jamaica Japan Kenya Kuwait Latvia Lithuanian Luxembourg Antiterrorism legislation Antiterrorism legislation Antiterrorism plan; Antiterrorism financing Antiterrorism act U.N. Res. 52/164 U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 India Indonesia National Eradication of Criminal Acts of Terrorism 2002 Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance 2001 U.N. Sec. Res. 1333 Nassau Declaration on and U.N. Res. 54/109 International Terrorism U.N. Sec. Res. 1333 and 1267 and U.N. Res 54/109 U.N. Res. 54/109, and is party to nine other U.N. conventions antiterrorism Special Measures Law 2001 Antiterrorism financing Antiterrorism plan Antiterrorism program Antiterrorism plan CRS-42 Organization/ International Country Malaysia U.N. Sec. Res. 1373 Malta Mexico Monaco U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 U.N. Res. 54/109 Mozambique National Trilateral Agreement with Indonesia and Philippines on Terrorism and Transnational Crimes Antiterrorism financing; Southeast Asia counter-terrorism centre RMC “Declaration Against Terrorism” U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 Montserrat Morocco Regional Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism U.N. Sec. Res. 1386 and 1373; and U.N. Res. 54/109 U.N. Res. 54/109 Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Norway ANZUS Security Treaty U.N. Sec. Res. 1267 and 1386 U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 Panama RMC “Declaration Against Terrorism” RMC “Declaration Against Terrorism” Cooperation with Brazil and Argentina Paraguay People’s Republic of China Peru Review of antiterrorism laws Antiterrorism action plan Terrorism Suppression Act 2002; antiterrorism financing Antiterrorism action plan U.N. Res. 54/109 Philippines Portugal U.N. Res. 52/164 Qatar People’s U.N. Res. 54/109 Republic of China (PRC) Republic of China (Taiwan) Russia U.N. Res. 54/109 Saudi Arabia Senegal Trilateral Agreement with Indonesia and Malaysia on Terrorism and Transnational Crimes Antiterrorism financing Terrorism Task Force Antiterrorism financing Antiterrorism financing CRS-43 Organization/ International Country Singapore St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Slovakia Slovenia South Africa South Korea Spain U.N. Res. 1333 U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 Commonwealth Commission on Terrorism U.N. Res. 54/109 U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 Suriname Sweden Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Regional National Antiterrorism plan Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism OAU “Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism” Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 U.N. Res. 52/164 and 54/109 U.N. Sec. Res. 1373 Ratified 5 different U.N. conventions on terrorism Acceded to 11 of the U.N. conventions against terrorism U.N. Res. 54/109 U.N. Res. 52/164 Antiterrorism financing Antiterrorism plan, antiterrorism financing, amending Anti-Money Laundering Act of 1999 Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism Antiterrorism financing Antiterrorism financing Antiterrorism financing Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 Note: This list represents only a sample of international, regional, and national counter terrorism measures adopted by country, and is not exhaustive. See Appendix: Links for Abbreviations, U.N. Security Council Resolutions Regarding Afghanistan, for further information to some of the counterterrorism measures mentioned herein. CRS-44 Appendix: Links for Abbreviations U.N. Action Against Terrorism U.N. Resolution 49/60: Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism (12/94) [http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/49/a49r060.htm] U.N. Resolution 54/109: Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (12/99) [http://www.un.org/law/cod/finterr.htm] U.N. Resolution 52/164: Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (12/97) [http://www.un.org/ga/documents/gares52/res52164.htm] U.N. Resolution 1373 (9/28/01) to combat international terrorism [http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2001/sc7158.doc.htm] U.N. Security Council Resolutions Regarding Afghanistan U.N. Resolution 1267 (10/99) on the situation in Afghanistan [http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/sasia/afghan/un/res1267.htm] U.N. Resolution 1333 (12/00) on the situation in Afghanistan [http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/sasia/afghan/un/res1333.pdf] U.N. Resolution 1363 (7/01) on the situation in Afghanistan [http://www.un.org/Docs/scres/2001/res1363e.pdf] U.N. Resolution 1378 (11/01) on the situation in Afghanistan [http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/01111512.htm] U.N. Resolution 1383 (12/01) on the situation in Afghanistan [http://www.un.org/Docs/scres/2001/res1383e.pdf] U.N. Resolution 1386 (12/01) on the situation in Afghanistan [http://www.un.org/Docs/scres/2001/res1386e.pdf] U.N. Resolution 1388 (1/02) on the situation in Afghanistan [http://daccess-ods.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N02/212/87/PDF/N0221287.pdf?O penElement] U.N. Resolution 1390 (1/02) on the situation in Afghanistan [http://daccess-ods.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N02/216/02/PDF/N0221602.pdf?O penElement] CRS-45 U.N. Resolution 1401 (2002) on the situation in Afghanistan [http://daccess-ods.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N02/309/14/PDF/N0230914.pdf?O penElement] Military Terms Airborne Early Warning and Control Force (AWACS) [http://www.e3a.nato.int/] U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) [http://www.centcom.mil/aboutus/aboutus.html] ECHELON [http://www.telsec.com.br/echelon.html] Multinational Interception Operations (MIF) [http://www.minister.defence.gov.au/Hilltpl.cfm?CurrentId=1400] Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) [http://www.army.mil/enduringfreedom/default.html] Operation Noble Eagle [http://www.af.mil/news/efreedom/index.shtml] Regional Air Movement Control Center (RAMCC) [http://www.centaf.af.mil/ramcc/] Counter- terrorism Resolutions and Actions by Country and Region142 The Arab Convention for the Suppression of Terrorism [http://www.al-bab.com/arab/docs/league/terrorism98.html] Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 (Great Britain) http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts2001/20010024.htm Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law 2001 (Japan) [http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/n-america/us/terro0109/speech/pm1029.html] ANZUS Security Treaty [http://usembassy-australia.state.gov/anzus/index.html] ASEAN Declaration on Joint Action to Counter Terrorism http://www.state.gov/coalition/dplm/8819.htm] 142 This list represents only a sample of counter terrorism resolutions and actions, and is not exhaustive. CRS-46 Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Center (AUSTRAC) [http://www.austrac.gov.au] Canada’s Anti-Terrorism Act [http://www.parl.gc.ca/37/1/parlbus/chambus/house/bills/government/C-36/C-36_ 1/C-36TOCE.html] Executive Order 13224 (9/23/01) [http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/fs/2001/6531.html] European Union Directive on Money Laundering: [http://europa.eu.int/comm/internal_market/en/finances/general/launden.htm] Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FINCEN) [http://www.ustreas.gov/fincen/] Eradication of Criminal Acts of Terrorism 2002 (Indonesia) http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/forum/forumnew65.php Hemispheric Cooperation to Prevent, Eliminate, and Combat Terrorism: [http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/ga-res99/eres1650.htm] International Law Enforcement Academy [http://www.usis.hu/ilea.html] Law of the Ukraine “On preventing and counteracting the legalization (laundering) of incomes acquired by criminal means” 2002 http://www.icps.com.ua/docs/nl/full/eng/nl_eng_20021209_0169.pdf Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism: [http://www.caricom.org/archives/nassaudeclaration%20on%20territorism.htm] Organization for African Unity (OAU) “Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism” [http://www.iss.co.za/African_facts/RegOrganisations/unity_to_union/pdfs/oau/tr eaties/Algiers_convention.pdf] Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance 2001 (India) [http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/terrorism/terrorism3a.htm] Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance 2001 (Israel) [http://www.ict.org.il/counter_ter/law/lawdet.cfm?lawid=11] Regional Migration Conference (RMC) “Declaration Against Terrorism” [http://www.rcmvs.org/7a_1.html] Terrorism Suppression Act 2002 (New Zealand) [http://www.aph.gov.au/library/intguide/law/crimlaw.htm#terrnz] CRS-47 Trilateral Agreement on Terrorism and Transnational Crimes [http://www.gov.ph/news/default.asp?newsid=1479] U.S.- India Joint Working Group on Counter-terrorism [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2002/11922.html] U.S.-Pakistan Joint Working Group on Counter-terrorism [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2002/10019.html] Groups Allegedly Affiliated with Al Qaeda143 The Advice and Reform Committee Asbat al- Ansar (Lebanon) Harakat ul-Ansar/Mujahadeen (Pakistan) Al-Badar (Pakistan) Armed Islamic Group/GIA (Algeria) Saafi Group for Proselytism and Combat/GSPD (Algeria) Talaa al Fath (Vanguards of Conquest) The Groupe Roubaix (Canada/France) Harakat ul Jihad (Pakistan) Jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Pakistan (Pakistan) Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam/JUI (Pakistan) Hezbollah (Lebanon) Hezb ul-Mujahideen (Pakistan) al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group, Egypt) al-Hadith (Pakistan) Hamas (Palestinian Authority) Bayt al-Imam (Jordan) Islamic Jihad (Palestinian Authority) Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan al-Jihad (Bangladesh) al-Jihad (Egypt) al-Jihad (Yemen) Laskar e-Toiba (Pakistan) Lebanese Partisans League Libyan Islamic Group Moro Islamic Liberation Front (Philippines) Partisans Movement (Kashmir) Abu Sayyff (Philippines) al-Ittihad (Somalia) Ulema Union of Afghanistan 143 Alexander, Yonah. 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