Legislative Branch: FY2020 Appropriations

The legislative branch appropriations bill provides funding for the Senate; House of Representatives; Joint Items; Capitol Police; Office of Congressional Workplace Rights (formerly Office of Compliance); Congressional Budget Office (CBO); Architect of the Capitol (AOC); Library of Congress (LOC), including the Congressional Research Service (CRS); Government Publishing Office (GPO); Government Accountability Office (GAO); Open World Leadership Center; and the John C. Stennis Center.

The legislative branch budget request was submitted on March 11, 2019. Following hearings in the House and Senate in February, March, and April, the House Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch held a markup on May 1, 2019. No amendments were considered, and the bill was ordered reported to the full committee by voice vote.

On May 9, 2019, the House Appropriations Committee held a markup of the bill. Two manager’s amendments were considered. The first amendment was adopted by voice vote. The second amendment was adopted by voice vote after an amendment to the amendment was not adopted (23-28). The bill was ordered reported (H.Rept. 116-64; H.R. 2779). As amended, the bill would provide $3.972 billion, not including Senate items (+$164.2 million).

On June 3, the House Committee on Rules issued a “Dear Colleague” letter announcing the amendment process for floor consideration of the legislative branch and four other appropriations bills (Rules Committee Print 116-17). The committee established a deadline of 10:00 a.m. on June 7, 2019, for the submission of draft amendments.

During consideration of the FY2020 funding levels, Congress also considered an additional $10.0 million in FY2019 supplemental appropriations for GAO for audits and investigations related to storms and disasters. This funding has been included in two bills considered in the 116th Congress: H.R. 268, which passed the House on January 16, 2019, but cloture was not invoked in the Senate; and H.R. 2157, which has passed both the House and Senate.

Previously, over the last decade

The FY2019 level of $4.836 billion represented an increase of $136.0 million (+2.9%) from FY2018.

The FY2018 level of $4.700 billion represented an increase of $260.0 million (+5.9%) from FY2017.

The FY2017 level of $4.440 billion represented increase of $77.0 million (+1.7%) from FY2016.

The FY2016 level of $4.363 billion represented an increase of $63.0 million (+1.5%) from FY2015.

The FY2015 level of $4.300 billion represented an increase of $41.7 million (+1.0%) from FY2014.

The FY2014 level of $4.259 billion represented an increase of $198 million (+4.9%) from FY2013.

The FY2013 level of $4.061 billion represented a decrease of $246 million (-5.6%), including the sequestration and rescission, from FY2012.

The FY2012 level of $4.307 billion represented a decrease of $236.9 million (-5.2%) from FY2011.

The FY2011 level of $4.543 billion represented a decrease of $125.1 million (-2.7%) from the $4.669 billion provided for FY2010.

The smallest of the appropriations bills, the legislative branch bill comprises approximately 0.4% of total discretionary budget authority.

Legislative Branch: FY2020 Appropriations

June 6, 2019 (R45755)
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Contents

Summary

The legislative branch appropriations bill provides funding for the Senate; House of Representatives; Joint Items; Capitol Police; Office of Congressional Workplace Rights (formerly Office of Compliance); Congressional Budget Office (CBO); Architect of the Capitol (AOC); Library of Congress (LOC), including the Congressional Research Service (CRS); Government Publishing Office (GPO); Government Accountability Office (GAO); Open World Leadership Center; and the John C. Stennis Center.

The legislative branch budget request was submitted on March 11, 2019. Following hearings in the House and Senate in February, March, and April, the House Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch held a markup on May 1, 2019. No amendments were considered, and the bill was ordered reported to the full committee by voice vote.

On May 9, 2019, the House Appropriations Committee held a markup of the bill. Two manager's amendments were considered. The first amendment was adopted by voice vote. The second amendment was adopted by voice vote after an amendment to the amendment was not adopted (23-28). The bill was ordered reported (H.Rept. 116-64; H.R. 2779). As amended, the bill would provide $3.972 billion, not including Senate items (+$164.2 million).

On June 3, the House Committee on Rules issued a "Dear Colleague" letter announcing the amendment process for floor consideration of the legislative branch and four other appropriations bills (Rules Committee Print 116-17). The committee established a deadline of 10:00 a.m. on June 7, 2019, for the submission of draft amendments.

During consideration of the FY2020 funding levels, Congress also considered an additional $10.0 million in FY2019 supplemental appropriations for GAO for audits and investigations related to storms and disasters. This funding has been included in two bills considered in the 116th Congress: H.R. 268, which passed the House on January 16, 2019, but cloture was not invoked in the Senate; and H.R. 2157, which has passed both the House and Senate.

Previously, over the last decade

  • The FY2019 level of $4.836 billion represented an increase of $136.0 million (+2.9%) from FY2018.
  • The FY2018 level of $4.700 billion represented an increase of $260.0 million (+5.9%) from FY2017.
  • The FY2017 level of $4.440 billion represented increase of $77.0 million (+1.7%) from FY2016.
  • The FY2016 level of $4.363 billion represented an increase of $63.0 million (+1.5%) from FY2015.
  • The FY2015 level of $4.300 billion represented an increase of $41.7 million (+1.0%) from FY2014.
  • The FY2014 level of $4.259 billion represented an increase of $198 million (+4.9%) from FY2013.
  • The FY2013 level of $4.061 billion represented a decrease of $246 million (-5.6%), including the sequestration and rescission, from FY2012.
  • The FY2012 level of $4.307 billion represented a decrease of $236.9 million (-5.2%) from FY2011.
  • The FY2011 level of $4.543 billion represented a decrease of $125.1 million (-2.7%) from the $4.669 billion provided for FY2010.

The smallest of the appropriations bills, the legislative branch bill comprises approximately 0.4% of total discretionary budget authority.


FY2020 Consideration: Overview of Actions

The first section of this report provides an overview of the consideration of FY2020 legislative branch appropriations, with subsections covering each action to date, including

  • the initial submission of the request on March 11, 2019;
  • hearings held by the House Legislative Branch Subcommittee in February, March, and April 2019 and hearings held by the Senate Legislative Branch Subcommittee in March and April 2019;
  • the House subcommittee markup held on May 1, 2019;
  • the House full committee markup on May 9, 2019; and
  • the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) letter from May 8, 2019, with the Administration's position on the legislative branch budget.

It is followed by a section on prior year actions and funding, which contains a historical table and figure.

The report then provides an overview of the FY2020 budget requests of individual legislative branch agencies and entities.

Table 5 through Table 9 list enacted funding levels for FY2019 and the requested and House-reported levels for FY2020, while the Appendix lists House, Senate, and conference bills and reports; public law numbers; and enactment dates since FY1998.

Status of FY2020 Appropriations: Dates and Documents

Table 1. Status of Legislative Branch Appropriations, FY2020

Committee Markup

 

 

 

 

 

Conference Report Approval

 

House

Senate

House Report

House Passage

Senate Report

Senate Passage

Conference Report

House

Senate

Public Law

5/9/19

 

5/16/19
H.Rept. 116-64;
H.R. 2779

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Congressional Research Service examination of congress.gov data.

Notes: In recent years, the House has held a subcommittee markup prior to the full committee markup. The subcommittee markup was held on May 1, 2019.

Submission of FY2020 Budget Request on March 11, 2019

The White House submitted its budget for FY2020, which includes the legislative branch budget request, on March 11, 2019. As explained by OMB,1

The budget covers the agencies of all three branches of Government—Executive, Legislative, and Judicial—and provides information on Government-sponsored enterprises. In accordance with law or established practice, OMB includes information on agencies of the Legislative Branch, the Judicial Branch, and certain Executive Branch agencies as submitted by those agencies without change.

The independence of the submissions by the legislative branch agencies and entities is codified in Title 31, Section 1105, of the U.S. Code, which states the following:2

Estimated expenditures and proposed appropriations for the legislative branch and the judicial branch to be included in each budget ... shall be submitted to the President ... and included in the budget by the President without change.

Furthermore, Division C of the FY2012 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 112-74) added language to Title 31, Section 1107, relating to budget amendments, stating the following:

The President shall transmit promptly to Congress without change, proposed deficiency and supplemental appropriations submitted to the President by the legislative branch and the judicial branch.

The FY2020 budget contains a request for $5.288 billion in new budget authority for legislative branch activities (+9.3%).3

Senate and House Hearings on the FY2020 Budget Requests

Table 2 lists the dates of hearings of the legislative branch subcommittees in February, March, and April 2019. Prepared statements of witnesses were posted on the subcommittee websites.

Table 2. Dates of House and Senate Hearings on Legislative Branch Requests

 

House of Representatives

Senate

Senate

April 3, 2019

House of Representatives

March 12, 2019

U.S. Capitol Police

March 12, 2019

April 3, 2019

Office of Congressional Workplace Rights

February 7, 2019

Congressional Budget Office

February 26, 2019

April 10, 2019

Architect of the Capitol

February 26, 2019

March 27, 2019

Library of Congress, including the Congressional Research Service (CRS)

March 7, 2019

March 27, 2019

Government Publishing Office

February 27, 2019

Government Accountability Office

February 27, 2019

April 10, 2019

Open World Leadership Center

February 7, 2019

Members/Public Witnesses

April 2, 2019a

Sources: CRS examination of House and Senate Appropriations Committee websites.

a. The House subcommittee announced that it would accept programmatic and language submissions from Members through March 28, 2019.

House Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch Markup

On May 1, 2019, the House Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch held a markup of the FY2020 bill. The subcommittee recommended $3.943 billion, a $135.2 million increase (+3.6%) from the comparable 2019 enacted level, not including Senate items, which are historically considered by the Senate and not included in the House bill.

No amendments were offered, and the bill was ordered reported to the full committee by voice vote.

House Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Markup

On May 9, 2019, the House Appropriations Committee met to mark up the FY2020 bill reported from its legislative branch subcommittee. The following amendments were considered:

  • A manager's amendment, offered by Subcommittee Chairman Tim Ryan of Ohio, that would increase funding for the Veterans' History Project by $1.0 million, add report language, and include one technical change. The amendment was adopted by voice vote.
  • A manager's amendment, offered by Subcommittee Chairman Tim Ryan of Ohio, that would increase the overall funding for the bill by $29.0 million to reflect revised 302(b) subcommittee allocations adopted by the committee on May 8 (H.Rept. 116-59). The amendment would increase total House funding by $19.0 million and Architect of the Capitol funding by $10.0 million. Subcommittee Ranking Minority Member Jaime Herrera Beutler offered an amendment to the manager's amendment that would have stricken this additional funding and instead placed it in a spending reduction account. The amendment to the amendment failed by recorded vote (23-28), and the amendment was adopted by voice vote.

The bill was ordered reported by recorded vote (28-22).

As amended, the bill provided $3.972 billion, not including Senate items (+$164.2 million).

OMB Letter of May 8, 2019

As it did during consideration of the FY2019 legislative branch appropriations bill,4 OMB submitted a letter with the Administration's views on the overall size of the legislative branch bill as well as the funding levels for specific accounts.5 In particular, the Administration letter cited funding levels for the House of Representatives and the Government Accountability Office (GAO).

Funding in Prior Years: Brief Overview and Trends

Legislative Branch: Historic Percentage of Total Discretionary Budget Authority

The percentage of total discretionary budget authority provided to the legislative branch has remained relatively stable at approximately 0.4% since at least FY1976.6 The maximum level (0.48%) was in FY1995, and the minimum (0.31%) was in FY2009.

FY2019

FY2019 funding was provided in Division B of the Energy and Water, Legislative Branch, and Military Construction and Veterans Affairs Appropriations Act, 2019 (P.L. 115-244), which was enacted on September 21, 2018. The $4.836 billion provided for the legislative branch represents an increase of $136.0 million (+2.9%) from the FY2018 enacted level.

An additional $10.0 million in FY2019 supplemental appropriations for GAO "for audits and investigations related to Hurricanes Florence, Lane, and Michael, Typhoons Yutu and Mangkhut, the calendar year 2018 wildfires, earthquakes, and volcano eruptions, and other disasters declared pursuant to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act" has been included in two bills considered in the 116th Congress: H.R. 268, which passed the House on January 16, 2019, but cloture was not invoked in the Senate; and H.R. 2157, which passed the House on May 10 (Roll no. 202) and the Senate (with an amendment) on May 23, 2019 (Record Vote Number: 129). The House failed to gain unanimous consent for consideration of the Senate amendment on May 24, 28, and 30, 2019. The House agreed to the Senate amendment on June 3, 2019 (Roll no. 232).

FY2018

FY2018 funding was provided in Division I of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 (P.L. 115-141), which was enacted on March 23, 2018. The $4.700 billion provided by the act represented an increase of $260.0 million (+5.9%) from the FY2017 enacted level.

In addition, P.L. 115-123, enacted February 9, 2018, provided $14.0 million to GAO "for audits and investigations relating to Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria and the 2017 wildfires." (Title IX of Division B).

FY2017

FY2017 funding was provided in Division I of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017 (P.L. 115-31), which was enacted on May 5, 2017. The $4.440 billion provided by the act represented a $77.0 million increase (+1.7%) from the FY2016 enacted level.

FY2016

FY2016 funding was provided in Division I of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016 (P.L. 114-113), which was enacted on December 18, 2015. The $4.363 billion provided by the act represented a $63.0 million increase (+1.5%) from the FY2015 enacted level.

FY2015

FY2015 funding was provided in Division H of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015 (P.L. 113-235), which was enacted on December 16, 2014. The $4.300 billion provided by the act represented an increase of $41.7 million (+1.0%) from FY2014.

FY2014

Neither a legislative branch appropriations bill nor a continuing resolution (CR) containing FY2014 funding was enacted prior to the beginning of the fiscal year on October 1, 2013. A funding gap, which resulted in a partial government shutdown, ensued for 16 days. The funding gap was terminated by the enactment of a CR (P.L. 113-46) on October 17, 2013. The CR provided funding through January 15, 2014.7 Following enactment of a temporary CR on January 15, 2014 (P.L. 113-73), a consolidated appropriations bill was enacted on January 17 (P.L. 113-76), providing $4.259 billion for the legislative branch for FY2014.

FY2013

FY2013 funding of approximately $4.061 billion was provided by P.L. 113-6, which was signed into law on March 26, 2013.8 The act funded legislative branch accounts at the FY2012 enacted level, with some exceptions (also known as "anomalies"), not including across-the-board rescissions required by Section 3004 of P.L. 113-6. Section 3004 was intended to eliminate any amount by which the new budget authority provided in the act exceeded the FY2013 discretionary spending limits in Section 251(c)(2) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, as amended by the Budget Control Act of 2011 (P.L. 112-25) and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-240). Subsequent to the enactment of P.L. 113-6, OMB calculated that additional rescissions of 0.032% of security budget authority and 0.2% of nonsecurity budget authority would be required. The act did not alter the sequestration reductions implemented on March 1, which reduced most legislative branch accounts by 5.0%.9 The accompanying OMB report indicated a dollar amount of budget authority to be canceled in each account containing nonexempt funds.10

FY2012 and Prior

Division G of the FY2012 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 112-74) provided $4.307 billion for the legislative branch. This level was $236.9 million below (-5.2%) the FY2011 enacted level. P.L. 112-10 provided $4.543 billion for legislative branch operations in FY2011. This level represented a $125.1 million decrease (-2.7%) from the $4.668 billion provided in the FY2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-68) and the FY2010 Supplemental Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-212). The FY2009 Omnibus Appropriations Act provided $4.402 billion. In FY2009, an additional $25.0 million was provided for GAO in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.11 P.L. 111-32, the FY2009 Supplemental Appropriations Act, also contained funding for a new Capitol Police radio system ($71.6 million) and additional funding for the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) ($2.0 million).12

As seen in Table 3, legislative branch funding decreased each year from FY2010 through FY2013. Funding did not exceed the FY2010 level until FY2018.

Figure 1 shows the same information graphically, while also demonstrating the division of budget authority across the legislative branch in FY2019.

Table 3. Legislative Branch Funding, FY2008-FY2019: Current and Constant Dollars

(in billions of dollars)

Fiscal Year

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

Current Dollars

3.970

4.501a

4.669b

4.543c

4.307

4.061d

4.259

4.300

4.363

4.440

4.700e

4.836

Constant Dollars

4.705

5.331

5.434

5.174

4.802

4.457

4.603

4.621

4.654

4.655

4.804e

4.836

Source: CRS analysis of legislative branch appropriations acts and related budget documents.

Notes: These figures exclude permanent budget authorities, including funding for Member pay, that are not included in the annual legislative branch appropriations bill. Totals include supplementals and rescissions. Constant 2019 dollars calculated using the "Total Non-Defense" deflator in Table 10.1—Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2024 in the President's FY2020 budget request.

a. This number contains appropriations provided by P.L. 110-161 (the FY2009 Omnibus Appropriations Act), $25.0 million for the Government Accountability Office provided by P.L. 111-5 (the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009), and $73.6 million provided by P.L. 111-32 (the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2009) for the U.S. Capitol Police and the Congressional Budget Office.

b. This number contains appropriations provided by P.L. 111-68 (the FY2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act), and $12.96 million in supplemental appropriations provided for the U.S. Capitol Police in P.L. 111-212 (the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010).

c. This number does not include scorekeeping adjustment.

d. FY2013 level obtained from the CBO cost estimate for "Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2014 (H.J.Res. 59), Including the Amendment Reported by the House Committee on Rules on September 18, 2013 (H.Res. 352) Discretionary spending (in millions of dollars)," which lists a total for legislative branch budget authority of $4.061 billion, noting that it "includes effects of the 2013 sequestration." This bill contained a small anomaly for the legislative branch.

e. Does not include $14.0 million provided to the Government Accountability Office "for audits and investigations relating to Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria and the 2017 wildfires" (P.L. 115-123, Title IX of Division B, enacted February 9, 2018).

Figure 1. Legislative Branch Funding FY2008-FY2019: Current and Constant Dollars

(and distribution in FY2019)

Source: CRS analysis of legislative branch appropriations acts and related budget documents.

Notes: These figures exclude permanent budget authorities and contain supplementals and rescissions. Total does not include permanent budget authorities, including funding for Member pay, that are not included in the annual legislative branch appropriations bill. Total also excludes offsetting collections and authority to spend receipts. Constant 2019 dollars calculated using the "Total Non-Defense" deflator in Table 10.1—Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2024 in the President's FY2020 budget request.

Figure 2 shows the timing of legislative branch appropriations actions, including the issuance of House and Senate reports, bill passage, and enactment, from FY1996 through FY2019. It shows that fiscal year funding for the legislative branch has been determined

  • on or before October 1 six times during this period (FY1997, FY2000, FY2004, FY2006, FY2010, and FY2019);
  • twice during the first month of the fiscal year (FY1998 and FY1999);
  • twice in November (FY1996 and FY2002);
  • six times in December (FY2001, FY2005, FY2008, FY2012, FY2015, and FY2016); and
  • eight times in the next calendar year (FY2003, FY2007, FY2009, FY2011, FY2013, FY2014, FY2017, and FY2018).

FY2017 funding, enacted on May 5, 2017, represented the latest date of enactment during this period.

FY2019 funding, enacted on September 21, was the first time funding had been enacted at or before the start of the fiscal year since the enactment of FY2010 funding.

Figure 2. Timing of Legislative Branch Appropriations Consideration: FY1996-FY2019

(fiscal year consideration during the calendar year)

Source: CRS analysis of data found on http://www.congress.gov.

Notes: Each row represents consideration during the calendar year of the subsequent fiscal year spending bill (i.e., the calendar year 1992 row shows the timeline of consideration and passage of the FY1993 act). Arrows in the December column indicate consideration continued until the next calendar year. The figure shows when the committee report was filed, which may be later than the date the bill was ordered reported. When House and Senate action occurs on the same date, the House is shown first. The FY2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-68) is listed in this figure as stand-alone legislation (Division A), although it was also the vehicle for a continuing appropriations resolution (Division B).

FY2020 Legislative Branch Funding Issues

The following sections discuss the various legislative branch accounts.

During consideration of the legislative branch bills, the House and Senate conform to a "longstanding practice under which each body of Congress determines its own housekeeping requirements and the other concurs without intervention."13

Senate

Overall Funding

The Senate requested $1.046 billion for FY2020, an 11.9% increase over the $934.8 million provided in FY2019.

Additional information on the Senate account is presented in Table 6.

Senate Committee Funding

Appropriations for Senate committees are contained in two accounts.

  • 1. The inquiries and investigations account contains funds for all Senate committees except Appropriations. The Senate requested $133.3 million, the same level provided in FY2019.
  • 2. The Committee on Appropriations account contains funds for the Senate Appropriations Committee. The Senate-requested level of $15.8 million represents an increase of $297,000 (+1.9%) from the $15.5 million provided in FY2019.

Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account14

The Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account provides each Senator with funds to administer an office. It consists of an administrative and clerical assistance allowance, a legislative assistance allowance, and an official office expense allowance. The funds may be used for any category of expenses, subject to limitations on official mail.

The Senate requested $531.1 million, $102.1 million above (+23.8%) the $429.0 million provided in FY2019. Of this amount, $5.0 million is provided for compensating Senate interns.

Administrative Provisions

The Senate did not request any administrative provisions.

House of Representatives

Overall Funding

The House requested $1.356 billion for FY2020, an increase of 10.1% over the $1.232 billion provided for FY2019.

Additional information on headings in the House of Representatives account is presented in Table 7.

House Committee Funding

Funding for House committees is contained in the appropriation heading "committee employees," which typically comprises two subheadings.

The first subheading contains funds for personnel and nonpersonnel expenses of House committees, except the Appropriations Committee, as authorized by the House in a committee expense resolution. The House requested $139.1 million, an increase of $11.2 million (+8.8%) from the FY2019 enacted level of $127.9 million. The House-reported bill would provide $135.4 million, an increase of $7.5 million (+5.8%).

The second subheading contains funds for the personnel and nonpersonnel expenses of the Committee on Appropriations. The House requested $25.4 million, an increase of $2.3 million (+10.0%) from the FY2019 enacted level of $23.1 million. The House-reported bill would provide $24.3 million, an increase of $1.2 million (+5.0%).

Members' Representational Allowance15

The Members' Representational Allowance (MRA) is available to support Members in their official and representational duties.

The House-requested level of $613.0 million represents an increase of $39.4 million (+6.9%) from the $573.6 million provided in FY2019. The House-reported bill would provide $615.0 million, an increase of $41.4 million (+7.2%).

A separate account would provide $11.0 million for interns in House Member offices, and $365,000 in House leadership offices.

Administrative Provisions

The House requested several administrative provisions related to

  • unexpended balances from the MRA;
  • limiting amounts available from the MRA for leased vehicles;
  • providing additional transfer authority;
  • establishing the allowance for compensation of interns in Member offices;
  • providing for cybersecurity assistance from other federal entities;
  • limiting or prohibiting the delivery of the printed Budget of the United States, the Federal Register, and the House telephone directory;
  • allowing the use of expired funds for the payment of death gratuities for House employees; and
  • allowing the use of expired funds for the employee compensation fund and unemployment compensation.

The House-reported bill contains the provisions related to the unexpended MRA balances, leased vehicles, cybersecurity assistance, and use of expired funds. In addition, the House-reported bill includes provisions relating to the compensation of interns in Member and Leadership offices; rescinding amounts in the Stationery and Page Dorm revolving funds; and providing for reduction in the amount of tuition charged for children of House Child Care Center employees.

Support Agency Funding

U.S. Capitol Police (USCP)

The USCP is responsible for the security of the Capitol Complex, including, for example, the U.S. Capitol, the House and Senate office buildings, the U.S. Botanic Garden, and the Library of Congress buildings and adjacent grounds.

The FY2019 enacted level was $456.3 million. In comparison, levels considered for FY2020 include the following:

  • Requested: $463.3 million (+1.5%)
  • House-reported: $463.3 million (+1.5%)

Additional information on the USCP is presented in Table 8.

Appropriations for the police are contained in two accounts—a salaries account and a general expenses account.

  • 1. Salaries—the FY2019 act provided $374.8 million for salaries. The USCP requested, and the House-reported bill would provide, $378.1 million (+0.9%).
  • 2. General expenses—the FY2019 act provided $81.5 million for general expenses. The USCP requested, and the House-reported bill would provide, $85.3 million (+4.6%).

Another appropriation relating to the USCP appears within the Architect of the Capitol account for Capitol Police buildings and grounds. The FY2019 level was $57.7 million. The USCP requested $54.97 million (-4.8%), and the House-reported bill would provide $52.8 million (-8.4%).

Administrative Provision

The USCP requested, and the House-reported bill contains, one administrative provision that would increase the total limit on student loan repayments from $40,000 to $60,000.

Office of Congressional Workplace Rights

Formerly known as the Office of Compliance, the Office of Congressional Workplace Rights (OCWR) was renamed by the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 Reform Act (P.L. 115-397). It is an independent and nonpartisan agency within the legislative branch, and it was originally established to administer and enforce the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995.16 The act applies various employment and workplace safety laws to Congress and certain legislative branch entities.17

The FY2019 enacted level was $6.3 million, which was continued in the FY2020 request and the House-reported bill.

Congressional Budget Office (CBO)

CBO is a nonpartisan congressional agency created to provide objective economic and budgetary analysis to Congress. CBO cost estimates are required for any measure reported by a regular or conference committee that may affect revenues or expenditures.18

The FY2019 level was $50.7 million. In comparison, levels considered for FY2020 include the following:

  • Requested: $53.6 million (+5.6%)
  • House-reported: $52.7 million (+3.8%)

Office of Technology Assessment (OTA)

The House-reported bill would provide $6.0 million for restarting OTA. The funding would remain available through FY2021.

Since the closure of OTA, which was a legislative branch agency established in 197219 and last funded in FY1996,20 Congress has periodically reexamined funding for scientific and technological studies by the legislative branch. Some Members have expressed support for the refunding of OTA through the distribution of "Dear Colleague" letters, at committee hearings and in committee prints,21 and through the introduction of legislation22 or amendments.23

Since FY2002,24 funding for technology assessments has also been provided to GAO, with frequent references in appropriations and conference reports on the legislative branch appropriations bills.25 More recently, and in response to language in the FY2019 Senate and conference reports, GAO announced the formation of a new Science, Technology Assessment, and Analytics Team on January 29, 2019.26

Additionally, the conference report to accompany the FY2019 legislative branch appropriations bill (H.R. 5895) required a study on technology assessments available to Congress:27

Technology Assessment Study: The Committees have heard testimony on, and received dozens of requests advocating for restoring funding to the Office of Technology Assessment, and more generally on how Congress equips itself with the deep technical advice necessary to understand and tackle the growing number of science and technology policy challenges facing our country. The conferees direct the Congressional Research Service (CRS) to engage with the National Academy of Public Administration or a similar external entity to produce a report detailing the current resources available to Members of Congress within the Legislative Branch regarding science and technology policy, including the GAO. This study should also assess the potential need within the Legislative Branch to create a separate entity charged with the mission of providing nonpartisan advice on issues of science and technology. Furthermore, the study should also address if the creation of such entity duplicates services already available to Members of Congress. CRS should work with the Committees in developing the parameters of the study and once complete, the study should be made available to relevant oversight Committees.

Architect of the Capitol (AOC)

The Architect of the Capitol (AOC) is responsible for the maintenance, operation, development, and preservation of the U.S. Capitol Complex, which includes the Capitol and its grounds, House and Senate office buildings, Library of Congress buildings and grounds, Capitol Power Plant, Botanic Garden, Capitol Visitor Center, and USCP buildings and grounds. The AOC is responsible for the Supreme Court buildings and grounds, but appropriations for their expenses are not contained in the legislative branch appropriations bill.

The FY2019 level was $733.7 million. In comparison, levels considered for FY2020 include the following:

  • Requested: $831.7 million (+13.3%)
  • House-reported: $624.7 million (-2.4%, not including Senate-items)

Operations of the AOC are funded in the following 10 accounts: capital construction and operations, Capitol building, Capitol grounds, Senate office buildings, House office buildings, Capitol Power Plant, Library buildings and grounds, Capitol Police buildings and grounds, Capitol Visitor Center, and Botanic Garden. Additional funding information on the individual AOC accounts is presented in Table 9.

Administrative Provision

The AOC also requested one administrative provision that prohibits the use of funds for bonuses for contractors behind schedule or over budget. This provision has been included in the annual appropriations acts since FY2015. It was included in the House-reported bill, and would apply to FY2020 and each succeeding fiscal year.

Library of Congress (LOC)

The LOC serves simultaneously as Congress's parliamentary library and the de facto national library of the United States. Its broader services to the nation include the acquisition, maintenance, and preservation of a collection of more than 167 million items in various formats;28 hosting nearly 1.9 million visitors annually;29 service to the general public and scholarly and library communities; administration of U.S. copyright laws by its Copyright Office; and administration of a national program to provide reading material to the blind and physically handicapped. Its direct services to Congress include the provision of legal research and law-related services by the Law Library of Congress, and a broad range of activities by CRS, including in-depth and nonpartisan public policy research, analysis, and legislative assistance for Members and committees and their staff; congressional staff training; information and statistics retrieval; and continuing legal education for Members of both chambers and congressional staff.

The FY2019 level was $696.1 million. In comparison, levels considered for FY2020 include the following:

  • Requested: $747.1 million (+7.3%)
  • House-reported: $720.3 million (+3.5%)

These figures do not include additional authority to spend receipts.30

H.Rept. 116-64 explains a change in the technology funding practice that affected the four LOC appropriations headings:

Appropriations Shifts to Reflect Centralized Funding for Information Technology: During fiscal year 2018, in an effort to reduce duplication, increase efficiency, and better utilize specialized expertise, the Library of Congress began providing more Information Technology (IT) services centrally though its Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) rather than in the Library's various component organizations. In fiscal years 2018 and 2019, Library components which have separate appropriations accounts reimbursed the main Library of Congress Salaries and Expenses account through intra-agency agreements for the IT services being provided to them centrally by the OCIO under this initiative.

For fiscal year 2020, however, the Library has requested that funding for centralized IT services be appropriated directly to the main Salaries and Expenses account for use by the OCIO instead of to the component organizations receiving the services, in order to reflect where services are actually being performed and avoid the need for repeated reimbursement transactions. The Committee has agreed to this request.

As a result, the Committee bill reflects a shift in appropriations totaling $13,556,000 to the Library of Congress Salaries and Expenses account, with $2,708,000 of that shift coming from the Copyright Office, $8,767,000 coming from the Congressional Research Service, and $2,081,000 coming from the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

H.Rept. 116-64 further contains a "note regarding IT centralization" accompanying each heading, comparing the FY2020 House-reported level to the FY2019 enacted level after accounting for this shift:

  • 1. Salaries and expenses—The FY2019 level was $474.1 million. The LOC requested $522.6 million (+10.2%). The House-reported bill would provide $501.3 million, an increase of $13.7 million when reflecting the centralized IT funding. These figures do not include authority to spend receipts ($6.0 million in the FY2019 act, the FY2020 request, and House-reported bill).
  • 2. Copyright Office—The FY2019 level was $43.6 million. The LOC requested $43.3 million (-0.7%). The House-reported bill would provide $42.2 million, an increase of $1.3 million when reflecting the centralized IT funding. These figures do not include authority to spend receipts and prior year unobligated balances ($49.8 million in FY2019; $49.7 million in the FY2020 request and House-reported bill).
  • 3. Congressional Research Service—The FY2019 level was $125.7 million. The FY2020 request contains $121.6 million (-3.3%). The House-reported bill would provide $119.9 million, an increase of $2.99 million when reflecting the centralized IT funding.
  • 4. Books for the blind and physically handicapped—The FY2019 level was $52.8 million. The LOC requested $59.6 million (+13.0%). The House-reported bill would provide $56.9 million, an increase of $6.2 million when reflecting the centralized IT funding.

The AOC's budget also contains funds for LOC buildings and grounds. In FY2019, $68.5 million was provided. The FY2020 request contains $121.3 million (+77.1%), and the House-reported bill would provide $86.8 million (+26.7%).

Administrative Provision

The LOC requested authority to obligate funds for reimbursable and revolving fund activities ($194.6 million in the FY2019 act; $231.98 million in the FY2020 request and House-reported bill).

Government Publishing Office (GPO)31

The FY2019 enacted level of $117.0 million was continued in the FY2020 request and the House-reported bill. This level is approximately equivalent (-0.1%) to the level provided in FY2018 and FY2017.

GPO's budget authority is contained in three accounts, with the allocation in the FY2020 request varying slightly from the FY2019 enacted level:32

  • 1. Congressional publishing—The FY2019 enacted level of $79.0 million is continued in the FY2020 request and the House-reported bill.
  • 2. Public information programs of the Superintendent of Documents (salaries and expenses)—The FY2020 requested and House-reported level of $31.3 million is $704,000 (-2.2%) less than the FY2019 enacted level of $32.0 million.
  • 3. GPO Business Operations Revolving Fund33—The FY2020 requested and House-reported level of $6.7 million is $704,000 above the FY2019 enacted level of $6.0 million.

Government Accountability Office (GAO)

GAO responds to requests for studies of federal government programs and expenditures. GAO may also initiate its own work.34

The FY2019 enacted level was $589.8 million. In comparison, levels considered for FY2020 include the following:

  • Requested: $647.6 million (+9.8%).
  • House-reported: $615.6 million (+4.4%)

These levels do not include offsetting collections ($35.9 million in the FY2019 act; $24.8 million in the FY2020 request and House-reported bill).35

Open World Leadership Center

Open World requested, and the House-reported bill would provide, $5.8 million for FY2020, an increase of $200,000 (+3.6%) from the $5.6 million provided each year since FY2016.

The Open World Leadership Center administers a program that supports democratic changes in other countries by inviting their leaders to observe democracy and free enterprise in the United States. Congress first authorized the program in 1999 to support the relationship between Russia and the United States. The program encouraged young federal and local Russian leaders to visit the United States and observe its government and society.

Established at the LOC as the Center for Russian Leadership Development in 2000, the center was renamed the Open World Leadership Center in 2003, when the program was expanded to include specified additional countries.36 In 2004, Congress further extended the program's eligibility to other countries designated by the center's board of trustees, subject to congressional consideration.37 The center is housed in the LOC and receives services from the LOC through an interagency agreement.

The legislative branch bills have included a provision since FY2016, also contained in the FY2019 act:

That funds made available to support Russian participants shall only be used for those engaging in free market development, humanitarian activities, and civic engagement, and shall not be used for officials of the central government of Russia.

The location and future of Open World, attempts to assess its effectiveness, and its inclusion in the legislative branch budget have been discussed at appropriations hearings and in report language for more than a decade. The funding level for Open World has also varied greatly during this period. For additional discussion, see the "Prior Year Discussion of Location and Funding of Open World" section in CRS Report R44899, Legislative Branch: FY2018 Appropriations, by Ida A. Brudnick.

John C. Stennis Center for Public Service Training and Development

The center was created by Congress in 1988 to encourage public service by congressional staff through training and development programs.38 The FY2020 request and the House-reported bill contain $430,000, which is approximately the same level provided since FY2006.

General Provisions

As in past years, Congress is considering a number of general provisions related to the legislative branch. These provisions and their status are listed in Table 4.

Table 4. General Provisions

(and stage of inclusion or status)

Provision to

Enacted in FY2019

Included in FY2020 Request

Included in House-Reported
Bill

Included in Senate-Passed
Bill

Enacted in FY2020

prohibit appropriated funds for the maintenance and care of private vehicles

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

limit funds to the fiscal year unless otherwise expressly provided

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

make any changes in rates of compensation and designation permanent

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

make consulting services contracts a matter of public record

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

authorize the costs of Legislative Branch Financial Managers Council

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

limit transfers to those authorized by law

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

prohibit restrictions on guided staff tours of the Capitol with limited exceptions

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

prohibit a cost of living adjustment for Members of Congressa

Yes

Yes

No

 

 

reduce plastic waste

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

restrict procurement of telecommunications equipment that may present a cybersecurity risk

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

require computer networks to block the viewing, downloading, and exchanging of pornography

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

require the reporting of agency cost of living adjustments

Yes

Yes

No

 

 

authorize hiring of individuals covered by the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program

No

No

Yes

 

 

Sources: P.L. 115-244, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2020, H.Rept. 116-64, and CRS analysis.

a. The legislative branch bill does not contain language funding or increasing Member pay, and a provision prohibiting the automatic Member pay adjustments could be included in any bill, or be introduced as a separate bill. For additional information, see CRS Report 97-1011, Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables, by Ida A. Brudnick.

Introduction to Summary Tables and Appendix

Table 5 through Table 9 provide information on funding levels for the legislative branch overall, the Senate, the House of Representatives, the USCP, and the AOC.

The tables are followed by an Appendix, which lists House, Senate, and conference bills and reports; public law numbers; and enactment dates since FY1998.

Table 5. Legislative Branch Appropriations: Funding Levels by Agency or Entity

(in thousands of dollars)

Entity

FY2019
Enacted

FY2020 Requested

FY2020
House-
Reported

FY2020 Senate-Passed

FY2020 Enacted

Senate

$934,667a

$1,046,478

b

 

 

House of Representatives

1,232,663a

1,356,669

1,345,725

b

 

Joint Items

20,656

21,143

21,143

 

 

Capitol Police

456,308

463,341

463,341

 

 

Office of Congressional Workplace Rights

6,333

6,333

6,333

 

 

Congressional Budget Office

50,737

53,556

52,666

 

 

Office of Technology Assessment

6,000

 

 

Architect of the Capitol

733,745

831,694

624,668b

 

 

Library of Congress, Including CRS

696,112

747,077

720,290

 

 

CRS (non-add)

125,688

121,572

119,889c

 

 

Government Publishing Office

117,000

117,000

117,000

 

 

Government Accountability Office

589,750

647,637

615,604

 

 

Open World Leadership Center

5,600

5,800

5,800

 

 

Stennis Center for Public Service

430

430

430

 

 

Administrative Provisions

-2,000

-2000

 

 

Other/Scorekeeping

-6,000

-7,000d

-7,000d

 

 

Legislative Branch, Total

$4,836,001

$5,288,158

$3,972,000b

 

 

Sources: P.L. 115-244, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2020, H.Rept. 116-64, and CRS calculations.

Note: Numbers may not sum due to rounding.

a. This total does not include one Senate gratuity payment (P.L. 115-244) and one House gratuity payment (P.L. 116-6).

b. By tradition, the House generally does not consider appropriations for Senate operations or Senate office buildings, and the Senate generally does not consider appropriations for House operations or House office buildings.

c. The House Appropriations Committee report (H.Rept. 116-64) describes an "Appropriations Shifts to Reflect Centralized Funding for Information Technology" that affected the four LOC appropriations headings. For additional information, see the "Library of Congress (LOC)" funding section of this report.

d. For FY2020, this includes the CBO estimate of -$8.0 million for AOC House Office Buildings Fund and CBO estimate of $1.0 million for Office of Compliance Settlements and Awards.

Table 6. Senate Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Accounts

FY2019
Enacted

FY2020 Requested

FY2020
House-
Passeda

FY2020 Senate-Passed

FY2020 Enacted

Payments—Heirs of Deceased Members of Congress

$174b

$0

 

 

Expense Allowances and Representation

220

225

 

 

Salaries, Officers, and Employees

208,390

216,326

 

 

Office of Legislative Counsel

6,278

6,397

 

 

Office of Legal Counsel

1,176

1,197

 

 

Expense Allowances for Secretary of Senate et al.

28

30

 

 

Contingent Expenses (subtotal)

718,575

822,303

 

 

Inquiries and Investigations

133,265

133,265

 

 

Senate Intl. Narcotics Caucus

508

516

 

 

Secretary of the Senatec

7,036

9,536

 

 

Financial Management Information System Modernization

3,000

 

 

 

 

Sergeant at Arms/Doorkeeperd

126,595

128,753

 

 

Miscellaneous Items

18,871

18,879

 

 

Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account

429,000

531,054

 

 

Official Mail Costs

300

300

 

 

Total

$934,667b

$1,046,478

 

 

Source: P.L. 115-244, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2020, and CRS calculations.

Note: Numbers may not sum due to rounding.

a. By tradition, the House does not consider appropriations for Senate operations.

b. Total does not include the "Payments—Heirs of Deceased Members of Congress."

c. Office operations of the Office of the Secretary of the Senate are also funded under "Salaries, Officers, and Employees."

d. Office operations of the Office of Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper are also funded under "Salaries, Officers, and Employees."

Table 7. House of Representatives Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Accounts

FY2019
Enacted

FY2020 Requested

FY2020
House-
Reported

FY2020 Senate-Passeda

FY2020 Enacted

Payments—Heirs of Deceased Members of Congress

$174b

$0

$0

 

 

House Leadership Offices

25,379

27,916

28,428

 

 

Members' Representational Allowance

573,630

613,000

615,000

 

 

Intern Allowance-House Member Offices

8,800

8,820

11,025

 

 

Intern Allowance-House Leadership Offices

365

 

 

Committee Employees (subtotal)

151,016

164,567

159,628

 

 

Standing Committees, Special and Select, except Appropriations

127,903

139,143

135,359

 

 

Appropriations Committee

23,113

25,424

24,269

 

 

Salaries, Officers, and Employees (subtotal)

220,345

249,728

245,736

 

 

Office of the Clerk

28,305

32,826

32,228

 

 

Office of the Sergeant at Arms

18,773

23,720

22,071

 

 

Office of Chief Administrative Officer

148,058

166,603

164,308

 

 

Office of Diversity and Inclusion

600

1,000

 

 

Office of the Whistleblower Ombudsmen

600

750

 

 

Office of Inspector General

5,019

5,019

5,019

 

 

Office of General Counsel

1,502

1,518

1,518

 

 

Office of the Parliamentarian

2,026

2,088

2,088

 

 

Office of the Law Revision Counsel

3,327

3,419

3,419

 

 

Office of the Legislative Counsel

11,937

11,937

11,937

 

 

Office of Interparliamentary Affairs

814

814

814

 

 

Other Authorized Employees

584

584

584

 

 

Allowances and Expenses (subtotal)

253,493

291,638

290,543

 

 

Supplies, Materials, Administrative Costs and Federal Tort Claims

525

525

526

 

 

Official Mail for committees, leadership, administrative and legislative offices

190

190

190

 

 

Government Contributions

228,200

263,000

262,000

 

 

Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Emergency Appropriations

16,186

17,668

17,668

 

 

Transition Activities

3,000

4,863

4,489

 

 

Wounded Warrior Program

3,000

3,000

3,000

 

 

Office of Congressional Ethics

1,670

1,670

1,670

 

 

Miscellaneous Items

722

722

1,000

 

 

Administrative Provisions

1,000c

-5,000c

 

 

Total

$1,232,663b

$1,356,669

$1,345,725

 

 

Sources: P.L. 115-244, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2020, H.Rept. 116-64, and CRS calculations.

Note: Numbers may not sum due to rounding.

a. By tradition, the Senate generally does not consider appropriations for House operations.

b. Total does not include the "Payments—Heirs of Deceased Members of Congress."

c. For FY2020, this includes a provision related to using expired funds for employee compensation and unemployment compensation and rescissions.

Table 8. Capitol Police Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Accounts

FY2019
Enacted

FY2020 Requested

FY2020
House-
Reported

FY2020 Senate-Passed

FY2020 Enacted

Salaries, Capitol Police

$374,804

$378,062

378,062

 

 

General Expenses

81,504

85,279

85,279

 

 

Total

$456,308

$463,341

$463,341

 

 

Source: P.L. 115-244, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2020, H.Rept. 116-64, and CRS calculations.

Note: Numbers may not sum due to rounding.

Table 9. Architect of the Capitol Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Accounts

FY2019
Enacted

FY2020 Requested

FY2020
House-
Reported

FY2020 Senate-Passed

FY2020 Enacted

Capital Construction and Operations

$103,962

$128,915

$124,704

 

 

Capitol Building

43,992

68,878

45,912

 

 

Capitol Grounds

16,761

22,824

19,336

 

 

Senate Office Buildings

93,562

87,424

a

 

 

House of Representatives

 

 

 

 

 

House Office Buildings

187,098

154,701

153,273

 

 

House Historic Buildings Revitalization Fund

10,000

10,000

 

 

Capitol Power Plantb

114,050

142,225

102,557

 

 

Library Buildings and Grounds

68,525

121,346

86,833

 

 

Capitol Police Buildings and Grounds

57,714

54,966

52,840

 

 

Botanic Garden

14,759

16,094

15,822

 

 

Capitol Visitor Center

23,322

24,321

23,391

 

 

Architect of the Capitol, Total

$733,745

$831,694

$624,668a

 

 

Sources: P.L. 115-244, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2020, H.Rept. 116-64, and CRS calculations.

Note: Numbers may not sum due to rounding.

a. The House generally does not consider appropriations for Senate office buildings, and the total does not include funding for that account.

b. Not including offsetting collections.

Appendix. Fiscal Year Information and Resources

Table A-1. Overview of Legislative Branch Appropriations: FY1998-FY2019

House, Senate, Conference, and CRS Reports and Related Legislative Vehicles

Fiscal Year

House

Senate

Conference

Enactment Date
and Public Law

Enactment
Vehicle Title

CRS
Report

2019

H.Rept. 115-696 (H.R. 5894)

S.Rept. 115-274 (S. 3071)

H.Rept. 115-929

9/21/18
(P.L. 115-244)

Energy and Water, Legislative Branch, and Military Construction and Veterans Affairs Appropriations Act, 2019

CRS Report R45214, Legislative Branch: FY2019 Appropriations

2018

H.Rept. 115-199
(H.R. 3162)

S.Rept. 115-137
(S. 1648)

Explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 1625)

3/23/2018 (P.L. 115-141)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018

CRS Report R44899, Legislative Branch: FY2018 Appropriations

2017

H.Rept. 114-594
(H.R. 5325) (H.Res. 771)

S.Rept. 114-258
(S. 2955)

Explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 244)

5/5/2017
(P.L. 115-31)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017

CRS Report R44515, Legislative Branch: FY2017 Appropriations

2016

H.Rept. 114-110 (H.R. 2250)
(H.Res. 271)

S.Rept. 114-64 (H.R. 2250)

Explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record

12/18/2015
(P.L. 114-113)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016

CRS Report R44029, Legislative Branch: FY2016 Appropriations

2015

H.Rept. 113-417 (H.R. 4487)
(H.Res. 557)

S.Rept. 113-196
(H.R. 4487)

Explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 83)

12/16/2014
(P.L. 113-235)

Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015

CRS Report R43557, Legislative Branch: FY2015 Appropriations

2014

H.Rept. 113-173 (H.R. 2792)

S.Rept. 113-70 (S. 1283)

Explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 3547)

1/17/2014
(P.L. 113-76)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014

CRS Report R43151, Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations

2013

H.Rept. 112-511
(H.R. 5882) (H.Res. 679)

S.Rept. 112-197 (H.R. 5882)

___

3/26/2013
(P.L. 113-6)

Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013

CRS Report R42500, Legislative Branch: FY2013 Appropriations

2012

H.Rept. 112-148
(H.R. 2551)

S.Rept. 112-80 (H.R. 2551)

H.Rept. 112-331
(H.R. 2055)

12/23/2011
(P.L. 112-74)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012

CRS Report R41870, Legislative Branch: FY2012 Appropriations

2011

___

S.Rept. 111-294
(S. 3799)

___

4/15/2011
(P.L. 112-10)

Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011

CRS Report R41214, Legislative Branch: FY2011 Appropriations

2010

H.Rept. 111-160
(H.R. 2918)

S.Rept. 111-29
(S. 1294)

H.Rept. 111-265
(H.R. 2918)

10/1/2009
(P.L. 111-68)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010

CRS Report R40617, Legislative Branch: FY2010 Appropriations

2009

___

___

Explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record and issued in a committee print
(H.R. 1105)

3/11/2009
(P.L. 111-8)

Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009

CRS Report RL34490, Legislative Branch: FY2009 Appropriations

2008

H.Rept. 110-198
(H.R. 2771)

S.Rept. 110-89
(S. 1686)

Explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 2764)

12/26/2007
(P.L. 110-161)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008

CRS Report RL34031, Legislative Branch: FY2008 Appropriations

2007

H.Rept. 109-485
(H.R. 5521)

S.Rept. 109-267
(H.R. 5521)

___

2/15/2007
(P.L. 110-5)

Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007

CRS Report RL33379, Legislative Branch: FY2007 Appropriations

2006

H.Rept. 109-139
(H.R. 2985)

S.Rept. 109-89 (H.R. 2985)

H.Rept. 109-189
(H.R. 2985)

8/02/2005
(P.L. 109-55)

FY2006 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act

CRS Report RL32819, Legislative Branch: FY2006 Appropriations

2005

H.Rept. 108-577
(H.R. 4755)

S.Rept. 108-307
(S. 2666)

H.Rept. 108-792
(H.R. 4818)

12/8/2004
(P.L. 108-447)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005

CRS Report RL32312, Appropriations for FY2005: Legislative Branch

2004

H.Rept. 108-186
(H.R. 2657)

S.Rept. 108-88
(S. 1383)

H.Rept. 108-279
(H.R. 2657)

9/30/2003
(P.L. 108-83)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2004

CRS Report RL31812, Appropriations for FY2004: Legislative Branch

2003

H.Rept. 107-576
(H.R. 5121)

S.Rept. 107-209
(S. 2720)

___

2/20/2003
(P.L. 108-7)

Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003

CRS Report RL31312, Appropriations for FY2003: Legislative Branch

2002

H.Rept. 107-169
(H.R. 2647)

S.Rept. 107-37
(S. 1172)

H.Rept. 107-259
(H.R. 2647)

11/12/2001
(P.L. 107-68)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2002

CRS Report RL31012, Appropriations for FY2002: Legislative Branch

2001

H.Rept. 106-635
(H.R. 4516)

S.Rept. 106-304
(S. 2603)

H.Rept. 106-796
(H.R. 4516, incorporated into H.R. 4577)

12/21/2000
(P.L. 106-554)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2001

CRS Report RL30512, Appropriations for FY2001: Legislative Branch

2000

H.Rept. 106-156
(H.R. 1905)

S.Rept. 106-75
(S. 1206)

H.Rept. 106-290
(H.R. 1905)

9/29/1999
(P.L. 106-57)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2000

CRS Report RL30212, Appropriations for FY2000: Legislative Branch

1999

H.Rept. 105-595
(H.R. 4112)

S.Rept. 105-204
(S. 2137)

H.Rept. 105-734
(H.R. 4112)

10/21/1998
(P.L. 105-275)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 1999

CRS Report 98-212, Appropriations for FY1999: Legislative Branch

1998

H.Rept. 105-196
(H.R. 2209)

S.Rept. 105-47
(S. 1019)

H.Rept. 105-254
(H.R. 2209)

10/7/1997
(P.L. 105-55)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 1998

CRS Report 97-212, Appropriations for FY1998: Legislative Branch

Source: Congressional Research Service examination of LIS.

Author Contact Information

Ida A. Brudnick, Specialist on the Congress ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Footnotes

1.

Office of Management and Budget, OMB Circular No. A-11 (2018), Section 10, Overview of the Budget, p. 2, at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/s10.pdf.

2.

An act "To revise, codify, and enact without substantive change certain general and permanent laws, related to money and finance, as title 31, United States Code, 'Money and Finance,'" P.L. 97-258, September 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 910.

3.

Office of Management and Budget, Appendix, Budget of the United States Government, FY2020 (Washington: GPO, 2019), pp. 11-45, at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/leg-fy2020.pdf.

4.

Mick Mulvaney, Director of the Office of Management and Budget, Letter to Chairman Rodney Frelinghuysen, Committee on Appropriations, May 7, 2018, at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/FY-2019-Legislative-Branch-Appropriations-bill-Letter.pdf.

5.

Russell T. Vought, Acting Director of the Office of Management and Budget, Letter to Chairwoman Nita Lowey, House Committee on Appropriations, May 8, 2019, at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/letter_fy2020_legislative_branch_appropriations_bill.pdf.

6.

Calculations by CRS with data from Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Table 5.4—Discretionary Budget Authority By Agency: 1976–2024," in Historical Tables, Budget of the United States Government, FY2020, at https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/historical-tables/. The calculations have some limitations, since the OMB data do not completely align with items funded in the annual and supplemental legislative branch appropriations acts. The differences may be partially traced to the definition of "legislative branch" in the OMB Public Budget Database user's guide. Some entities regularly included with the legislative branch in many OMB budget documents, like the U.S. Tax Court and some Legislative Branch Boards and Commissions, are not funded through the annual legislative branch appropriations acts. Consequently, an examination of the discretionary budget authority listed in the Historical Tables reveals some differences with the reported total budget authority provided in the annual legislative branch appropriations acts. The difference in legislative branch budget authority resulting from the different definitions of the legislative branch in the OMB budget documents and in the appropriations acts, however, does not represent a significant difference in the proportion of total discretionary budget authority.

7.

The legislative branch previously experienced a funding gap in FY1996 (November 14-18, 1995).

8.

FY2013 level from the CBO cost estimate for "Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2014 (H.J.Res. 59), Including the Amendment Reported by the House Committee on Rules on September 18, 2013 (H.Res. 352)" at http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/hjres59amendment.pdf, which lists a total for legislative branch budget authority of $4.061 billion, noting that it "includes effects of the 2013 sequestration." This bill contained a small anomaly for the legislative branch.

9.

White House, President Obama, Sequestration Order for Fiscal Year 2013 Pursuant to Section 251A of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, As Amended, March 1, 2013, at https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2013/03/06/2013-05397/sequestration-order-for-fiscal-year-2013-pursuant-to-section-251a-of-the-balanced-budget-and.

10.

Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, OMB Report to the Congress on the Joint Committee Sequestration for Fiscal Year 2013, March 1, 2013, at https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2013/03/06/2013-05397/sequestration-order-for-fiscal-year-2013-pursuant-to-section-251a-of-the-balanced-budget-and.

11.

P.L. 111-5, February 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 191.

12.

U.S. Congress, conference committee, Making Supplemental Appropriations for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2009, and for Other Purposes, report to accompany H.R. 2346, 111th Cong., 1st sess., H.Rept. 111-151 (Washington: GPO, 2009), p. 117.

13.

For example, U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch, 2019, report to accompany S. 3071, 115th Cong., 2nd sess., June 14, 2018, S.Rept. 115-274 (Washington: GPO, 2018), p. 4.

14.

For additional information, see CRS Report R44399, Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account (SOPOEA): History and Usage, by Ida A. Brudnick.

15.

For additional information, see CRS Report R40962, Members' Representational Allowance: History and Usage.

16.

P.L. 104-1, 109 Stat. 3, January 23, 1995. The act, as amended, applies 12 civil rights, labor, and workplace safety laws to Congress and certain legislative branch agencies. These laws are the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, Americans with Disabilities Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Employee Polygraph Protection Act, Fair Labor Standards Act, Family and Medical Leave Act, Federal Services Labor-Management Relations Act, Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Rehabilitation Act of 1970, Veterans' employment and reemployment rights at Chapter 43 of Title 38 of the U.S. Code, Worker Adjustment and Retraining Act, and Veterans Employment Opportunities Act.

17.

Among the office's activities are administration of a dispute resolution process, investigation and enforcement of occupational safety and health and disability provisions of the act, investigation of labor relations and enforcement of applicable provisions, and development of educational programs regarding the act's provisions.

18.

CBO is required to use estimates provided by the Joint Committee on Taxation for all revenue legislation (Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, P.L. 99-177, §273, 99 Stat.1098, December 12, 1985; 2 U.S.C. §§621 et seq.).

19.

P.L. 92-484, October 13, 1972, 86 Stat. 797; 2 U.S.C. 472.

20.

In FY1995, OTA was provided $21.97 million. The following year, it was provided $3.6 million for "salaries and expenses necessary to carry out the orderly closure" of OTA (P.L. 104-53, November 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 526).

21.

See, for example, Scientific and Technical Advice for the U.S. Congress, House Committee on Science, July 25, 2006; Effects of Climate Change and Ocean Acidification on Marine Life, Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard, May 10, 2007; Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2006, Part 2: Fiscal Year 2006 Legislative Branch Appropriations Requests, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, May 23, 2005; Legislative Branch Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2008, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, "Questions for the Record"; Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2010, Part 2: Fiscal Year 2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Requests, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, May 5, 2009, and "Questions for the Record"; Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2019. Part 2: Fiscal Year 2019 Legislative Branch Appropriations Requests, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, April 17, 2018; and the House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, FY2020 Members' Day hearing April 2, 2019. See also Technology Assessment in the War on Terrorism and Homeland Security: The Role of OTA, Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, S.Prt. 107-61, April 2002.

22.

See, for example, H.Res. 849, H.R. 7140, and S. 3357 (115th Congress); H.Res. 605 (114th Congress); S. 1602 and S. 2307 (110th Congress); H.R. 6, H.R. 125, and S. 2556 (108th Congress); H.R. 4, H.R. 2148, S. 1716, and S. 1766 (107th Congress).

23.

H.Amdt. 761 to H.R. 5895 (115th Congress); H.Amdt. 219 to H.R. 3219 (115th Congress); H.Amdt. 1171 to H.R. 5325 (114th Congress); H.Amdt. 649 to H.R. 4487 (113th Congress); H.Amdt. 711 to H.R. 2551 (112th Congress); H.Amdt. 667 to H.R. 4755 (108th Congress); H.R. 2209 (105th Congress); S.Amdt. 920 to S. 1019 (105th Congress); H.Amdt. 450, H.Amdt. 451, H.Amdt. 452, and S.Amdt. 1808 to H.R. 1854 (104th Congress).

24.

The FY2002 conference report stated, "The conferees direct the Comptroller General to obligate up to $500,000, of the funds made available, for a pilot program in technology assessment as determined by the Senate and to submit to the Senate a report on the pilot program not later than June 15, 2002" (H.Rept. 107-259).

25.

House Appropriations Committee reports: H.Rept. 111-160, H.Rept. 110-198, H.Rept. 108-186, H.Rept. 104-141; Senate Appropriations Committee reports: S.Rept. 114-64, S.Rept. 113-196, S.Rept. 110-89, S.Rept. 108-307, S.Rept. 108-88, S.Rept. 107-209, S.Rept. 104-114; and conference reports: H.Rept. 108-279, H.Rept. 108-792, and explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record for FY2008, FY2009, and FY2017 appropriations bills. See also reports accompanying the Concurrent Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 2008 (H.Rept. 110-69 and H.Rept. 110-153).

26.

See language in U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2019, report to accompany S. 3071, 115th Cong., 2nd sess., June 14, 2018, S.Rept. 115-274 (Washington: GPO, 2018), p. 48; and U.S. Congress, conference committee, Energy and Water, Legislative Branch, and Military Construction and Veterans' Affairs Appropriations Act, 2019, report to accompany H.R. 5895, 115th Cong., 2nd sess., September 10, 2018, H.Rept. 115-929 (Washington: GPO, 2018), p. 213. See also https://www.gao.gov/technology_and_science.

27.

U.S. Congress, conference committee, Energy and Water, Legislative Branch, and Military Construction and Veterans' Affairs Appropriations Act, 2019, report to accompany H.R. 5895, 115th Cong., 2nd sess., September 10, 2018, H.Rept. 115-929 (Washington: GPO, 2018), pp. 211-212. See also https://www.napawash.org/studies/academy-studies/science-and-technology-policy-assessment-for-the-us-congress.

28.

Figure obtained from the Annual Report of the Librarian of Congress for Fiscal Year 2017, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 2018, p. 5, at https://www.loc.gov/portals/static/about/reports-and-budgets/documents/annual-reports/fy2017.pdf.

29.

Annual Report of the Librarian of Congress for Fiscal Year 2017, p. 5.

30.

An example of receipts is fees paid to the LOC for copyright registration.

31.

Formerly known as the Government Printing Office. For additional information on GPO, see CRS Report R45014, Government Printing, Publications, and Digital Information Management: Issues and Challenges.

32.

The FY2015 act renamed these accounts: (1) the former congressional printing and binding account was renamed congressional publishing, (2) the former Office of Superintendent of Documents (salaries and expenses) account was renamed Public Information Programs of the Superintendent of Documents (salaries and expenses), and (3) the revolving fund was renamed the Government Publishing Office Business Operations Revolving Fund.

33.

The revolving fund supports GPO's operation and maintenance. For additional information, see CRS Report R40939, Legislative Branch Revolving Funds, by Ida A. Brudnick and Sarah J. Eckman.

34.

GAO's guidelines for initiating studies are contained in U.S. Government Accountability Office, GAO's Congressional Protocols, GAO-04-310G (Washington: GAO, 2004), at http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/d04310g.pdf.

35.

Offsetting collections include funds derived from reimbursable audits and rental of space in the GAO building.

36.

P.L. 106-554, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-120, December 21, 2000; P.L. 108-7, 117 Stat. 382, February 20, 2003. According to the 2003 act, the additional countries include "any country specified in §3 of the FREEDOM Support Act (22 U.S.C. 5801)," and "Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania." The countries specified in 22 U.S.C. 5801 are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

37.

P.L. 108-447, 118 Stat. 3192, December 8, 2004.

38.

2 U.S.C. 1105. See also http://www.stennis.gov/.