Legislative Branch: FY2018 Appropriations

The legislative branch appropriations bill provides funding for the Senate; House of Representatives; Joint Items; Capitol Police; Office of Compliance; Congressional Budget Office (CBO); Architect of the Capitol (AOC); Library of Congress (LOC), including the Congressional Research Service (CRS); Government Publishing Office (GPO); Government Accountability Office (GAO); Open World Leadership Center; and the John C. Stennis Center.

The FY2018 legislative branch budget request of $4.865 billion was submitted on May 23, 2017. In general, FY2018 legislative branch budget requests were developed and submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) prior to the enactment of FY2017 funding. By law, the President includes the legislative branch request in the annual budget submission without change.

On June 23, 2017, the House Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Subcommittee held a markup of the draft bill. The bill was ordered reported to the full committee by voice vote. On June 29, the House Appropriations Committee held a markup of the bill. The bill was ordered reported by voice vote. It would have provided $3.580 billion, not including Senate items (H.R. 3162, H.Rept. 115-199). On July 18, the text of H.R. 3162 was included in a print issued by the House Rules Committee entitled, “Text of the Defense, Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, Legislative Branch, and Energy And Water Development National Security Appropriations Act, 2018” (Committee Print 115-30, which also contained the text of H.R. 3219, H.R. 2998, and H.R. 3266). On July 24 and 25, the House Rules Committee met to consider a special rule for the consideration of H.R. 3219, which included legislative branch funding as Division B. A total of 34 proposed amendments were considered by the committee (including 7 the committee considered late or late revised). Ten amendments to Division B were made in order. The rule for consideration (H.Res. 473, H.Rept. 115-259) was agreed to in the House on July 26, 2017. On July 26, the House proceeded to consideration of H.R. 3219. Of the 10 amendments to Division B made in order by H.Res. 473, 9 were offered (4 agreed to by voice vote, 2 failed by voice vote, and 3 failed by roll call vote). H.R. 3219 was passed in the House the next day.

On July 27, the Senate Appropriations Committee reported S. 1648 (S.Rept. 115-137), which would have provided $3.171 billion, not including House items.

On September 8, a continuing appropriations resolution providing funding for legislative branch activities through December 8, 2017, was enacted (P.L. 115-56). Additional continuing appropriations resolutions (P.L. 115-90, through December 22, 2017; P.L. 115-96, through January 19, 2018; P.L. 115-120, through February 8, 2018; and P.L. 115-123, through March 23, 2018) provided funding until the enactment of the FY2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 115-141). The act provides $4.700 billion for FY2018, an increase of $260.0 million (5.9%) from FY2017.

The FY2017 level of $4.440 billion was an increase of $77.0 million (+1.7%) from FY2016. The FY2016 level of $4.363 billion represented an increase of $63 million (+1.5%) from the FY2015 level of $4.300 billion, and the FY2015 level represented an increase of $41.7 million (+1.0%) from the FY2014 funding level of $4.259 billion. The FY2013 act funded legislative branch accounts at the FY2012 enacted level, with some exceptions (also known as “anomalies”), less across-the-board rescissions that applied to all appropriations in the act, and not including sequestration reductions implemented on March 1. The FY2012 level of $4.307 billion represented a decrease of $236.9 million (-5.2%) from the FY2011 level, which itself represented a decrease of $125.1 million (-2.7%) from FY2010.

The smallest of the appropriations bills, the legislative branch comprises approximately 0.4% of total discretionary budget authority.

Legislative Branch: FY2018 Appropriations

Updated April 18, 2018 (R44899)
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Contents

Summary

The legislative branch appropriations bill provides funding for the Senate; House of Representatives; Joint Items; Capitol Police; Office of Compliance; Congressional Budget Office (CBO); Architect of the Capitol (AOC); Library of Congress (LOC), including the Congressional Research Service (CRS); Government Publishing Office (GPO); Government Accountability Office (GAO); Open World Leadership Center; and the John C. Stennis Center.

The FY2018 legislative branch budget request of $4.865 billion was submitted on May 23, 2017. In general, FY2018 legislative branch budget requests were developed and submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) prior to the enactment of FY2017 funding. By law, the President includes the legislative branch request in the annual budget submission without change.

On June 23, 2017, the House Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Subcommittee held a markup of the draft bill. The bill was ordered reported to the full committee by voice vote. On June 29, the House Appropriations Committee held a markup of the bill. The bill was ordered reported by voice vote. It would have provided $3.580 billion, not including Senate items (H.R. 3162, H.Rept. 115-199). On July 18, the text of H.R. 3162 was included in a print issued by the House Rules Committee entitled, "Text of the Defense, Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, Legislative Branch, and Energy And Water Development National Security Appropriations Act, 2018" (Committee Print 115-30, which also contained the text of H.R. 3219, H.R. 2998, and H.R. 3266). On July 24 and 25, the House Rules Committee met to consider a special rule for the consideration of H.R. 3219, which included legislative branch funding as Division B. A total of 34 proposed amendments were considered by the committee (including 7 the committee considered late or late revised). Ten amendments to Division B were made in order. The rule for consideration (H.Res. 473, H.Rept. 115-259) was agreed to in the House on July 26, 2017. On July 26, the House proceeded to consideration of H.R. 3219. Of the 10 amendments to Division B made in order by H.Res. 473, 9 were offered (4 agreed to by voice vote, 2 failed by voice vote, and 3 failed by roll call vote). H.R. 3219 was passed in the House the next day.

On July 27, the Senate Appropriations Committee reported S. 1648 (S.Rept. 115-137), which would have provided $3.171 billion, not including House items.

On September 8, a continuing appropriations resolution providing funding for legislative branch activities through December 8, 2017, was enacted (P.L. 115-56). Additional continuing appropriations resolutions (P.L. 115-90, through December 22, 2017; P.L. 115-96, through January 19, 2018; P.L. 115-120, through February 8, 2018; and P.L. 115-123, through March 23, 2018) provided funding until the enactment of the FY2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 115-141). The act provides $4.700 billion for FY2018, an increase of $260.0 million (5.9%) from FY2017.

The FY2017 level of $4.440 billion was an increase of $77.0 million (+1.7%) from FY2016. The FY2016 level of $4.363 billion represented an increase of $63 million (+1.5%) from the FY2015 level of $4.300 billion, and the FY2015 level represented an increase of $41.7 million (+1.0%) from the FY2014 funding level of $4.259 billion. The FY2013 act funded legislative branch accounts at the FY2012 enacted level, with some exceptions (also known as "anomalies"), less across-the-board rescissions that applied to all appropriations in the act, and not including sequestration reductions implemented on March 1. The FY2012 level of $4.307 billion represented a decrease of $236.9 million (-5.2%) from the FY2011 level, which itself represented a decrease of $125.1 million (-2.7%) from FY2010.

The smallest of the appropriations bills, the legislative branch comprises approximately 0.4% of total discretionary budget authority.


FY2018 Consideration: Overview of Actions

The first section of this report provides an overview of the consideration of FY2018 legislative branch appropriations, with subsections covering each action, including

  • the initial submission of the request on May 23, 2017;
  • hearings held by the House and Senate Legislative Branch Subcommittees in May and June, 2017;
  • the House subcommittee markup on June 23, 2017;
  • the House full committee markup on June 29, 2017;
  • the July 18, 2017, inclusion of the text of the legislative branch bill, H.R. 3162, in a print issued by the House Rules Committee;
  • the meeting of the House Rules Committee on July 24 and 25, 2017, to consider a special rule for consideration of H.R. 3219, which included legislative branch funding as Division B;
  • consideration of H.R. 3219 in the House on July 26 and passage on July 27;
  • the markup and reporting by the Senate Appropriations Committee of its version of the legislative branch appropriations bill on July 27 (S. 1648);
  • the enactment on September 8, of a continuing resolution providing funding through December 8, 2017;
  • the agreement in the House on September 14 to H.Res. 500, which included the text of Rules Committee Print 115-31, as amended, in an amendment in the nature of a substitute for H.R. 3354. The text of the legislative branch bill, as agreed to in H.R. 3219, was unchanged. H.R. 3354, which then includes text for all 12 appropriations bills, was agreed to in the House on September 14, 2017. H.R. 3354 was placed on the Senate Legislative Calendar but no further action was taken;
  • the enactment of additional continuing appropriations resolutions (P.L. 115-90, through December 22, 2017; P.L. 115-96, through January 19, 2018; P.L. 115-120, through February 8, 2018; and P.L. 115-123, through March 23, 2018); and
  • the enactment of the FY2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 115-141) on March 23, 2018, which provides $4.700 billion for FY2018, an increase of $260.0 million (5.9%) from FY2017.

It is followed by a section on prior year actions and funding, which contains a historical table and figure.

The report then provides an overview of the FY2018 budget requests of individual legislative branch agencies and entities.

Table 5 through Table 9 list enacted funding levels for FY2017 and the requested and reported levels for FY2018, while the Appendix lists House, Senate, and conference bills and reports; public law numbers; and enactment dates since FY1998.

Security Funding Following the June 14, 2017, Shooting at a Congressional Baseball Game Practice

A shooting on June 14, 2017, at a practice for the Congressional Baseball Game, which wounded one Member of Congress, two U.S. Capitol Police (USCP) officers, and two members of the public in Alexandria, Virginia, had an impact on consideration of the FY2018 legislative branch bill.

In particular, according to the House report, H.R. 3162 "provides additional resources to the USCP in the amount of $7,500,000 and House Sergeant at Arms in the amount of $5,000,000 to enhance security for Members both in Washington D.C. and in Congressional districts."1

The report also indicates that the "Committee has provided resources necessary to support the Committee on House Administration's plan to increase Member's Representational Allowance (MRA) by $25,000 per account this year for the purpose of providing Member security when away from the Capitol complex."2 Between the subcommittee and full committee markup sessions, on June 27, 2017, the House approved the MRA authorization increases when it agreed to H.Res. 411, by unanimous consent.

The report also refers to a request to the Federal Election Commission (FEC) to issue guidance on the allowance of all Members to use campaign funds for security improvements to their residences. The advisory opinion was issued on July 13, 2017.3

Subsequently, on July 28, 2017, House Sergeant at Arms Paul D. Irving issued a "Dear Colleague" letter announcing that his office "will assume the cost of and oversee future District Office security upgrades, maintenance, and monthly monitoring fees."4

On August 15, 2017, the Committee on House Administration issued a "Dear Colleague" letter announcing updates to the Members' Congressional Handbook incorporating these and other changes.5 The MRA remains available for security measures necessitated by official duties as discussed in the letter and the Handbook.

The FY2018 act and explanatory statement further address security for Members, staff, and visitors, stating,6

This agreement provides additional resources to the United States Capitol Police and the Sergeants at Arms of both chambers to enhance security for Members of Congress, their staff, and office visitors. Over the past year there have been humbling reminders of the threats Members of Congress and their staff face as public servants. The Congressional community has also been reminded of the heroic capabilities of the men and women of the United States Capitol Police. There is no higher priority in this agreement than providing adequate resources for the physical security of Members and their staff as well as constituents and visitors to the Capitol campus.

...

The agreement includes $7,500,000 to enhance Member protection, including funds for increased training, equipment and technology-related support items. The men and women of the Capitol Police have an increasingly difficult mission of protecting Members of Congress and the overall Capitol complex. Their mission can, at times, put them in harm's way. Ensuring these officers have the best tools and resources to carry out their duties is of the upmost importance to Congress.

Status of FY2018 Appropriations: Dates and Documents

Table 1. Status of Legislative Branch Appropriations, FY2018

Committee Markup

 

 

 

 

 

Conference Report Approval

 

House

Senate

House Report

House Passage

Senate Report

Senate Passage

Conference Report

House

Senate

Public Law

6/29/17

 

7/6/2017

H.Rept. 115-199;
H.R. 3162

7/27/2017 H.R. 3219

7/27/2017 S.Rept. 115-137
S. 1648

 

 

 

 

3/23/2018
H.R. 1625
P.L. 115-141

Source: Congressional Research Service examination of congress.gov data.

Notes: In recent years, the House has held a subcommittee markup prior to the full committee markup. The House subcommittee held its markup on June 23, 2017.

Submission of FY2018 Budget Request on May 23, 2017

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2018 was submitted on May 23, 2017. It contains a request for $4.865 billion in new budget authority for legislative branch activities.7 By law, the legislative branch request is submitted to the President and included in the budget without change.8

In general, FY2018 legislative branch budget requests had already been developed and submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) prior to the enactment of funding for FY2017, which occurred on May 5. Accounts in the Budget therefore include the following disclaimer:9

Note.—A full-year 2017 appropriation for this account was not enacted at the time the budget was prepared; therefore, the budget assumes this account is operating under the Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2017 (P.L. 114-254). The amounts included for 2017 reflect the annualized level provided by the continuing resolution.

Senate and House Hearings on the FY2018 Budget Requests

Table 2 lists the dates of hearings of the legislative branch subcommittees in 2017. Prepared statements of witnesses were posted on the subcommittee websites.

Table 2. Dates of House and Senate Hearings on Legislative Branch Requests

 

House of Representatives

Senate

Senate

June 29, 2017

House of Representatives

May 17, 2017

U.S. Capitol Police

May 18, 2017

June 29, 2017a

Office of Compliance

Congressional Budget Office

b

June 21, 2017

Architect of the Capitol

May 17, 2017

June 7, 2017

Library of Congress, including the Congressional Research Service

May 18, 2017

June 7, 2017

Government Publishing Office

Government Accountability Office

June 21, 2017

Members/Public Witnesses

May 3, 2017c

Sources: CRS examination of House and Senate Appropriations Committee websites.

Notes:

a. The Capitol Police hearing had originally been scheduled for June 14, 2017, the date of a shooting at a practice for the Congressional Baseball Game.

b. A submitted "Statement for the Record Regarding CBO's Appropriation Request for Fiscal Year 2018" is available at https://www.cbo.gov/system/files/115th-congress-2017-2018/reports/52798-fy18appropriationsstatement.pdf.

c. The House subcommittee announced that it would accept programmatic and language submissions from Members through May 30, 2017.

House Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on Legislative Branch Markup

On June 23, 2017, the House Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on Legislative Branch held a markup of the FY2018 bill.

The subcommittee recommended $3.58 billion (a $100 million increase, or +2.8%, from the comparable FY2017 enacted level), not including Senate items, which are historically considered by the Senate.

No amendments were offered.

House Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Markup and Reporting

On June 29, 2017, the House Appropriations Committee met to mark up the FY2018 bill reported from its legislative branch subcommittee. The following amendments were considered:

  • a manager's amendment, offered by Chairman Yoder of Kansas, with technical changes, which was agreed to by voice vote;
  • an amendment offered by Representative McCollum of Minnesota, related to the public release of CRS reports, which was not agreed to by voice vote;
  • an amendment offered by Representative Lee of California, related to House staff diversity and addressing bias in hiring and promotion, which was agreed to by voice vote;
  • an amendment offered by Representative Wasserman Schultz of Florida, related to the House historic buildings revitalization trust fund, which was withdrawn.

The bill was reported out of committee by voice vote (H.R. 3162, H.Rept. 115-199).

House Rules Committee Consideration of a Special Rule

On July 18, 2017, the text of H.R. 3162 was included in a print issued by the House Rules Committee referred to as the Make America Secure Appropriations Act, 2018, and short titled the "Defense, Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, Legislative Branch, and Energy and Water Development National Security Appropriations Act, 2018" (Committee Print 115-30).10 An announcement regarding the amendment process was issued.11

The House Rules Committee met on July 24 and 25, 2017, to consider a special rule for consideration of this bill, H.R. 3219, which included legislative branch funding as Division B. A total of 34 amendments were considered by the committee for Division B (including 7 the committee considered late or late revised).12

Ten amendments to Division B were made in order under the rule reported by the House Rules Committee (H.Res. 473, amendments printed in H.Rept. 115-259).

H.Res. 473 was agreed to in the House on July 26, 2017 (232-192, Roll no. 415; see also H.Res. 478).

House Floor Consideration and Passage

The House proceeded to consideration of H.R. 3219 on July 26. Of the 10 amendments to Division B made in order, 9 were offered.

Four were agreed to by voice vote:

  • H.Amdt. 214, relating to the use of the Members' Representational Allowance for Member security;
  • H.Amdt. 215, increasing funding for the House Wounded Warrior Program by $250,000 (offset by a decrease in funding for the Architect of the Capitol);
  • H.Amdt. 218, providing designated baby changing stations in the Capitol Complex; and
  • H.Amdt. 221, prohibiting the delivery of printed copies of the Federal Register to Representatives unless specifically requested.

Two failed by voice vote:

  • H.Amdt. 213, increasing funding for the Government Accountability Office, offset by a reduction in the Members' Representational Allowance; and
  • H.Amdt. 220, limiting mass mailings to the size of a standard postcard.

Three failed by roll call vote:

  • H.Amdt. 216 and H.Amdt. 217, which would have reduced funding for the Congressional Budget Office; and
  • H.Amdt. 219, which would have provided funding for the reestablishment of the Office of Technology Assessment, offset from funds from the Architect of the Capitol's Capital Construction and Operations Account.

H.R. 3219 was passed in the House the next day (235-192, Roll no. 435).

Senate Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Markup and Reporting

On July 27, the Senate Appropriations Committee met to mark up its version of the FY2018 legislative branch appropriations bill. It reported the bill on the same day (by recorded vote, 31-0; S. 1648, S.Rept. 115-137).

S. 1648 would have provided $3.171 billion, not including House items, an increase of $122.4 million (+4.0%) from the comparable FY2017 enacted level.

Continuing Appropriations Resolution Enacted

A continuing appropriations resolution (CR) providing funding for legislative branch activities through December 8, 2017, was enacted on September 8, 2017 (H.R. 601, P.L. 115-56).

Two provisions in the CR related to the legislative branch.

Section 140 allowed for amounts made available for salaries for employees in the Office of the Senate Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper to be apportioned at rates necessary to maintain current Senate cybersecurity capabilities. In general, 2 U.S.C. §4577 prohibits spending more than one-quarter of the total amount available for employees covered by this line-item in the first quarter of a fiscal year.

P.L. 115-56 also contained a provision continuing "section 175 of Public Law 114-223, as amended by division A of Public Law 114-254." This provision prohibited a Member pay adjustment in FY2017. The continuance of this provision prohibited the Member pay adjustment for the duration of the CR, and it was extended in the subsequent FY2018 CRs. Member pay was then frozen for the remainder of the fiscal year in Section 7 of the FY2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act.

Inclusion of Text of H.R. 3219 in H.R. 3354

On September 14, the House agreed to H.Res. 500, providing for consideration of the bill (H.R. 3354) making appropriations for the Department of the Interior, environment, and related agencies for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2018, and for other purposes.

The resolution also provided for the inclusion of the text of Rules Committee Print 115-31, modified by Rules Committee Print 115-32 and the amendment printed in part A of the report of the Committee on Rules accompanying the resolution, in an amendment in the nature of a substitute for H.R. 3354 (Roll no. 443). The text of the legislative branch bill, as agreed to in H.R. 3219, was unchanged.

H.R. 3354, as amended to include text for all 12 appropriations bills, was agreed to in the House on September 14, 2017 (Roll no. 528). No further action was taken.

Enactment of Further Continuing Appropriations Resolutions and the FY2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act

Additional continuing appropriations resolutions provided funding through

  • December 22, 2017 (P.L. 115-90);
  • January 19, 2018 (P.L. 115-96);
  • February 8, 2018 (P.L. 115-120). This law also amended Title 44 of the U.S. Code to restrict the distribution of free printed copies of Federal Register to Members of Congress and federal employees; and
  • March 23, 2018 (P.L. 115-123). Title IX of Division B also provided $14.0 million to the Government Accountability Office "for audits and investigations relating to Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria and the 2017 wildfires."

On March 22, 2018, a rule for the consideration of H.R. 1625, consisting of the text of Rules Committee Print 115-66, was reported by the House Committee on Rules.13 The committee print contained the text of the FY2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act. The rule, H.Res. 796, was agreed to (211-207, Roll no. 124). The House then agreed to H.R. 1625 (256-167, Roll no. 127). The following day, the Senate invoked cloture (67-30, Record Vote Number 62) and then agreed to H.R. 1625 (65-32, Record Vote Number 63).

Division I of the FY2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 115-141) provides $4.700 billion for legislative branch activities, an increase of $260.0 million (5.9%) from the FY2017 level.

Funding in Prior Years: Brief Overview and Trends

Legislative Branch: Historic Percentage of Total Discretionary Budget Authority

The percentage of total discretionary budget authority provided to the legislative branch has remained relatively stable at approximately 0.4% since at least FY1976.14 The maximum level, 0.48%, was in FY1995, and the minimum, 0.31%, was in FY2009.

FY2017

FY2017 funding was provided in Division I of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017 (P.L. 115-31), which was enacted on May 5, 2017. The $4.440 billion provided by the act represented a $77.0 million increase (+1.7%) from the FY2016 enacted level.

FY2016

FY2016 funding was provided in Division I of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016 (P.L. 114-113), which was enacted on December 18, 2015. The $4.363 billion provided by the act represented a $63.0 million increase (+1.5%) from the FY2015 enacted level.

FY2015

FY2015 funding was provided in Division H of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015 (P.L. 113-235), which was enacted on December 16, 2014. The $4.300 billion provided by the act represented an increase of $41.7 million (+1.0%) from FY2014.

FY2014

Neither a legislative branch appropriations bill nor a continuing appropriations resolution (CR) containing FY2014 funding was enacted prior to the beginning of the fiscal year on October 1, 2013. A funding gap, which resulted in a partial government shutdown, ensued for 16 days. The funding gap was terminated by the enactment of a CR (P.L. 113-46) on October 17, 2013. The CR provided funding through January 15, 2014.15 Following enactment of a temporary continuing resolution on January 15, 2014 (P.L. 113-73), a consolidated appropriations bill was enacted on January 17 (P.L. 113-76), providing $4.259 billion for the legislative branch for FY2014.

FY2013

FY2013 funding of approximately $4.061 billion was provided by P.L. 113-6, which was signed into law on March 26, 2013.16 The act funded legislative branch accounts at the FY2012 enacted level, with some exceptions (also known as "anomalies"), not including across-the-board rescissions required by Section 3004 of P.L. 113-6. Section 3004 was intended to eliminate any amount by which the new budget authority provided in the act exceeded the FY2013 discretionary spending limits in Section 251(c)(2) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, as amended by the Budget Control Act of 2011 (P.L. 112-25) and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-240). Subsequent to the enactment of P.L. 113-6, OMB calculated that additional rescissions of 0.032% of security budget authority and 0.2% of nonsecurity budget authority would be required. The act did not alter the sequestration reductions implemented on March 1, which reduced most legislative branch accounts by 5.0%.17 The accompanying OMB report indicated a dollar amount of budget authority to be canceled in each account containing nonexempt funds.18

FY2012 and Prior

Division G of the FY2012 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 112-74) provided $4.307 billion for the legislative branch. This level was $236.9 million below (-5.2%) the FY2011 enacted level. P.L. 112-10 provided $4.543 billion for legislative branch operations in FY2011. This level represented a $125.1 million decrease from the $4.668 billion provided in the FY2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-68) and the FY2010 Supplemental Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-212). The FY2009 Omnibus Appropriations Act provided $4.402 billion. In FY2009, an additional $25.0 million was provided for the Government Accountability Office (GAO) in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.19 P.L. 111-32, the FY2009 Supplemental Appropriations Act, also contained funding for a new Capitol Police radio system ($71.6 million) and additional funding for the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) ($2.0 million).20

As seen in Table 3, the FY2017 legislative branch budget, adjusted for inflation, remained below the FY2007 level. When compared to FY2010, which was the peak of legislative branch funding, the FY2017 level decreased 4.9% when not adjusted for inflation and 14.9% when adjusted for inflation.

Figure 1 shows the same information graphically, while also demonstrating the division of budget authority across the legislative branch in FY2017.

Table 3. Legislative Branch Funding, FY2007-FY2017: Current and Constant Dollars

(in billions of dollars)

Fiscal Year

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Current Dollars

3.852a

3.970

4.501b

4.669c

4.543d

4.307

4.061e

4.259

4.300

4.363

4.440

Constant Dollars (2017)

4.532

4.517

5.106

5.218

4.969

4.613

4.287

4.430

4.441

4.467

4.440

Source: CRS analysis of legislative branch appropriations acts and related budget documents.

Notes: These figures exclude permanent budget authorities, including funding for Member pay, that are not included in the annual legislative branch appropriations bill. Totals include supplementals and rescissions. Constant 2017 dollars calculated using the "Total Non-Defense" deflator in Table 10.1—Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940-2022 in the President's FY2018 budget request.

a. This number contains appropriations provided by P.L. 110-5 (the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007), and funding for the House of Representatives, Government Accountability Office, U.S. Capitol Police, Architect of the Capitol, and gratuity payments provided in P.L. 110-28 (the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007).

b. This number contains appropriations provided by P.L. 110-161 (the FY2009 Omnibus Appropriations Act), $25.0 million for the Government Accountability Office provided by P.L. 111-5 (the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009), and $73.6 million provided by P.L. 111-32 (the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2009) for the U.S. Capitol Police and the Congressional Budget Office.

c. This number contains appropriations provided by P.L. 111-68 (the FY2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act), and $12.96 million in supplemental appropriations provided for the U.S. Capitol Police in P.L. 111-212 (the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010).

d. This number does not include scorekeeping adjustment.

e. FY2013 level obtained from the CBO cost estimate for "Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2014 (H.J.Res. 59), Including the Amendment Reported by the House Committee on Rules on September 18, 2013 (H.Res. 352) Discretionary spending (in millions of dollars)," which lists a total for legislative branch budget authority of $4.061 billion, noting that it "includes effects of the 2013 sequestration." This bill contained a small anomaly for the legislative branch.

Figure 1. Legislative Branch Funding FY2007-FY2017: Current and Constant 2017 Dollars

(and distribution in FY2017)

Source: CRS analysis of legislative branch appropriations acts and related budget documents.

Notes: These figures exclude permanent budget authorities and contain supplementals and rescissions. Total does not include permanent budget authorities, including funding for Member pay, that are not included in the annual legislative branch appropriations bill. Total also excludes offsetting collections and authority to spend receipts. Constant 2017 dollars calculated using the "Total Non-Defense" deflator in Table 10.1—Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940-2022 in the President's FY2018 budget request.

Figure 2 shows the timing of legislative branch appropriations actions, including the issuance of House and Senate reports, bill passage, and enactment, from FY1996 through FY2018. It shows that fiscal year funding for the legislative branch has been determined on or before October 1 five times during this period (FY1997, FY2000, FY2004, FY2006, and FY2010), with another two bills enacted during the first month of the fiscal year (FY1998 and FY1999), two in November (FY1996 and FY2002), six in December (FY2001, FY2005, FY2008, FY2012, FY2015, and FY2016), and eight in the next calendar year (FY2003, FY2007, FY2009, FY2011, FY2013, FY2014, FY2017, and FY2018). FY2017 funding, enacted on May 5, 2017, represented the latest date of enactment during this period.

Figure 2. Timing of Legislative Branch Appropriations Consideration FY1996-FY2018

(fiscal year consideration during the calendar year)

Source: CRS analysis of data found on http://www.congress.gov.

Notes: Each row represents consideration during the calendar year of the subsequent fiscal year spending bill (i.e., the calendar year 1992 row shows the timeline of consideration and passage of the FY1993 act). Arrows in the December column indicate consideration continued until the next calendar year. The figure shows when the committee report was filed, which may be later than the date the bill was ordered reported. When House and Senate action occurs on the same date, the House is shown first. The FY2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-68) is listed in this figure as stand-alone legislation (Division A), although it was also the vehicle for a continuing appropriations resolution (Division B).

FY2018 Legislative Branch Funding Issues

The following sections discuss the various legislative branch accounts.

During consideration of the legislative branch bills, the House and Senate conform to a "longstanding practice under which each body of Congress determines its own housekeeping requirements and the other concurs without intervention."21

As stated above, FY2018 legislative branch budget requests were generally developed and submitted to OMB prior to the determination of FY2017 funding, which was enacted on May 5, 2017.

Senate

Overall Funding

The Senate requested $948.3 million for FY2018, an 8.8% increase over the $871.2 million provided in FY2017. The Senate-reported bill would have provided $899.8 million (+3.3%), and the FY2018 act provides $919.9 million (+5.6%).

Additional information on the Senate account is presented in Table 6.

Senate Committee Funding

Appropriations for Senate committees are contained in two accounts.

  • The inquiries and investigations account contains funds for all Senate committees except Appropriations. The Senate-reported and FY2018 enacted level of $133.3 million continues the level provided since FY2015. The Senate had requested $135.8 million (+1.9%).
  • The Committee on Appropriations account contains funds for the Senate Appropriations Committee. The Senate-requested and -reported level of $15.1 million, which was provided in the FY2018 act, is equivalent to the level provided since FY2015.

Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account22

The Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account (SOPOEA) provides each Senator with funds to administer an office. It consists of an administrative and clerical assistance allowance, a legislative assistance allowance, and an official office expense allowance. The funds may be used for any category of expenses, subject to limitations on official mail.

The Senate requested $452.6 million, $62.6 million above (+16.1%) the $390.0 million provided each year since FY2014. The Senate-reported bill would have provided $404.0 million (+3.6%), and the FY2018 act provides $424.0 million (+8.7%).

Administrative Provisions

The Senate-reported bill contained five administrative provisions:

  • 1. One provision, which was first included in FY2016, requires amounts remaining in the Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account (SOPOEA) to be used for deficit reduction or to reduce the federal debt. This provision was included in the FY2018 act.
  • 2. One provision related to Senate procurements, which was included in the FY2018 act.
  • 3. One provision which would continue the freeze on Member salaries at the 2009 level. Member salaries are funded in a permanent appropriations account, and the legislative branch bill does not contain language funding or increasing Member pay. A provision prohibiting the automatic Member pay adjustments could be included in any bill, or be introduced as a separate bill. The FY2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act froze Member salaries in Section 7.
  • 4. One provision which would address student loan repayment for employees of departing Senators and Vice Presidents.23 This provision was included in the FY2018 act.
  • 5. One provision would require Senate political committees to file campaign finance disclosure reports electronically and directly with the Federal Election Commission.24 This provision was not included in the FY2018 act.

House of Representatives

Overall Funding

The House requested $1.223 billion for FY2018, a 2.9% increase from the FY2017 enacted level of $1.189 billion. The House-passed level of $1.194 billion would have provided a $4.8 million increase (+0.4%). The FY2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $1.200 billion, a $10.95 million increase (+0.9%).

Additional information on headings in the House of Representatives account is presented in Table 7.

House Committee Funding

Funding for House committees is contained in the appropriation heading "committee employees," which comprises two subheadings.

The first subheading contains funds for personnel and nonpersonnel expenses of House committees, except the Appropriations Committee, as authorized by the House in a committee expense resolution. The House requested $129.1 million (+1.6%). The House-passed bill and the FY2018 act provided $127.1 million, a continuation of the FY2017 level and an increase of 2.5% from the level provided in FY2014, FY2015, and FY2016.

The second subheading contained funds for the personnel and nonpersonnel expenses of the Committee on Appropriations. The House-passed bill and the FY2018 act provided $23.2 million, a slight decrease ($45,000) from the level provided in FY2014, FY2015, and FY2016.

Members' Representational Allowance25

The Members' Representational Allowance is available to support Members in their official and representational duties.

The $562.6 million in the House-passed bill and the FY2018 act is a continuation of the FY2017 level and an increase of $8.3 million (+1.5%) from the level provided in FY2014, FY2015, and FY2016.

The House committee report indicates that the recommended "level of funding will allow the MRAs to operate at authorized levels as approved by the Committee on House Administration."26

Administrative Provisions

The House requested the continuation of administrative provisions from prior years related to

  • 1. unexpended balances from the MRA;
  • 2. limiting amounts available from the MRA for leased vehicles; and
  • 3. limiting or prohibiting the delivery of copies of bills and resolutions, the Congressional Record, the U.S. Code, the Statement of Disbursements, the Daily Calendar, and the Congressional Pictorial Directory.

These provisions, as well as a new provision amending the House Services Revolving Fund to allow for the collection of a fee from vendors for failure to abide by and maintain House security policies, were all included in the House-passed bill. These provisions, with the exception of the vendors' fee provision, were included in the FY2018 act.

The House-passed bill also contained an administrative provision which would freeze Member salaries at the 2009 level. The provision was included in the bill as reported by the House Appropriations Committee, and no separate vote was taken on the pay adjustment. The FY2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act froze Member salaries in Section 7.

Support Agency Funding

U.S. Capitol Police

The U.S. Capitol Police (USCP) are responsible for the security of the Capitol Complex, including, for example, the U.S. Capitol, the House and Senate office buildings, the U.S. Botanic Garden, and the Library of Congress buildings and adjacent grounds.

The USCP requested $422.3 million for FY2018, an increase of $29.0 million (+7.4%) from the $393.3 million the USCP received for FY2017.

The House-passed and Senate-reported bills would have provided $422.5 million (+7.4%). The FY2018 act provides $426.5 million, an increase of $33.2 million (+8.4%).

Additional information on the USCP is presented in Table 8.

Appropriations for the police are contained in two accounts—a salaries account and a general expenses account.

  • Salaries—the Capitol Police requested $347.1 million for salaries, an increase of $21.8 million (+6.7%) from the $325.3 million provided in FY2017. The House-passed and Senate-reported bills would have provided $347.7 million (+6.9%). The FY2018 act provides $351.7 million (+8.1%).
  • General Expenses—the Capitol Police requested $75.2 million for general expenses, an increase of $7.2 million (+10.6%) from the $68.0 million provided in FY2017. The House-passed and Senate-reported bills, and the FY2018 act, provide $74.8 million (+10.0%).

Another appropriation relating to the Capitol Police appears within the Architect of the Capitol account for Capitol Police buildings and grounds. USCP requested $54.2 million, an increase of $34.1 million (+170.4%) from the $20.0 million provided in FY2017. The House-passed bill would have provided $33.2 million (+66.0%) and the Senate-reported bill would have provided $30.8 million (+53.9%). The FY2018 act provides $34.2 million (+71.0%).

For additional discussion of FY2018 funding, see the section on "Security Funding Following the June 14, 2017, Shooting at a Congressional Baseball Game Practice."

Administrative Provision

The Capitol Police requested one administrative provision, which would amend language in the United States Capitol Police Administrative Technical Corrections Act regarding terminations from employment (2 U.S.C. 1907(e)(1)). The House-passed and Senate-reported bills did not include this provision, nor did the FY2018 act.

Office of Compliance

The Office of Compliance is an independent and nonpartisan agency within the legislative branch. It was established to administer and enforce the Congressional Accountability Act, which was enacted in 1995.27 The act applies various employment and workplace safety laws to Congress and certain legislative branch entities.28

The Office of Compliance requested $4.1 million for FY2018, an increase of $97,000 (+2.5%). The House-passed and Senate-reported bills would have provided $3.96 million, a continuation of the level provided each year since FY2015. The FY2018 act provides $4.959 million, an increase of $1.0 million (+25.3%).

Sexual Harassment and the Congressional Accountability Act

Following increased attention beginning in late 2017 to sexual harassment policies in Congress, the House passed the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 Reform Act (H.R. 4924) on February 6, 2018. The bill was referred to the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.

In addition, the House agreed to H.Res. 630 on November 29, 2017, requiring a training program on workplace rights and responsibilities for all House Members, officers, and employees.

Since then, discussions related to potential future changes to the Congressional Accountability Act have continued. The FY2018 explanatory statement further addressed this:29

Ensuring and protecting workplace rights of employees is imperative and the funds provided in this act support that effort. Processes to protect workplace rights have been in place for many years but they are not perfect. As Congress considers changes to the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995, which will impact the Office of Compliance's operations, there is a need to strengthen the agency's overall capacity, including the quality of its training and information technology processes.

The FY2018 explanatory statement also addressed efforts and funding implications specific to the House:30

This agreement provides $5,000,000 to the CAO for workplace rights initiatives. The funds will support mandatory training requirements for all Members and staff included in House Resolution 630, as well as the establishment of the Office of Employee Advocacy created in House Resolution 724. Mandatory training is an important first step to ensure that every Member, staff, intern, fellow and detailee is fully aware of the laws that apply to them and their right to a harassment-free workplace under the Congressional Accountability Act. The Office of Employee Advocacy will provide House employees with immediate access to a dedicated advocate who will provide legal consultation, representation, and assistance on allegations, claims, and complaints under the Congressional Accountability Act in proceedings before the Office of Compliance and Committee on Ethics.

Congressional Budget Office (CBO)

CBO is a nonpartisan congressional agency created to provide objective economic and budgetary analysis to Congress. CBO cost estimates are required for any measure reported by a regular or conference committee that may vary revenues or expenditures.31

CBO requested $49.9 million, an increase of $3.4 million (+7.4%) from the $46.5 million provided in FY2017. The House-passed bill would have provided $48.5 million (+4.3%). The Senate-reported bill would have provided $48.1 million (+3.4%). The FY2018 act provides $49.9 million (+7.4%).

Administrative Provision

The FY2018 act includes one administrative provision, also included in the FY2019 budget request (submitted prior to the enactment of the FY2018 act), which applies certain Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) to CBO.

Architect of the Capitol

The Architect of the Capitol (AOC) is responsible for the maintenance, operation, development, and preservation of the U.S. Capitol Complex, which includes the Capitol and its grounds, House and Senate office buildings, Library of Congress buildings and grounds, Capitol Power Plant, Botanic Garden, Capitol Visitor Center, and Capitol Police buildings and grounds. The Architect is responsible for the Supreme Court buildings and grounds, but appropriations for their expenses are not contained in the legislative branch appropriations bill.

Overall Funding Levels

Operations of the Architect are funded in the following 10 accounts: capital construction and operations, Capitol building, Capitol grounds, Senate office buildings, House office buildings, Capitol Power Plant, Library buildings and grounds, Capitol Police buildings and grounds, Capitol Visitor Center, and Botanic Garden.

The Architect requested $782.96 million for FY2018, an increase of $165.1 million (+26.7%) from the FY2017 level of $617.9 million.

The House Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Subcommittee recommended $577.8 million, not including funding for the Senate office buildings. A manager's amendment adopted at the full committee markup (voice vote) increased this amount by $4.0 million (adjusting the House office buildings account).

The House-passed level of $581.6 million represented a $52.1 million increase (+9.8%) from the $529.5 million provided for similar items in FY2017. This level includes H.Amdt. 215, which increased funding for the House Wounded Warrior Program by $250,000, offset by a reduction in the AOC Capital construction and operations account.

The Senate-reported bill would have provided $454.0 million, not including funding for the House office buildings or the House Historic Buildings Revitalization Fund. This represents an increase of $38.9 million (+9.4%) from the $415.2 million provided for similar items in FY2017.

The FY2018 act provides $712.1 million, an increase of $94.2 million (+15.2%).

Additional funding information on the individual AOC accounts is presented in Table 9.

Administrative Provisions

The AOC also requested two administrative provisions, which were included in the House-passed and Senate-reported bills and the FY2018 act:

  • 1. a provision prohibiting the use of funds for bonuses for contractors behind schedule or over budget, first included in FY2015; and
  • 2. a provision prohibiting scrims containing photographs of building facades during restoration or construction projects performed by the Architect of the Capitol, first included in FY2015.

Library of Congress (LOC)

The Library of Congress serves simultaneously as Congress's parliamentary library and the de facto national library of the United States. Its broader services to the nation include the acquisition, maintenance, and preservation of a collection of more than 162.5 million analog items;32 service to the general public and scholarly and library communities; administration of U.S. copyright laws by its Copyright Office; and administration of a national program to provide reading material to the blind and physically handicapped. Its direct services to Congress include the provision of legal research and law-related services by the Law Library of Congress, and a broad range of activities by the Congressional Research Service (CRS), including in-depth and nonpartisan public policy research, analysis, and legislative assistance for Members and committees and their staff; congressional staff training; information and statistics retrieval; and continuing legal education for Members of both chambers and congressional staff.

The Library requested $703.4 million for FY2018,33 an increase of $71.5 million (+11.3%) from the $631.96 million provided in FY2017.

The House-passed bill would have provided $648.0 million, an increase of $16.1 million (+2.5%).

The Senate-reported bill would have provided $638.9 million, an increase of $6.9 million (+1.1%).

The FY2018 act provides $669.9 million, an increase of $37.9 million (+6.0%).

These figures do not include additional authority to spend receipts.34

The FY2018 budget contains the following headings:

  • Salaries and expenses—The Library requested $497.9 million, an increase of $47.2 million (+10.5%) from the $450.7 million provided for FY2017. The House-passed bill would have provided $457.9 million (+1.6%), while the Senate-reported bill would continue the FY2017 enacted level. The FY2018 act provides $470.7 million (+4.4%). These figures do not include $6.35 million in authority to spend receipts.
  • Copyright Office—The Library requested $31.4 million, an increase of $8.3 million (+36.0%) from the $23.1 million provided for FY2017. The FY2018 act provides the House-passed level of $28.4 million (+23.2%). The Senate-reported bill would have provided $25.3 million (+9.4%). These levels do not include authority to spend receipts and prior year unobligated balances ($45.7 million in FY2017; $46.3 million in the request; $43.6 million in the House-passed and Senate-reported bills and the FY2018 act). Total budget authority, including receipts and balances, is $68.8 million in FY2017; $77.7 million in the request; $72.0 million in the FY2018 act and the House-passed bill; and $68.8 million in the Senate-reported bill.
  • Congressional Research Service—The Library requested $119.3 million for FY2018, an increase of $11.3 million (+10.5%) from the FY2017 level of $107.9 million. The House-passed bill would have provided $111.5 million (+3.3%), and the Senate-reported bill would have provided $112.7 million (+4.4%). The FY2018 act provides the requested level of $119.3 million (+10.5%).
  • Books for the Blind and Physically Handicapped—The Library requested $52.8 million, a $2.6 million (+5.1) increase from the $50.2 million provided in FY2015, FY2016, and FY2017. The House-passed and Senate-reported FY2018 bills would have continued the prior-year level. The FY2018 act provides $51.5 million (+2.5%).

The Architect's budget also contains funds for the Library buildings and grounds. For FY2018, $121.2 million was requested, an increase of $74.1 million (+157.4%) from the $47.1 million provided for FY2017. The House-passed bill would have provided $76.1 million (+61.6%). Of this total, $45.0 million would be allocated for a collection storage module at Ft. Meade, MD. The Senate-reported bill would have provided $27.4 million (-41.7%). The FY2018 act provides $74.9 million (+59.0%), including the funding for the storage module.

Administrative Provisions

The Library requested

  • 1. authority to obligate funds for reimbursable and revolving fund activities ($190.6 million);
  • 2. an amendment to its gifts authorities; and
  • 3. language related to the operations of the Copyright Office in the event of a lapse in annual appropriations.

Due to timing, the budget request also included a provision establishing the Library of Congress National Collection Stewardship Fund, although this was included in the FY2017 act.

The House-passed bill included the reimbursable and revolving fund language.

The Senate-reported bill included the reimbursable and revolving fund authority as well as provisions to (1) update the revolving fund language, (2) amend gift authorities, (3) apply certain aspects of the Congressional Accountability Act to the Library of Congress, and (4) provide for the availability of CRS reports through the Government Publishing Office website.

The FY2018 act includes

  • 1. the reimbursable and revolving fund authorization language;
  • 2. the update to the revolving funds;
  • 3. the amendment to gifts authorities;
  • 4. a provision to apply certain aspects of the Congressional Accountability Act to the Library of Congress; and
  • 5. a provision to provide for public access to the Congressional Research Service reports.

Government Publishing Office (GPO)35

GPO requested, and the House-passed and Senate-reported bills and the FY2018 act provide, $117.1 million, the same level as provided in FY2017 and FY2016 and below the levels provided in FY2014 and FY2015.

GPO's budget authority is contained in three accounts.36

  • 1. Congressional publishing—GPO requested, and the House-passed and Senate-reported bills and the FY2018 act provide, $79.5 million, a decrease of $208,000 (-0.3%).
  • 2. Public Information Programs of the Superintendent of Documents (salaries and expenses)—GPO requested, and the House-passed and Senate-reported bills and the FY2018 act provide, $29.0 million, a decrease of $500,000 (-1.7%).
  • 3. Government Publishing Office Business Operations Revolving Fund—the revolving fund supports the operation and maintenance of the Government Publishing Office.37 GPO requested, and the House-passed and Senate-reported bills and the FY2018 act provide $8.5 million, an increase of $708,000 (+9.0%).

Government Accountability Office (GAO)

GAO responds to requests for studies of federal government programs and expenditures. GAO may also initiate its own work.38

GAO requested $590.7 million, an increase of $46.2 million (+8.5%) from the $544.5 million provided in FY2017. The House-passed bill would have continued the FY2017 level, and the Senate-reported bill would have provided $562.8 million (+3.4%). The FY2018 act provides $578.9 million (+6.3%).

These levels do not include offsetting collections ($23.4 million in FY2017; $23.8 million in the request, the House-passed and Senate-reported bills, and the FY2018 act).39

Open World Leadership Center

The Open World Leadership Center administers a program that supports democratic changes in other countries by inviting their leaders to observe democracy and free enterprise in the United States. The first program was authorized by Congress in 1999 to support the relationship between Russia and the United States. The program encouraged young federal and local Russian leaders to visit the United States and observe its government and society.

Established at the Library of Congress as the Center for Russian Leadership Development in 2000, the center was renamed the Open World Leadership Center in 2003, when the program was expanded to include specified additional countries.40 In 2004, Congress further extended the program's eligibility to other countries designated by the center's board of trustees, subject to congressional consideration.41 The center is housed in the Library and receives services from the Library through an interagency agreement.

The legislative branch bills, including the House-passed and Senate-reported FY2018 bills, have included a provision since FY2016 stating

That funds made available to support Russian participants shall only be used for those engaging in free market development, humanitarian activities, and civic engagement, and shall not be used for officials of the central government of Russia.

Open World requested $5.8 million for FY2018, an increase of $200,000 (+3.6%) from the FY2017 enacted level. The House-passed and Senate-reported bills, and the FY2018 act, continue the FY2017 enacted level of $5.6 million.

Prior Year Discussion of Location and Funding of Open World

The location and future of Open World, attempts to assess its effectiveness, and its inclusion in the legislative branch budget have been discussed at appropriations hearings and in report language for more than a decade. The funding level for Open World has also varied greatly during this period.

In FY2017, the House Appropriations Committee recommended $1.0 million (-82.1%) for expenses associated with shutting down the program. During full committee consideration, an amendment was offered and withdrawn to increase funding for this program. The committee report stated,42

For many years the Committee has had concern with the placement of the Open World Leadership Center (OWLC) in the Legislative Branch with it mirroring numerous similar or nearly identical programs administered by other Federal agencies. In this fiscal environment where our national debt exceeds $19 trillion, it is important to eliminate duplicative programs. The Committee has provided $1,000,000 to cover the cost associated with the shutdown of the OWLC. The Committee directs the Director to retain any necessary prior year funds in the Trust to cover any cost in excess of the $1,000,000 provided in this bill to be utilized for the orderly shutdown. The Director is further directed that the program termination is to be finalized within one year of enactment of the Legislative Branch fiscal year 2017 appropriation bill.

The Senate-reported FY2017 bill would have continued funding at the FY2016 level, and this level was continued in the FY2017 act.43

For FY2016, the House subcommittee mark proposed $1.0 million for an orderly shutdown of Open World. Language in the full committee print, released prior to the markup of the FY2016 bill, stated,44

The Committee believes given our current fiscal environment, and in light of both the lack of quantifiable results from the Open World Leadership Center and its duplication of programs more appropriately offered by the State Department, the program has long outlived its short-term intent. The Committee has provided an allocation to be used for the orderly shutdown during fiscal year 2016 of the Open World Leadership Center.

An amendment offered by Representative Fortenberry at the FY2016 full committee markup proposed to add $4.7 million for Open World, offset from funding for the "Architect of the Capitol, Capitol Power Plant" budget. The operations of Open World, including assessments of its impact, were discussed prior to the adoption (by voice vote) of the amendment. An amendment made in order by the House Rules Committee proposed the elimination of the $5.7 million included in the House-reported bill for Open World and would have applied the savings to the spending reduction account. The amendment, H.Amdt. 239, was agreed to (224-199). Open World was also the subject of two amendments proposed but not made in order by the House Rules Committee: (1) one amendment submitted would have redirected the $4.7 million added to Open World during the full committee markup back to the "Architect of the Capitol, Capitol Power Plant"; and (2) one amendment would have redirected $2.5 million from Open World to reinstitute the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). The Senate-reported FY2016 bill would have provided $5.7 million, equivalent to the FY2015 level, and the FY2016 Consolidated Appropriations Act provided $5.6 million.

For FY2015, the House committee recommended $3.4 million, while the Senate committee recommended $5.7 million. Both reports discussed the conflict in Ukraine and Open World's activities in the region. The FY2015 act provided $5.7 million.

For FY2014, the House subcommittee mark would have provided $1.0 million. An amendment to restore funding for Open World to the FY2013 postsequester level was debated and withdrawn during the full committee markup. The House committee report stated,

For many years the Committee has had concern with the placement of the Open World Leadership Center (OWLC) in the Legislative Branch. The Committee understands the program has some strong champions on the Committee. However, with further reductions being made to every program within the Legislative Branch, the Committee has provided $1,000,000 to cover the cost associated with the shutdown of the OWLC. The Committee directs the Executive Director of the OWLC to retain any necessary prior year funds in the Trust to cover any cost in excess of the $1,000,000 provided in this bill [to] be utilized for the orderly shutdown. The Executive Director is further directed that the program termination is to be finalized within one year of enactment of the Legislative Branch fiscal year 2014 appropriation bill.45

The FY2014 Senate-reported bill would have provided $4.0 million, as well as a provision allowing the Librarian of Congress to transfer up to $6.0 million in nonappropriated funds to Open World. The final enacted FY2014 level was $6.0 million.

The FY2013 House-reported bill would have provided $1.0 million, a decrease of $9.0 million (-90.0%), from the $10.0 million provided in FY2012 and requested for FY2013. The House report stated that this funding level would "cover the cost associated with the shutdown" and directed that "the program termination is to be finalized within one year of enactment of the Legislative Branch fiscal year 2013 appropriations bill."46 H.Amdt. 1281, agreed to by recorded vote (204-203, Roll no. 373), eliminated this funding. At the Senate FY2013 budget request hearing on March 1, 2012, the subcommittee discussed potential options for increasing private funding, including the hire of a development professional. The Senate-reported bill would have provided $10.0 million. The FY2013 act provided $8.0 million, not including sequestration or the across-the-board rescission.47

The House-passed FY2012 bill (H.R. 2551) would have provided $1.0 million, a decrease of 91.2% from FY2011. The House report stated, "The program has some strong champions on the Committee, but with reductions being made to most every program within the Federal budget the Committee has elected to shut down the program and recommends $1,000,000 for shutdown expenses."48 The Senate-reported bill, in contrast, would have provided $10.0 million (-12.1%). The Senate report stated that "despite the fiscal constraints of the budget this program is necessary for the promotion of democratic principles in countries with historically oppressive rule."49 The FY2012 act contained the Senate-reported level.

The FY2011 level of $11.4 million represented a decrease of $623,000 (-5.2%) from the $12.0 million provided for FY2010.

The FY2010 level represented a decrease of $1.9 million (-13.7%) from FY2009. Additionally, the FY2010 House Appropriations Committee report stated that "the Legislative Branch Subcommittee has been clear that it expects the Open World program to become financially independent of funding in this bill as soon as possible."50 This sentiment was also expressed in the conference report, which stated

The conferees are fully supportive of expanded efforts of the Open World Center to raise private funding and expect this effort to reduce the requirements for funding from the Legislative Branch appropriations bill in future years. The Committees look forward to a report of progress being made by the Center's fundraising program prior to hearings on its fiscal year 2011 budget request.51

The FY2009 level of $13.9 million was a $4.92 million increase (+54.8%) from FY2008. The location within the legislative branch was discussed during a hearing on the FY2009 budget. Ambassador John O'Keefe, the executive director of Open World, testified that the program may attract different participants if associated with the executive branch rather than the Library of Congress, which may be seen as more neutral and nonpartisan.52 The FY2009 explanatory statement directed the Open World Leadership Center Board of Trustees to work with the State Department and the judiciary to establish a shared funding mechanism.53

The $8.98 million provided in FY2008 represented a decrease of $4.88 million (-35.2%) from the $13.86 million provided in FY2007 and FY2006. The location of Open World was also discussed during the FY2008 appropriations cycle,54 and language was included in the FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act requiring Open World to prepare a report by March 31, 2008, on "potential options for transfer of the Open World Leadership Center to a department or agency in the executive branch, establishment of the Center as an independent agency in the executive branch, or other appropriate options."55

In 2004, GAO issued a report on the Open World program, examining program participation, purpose, and accountability.56

John C. Stennis Center for Public Service Training and Development

The center was created by Congress in 1988 to encourage public service by congressional staff through training and development programs.57 The FY2018 budget request and the House-passed and Senate-reported bills and the FY2018 act contain $430,000, approximately the same level provided since FY2006.

General Provisions

As in past years, Congress considered a number of general provisions related to the legislative branch. Table 4 lists the provisions considered, the stage originally proposed, and final disposition.

Table 4. General Provisions

(and stage of inclusion or status)

Provision to

Enacted in FY2017

Included in FY2018 Request

Included in House-Passed Bill

Included in Senate-Reported Bill

Enacted in FY2018

prohibit appropriated funds for the maintenance and care of private vehicles

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

limit funds to the fiscal year unless otherwise expressly provided

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

make any changes in rates of compensation and designation permanent

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

make consulting services contracts a matter of public record

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

authorize the costs of Legislative Branch Financial Managers Council (LBFMC)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

limit transfers to those authorized by law

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

prohibit restrictions on guided staff tours of the Capitol with limited exceptions

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

prohibit a cost of living adjustment for Members of Congressa

Yesa
(by P.L. 114-254)

Noa

Yesa
(as House administrative provision)

Yesa
(as Senate administrative provision)

Yesa
(Sec. 7 of
P.L. 115-141)

require computer networks to block the viewing, downloading, and exchanging of pornography

Yes

No

No

No

No

Source: P.L. 115-31, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018, H.Rept. 115-199, S.Rept. 115-137, and CRS analysis.

Notes:

a. Members of Congress last received a pay adjustment in January 2009. Pursuant to the pay adjustment formula, Members of Congress were scheduled to receive a maximum adjustment of 1.8%, or $3,100, in January 2018. The 2018 GS base pay adjustment was 1.4%, automatically limiting any Member pay adjustment to $2,400. The FY2017 Member pay adjustment prohibition was continued in a series of FY2018 continuing appropriations resolutions and then prohibited in Section 7 of the FY2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 115-141). The legislative branch bill does not contain language funding or increasing Member pay, and a provision prohibiting the automatic Member pay adjustments could be included in any bill, or be introduced as a separate bill.

Introduction to Summary Tables and Appendix

Table 5 through Table 9 provide information on funding levels for the legislative branch overall, the Senate, the House of Representatives, the Capitol Police, and the Architect of the Capitol.

The tables are followed by an Appendix, which lists House, Senate, and conference bills and reports; public law numbers; and enactment dates since FY1998.

Table 5. Legislative Branch Appropriations: Funding Levels by Agency or Entity

(in thousands of dollars)

Entity

FY2017 Enacted

FY2018 Requested

FY2018
House-
Passed

FY2018 Senate-Reported

FY2018 Enacted

Title 1: Legislative Branch Appropriations

Senate

$871,177

$948,258

a

$899,774

$919,932

House of Representatives

1,189,223b

1,223,187

1,194,299c

a

1,200,173b

Joint Items

19,565

20,654d

19,940

19,565

20,654

Capitol Police

393,300

422,307

422,500

422,500

426,500

Office of Compliance

3,959

4,056

3,959

3,959

4,959

Congressional Budget Office

46,500

49,945

48,500

48,100

49,945

Architect of the Capitol

617,887

782,956

581,587ac

454,015a

712,105

Library of Congress, Including CRS

631,958

703,420

648,027

638,873

669,890

CRS (non-add)

107,945

119,279

111,474

112,698

119,279

Government Publishing Office

117,068

117,068

117,068

117,068

117,068

Government Accountability Office

544,506

590,678

544,506

562,772

578,917

Open World Leadership Center

5,600

5,800

5,600

5,600

5,600

Stennis Center for Public Service

430

430

430

430

430

Administrative Provisions

-1,000

0

-2,000

-2,000

-2,000

Othere

0

-4,000

-4,000

0

-4,000

Legislative Branch, Total

$4,440,173

$4,864,759

$3,580,416a

$3,170,656a

$4,700,173

Source: P.L. 115-31, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018, H.Rept. 115-199, S.Rept. 115-137, P.L. 115-141, and CRS calculations.

Notes:

a. By tradition, the House does not consider appropriations for Senate operations or Senate office buildings and the Senate does not consider appropriations for House operations or House office buildings.

b. This total includes one gratuity payment of $174,000.

c. Includes H.Amdt. 215, which increased funding for the House Wounded Warrior Program by $250,000, offset by a reduction in the AOC Capital construction and operations account.

d. The FY2018 request contains the following under "Joint Items": the Joint Economic Committee, the Joint Committee on Taxation, the Office of the Attending Physician, and the Office of Congressional Accessibility Services.

e. Includes, for example, scorekeeping adjustments or prior year outlays.

Table 6. Senate Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Accounts

FY2017 Enacted

FY2018 Requested

FY2018
Housea

FY2018 Senate-Reported

FY2018 Enacted

Payments—Heirs of Deceased Members of Congress

$0

$0

$0

$0

Expense Allowances and Representation

205

205

220

220

Salaries, Officers, and Employees

182,287

190,530

194,709

194,867

Office of Legislative Counsel

5,809

6,115

6,115

6,115

Office of Legal Counsel

1,120

1,147

1,147

1,147

Expense Allowances for Secretary of Senate et al.

28

28

28

28

Contingent Expenses (subtotal)

681,728

750,233

697,555

717,555

Inquiries and Investigations

133,265

135,799

133,265

133,265

Senate Intl. Narcotics Caucus

508

520

508

508

Secretary of the Senateb

10,250

10,536

10,536

7,036

Financial Management Information System Modernization

3,500

Sergeant at Arms/Doorkeeperc

126,535

131,573

130,076

130,076

Miscellaneous Items

20,870

18,870

18,870

18,870

Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account

390,000

452,635

404,000

424,000

Official Mail Costs

300

300

300

300

Senate, Total

$871,177

$948,258

$899,774

$919,932

Source: P.L. 115-31, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018, S.Rept. 115-137, P.L. 115-141, and CRS calculations.

Notes:

a. By tradition, the House does not consider appropriations for Senate operations.

b. Office operations of the Office of the Secretary of the Senate are also funded under "Salaries, Officers, and Employees."

c. Office operations of the Office of Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper are also funded under "Salaries, Officers, and Employees."

Table 7. House of Representatives Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Accounts

FY2017 Enacted

FY2018 Requested

FY2018
House-Passed

FY2018 Senate-Reporteda

FY2018 Enacted

Payments—Heirs of Deceased Members of Congressb

$174b

174

House Leadership Offices

22,278

22,278

22,278

22,278

Members' Representational Allowance

562,632

567,000

562,632

562,632

Committee Employees (subtotal)

150,324

152,288

150,279

150,279

Standing Committees, Special and Select, except Appropriations

127,053

129,062

127,053

127,053

Appropriations Committee

23,271

23,226

23,226

23,226

Salaries, Officers, and Employees (subtotal)

181,487

202,796

198,156

204,356

Office of the Clerk

26,268

28,421

27,945

27,945

Office of the Sergeant at Arms

15,505

18,076

20,505

20,505

Office of Chief Administrative Officer

117,165

133,635

127,165

132,865

Office of Inspector General

4,963

5,037

4,968

4,968

Office of General Counsel

1,444

1,492

1,492

1,492

Office of the Parliamentarian

1,999

2,037

2,037

2,037

Office of the Law Revision Counsel

3,167

3,261

3,209

3,209

Office of the Legislative Counsel

8,979

9,437

9,437

9,937

Office of Interparliamentary Affairs

814

816

814

814

Other Authorized Employees

1,183

584

584

584

Allowances and Expenses (subtotal)

272,328

278,825

260,954

260,454

Supplies, Materials, Administrative Costs and Federal Tort Claims

3,625

3,625

3,625

3,625

Official Mail for committees, leadership, administrative and legislative offices

190

190

190

190

Government Contributions

245,334

251,630

233,540

233,040

Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Emergency Appropriations

16,217

16,186

16,186

16,186

Transition Activities

2,084

2,273

2,273

2,273

Wounded Warrior Programc

2,500

2,500

2,750d

2,750

Office of Congressional Ethics

1,658

1,699

1,670

1,670

Miscellaneous Items

720

722

720

720

House of Representatives, Total

$1,189,223e

$1,223,187

$1,194,299d

$1,200,173e

Sources: P.L. 115-31, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018, H.Rept. 115-199, S.Rept. 115-137, P.L. 115-141, and CRS calculations.

Notes: Numbers may not sum due to rounding.

a. By tradition, the Senate does not consider appropriations for House operations.

b. The FY2017 gratuity payment was provided in P.L. 114-223.

c. The House Wounded Warrior Program, which is operated through the House of Representatives Chief Administrative Officer's office, provides two-year paid fellowships within the House of Representatives for disabled veterans. Fellows are eligible for the benefits of other House employees. The program has received funding since FY2009. Additional information is available at http://cao.house.gov/wounded-warrior.

d. The House-reported bill would have provided $2.5 million for the House Wounded Warrior Program, and a total of $1,194,049,000 for the House. H.Amdt. 215 increased this amount by $250,000, offset by a reduction in the AOC Capital construction and operations account.

e. Total including the "Payments—Heirs of Deceased Members of Congress."

Table 8. Capitol Police Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Accounts

FY2017
Enacted

FY2018 Requested

FY2018
House-
Passed

FY2018 Senate-Reported

FY2018 Enacted

Salaries, Capitol Police

$325,300

$347,096

$347,700

$347,700

$351,700

General Expenses

68,000

75,211

74,800

74,800

74,800

Capitol Police, Total

$393,300

$422,307

$422,500

$422,500

$426,500

Source: P.L. 115-31, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018, H.Rept. 115-199, S.Rept. 115-137, P.L. 115-141, and CRS calculations.

Table 9. Architect of the Capitol Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Accounts

FY2017
Enacted

FY2018 Requested

FY2018
House- Passed

FY2018 Senate-Reported

FY2018 Enacted

Capital construction and operations

$92,957

$98,360

$92,750a

$91,589

$93,478

Capitol building

32,584

54,898

45,300

46,125

45,300

Capitol grounds

12,826

14,279

13,333

11,880

13,333

Senate office buildings

88,406

110,037

b

110,346

101,614

House of Representatives

 

 

 

 

 

House office buildings

185,731

176,948

169,294

c

197,294

House Historic Buildings Revitalization Fund

17,000

10,000

10,000

c

10,000

Capitol Power Plantd

86,646

108,205

106,694

102,629

106,694

Library buildings and grounds

47,080

121,182

76,097

27,443

74,873

Capitol Police buildings and grounds

20,033

54,177

33,249

30,833

34,249

Botanic garden

14,067

13,400

13,400

12,613

13,800

Capitol Visitor Center

20,557

21,470

21,470

20,557

21,470

Architect of the Capitol, Total

$617,887

$782,956

$581,587a

$454,015

$712,105

Source: P.L. 115-31, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018, H.Rept. 115-199, S.Rept. 115-137, P.L. 115-141, and CRS calculations.

Notes:

a. The House-reported bill would have provided $93.0 million for AOC Capital construction and operations. H.Amdt. 215 decreased this amount by $250,000 to provide an equal increase to the House Wounded Warrior program.

b. The House does not consider appropriations for Senate office buildings.

c. The Senate does not consider appropriations for House office buildings.

d. Not including offsetting collections.

Appendix. Fiscal Year Information and Resources

Table A-1. Overview of Legislative Branch Appropriations: FY1998-FY2017

House, Senate, Conference, and CRS Reports and Related Legislative Vehicles

Fiscal Year

House

Senate

Conference

Enactment Date
and Public Law

Enactment
Vehicle Title

CRS
Report

2017

H.Rept. 114-594
(H.R. 5325) (H.Res. 771)

S.Rept. 114-258
(S. 2955)

explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 244)

5/5/2017
(P.L. 115-31)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017

CRS Report R44515, Legislative Branch: FY2017 Appropriations

2016

H.Rept. 114-110 (H.R. 2250)
(H.Res. 271)

S.Rept. 114-64 (H.R. 2250)

explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record

12/18/2015
(P.L. 114-113)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016

CRS Report R44029, Legislative Branch: FY2016 Appropriations

2015

H.Rept. 113-417 (H.R. 4487)
(H.Res. 557)

S.Rept. 113-196
(H.R. 4487)

explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 83)

12/16/2014
(P.L. 113-235)

Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015

CRS Report R43557, Legislative Branch: FY2015 Appropriations

2014

H.Rept. 113-173 (H.R. 2792)

S.Rept. 113-70 (S. 1283)

explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 3547)

1/17/2014
(P.L. 113-76)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014

CRS Report R43151, Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations

2013

H.Rept. 112-511
(H.R. 5882) (H.Res. 679)

S.Rept. 112-197
(H.R. 5882)

___

3/26/2013
(P.L. 113-6)

Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013

CRS Report R42500, Legislative Branch: FY2013 Appropriations

2012

H.Rept. 112-148
(H.R. 2551)

S.Rept. 112-80 (H.R. 2551)

H.Rept. 112-331
(H.R. 2055)

12/23/2011
(P.L. 112-74)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012

CRS Report R41870, Legislative Branch: FY2012 Appropriations

2011

___

S.Rept. 111-294
(S. 3799)

___

4/15/2011
(P.L. 112-10)

Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011

CRS Report R41214, Legislative Branch: FY2011 Appropriations

2010

H.Rept. 111-160
(H.R. 2918)

S.Rept. 111-29
(S. 1294)

H.Rept. 111-265
(H.R. 2918)

10/1/2009
(P.L. 111-68)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010

CRS Report R40617, Legislative Branch: FY2010 Appropriations

2009

___

___

explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record and issued in a committee print
(H.R. 1105)

3/11/2009
(P.L. 111-8)

Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009

CRS Report RL34490, Legislative Branch: FY2009 Appropriations

2008

H.Rept. 110-198
(H.R. 2771)

S.Rept. 110-89
(S. 1686)

explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 2764)

12/26/2007
(P.L. 110-161)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008

CRS Report RL34031, Legislative Branch: FY2008 Appropriations

2007

H.Rept. 109-485
(H.R. 5521)

S.Rept. 109-267
(H.R. 5521)

___

2/15/2007
(P.L. 110-5)

Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007

CRS Report RL33379, Legislative Branch: FY2007 Appropriations

2006

H.Rept. 109-139
(H.R. 2985)

S.Rept. 109-89 (H.R. 2985)

H.Rept. 109-189
(H.R. 2985)

8/02/2005
(P.L. 109-55)

FY2006 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act

CRS Report RL32819, Legislative Branch: FY2006 Appropriations

2005

H.Rept. 108-577
(H.R. 4755)

S.Rept. 108-307
(S. 2666)

H.Rept. 108-792
(H.R. 4818)

12/8/2004
(P.L. 108-447)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005

CRS Report RL32312, Appropriations for FY2005: Legislative Branch

2004

H.Rept. 108-186
(H.R. 2657)

S.Rept. 108-88
(S. 1383)

H.Rept. 108-279
(H.R. 2657)

9/30/2003
(P.L. 108-83)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2004

CRS Report RL31812, Appropriations for FY2004: Legislative Branch

2003

H.Rept. 107-576
(H.R. 5121)

S.Rept. 107-209
(S. 2720)

___

2/20/2003
(P.L. 108-7)

Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003

CRS Report RL31312, Appropriations for FY2003: Legislative Branch

2002

H.Rept. 107-169
(H.R. 2647)

S.Rept. 107-37
(S. 1172)

H.Rept. 107-259
(H.R. 2647)

11/12/2001
(P.L. 107-68)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2002

CRS Report RL31012, Appropriations for FY2002: Legislative Branch

2001

H.Rept. 106-635
(H.R. 4516)

S.Rept. 106-304
(S. 2603)

H.Rept. 106-796
(H.R. 4516, incorporated into H.R. 4577)

12/21/2000
(P.L. 106-554)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2001

CRS Report RL30512, Appropriations for FY2001: Legislative Branch

2000

H.Rept. 106-156
(H.R. 1905)

S.Rept. 106-75
(S. 1206)

H.Rept. 106-290
(H.R. 1905)

9/29/1999
(P.L. 106-57)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2000

CRS Report RL30212, Appropriations for FY2000: Legislative Branch

1999

H.Rept. 105-595
(H.R. 4112)

S.Rept. 105-204
S. 2137)

H.Rept. 105-734
(H.R. 4112)

10/21/1998
(P.L. 105-275)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 1999

CRS Report 98-212, Appropriations for FY1999: Legislative Branch

1998

H.Rept. 105-196
(H.R. 2209)

S.Rept. 105-47
(S. 1019)

H.Rept. 105-254
(H.R. 2209)

10/7/1997
(P.L. 105-55)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 1998

CRS Report 97-212, Appropriations for FY1998: Legislative Branch

Source: Congressional Research Service examination of LIS.

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Specialist on the Congress ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Acknowledgments

Amber Wilhelm assisted in the preparation of the figures.

Footnotes

1.

U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch, 2018, report to accompany H.R. 3162, 115th Cong., 1st sess., July 6, 2017, H.Rept. 115-199 (Washington: GPO, 2017), p. 3.

2.

Ibid. See also the Members' Congressional Handbook, https://cha.house.gov/handbooks/members-congressional-handbook#Members-Handbook-Office-Expenses-DO-Security.

3.

Federal Election Commission, Advisory Opinion 2017-07, July 13, 2017, https://www.fec.gov/files/legal/aos/83386.pdf.

4.

Available to House offices at https://e-dearcolleague.house.gov/.

5.

Available at https://cha.house.gov/handbooks/members-congressional-handbook.

6.

Congressional Record, daily edition, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations, Regarding the House Amendment to Senate Amendment on H.R. 1625," March 22, 2018, pp. H2784- H2799. Available at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2018-03-22/pdf/CREC-2018-03-22-house-bk3.pdf.

7.

Office of Management and Budget, Appendix, Budget of the United States Government, FY2018 (Washington: GPO, 2017), pp. 13-44, available at https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/BUDGET-2018-APP/pdf/BUDGET-2018-APP.pdf.

8.

Pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 1105, "Estimated expenditures and proposed appropriations for the legislative branch and the judicial branch to be included in each budget ... shall be submitted to the President ... and included in the budget by the President without change." Division C of the FY2012 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 112-74) added language to 31 U.S.C. 1107 relating to budget amendments, stating: "The President shall transmit promptly to Congress without change, proposed deficiency and supplemental appropriations submitted to the President by the legislative branch and the judicial branch."

9.

Office of Management and Budget, Appendix, Budget of the United States Government, FY2018 (Washington: GPO, 2017), pp. 13-44, available at https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/BUDGET-2018-APP/pdf/BUDGET-2018-APP.pdf.

10.

Available at http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20170724/BILLS%20-115HR3219HR3162HR2998HR3266-RCP115-30.pdf.

11.

Available at https://rules.house.gov/news/announcement/amendment-process-hr-3219.

12.

For a list and a link to text of the proposed amendments, see https://rules.house.gov/bill/115/hr-3219.

13.

For additional information, see https://rules.house.gov/bill/115/hr-1625-sa.

14.

Calculations by CRS with data from Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Historical Tables, Budget of the United States Government, FY2018, Table 5.4—Discretionary Budget Authority By Agency: 1976-2022, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Historicals. The calculations have some limitations, since the OMB data do not completely align with items funded in the annual and supplemental legislative branch appropriations acts. The differences may be partially traced to the definition of "legislative branch" in the OMB Public Budget Database user's guide. Some entities regularly included with the legislative branch in many OMB budget documents, like the United States Tax Court and some Legislative Branch Boards and Commissions, are not funded through the annual legislative branch appropriations acts. Consequently, an examination of the discretionary budget authority listed in the Historical Tables reveals some differences with the reported total budget authority provided in the annual legislative branch appropriations acts. The difference in legislative branch budget authority resulting from the different definitions of the legislative branch in the OMB budget documents and in the appropriations acts, however, does not represent a significant difference in the proportion of total discretionary budget authority.

15.

The legislative branch previously experienced a funding gap in FY1996 (November 14-18, 1995).

16.

FY2013 level from the CBO cost estimate for "Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2014 (H.J.Res. 59), Including the Amendment Reported by the House Committee on Rules on September 18, 2013 (H.Res. 352)" at http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/hjres59amendment.pdf, which lists a total for legislative branch budget authority of $4.061 billion, noting that it "includes effects of the 2013 sequestration." This bill contained a small anomaly for the legislative branch.

17.

White House, President Obama, Sequestration Order for Fiscal Year 2013 Pursuant to Section 251A of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, As Amended, March 1, 2013, available at https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2013/03/06/2013-05397/sequestration-order-for-fiscal-year-2013-pursuant-to-section-251a-of-the-balanced-budget-and.

18.

Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, OMB Report to the Congress on the Joint Committee Sequestration for Fiscal Year 2013, March 1, 2013, https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/legislative_reports/fy13ombjcsequestrationreport.pdf.

19.

P.L. 111-5, February 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 191.

20.

U.S. Congress, conference committee, Making Supplemental Appropriations for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2009, and for Other Purposes, report to accompany H.R. 2346, 111th Cong., 1st sess., H.Rept. 111-151 (Washington: GPO, 2009), p. 117.

21.

For example: U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch, 2016, report to accompany H.R. 2250, 114th Cong., 1st sess., June 11, 2015, S.Rept. 114-64 (Washington: GPO, 2015), p. 4.

22.

For additional information, see CRS Report R44399, Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account (SOPOEA): History and Usage, by [author name scrubbed].

23.

In 2016, GAO had issued "Use of Senate Appropriations for Student Loan Repayment Agreements," B-327922: May 12, 2016, http://www.gao.gov/products/D13347.

24.

For additional information, see CRS Report R41542, The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress, by [author name scrubbed].

25.

For additional information, see CRS Report R40962, Members' Representational Allowance: History and Usage, by [author name scrubbed].

26.

U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch, 2018, report to accompany H.R. 3162, 115th Cong., 1st sess., July 6, 2017, H.Rept. 115-199 (Washington: GPO, 2017), p. 5.

27.

P.L. 104-1, 109 Stat. 3, January 23, 1995. The act, as amended, applies 12 civil rights, labor, and workplace safety laws to Congress and certain legislative branch agencies. These laws are the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, Americans with Disabilities Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Employee Polygraph Protection Act, Fair Labor Standards Act, Family and Medical Leave Act, Federal Services Labor-Management Relations Act, Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Rehabilitation Act of 1970, Veterans' employment and reemployment rights at Chapter 43 of Title 38 of the U.S. Code, Worker Adjustment and Retraining Act, and Veterans Employment Opportunities Act.

28.

Among the office's activities are administration of a dispute resolution process, investigation and enforcement of occupational safety and health and disability provisions of the act, investigation of labor relations and enforcement of applicable provisions, and development of educational programs regarding the act's provisions.

29.

Congressional Record, daily edition, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations, Regarding the House Amendment to Senate Amendment on H.R. 1625," March 22, 2018, pp. H2785. Available at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2018-03-22/pdf/CREC-2018-03-22-house-bk3.pdf.

30.

Ibid., p. 2784.

31.

The Congressional Budget Office is required to use estimates provided by the Joint Committee on Taxation for all revenue legislation (Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, P.L. 99-177, §273, 99 Stat.1098, December 12, 1985; 2 U.S.C. §621 et seq.).

32.

Figure obtained from the Annual Report of the Librarian of Congress for Fiscal Year 2015, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 2015, p. 9. Available at https://www.loc.gov/portals/static/about/reports-and-budgets/documents/annual-reports/fy2015.pdf.

33.

Total includes a CBO estimate of a requested administrative provision related to the copyright office.

34.

An example of receipts is fees paid to the LOC for copyright registration.

35.

Formerly known as the Government Printing Office. For additional information on GPO, see CRS Report R40897, Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

36.

The FY2015 act renamed these accounts: (1) the former congressional printing and binding account was renamed congressional publishing, (2) the former Office of Superintendent of Documents (salaries and expenses) account was renamed Public Information Programs of the Superintendent of Documents (salaries and expenses), and (3) the revolving fund was renamed the Government Publishing Office Business Operations Revolving Fund.

37.

For additional information, see CRS Report R40939, Legislative Branch Revolving Funds, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

38.

GAO's guidelines for initiating studies are contained in U.S. Government Accountability Office, GAO's Congressional Protocols, GAO-04-310G (Washington: GAO, 2004). Posted on the website of the Government Accountability Office at http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/d04310g.pdf.

39.

Offsetting collections include funds derived from reimbursable audits and rental of space in the GAO building.

40.

P.L. 106-554, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-120, December 21, 2000; P.L. 108-7, 117 Stat. 382, February 20, 2003. According to the 2003 act, the additional countries include "any country specified in §3 of the FREEDOM Support Act (22 U.S.C. 5801)," and "Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania." The countries specified in 22 U.S.C. 5801 are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

41.

P.L. 108-447, 118 Stat. 3192, December 8, 2004.

42.

U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2017, report to accompany H.R. 5325, 114th Cong., 2nd sess., May 25, 2016, H.Rept. 114-594 (Washington: GPO, 2016).

43.

Additionally, a budget amendment submitted by Open World on April 5, 2016, would have added "language inadvertently omitted" in the budget request, which would "add senior immediately before 'officials'." Neither the FY2017 act, nor the House-passed and Senate-reported bills, included this change.

44.

Available at http://appropriations.house.gov/uploadedfiles/hrpt-114-hr-fy2016-legbranch.pdf.

45.

U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, FY2014 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, H.Rept. 113-173, report to accompany H.R. 2792 (Washington: GPO, 2013), p. 20.

46.

U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, FY2013 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, H.Rept. 112-511, report to accompany H.R. 5882 (Washington: GPO, 2012), p. 42.

47.

The rescission equaled 0.032% for security programs, as defined by 250(c)(4)(B) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985.

48.

U.S. Congress, House Appropriations Committee, FY2012 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, report to accompany H.R. 2551, H.Rept. 112-148 (Washington: GPO, 2011), p. 28.

49.

U.S. Congress, Senate Appropriations Committee, FY2012 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, report to accompany H.R. 2551, S.Rept. 112-80 (Washington: GPO, 2011), p. 45.

50.

U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, 2010, H.Rept. 111-160, (Washington: GPO, 2009), p. 29.

51.

U.S. Congress, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2010, H.Rept. 111-265, conference report to accompany H.R. 2918 (Washington: GPO, 2009), p. 42.

52.

Testimony of Ambassador John O'Keefe, executive director, U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2009, hearings, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., March 12, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), pp. 359-420.

53.

Congressional Record, February 23, 2009, p. H2398.

54.

In H.R. 2771 (110th Cong.), the House-passed version of the FY2008 appropriations bill, the House Appropriations Committee recommended $6.0 million for Open World. The committee report stated that an additional $6.0 million would be provided for transfer to Open World in the FY2008 State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriation. The House-passed bill, which retained the committee-recommended funding level, also contained an administrative provision transferring the Open World Leadership Center to the Department of State effective October 1, 2008. The Senate-reported bill (S. 1686, 110th Cong.) would have provided $13.5 million in new budget authority for Open World.

55.

P.L. 110-161, 121 Stat. 2251, December 26, 2007.

56.

Available at http://gao.gov/assets/250/241737.pdf.

57.

2 U.S.C. 1105. See also http://www.stennis.gov/.