Legislative Branch: FY2017 Appropriations

The legislative branch appropriations bill provides funding for the Senate; House of Representatives; Joint Items; Capitol Police; Office of Compliance; Congressional Budget Office (CBO); Architect of the Capitol (AOC); Library of Congress (LOC), including the Congressional Research Service (CRS); Government Publishing Office (GPO); Government Accountability Office (GAO); Open World Leadership Center; and the John C. Stennis Center.

The FY2017 legislative branch budget request of $4.659 billion was submitted on February 9, 2016. By law, the President includes the legislative branch request in the annual budget submission without change.

The House and Senate Appropriations Committees’ Legislative Branch Subcommittees held hearings in March to consider the FY2017 legislative branch requests.

On April 20, 2016, the House Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Subcommittee held a markup of the draft bill. The bill was ordered reported to the full committee by voice vote.

On May 17, the House Appropriations Committee held a markup of the bill. Seven amendments were considered: two were adopted, four were not adopted, and one was withdrawn. The bill was ordered reported by voice vote. It would have provided $3.481 billion, not including Senate items (H.R. 5325, H.Rept. 114-594).

On June 9, 2016, the House agreed to a structured rule for consideration of the legislative branch bill (H.Res. 771), which made 13 amendments in order. During consideration of H.R. 5325, 10 amendments were offered. Six were agreed to (all voice votes), and four were not (all recorded votes). H.R. 5325 was agreed to on June 10, with a vote of 233-175 (Roll no. 294).

On May 19, the Senate Appropriations Committee held a markup of its version of the FY2017 bill. It would have provided $3.021 billion, not including House items. The bill was reported by a vote of 30-0 (S. 2955, S.Rept. 114-258).

The House- and Senate-proposed totals for legislative branch activities (including all House and Senate items) differ by $37.0 million, with the House proposing $4.436 billion for FY2017 and the Senate proposing $4.399 billion.

H.R. 5325 was not enacted, however, and funding for the beginning of FY2017 was provided by three continuing resolutions (P.L. 114-223, through December 9, 2016; P.L. 114-254, through April 28, 2017; and P.L. 115-30, through May 5, 2017).

The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017 (P.L. 115-31), enacted on May 5, 2017, provides $4.440 billion for legislative branch activities for FY2017 (+1.7% from FY2016).

The enacted FY2017 level remains nearly 5% below the FY2010 level, which was the peak of legislative branch funding, not adjusted for inflation. The FY2016 level of $4.363 billion represented an increase of $63 million (+1.5%) from the FY2015 level of $4.300 billion, and the FY2015 level represented an increase of $41.7 million (+1.0%) from the FY2014 funding level of $4.259 billion. The FY2013 act funded legislative branch accounts at the FY2012 enacted level, with some exceptions (also known as “anomalies”), less across-the-board rescissions that applied to all appropriations in the act, and not including sequestration reductions implemented on March 1. The FY2012 level of $4.307 billion represented a decrease of $236.9 million (-5.2%) from the FY2011 level, which itself represented a $125.1 million decrease (-2.7%) from FY2010.

The smallest of the appropriations bills, the legislative branch comprises approximately 0.4% of total discretionary budget authority.

Legislative Branch: FY2017 Appropriations

Updated June 13, 2017 (R44515)
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Contents

Summary

The legislative branch appropriations bill provides funding for the Senate; House of Representatives; Joint Items; Capitol Police; Office of Compliance; Congressional Budget Office (CBO); Architect of the Capitol (AOC); Library of Congress (LOC), including the Congressional Research Service (CRS); Government Publishing Office (GPO); Government Accountability Office (GAO); Open World Leadership Center; and the John C. Stennis Center.

The FY2017 legislative branch budget request of $4.659 billion was submitted on February 9, 2016. By law, the President includes the legislative branch request in the annual budget submission without change.

The House and Senate Appropriations Committees' Legislative Branch Subcommittees held hearings in March to consider the FY2017 legislative branch requests.

On April 20, 2016, the House Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Subcommittee held a markup of the draft bill. The bill was ordered reported to the full committee by voice vote.

On May 17, the House Appropriations Committee held a markup of the bill. Seven amendments were considered: two were adopted, four were not adopted, and one was withdrawn. The bill was ordered reported by voice vote. It would have provided $3.481 billion, not including Senate items (H.R. 5325, H.Rept. 114-594).

On June 9, 2016, the House agreed to a structured rule for consideration of the legislative branch bill (H.Res. 771), which made 13 amendments in order. During consideration of H.R. 5325, 10 amendments were offered. Six were agreed to (all voice votes), and four were not (all recorded votes). H.R. 5325 was agreed to on June 10, with a vote of 233-175 (Roll no. 294).

On May 19, the Senate Appropriations Committee held a markup of its version of the FY2017 bill. It would have provided $3.021 billion, not including House items. The bill was reported by a vote of 30-0 (S. 2955, S.Rept. 114-258).

The House- and Senate-proposed totals for legislative branch activities (including all House and Senate items) differ by $37.0 million, with the House proposing $4.436 billion for FY2017 and the Senate proposing $4.399 billion.

H.R. 5325 was not enacted, however, and funding for the beginning of FY2017 was provided by three continuing resolutions (P.L. 114-223, through December 9, 2016; P.L. 114-254, through April 28, 2017; and P.L. 115-30, through May 5, 2017).

The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017 (P.L. 115-31), enacted on May 5, 2017, provides $4.440 billion for legislative branch activities for FY2017 (+1.7% from FY2016).

The enacted FY2017 level remains nearly 5% below the FY2010 level, which was the peak of legislative branch funding, not adjusted for inflation. The FY2016 level of $4.363 billion represented an increase of $63 million (+1.5%) from the FY2015 level of $4.300 billion, and the FY2015 level represented an increase of $41.7 million (+1.0%) from the FY2014 funding level of $4.259 billion. The FY2013 act funded legislative branch accounts at the FY2012 enacted level, with some exceptions (also known as "anomalies"), less across-the-board rescissions that applied to all appropriations in the act, and not including sequestration reductions implemented on March 1. The FY2012 level of $4.307 billion represented a decrease of $236.9 million (-5.2%) from the FY2011 level, which itself represented a $125.1 million decrease (-2.7%) from FY2010.

The smallest of the appropriations bills, the legislative branch comprises approximately 0.4% of total discretionary budget authority.


FY2017 Consideration: Overview of Actions

The first section of this report provides an overview of the consideration of FY2017 legislative branch appropriations, with subsections covering each action, including

  • the initial submission of the request on February 9, 2016;
  • hearings held by the House and Senate Legislative Branch Subcommittees in March;
  • the House subcommittee markup on April 20, 2016;
  • the House full committee markup on May 17, 2016;
  • the Senate full committee markup on May 19, 2016;
  • House consideration of a special rule on June 8, 2016;
  • House floor consideration on June 9 and 10, 2016;
  • the enactment of three continuing resolutions (P.L. 114-223, through December 9, 2016; P.L. 114-254, through April 28, 2017; and P.L. 115-30, through May 5, 2017); and
  • the enactment of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017 on May 5, 2017 (P.L. 115-31), which provides $4.440 billion for legislative branch activities.

It is followed by a section on prior year actions and funding, which contains historical tables.

The report then addresses the FY2017 budget requests, requested administrative language, and selected funding issues for individual legislative branch agencies and entities.

Finally, Table 5 through Table 9 list enacted funding levels for FY2016 and FY2017, while the Appendix lists House, Senate, and conference bills and reports; public law numbers; and enactment dates since FY1998.

Status of FY2017 Appropriations: Dates and Documents

Table 1. Status of Legislative Branch Appropriations, FY2017

Committee Markup

 

 

 

 

 

Conference Report Approval

 

House

Senate

House Report

House Passage

Senate Report

Senate Passage

Conference Report

House

Senate

Public Law

05/17/16

05/19/16

5/25/2016
H.Rept. 114-594;
H.R. 5325

6/10/2016 233-175

5/19/2016 S.Rept. 114-258;
S. 2955

 

 

 

 

5/5/2017
P.L. 115-31
H.R. 244

Source: Congressional Research Service examination of congress.gov data.

Notes: In recent years, the House has held a subcommittee markup prior to the full committee markup. The House subcommittee held its markup on April 20, 2016.

Submission of FY2017 Budget Request on February 9, 2016

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2017 was submitted on February 9, 2016. It contains a request for $4.659 billion in new budget authority for legislative branch activities.1

By law, the legislative branch request is submitted to the President and included in the budget without change.2

Senate and House Hearings on the FY2017 Budget Requests

Table 2 lists the dates of hearings of the legislative branch subcommittees in 2016. Prepared statements of witnesses were posted on the subcommittee websites.

Table 2. Dates of House and Senate Hearings on Legislative Branch Requests

 

House of Representatives

Senate

Senate

March 8, 2016

House of Representatives

March 2, 2016

U.S. Capitol Police

March 1, 2016

March 8, 2016

Office of Compliance

Congressional Budget Office

a

March 8, 2016

Architect of the Capitol

March 1, 2016

March 15, 2016

Library of Congress, including the Congressional Research Service

March 2, 2016

March 15, 2016

Government Publishing Office

Government Accountability Office

b

March 8, 2016

Members/Public Witnesses

c

Sources: Congressional Research Service examination of House and Senate Appropriations Committee websites.

a. A "Statement for the Record Regarding CBO's Appropriation Request for Fiscal Year 2017" is available at https://www.cbo.gov/publication/51372.

b. A "Statement for the Record to the House Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Committee on Appropriations" is available at http://gao.gov/assets/680/675917.pdf.

c. The House subcommittee announced that it would accept programmatic and language submissions from Members through March 22, 2016.

House Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on Legislative Branch Markup

On April 20, 2016, the House Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on Legislative Branch held a markup of the FY2017 bill. The subcommittee recommended $3.482 billion (+2.1%), not including Senate items, which are historically considered by the Senate. No amendments were offered.

During the markup, the subcommittee held a lengthy discussion regarding then-draft committee report language regarding the usage of the phrase "illegal alien" as a Library of Congress Subject Heading (LCSH).3 In March 2016, the Library announced its plan to cancel this heading and replace it with two headings, "noncitizens" and "unauthorized immigration."4 The decision by the Policy and Standards Division of the Library of Congress, which maintains the LCSH, followed a previous proposal considered but not adopted in 2014 and a resolution adopted by the American Library Association in January 2016.5 Separate legislation directing the Library of Congress to retain the headings "Aliens" and "Illegal aliens," H.R. 4926, also was introduced and referred to the Committee on House Administration, and no further action was taken.

House Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Markup

On May 17, 2016, the House Appropriations Committee met to mark up the FY2017 bill reported from its legislative branch subcommittee.

A number of amendments were considered:

  • A manager's amendment offered by subcommittee Chairman Graves was agreed to by voice vote. The amendment increased funding for the Architect of the Capitol House Historic Buildings Revitalization Trust Fund by $7.0 million, offset by reducing funding from the Architect of the Capitol, Capitol Police Buildings, Grounds, and Security account. The manager's amendment also added language to the committee report regarding the security of House garages, addressing the donation of computer equipment, and directing the Library to conduct a "survey of ethnic collections of populations displaced as a result of World War II conflict found throughout the United States ... "
  • An amendment was offered by Representative Wasserman Schultz to delete the committee report language related to the LCSH. As discussed above, this language was the subject of extended debate during the subcommittee markup. The report language states that "To the extent practicable, the Committee instructs the Library to maintain certain subject headings that reflect terminology used in title 8, United States Code." The amendment was not agreed to by a roll call vote of 24-25.
  • An amendment was offered by Representative Farr to increase the funding for the Members' Representational Allowance by $8.3 million, offset by a reduction to the Architect of the Capitol's Capital Construction and Operations account, and was agreed to by voice vote.
  • An amendment was offered by Representative Quigley to require the publication of certain Congressional Research Service products on the website of the Government Publishing Office, and was not agreed to by a roll call vote of 18-31.
  • An amendment was offered and withdrawn by Representative Kaptur to increase the funding of the Open World Leadership Center.
  • An amendment was offered by Representative Quigley to require the publication of a list of the titles of certain Congressional Research Service products, and was not agreed to by voice vote.
  • An amendment was offered by Representative McCollum providing that no funding provided by the act be used to fund the Select Investigative Panel of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, which was established by H.Res. 461, and was not agreed to by a roll call vote of 20-28.

The bill was reported out of committee by voice vote (H.R. 5325, H.Rept. 114-594).

Senate Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Markup

On May 19, 2016, the Senate Appropriations Committee met to mark up its version of the FY2017 bill. The subcommittee recommended $3.021 billion, a $23.5 million increase from the FY2016 enacted level (+0.8%). This total does not include funding for House items, which are historically considered by the House. No amendments were offered, and the bill was ordered reported by a vote of 30-0 (S. 2955, S.Rept. 114-258).

Congressional Caps on Legislative Branch Funding: 302(b) Reports

The FY2017 legislative branch appropriations bill was considered in the context of statutory and procedural budget constraints. The statutory constraints are provided through the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA; P.L. 112-25, as amended), which imposes separate limits on defense and nondefense discretionary spending each fiscal year.6

Separately, the congressional budget process also provides a means of procedural budget enforcement through the adoption of a budget resolution. The budget resolution provides an overall limit on spending allocated to the House and the Senate appropriations committees (referred to as a "302(a) allocation"). The appropriations committees subsequently divide the 302(a) allocation among each of their 12 subcommittees, effectively establishing limits on each of the annual appropriations bills (commonly referred to as "302(b) suballocations").7 These subcommittee levels may be revised throughout the appropriations process to reflect changing priorities and other budgetary actions.

The House and the Senate did not adopt a budget resolution for FY2017.8 In its absence, the Senate Budget Committee chair filed budgetary levels in the Congressional Record that are enforceable in the Senate as if they had been included in a budget resolution for FY2017.9 Based on these levels, the Senate Appropriations Committee reported their initial 302(b) suballocations on April 18, 2016.10 These include $4.399 billion for the legislative branch, or 0.4% of total discretionary budget authority.

In the absence of a budget resolution in the House, the House Appropriations Committee chose to adopt "interim 302(b) suballocations" for the appropriations bills as they were marked up in full committee.11 The interim allocation for the legislative branch was $4.436 billion. These interim suballocations are not procedurally enforceable.

The House- and Senate-proposed suballocations for the legislative branch differ by $37.0 million.

House Consideration of a Special Rule

As in past years,11 the House Rules Committee met to consider a structured rule for consideration of the legislative branch bill.

In a June 1, 2016, "Dear Colleague" letter, Rules Committee Chairman Pete Sessions announced a deadline of 3:00 p.m. on Monday, June 6, 2016, for Members wishing to offer amendments to the legislative branch bill. A total of 41 amendments were submitted, including 14 submitted after the deadline and two that were withdrawn.12

During its meeting to discuss this rule on June 8, 2016, the committee held two related roll call votes:

  • 1. Rules Committee Record Vote No. 183; This motion would have provided appropriate waivers for an amendment to be offered by Representative Wasserman Schultz providing for the restatement of the Library of Congress's existing policy regarding certain Subject Headings; and an amendment to be offered by Representatives Maloney (NY), Peters (CA), and Hanna (NY), prohibiting funds from being used to contravene the President's executive order pertaining to equal employment in federal government contracting. The motion was defeated 2-8.
  • 2. Rules Committee Record Vote No. 184; The motion to report the rule was adopted 9-2.

The committee reported a rule, H.Res. 771, which made in order 13 amendments. It was agreed to in the House on June 9 (237–182, Roll no. 286).

House Floor Consideration

During consideration of H.R. 5325, which began on June 9, 2016, and continued the next day, 10 amendments were offered. Six were agreed to (all voice votes), and four were not (all recorded votes).

Three of the adopted amendments expand current restrictions on the delivery of certain printed documents to include additional publications. The current restrictions were added and continued in previous legislative branch appropriations bills, including the FY2017 House-reported bill.13

The amendments considered include

  • 1. H.Amdt. 1164, to reprogram funds to create an Office of Good Jobs for the House of Representatives within the Office of the Chief Administrative Officer, which failed by recorded vote (157-241, Roll no. 289);
  • 2. H.Amdt. 1165, to require the Architect of the Capitol to conduct a feasibility study regarding the installation and operation of Capital Bikeshare stations on Capitol Grounds, which was agreed to by voice vote;
  • 3. H.Amdt. 1166, to transfer $500,000 from the Architect of the Capitol's Capital Construction and Operations account to the Architect of the Capitol's Capitol Building and House Office Buildings accounts, appropriating $250,000 to each, to bring the Capitol and the House office buildings into compliance with General Services Administration requirements for federal buildings regarding lactation stations for breastfeeding mothers, which was agreed to by voice vote;
  • 4. H.Amdt. 1167, to provide for a 1% across-the-board reduction in the bill's spending levels, with exceptions for the Capitol Police, the Architect of the Capitol's Capitol Police Buildings, Grounds and Security account, and the House Sergeant at Arms account, which failed by recorded vote (165-237, Roll no. 290);
  • 5. H.Amdt. 1168, to prohibit the use of funds for delivering printed copies of the United States House of Representatives Telephone Directory to the office of any Member of the House of Representatives, which was agreed to by voice vote;
  • 6. H.Amdt. 1169, to prohibit the use of funds for delivering printed copies of the Budget of the United States Government; Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government; or the Appendix, Budget of the United States Government, to the office of any Member of the House of Representatives, which was agreed to by voice vote;
  • 7. H.Amdt. 1170, to expand the list of parties with whom the federal government is prohibited from contracting due to serious misconduct on the part of the contractors, which was agreed to by voice vote;
  • 8. H.Amdt. 1171, to appropriate $2.5 million to reinstitute the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), offset from funds from the Architect of the Capitol's Capital Construction and Operations Account, which failed by recorded vote (179-223, Roll no. 291);
  • 9. H.Amdt. 1172, to prohibit the use of funds for delivering a printed copy of the Federal Register to a Member of the House of Representatives, which was agreed to by voice vote; and
  • 10. H.Amdt. 1173, to reduce the Office of Congressional Ethics budget to the FY2016 levels ($1.467 million in FY2016, compared to $1.658 million in the House-reported bill, a difference of $191,000) and transfer remaining funds to the deficit reduction account, which failed by recorded vote (137-270, Roll no. 292);

A motion to recommit with instructions failed by recorded vote (170-237, Roll no. 293).14

H.R. 5325, as amended, was agreed to on June 10, with a vote of 233-175 (Roll no. 294).

FY2017 Begins: Continuing Resolutions (CRs) Enacted

As stated above, a separate legislative branch appropriations bill was not enacted prior to the start of FY2017 on October 1, 2016.

Funding for legislative branch activities was initially provided through three CRs:

The CRs included a few provisions related to the legislative branch, although they did not alter funding levels. These CR provisions 15

  • continued the pay freeze for Members of Congress for one additional year;
  • provided for the transfer of the O'Neill Building (located on 2nd Street, SW, between C and D Streets, SW, Washington, DC, and previously known as Federal Office Building 8) to the House of Representatives;
  • clarified that funding during the 115th Congress for the Office of the Assistant Minority Leader of the Senate shall be available from funds otherwise available for the Office of the Secretary of the Conference of the Minority;
  • continued the Senate National Security Working Group for the 115th Congress; and
  • provided for a gratuity payment to the widow of a deceased Member of the House.

FY2017 Funding Enacted

P.L. 115-31 was enacted on May 5, 2017, and provides $4.440 billion for legislative branch activities (Division I). This funding represents a $77.0 million increase (+1.7%) from the FY2016 enacted level.

Funding in Prior Years: Brief Overview

Legislative Branch: Historic Percentage of Total Discretionary Budget Authority

The percentage of total discretionary budget authority provided to the legislative branch has remained relatively stable at approximately 0.4% since at least FY1976.16 The highest maximum level, 0.48%, was in FY1995, and the minimum, 0.31%, was in FY2009.

FY2016

FY2016 funding was provided in Division I of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016 (P.L. 114-113), which was enacted on December 18, 2015. The $4.363 billion provided by the act represents an increase of 1.5% from the FY2015 level and is $165.7 million (-3.7%) less than the request.

FY2015

FY2015 funding was provided in Division H of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015 (P.L. 113-235), which was enacted on December 16, 2014. The $4.300 billion provided by the act represented an increase of $41.7 million (1.0%) from FY2014 and was $164.9 million (-3.7%) less than the request.

FY2014

Neither a legislative branch appropriations bill, nor a continuing appropriations resolution (CR), containing FY2014 funding was enacted prior to the beginning of the fiscal year on October 1, 2013. A funding gap, which resulted in a partial government shutdown, ensued for 16 days. The funding gap was terminated by the enactment of a CR (P.L. 113-46) on October 17, 2013. The CR provided funding through January 15, 2014.17 Following enactment of a temporary continuing resolution on January 15, 2014 (P.L. 113-73), a consolidated appropriations bill was enacted on January 17 (P.L. 113-76), providing $4.259 billion for the legislative branch for FY2014.

FY2013

FY2013 funding of approximately $4.061 billion was provided by P.L. 113-6, which was signed into law on March 26, 2013.18 The act funded legislative branch accounts at the FY2012 enacted level, with some exceptions (also known as "anomalies"), and not including across-the-board rescissions required by Section 3004 of P.L. 113-6. Section 3004 was intended to eliminate any amount by which the new budget authority provided in the act exceeded the FY2013 discretionary spending limits in Section 251(c)(2) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, as amended by the Budget Control Act of 2011 and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012. Subsequent to the enactment of P.L. 113-6, OMB calculated that additional rescissions of 0.032% of security budget authority and 0.2% of nonsecurity budget authority would be required. The act did not alter the sequestration reductions implemented on March 1, which reduced most legislative branch accounts by 5.0%.19 The accompanying OMB report indicated a dollar amount of budget authority to be canceled in each account containing nonexempt funds.20

FY2012 and Prior

Division G of the FY2012 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 112-74) provided $4.307 billion for the legislative branch. This level was $236.9 million (-5.2%) below the FY2011 enacted level. P.L. 112-10 provided $4.543 billion for legislative branch operations in FY2011. This level represented a $125.1 million decrease from the $4.668 billion provided in the FY2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-68) and the FY2010 Supplemental Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-212). The FY2009 Omnibus Appropriations Act provided $4.402 billion. In FY2009, an additional $25.0 million was provided for the Government Accountability Office (GAO) in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.21 P.L. 111-32, the FY2009 Supplemental Appropriations Act, also contained funding for a new Capitol Police radio system ($71.6 million) and additional funding for the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) ($2.0 million).22

As seen in Table 3, the FY2016 legislative branch budget in constant dollars remained below the FY2004 level. Figure 1 shows the same information graphically, while also demonstrating the division of budget authority across the legislative branch in FY2016. The FY2017 level (not included in the table and figure) of $4.440 billion remains nearly 5% below the FY2010 level (not adjusted for inflation), which was the peak of legislative branch funding.

Table 3. Legislative Branch Funding, FY2004-FY2016: Current and Constant Dollars

(in billions of dollars)

Fiscal Year

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Current Dollars

3.528a

3.640b

3.793c

3.852d

3.970

4.501e

4.669f

4.543g

4.307

4.061h

4.259

4.300

4.363

Constant Dollars

4.503

4.505

4.547

4.505

4.490

5.076

5.187

4.940

4.586

4.261

4.405

4.385

4.363

Source: CRS analysis of legislative branch appropriations acts and related budget documents.

Notes: These figures exclude permanent budget authorities, including funding for Member pay, that are not included in the annual legislative branch appropriations bill. Totals include supplementals and rescissions. Constant dollars calculated using the "Total Non-Defense" deflator in Table 10.1—Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2020 in the President's FY2017 budget request.

a. This figure contains appropriations provided by P.L. 108-83 (the FY2004 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act). Additional FY2004 provisions which did not contain appropriations were contained in P.L. 108-199 (the FY2004 Consolidated Appropriations Act).

b. This number contains appropriations provided by P.L. 108-447 (the Consolidated Appropriations Act, FY2005, adjusted by a 0.80% rescission also contained in P.L. 108-447), and P.L. 109-13 (the FY2005 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act).

c. This number contains appropriations provided by P.L. 109-55 (the FY2006 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, adjusted by a 1.0% rescission contained in P.L. 109-148), and P.L. 109-234 (the FY2006 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act).

d. This number contains appropriations provided by P.L. 110-5 (the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007), and funding for the House of Representatives, Government Accountability Office, U.S. Capitol Police, Architect of the Capitol, and gratuity payments provided in P.L. 110-28 (the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007).

e. This number contains appropriations provided by P.L. 110-161 (the FY2009 Omnibus Appropriations Act), $25.0 million for the Government Accountability Office provided by P.L. 111-5 (the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009), and $73.6 million provided by P.L. 111-32 for the U.S. Capitol Police and the Congressional Budget Office (the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2009).

f. This number contains appropriations provided by P.L. 111-68 (the FY2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act), and $12.96 million in supplemental appropriations provided for the U.S. Capitol Police in P.L. 111-212 (the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010).

g. This number does not include scorekeeping adjustment.

h. FY2013 level obtained from the CBO cost estimate for "Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2014 (H.J.Res. 59), Including the Amendment Reported by the House Committee on Rules on September 18, 2013 (H.Res. 352) Discretionary spending (in millions of dollars)" (http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/hjres59amendment.pdf), which lists a total for legislative branch budget authority of $4.061 billion, noting that it "includes effects of the 2013 sequestration." This bill contained a small anomaly for the legislative branch.

Figure 1. Legislative Branch Funding FY2004-FY2016: Current and Constant Dollars

(and distribution in FY2016)

Source: CRS analysis of legislative branch appropriations acts and related budget documents.

Notes: These figures exclude permanent budget authorities and contain supplementals and rescissions. Total does not include permanent budget authorities, including funding for Member pay, that are not included in the annual legislative branch appropriations bill. Total also excludes offsetting collections and authority to spend receipts. Constant dollars calculated using the "Total Non-Defense" deflator in Table 10.1—Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2020 in the President's FY2017 budget request.

Figure 2 shows the timing of legislative branch appropriations actions, including the issuance of House and Senate reports, bill passage, and enactment, from FY1996 through FY2016. It shows that fiscal year funding for the legislative branch has been determined on or before October 1 five times during this period (FY1997, FY2000, FY2004, FY2006, and FY2010), with another two bills enacted during the first month of the fiscal year (FY1998 and FY1999), two in November (FY1996 and FY2002), six in December (FY2001, FY2005, FY2008, FY2012, FY2015, and FY2016), and six in the next calendar year (FY2003, FY2007, FY2009, FY2011, FY2013, and FY2014). FY2017 (not shown in the figure) represented the seventh time that funding was enacted in the next calendar year, and at May 5, the latest date of enactment during this period.

Figure 2. Timing of Legislative Branch Appropriations Consideration FY1996-FY2016

Fiscal Year Consideration During the Calendar Year

Source: CRS analysis of data found on congress.gov.

Notes: When House and Senate action occurs on the same date, the House is shown first. The FY2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-68) is listed in this figure as stand-alone legislation (Division A), although it was also the vehicle for a continuing appropriations resolution (Division B). Each row represents consideration during the calendar year of the subsequent fiscal year spending bill (i.e., the calendar year 1992 row shows the timeline of consideration and passage of the FY1993 act). Arrows in the December column indicate consideration continued until the next calendar year.

FY2017 Legislative Branch Funding Issues

The following sections discuss the various legislative branch accounts.

During consideration of the legislative branch bills, the House and Senate conform to a "longstanding practice under which each body of Congress determines its own housekeeping requirements and the other concurs without intervention."23

Senate

Overall Funding

The Senate requested $935.5 million for FY2017, a 7.5% increase over the $870.2 million provided in FY2016. The bill reported by the Senate Appropriations Committee (S. 2955) recommended, and the FY2017 Consolidated Appropriations Act provides, $871.2 million, an increase of $1.0 million (+0.1%).

Additional information on the Senate account is presented in Table 6.

Senate Committee Funding

Appropriations for Senate committees are contained in two accounts.

  • The inquiries and investigations account contains funds for all Senate committees except Appropriations. The Senate-reported bill recommended, and the FY2017 act provides, $133.3 million, the same as provided in FY2015 and FY2016. The Senate had requested $135.8 million, a 1.9% increase.
  • The Committee on Appropriations account contains funds for the Senate Appropriations Committee. The Senate-reported bill recommended, and the FY2017 act provides, $15.1 million, equivalent to the FY2017 request and the FY2015 and FY2016 enacted level.

Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account24

The Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account (SOPOEA) provides each Senator with funds to administer an office. It consists of an administrative and clerical assistance allowance, a legislative assistance allowance, and an official office expense allowance. The funds may be used for any category of expenses, subject to limitations on official mail.

The Senate-reported FY2017 bill recommended, and the FY2017 act provides, $390.0 million. This is the same level provided in FY2014, FY2015, and FY2016. The Senate had requested $445.9 million for FY2017, an increase of $55.9 million (+14.3%).

Administrative Provisions

The Senate-reported bill contained three administrative provisions, all of which were enacted in FY2017:

  • 1. One provision, which was first included in FY2016, requires amounts remaining in the Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account (SOPOEA) to be used for deficit reduction or to reduce the federal debt.
  • 2. One provision provides authority to transfer funds between the Senate Commission on Art and the Architect of the Capitol.
  • 3. One provision prohibited a pay adjustment for Members of Congress during FY2017. Members of Congress last received a pay adjustment in January 2009. Absent either a statutory prohibition for a Member pay adjustment or automatic limitations related to the General Schedule (GS), Members of Congress are scheduled to receive a maximum pay increase of 1.6%, or $2,800, in January 2017. Member salaries are funded in a permanent appropriations account, and the legislative branch bill does not contain language funding or increasing Member pay. A provision prohibiting the automatic Member pay adjustments could be included in any bill, and this prohibition was included in P.L. 114-254 (the Further Continuing and Security Assistance Appropriations Act, 2017, which was enacted on December 10, 2016).

House of Representatives

Overall Funding

The House requested $1.187 billion for FY2017, a 0.5% increase from the FY2016 enacted level of $1.181 billion. The House Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Subcommittee recommended a continuation of the FY2016 level. An amendment agreed to during the full committee markup increased this level by $8.3 million, offset by a reduction to the Architect of the Capitol's account, to a total of $1.189 billion (an increase of $8.3 million, or 0.7%, from the FY2016 enacted level)25 in the bill reported by the House Appropriations Committee (hereinafter House-reported bill). This level was continued in the House-passed bill and in the FY2017 act.

Additional information on headings in the House of Representatives account is presented in Table 7.

House Committee Funding

Funding for House committees is contained in the appropriation heading "committee employees," which comprises two subheadings.

The first subheading contains funds for personnel and nonpersonnel expenses of House committees, except the Appropriations Committee, as authorized by the House in a committee expense resolution. The House Appropriations Committee recommended, and the House-passed bill and the FY2017 act contained, $127.1 million. This level represented an increase of $3.2 million (+2.5%) from the $123.9 million provided in FY2014, FY2015, and FY2016.

The second subheading contained funds for the personnel and nonpersonnel expenses of the Committee on Appropriations. The House-passed bill and the FY2017 act contained $23.3 million, the same level provided in FY2014, FY2015, and FY2016.

Members' Representational Allowance26

The Members' Representational Allowance (MRA) is available to support Members in their official and representational duties.

The House Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Subcommittee recommended $554.3 million, the same level provided in FY2014, FY2015, and FY2016. An amendment offered and agreed to at the full committee markup increased this level to $562.6 million (+1.5%). This level was contained in the House-passed bill and the FY2017 act.

Administrative Provisions

The House requested the continuation of administrative provisions from prior years related to

  • 1. unexpended balances from the MRA;
  • 2. limiting amounts available from the MRA for leased vehicles; and
  • 3. limiting or prohibiting the delivery of copies of bills and resolutions, the Congressional Record, the U.S. Code, the Statement of Disbursements, the Daily Calendar, and the Congressional Pictorial Directory.

The bill, as reported by the House Appropriations Committee, also contained a provision which would have authorized members of the Capitol Police to travel outside of the United States with Members of the House leadership on official business on a reimbursable basis.

Additional provisions related to the delivery of printed copies of various documents were added during consideration of the House bill on the floor (H.Amdt. 1168, for the United States House of Representatives Telephone Directory; H.Amdt. 1169, for the annual budget documents; and H.Amdt. 1172, for the Federal Register).

These provisions, as well as a new provision relating to cybersecurity assistance for the House from other federal entities, were all included in the FY2017 act.

The FY2017 bill, as reported by the House Appropriations Committee and passed by the House, also contained a provision which would have frozen Member salaries at the 2009 level. As stated above, Member salaries are funded in a permanent appropriations account, and the legislative branch bill does not contain language funding or increasing Member pay. A provision prohibiting the automatic Member pay adjustments could be included in any bill, or be introduced as a separate bill. As stated above, this prohibition was included in P.L. 114-254, the second continuing appropriations resolution.

Support Agency Funding

U.S. Capitol Police

The U.S. Capitol Police (USCP) are responsible for the security of the Capitol Complex, including, for example, the U.S. Capitol, the House and Senate office buildings, the U.S. Botanic Garden, and the Library of Congress buildings and adjacent grounds.

The USCP requested $409.6 million for FY2017, an increase of $34.6 million (+9.2%) from the $375.0 million the USCP received for FY2016.

H.R. 5325, as reported by the House Appropriations Committee and passed by the House, would have provided $391.3 million (+4.3%).

The Senate-reported bill would have provided $387.0 million (+3.2%).

The FY2017 act provides $393.3 million, an increase of $18.3 million (+4.9%).

Additional information on the USCP is presented in Table 8.

Appropriations for the police are contained in two accounts—a salaries account and a general expenses account. The salaries account contains funds for the salaries of employees; overtime pay; hazardous duty pay differential; and government contributions for employee health, retirement, Social Security, professional liability insurance, and other benefit programs. The general expenses account contains funds for expenses of vehicles; communications equipment; security equipment and its installation; dignitary protection; intelligence analysis; hazardous material response; uniforms; weapons; training programs; medical, forensic, and communications services; travel; relocation of instructors for the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center; and other administrative and technical support, among other expenses.

  • Salaries—the Capitol Police requested $333.1 million for salaries, an increase of $24.1 million (+7.8%) from the $309.0 million provided in FY2016. The House-passed bill would have provided $325.3 million (+5.3%). The Senate-reported bill would have provided $320.0 million (+3.6%). The FY2017 act provides $325.3 million (+5.3%).
  • General Expenses—the Capitol Police requested $76.5 million for general expenses, an increase of $10.5 million (+15.8%) from the $66.0 million provided in FY2016. The House-passed bill would have continued the FY2016 level. The Senate-reported bill would have provided $67.0 million (+1.5%). The FY2017 act provides $68.0 million (+3.0%).

Another appropriation relating to the Capitol Police appears within the Architect of the Capitol account for Capitol Police buildings and grounds. USCP requested $37.5 million, an increase of $12.1 million (+47.5%) from the $25.4 million provided in FY2016.

The House Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Subcommittee recommended $33.7 million (+32.5%). An amendment agreed to at the full committee markup decreased this level by $7.0 million and increased the House Historic Buildings Revitalization Trust Fund by the same amount. The House-passed bill would have provided $26.7 million (+5.0%).

The Senate-reported bill would have provided $29.6 million (+16.6%).

The FY2017 act provides $20.0 million (-21.2%).

Administrative Provision

The Capitol Police requested one administrative provision, which would have expanded authority to dispose of and receive surplus or obsolete property. The House- and Senate-reported versions of this bill, as well as the FY2017 act, all included this provision.

Office of Compliance

The Office of Compliance is an independent and nonpartisan agency within the legislative branch. It was established to administer and enforce the Congressional Accountability Act, which was enacted in 1995.27 The act applies various employment and workplace safety laws to Congress and certain legislative branch entities.28

The Office of Compliance requested $4.3 million for FY2017, an increase of $356,000 (+9.0%). The House-passed and Senate-reported versions of the bill, as well as the FY2017 act, all contain $3.96 million, a continuation of the FY2015 and FY2016 level.

Congressional Budget Office (CBO)

CBO is a nonpartisan congressional agency created to provide objective economic and budgetary analysis to Congress. CBO cost estimates are required for any measure reported by a regular or conference committee that may vary revenues or expenditures.29

CBO requested $47.6 million, an increase of $1.1 million (+2.4%), from the $46.5 million provided in FY2016. The House-passed and Senate-reported versions of the bill, as well as the FY2017 act, all continue the FY2016 level.

Administrative Provisions

CBO requested two administrative provisions:

  • 1. One provision would have made FY2017 funds available for the compensation of employees in specialty occupations with nonimmigrant visas. Similar authority has been requested, but not provided, since FY2012. The provision was not included in the House-passed or Senate-reported bill or the FY2017 act.
  • 2. One provision would have authorized the Director of CBO to establish senior positions. The House-passed bill included this provision, while the Senate-reported bill did not. It was included in the FY2017 act.

Architect of the Capitol

The Architect of the Capitol (AOC) is responsible for the maintenance, operation, development, and preservation of the U.S. Capitol Complex, which includes the Capitol and its grounds, House and Senate office buildings, Library of Congress buildings and grounds, Capitol Power Plant, Botanic Garden, Capitol Visitor Center, and Capitol Police buildings and grounds. The Architect is responsible for the Supreme Court buildings and grounds, but appropriations for their expenses are not contained in the legislative branch appropriations bill.

Overall Funding Levels

Operations of the Architect are funded in the following 10 accounts: capital construction and operations, Capitol building, Capitol grounds, Senate office buildings, House office buildings, Capitol Power Plant, Library buildings and grounds, Capitol Police buildings and grounds, Capitol Visitor Center, and Botanic Garden.

The Architect requested $694.3 million for FY2017, an increase of $81.4 million (+13.3%) from the FY2016 level of $612.9 million.

The House Appropriations Committee Legislative Branch Subcommittee recommended $560.1 million, not including funding for the Senate office buildings. An amendment adopted at the full committee markup decreased this amount by $8.3 million. Another amendment adopted at the full committee markup increased funding for the House Historic Buildings Revitalization Trust Fund by $7.0 million, offset by funding from the Capitol Police Buildings, Grounds, and Security account.

During consideration of H.R. 5325 in the House, two amendments affecting AOC were agreed to by voice vote, although they did not alter its overall funding level.

One amendment (H.Amdt. 1166) transferred $500,000 from the AOC's Capital Construction and Operations account to the AOC's Capitol Building and House Office Buildings accounts, providing $250,000 to each to bring the Capitol and House office buildings into compliance with General Services Administration requirements for federal buildings regarding lactation stations for breastfeeding mothers.

Another amendment provided that funding in the Capital Construction and Operations account be used to conduct a feasibility study regarding the installation and operation of Capital Bikeshare stations on Capitol Grounds (H.Amdt. 1165).

The Senate-reported bill would have provided $419.6 million, not including funding for the House office buildings, a decrease of $8.7 million (-2.0%) from the FY2016 enacted level.

The FY2017 act provides $617.9 million (+0.8%).

Additional funding information on the individual AOC accounts is presented in Table 9.

Administrative Provisions

The AOC also requested a number of administrative provisions:

  • 1. a provision prohibiting the use of funds for bonuses for contractors behind schedule or over budget, first included in FY2015;
  • 2. a provision prohibiting scrims containing photographs of building facades during restoration or construction projects performed by the Architect of the Capitol, first included in FY2015;
  • 3. a new provision establishing a working capital fund;
  • 4. a new provision providing authority for a House office building shuttle; and
  • 5. a new provision allowing the use of expired funds for unemployment compensation payments.

The House Appropriations Committee included these provisions, with the exception of that relating to the shuttle. It also included a new provision establishing a flag office revolving fund.

The Senate Appropriations Committee included provisions related to contractors, scrims, and unemployment compensation payments. It also included a new provision establishing a flag office revolving fund and a new provision directing the AOC to "establish, document, and follow policies and procedures for suspension and debarment of firms or individuals the Architect has determined should be excluded from future contracts."

The provisions related to bonuses for contractors, scrims, flag office revolving fund, unemployment compensation payments, contracting, and the House office building shuttle were included in the FY2017 act.

Library of Congress (LOC)

The Library of Congress serves simultaneously as Congress's parliamentary library and the de facto national library of the United States. Its broader services to the nation include the acquisition, maintenance, and preservation of a collection of more than 160.7 million analog items;30 service to the general public and scholarly and library communities; administration of U.S. copyright laws by its Copyright Office; and administration of a national program to provide reading material to the blind and physically handicapped. Its direct services to Congress include the provision of legal research and law-related services by the Law Library of Congress, and a broad range of activities by the Congressional Research Service (CRS), including in-depth and nonpartisan public policy research, analysis, and legislative assistance for Members and committees and their staff; congressional staff training; information and statistics retrieval; and continuing legal education for Members of both chambers and congressional staff.

The Library requested $667.2 million for FY2017, an increase of $67.3 million (+11.2%) from the $599.9 million provided in FY2016. These figures do not include additional authority to spend receipts.31

The House-passed bill would have provided $628.9 million, an increase of $29.0 million (+4.8%).

The Senate-reported bill would have provided $608.9 million, an increase of nearly $9.0 million (+1.5%).

The FY2017 act provides $631.96 million, an increase of $32.0 million (+5.3%).

The FY2017 budget contains the following headings:

  • Salaries and expenses—The Library requested $472.9 million, an increase of $53.3 million (+12.7%) from the $419.6 million provided for FY2016. The House-passed bill would have provided $443.6 million (5.7%). The Senate-reported bill would have provided $428.6 million (+2.1%). The FY2017 act provides $450.7 million (+7.4%).These figures do not include $6.35 million in authority to spend receipts.
  • Copyright Office—The Library requested $28.3 million, an increase of $5.2 million (+22.7%) from the $23.1 million provided for FY2016. The House-passed bill would have provided $27.1 million (+17.3%). The Senate-reported bill recommended, and the FY2017 provides, $23.1 million. These levels do not include authority to spend receipts ($35.8 million in FY2016; $45.7 million in the request; $41.7 million in the House-reported bill; $45.7 million in the Senate-reported bill; $45.7 million in the FY2017 act). Total budget authority including the authority to spend receipts, is $68.8 million ($9.95 million, or 16.9%, above the FY2016 enacted level).
  • Congressional Research Service—The Library requested $114.4 million for FY2017, an increase of $7.5 million (+7.0%) from the FY2016 level of $106.9 million. The House-passed bill would have provided $107.9 million (+0.9%). The Senate-reported bill would have continued the FY2016 level. The FY2017 act provides $107.9 million (+0.9%).
  • Books for the Blind and Physically Handicapped—The Library requested $51.6 million, a $1.3 million (+2.7) increase from the $50.2 million provided for FY2016. The House-passed and Senate-reported versions of the bill, as well as the FY2017 act, all continue the FY2016 level.

The Architect's budget also contains funds for the Library buildings and grounds. For FY2017, $65.95 million was requested, an increase of $25.3 million (+62.1%) from the $40.7 million provided for FY2016. The House-passed bill would have provided $47.1 million (+15.7%). The Senate-reported bill would have provided $42.2 million (+3.7%). The FY2017 act provides $47.1 million (+15.7%).

Administrative Provisions

The Library requested authority to obligate funds for reimbursable and revolving fund activities ($188.2 million in FY2016).

The House Appropriations Committee included this provision, as well as (1) a provision establishing the Library of Congress National Collection Stewardship Fund; (2) a provision extending film preservation programs; and (3) a provision extending sound recording preservation programs. Separate legislation (H.R. 4092, H.R. 5227, and S. 2893) was also introduced addressing these funds and programs. S. 2893, which reauthorized sound recording and film preservation programs, was enacted on July 29, 2016 (P.L. 114-217).

The Senate Appropriations Committee included the reimbursable and revolving fund activities provision.

The reimbursable and revolving fund activities provision and the Library of Congress National Collection Stewardship Fund provision were both included in the FY2017 act.

Government Publishing Office (GPO)32

The FY2017 act provides $117.1 million, the same level as provided in FY2016 and contained in GPO's budget request and the House-passed and Senate-reported versions of the bill.

GPO's budget authority is contained in three accounts.33

  • 1. Congressional publishing— The FY2017 act provides $79.7 million. This level has remained unchanged since FY2014.
  • 2. Public Information Programs of the Superintendent of Documents (salaries and expenses)— The FY2017 act provides $29.5 million, $1.0 million (-3.3%) less than the FY2016 enacted level. This is the same level contained in GPO's budget request and the House-passed and Senate-reported versions of the bill.
  • 3. Government Publishing Office Business Operations Revolving Fund—the revolving fund supports the operation and maintenance of the Government Publishing Office.34 The FY2017 act provides $7.8 million, an increase of $1.0 million (+14.6%) from the FY2016 enacted level. This is the same level contained in GPO's budget request and the House-passed and Senate-reported versions of the bill.

Government Accountability Office (GAO)

GAO responds to requests for studies of federal government programs and expenditures. GAO may also initiate its own work.35

The FY2017 act provides $544.5 million, an increase of $13.5 million (+2.5%).

GAO had requested $567.8 million, an increase of $36.8 million (+6.9%) from the $531.0 million provided for FY2016. The House-passed bill would have provided $533.1 million (+0.4%). The Senate-reported bill would have provided $542.4 million (+2.1%).

These levels do not include offsetting collections ($25.5 million in FY2016; $23.4 million in FY2017).36

Open World Leadership Center

The Open World Leadership Center administers a program that supports democratic changes in other countries by inviting their leaders to observe democracy and free enterprise in the United States. The first program was authorized by Congress in 1999 to support the relationship between Russia and the United States. The program encouraged young federal and local Russian leaders to visit the United States and observe its government and society.

Established at the Library of Congress as the Center for Russian Leadership Development in 2000, the center was renamed the Open World Leadership Center in 2003, when the program was expanded to include specified additional countries.37 In 2004, Congress further extended the program's eligibility to other countries designated by the center's board of trustees, subject to congressional consideration.38 The center is housed in the Library and receives services from the Library through an interagency agreement.

Open World requested $5.8 million for FY2017, an increase of $200,000 (+3.6%) from the FY2016 enacted level.

The House Appropriations Committee recommended $1.0 million (-82.1%) for expenses associated with shutting down the program. During full committee consideration, an amendment was offered and withdrawn to increase funding for this program. The committee report stated,39

For many years the Committee has had concern with the placement of the Open World Leadership Center (OWLC) in the Legislative Branch with it mirroring numerous similar or nearly identical programs administered by other Federal agencies. In this fiscal environment where our national debt exceeds $19 trillion, it is important to eliminate duplicative programs. The Committee has provided $1,000,000 to cover the cost associated with the shutdown of the OWLC. The Committee directs the Director to retain any necessary prior year funds in the Trust to cover any cost in excess of the $1,000,000 provided in this bill to be utilized for the orderly shutdown. The Director is further directed that the program termination is to be finalized within one year of enactment of the Legislative Branch fiscal year 2017 appropriation bill.

The Senate-reported bill would have continued funding at the FY2016 level, and this level was continued in the FY2017 act.

Additionally, a budget amendment submitted by Open World on April 5, 2016, would have added "language inadvertently omitted" in the budget request, which would "add senior immediately before 'officials'."40 Neither the FY2017 act, nor the House-passed and Senate-reported bills, included this change.

Prior Year Discussion of Location and Funding of Open World

The location and future of Open World, attempts to assess its effectiveness, and its inclusion in the legislative branch budget, have been discussed at appropriations hearings and in report language for more than a decade. The funding level for Open World has also varied greatly during this period, although it has decreased each year since FY2009.

For FY2016, the House subcommittee mark proposed $1.0 million for an orderly shutdown of Open World. Language in the full committee print, released prior to the markup of the FY2016 bill, stated,41

The Committee believes given our current fiscal environment, and in light of both the lack of quantifiable results from the Open World Leadership Center and its duplication of programs more appropriately offered by the State Department, the program has long outlived its short-term intent. The Committee has provided an allocation to be used for the orderly shutdown during fiscal year 2016 of the Open World Leadership Center.

An amendment offered by Representative Fortenberry at the FY2016 full committee markup proposed to add $4.7 million for Open World, offset from funding for the "Architect of the Capitol, Capitol Power Plant" budget. The operations of Open World, including assessments of its impact, were discussed prior to the adoption (by voice vote) of the amendment. An amendment made in order by the House Rules Committee proposed the elimination of the $5.7 million included in the House-reported bill for Open World and would have applied the savings to the spending reduction account. The amendment, H.Amdt. 239, was agreed to (224-199). Open World was also the subject of two amendments proposed but not made in order by the House Rules Committee: (1) one amendment submitted would have redirected the $4.7 million added to Open World during the full committee markup back to the "Architect of the Capitol, Capitol Power Plant"; and (2) one amendment would have redirected $2.5 million from Open World to reinstitute the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). The Senate-reported FY2016 bill would have provided $5.7 million, equivalent to the FY2015 level, and the FY2016 Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $5.6 million.

For FY2015, the House committee recommended $3.4 million, while the Senate committee recommended $5.7 million. Both reports discussed the conflict in Ukraine and Open World's activities in the region. The FY2015 act provided $5.7 million.

For FY2014, the House subcommittee mark would have provided $1.0 million. An amendment to restore funding for Open World to the FY2013 post-sequester level was debated and withdrawn during the full committee markup. The House committee report stated,

For many years the Committee has had concern with the placement of the Open World Leadership Center (OWLC) in the Legislative Branch. The Committee understands the program has some strong champions on the Committee. However, with further reductions being made to every program within the Legislative Branch, the Committee has provided $1,000,000 to cover the cost associated with the shutdown of the OWLC. The Committee directs the Executive Director of the OWLC to retain any necessary prior year funds in the Trust to cover any cost in excess of the $1,000,000 provided in this bill be utilized for the orderly shutdown. The Executive Director is further directed that the program termination is to be finalized within one year of enactment of the Legislative Branch fiscal year 2014 appropriation bill.42

The FY2014 Senate-reported bill would have provided $4.0 million, as well as a provision allowing the Librarian of Congress to transfer up to $6.0 million in nonappropriated funds to Open World. The final enacted FY2014 level was $6.0 million.

The FY2013 House-reported bill would have provided $1.0 million, a decrease of $9.0 million (-90.0%), from the $10.0 million provided in FY2012 and requested for FY2013. The House report stated that this funding level would "cover the cost associated with the shutdown" and directed that "the program termination is to be finalized within one year of enactment of the Legislative Branch fiscal year 2013 appropriations bill."43 H.Amdt. 1281, agreed to by recorded vote (204-203, Roll no. 373), eliminated this funding. At the Senate FY2013 budget request hearing on March 1, 2012, the subcommittee discussed potential options for increasing private funding, including the hire of a development professional. The Senate-reported bill would have provided $10.0 million. The FY2013 act provided $8.0 million, not including sequestration or the across-the-board rescission.44

The House-passed FY2012 bill (H.R. 2551) would have provided $1.0 million, a decrease of 91.2% from FY2011. The House report stated, "The program has some strong champions on the Committee, but with reductions being made to most every program within the Federal budget the Committee has elected to shut down the program and recommends $1,000,000 for shutdown expenses."45 The Senate-reported bill, in contrast, would have provided $10.0 million (-12.1%). The Senate report stated that "despite the fiscal constraints of the budget this program is necessary for the promotion of democratic principles in countries with historically oppressive rule."46 The FY2012 act contained the Senate-reported level.

The FY2011 level of $11.4 million represented a decrease of $623,000 (-5.2%) from the $12.0 million provided for FY2010.

The FY2010 level represented a decrease of $1.9 million (-13.7%) from FY2009. Additionally, the FY2010 House Appropriations Committee report stated that "the Legislative Branch Subcommittee has been clear that it expects the Open World program to become financially independent of funding in this bill as soon as possible."47 This sentiment was also expressed in the conference report, which stated,

The conferees are fully supportive of expanded efforts of the Open World Center to raise private funding and expect this effort to reduce the requirements for funding from the Legislative Branch appropriations bill in future years. The Committees look forward to a report of progress being made by the Center's fundraising program prior to hearings on its fiscal year 2011 budget request.48

The FY2009 level of $13.9 million was a $4.92 million increase (+54.8%) from FY2008. The location within the legislative branch was discussed during a hearing on the FY2009 budget. Ambassador John O'Keefe, the executive director of Open World, testified that the program may attract different participants if associated with the executive branch rather than the Library of Congress, which may be seen as more neutral and nonpartisan.49 The FY2009 explanatory statement directed the Open World Leadership Center Board of Trustees to work with the State Department and the judiciary to establish a shared funding mechanism.50

The $8.98 million provided in FY2008 represented a decrease of $4.88 million (-35.2%) from the $13.86 million provided in FY2007 and FY2006. The location of Open World was also discussed during the FY2008 appropriations cycle,51 and language was included in the FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act requiring Open World to prepare a report by March 31, 2008, on "potential options for transfer of the Open World Leadership Center to a department or agency in the executive branch, establishment of the Center as an independent agency in the executive branch, or other appropriate options."52

In 2004, GAO issued a report on the Open World program, examining program participation, purpose, and accountability.53

John C. Stennis Center for Public Service Training and Development

The center was created by Congress in 1988 to encourage public service by congressional staff through training and development programs.54 The FY2017 act, budget request, and the House-passed and Senate-reported versions of the FY2017 bill all contained $430,000, the same level provided in the FY2014, FY2015, and FY2016 acts.

General Provisions

As in past years, Congress is considering a number of general provisions related to the legislative branch. Table 4 lists the provisions considered, the stage originally proposed, and final disposition.

Table 4. General Provisions Considered for FY2017

(and stage of inclusion or status)

Provision toa

Recurring from FY2016

Included in FY2017 Request

Included in House-Passed Bill

Included in Senate-Reported Bill

Enacted in FY2017

prohibit appropriated funds for the maintenance and care of private vehicles

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

limit funds to FY2017 unless otherwise expressly provided

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

make any changes in rates of compensation and designation permanent

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

make consulting services contracts a matter of public record

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

authorize the costs of Legislative Branch Financial Managers Council (LBFMC)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

limit transfers to those authorized by law

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

prohibit restrictions on guided staff tours of the Capitol with limited exceptions

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

prohibit a cost of living adjustment for Members of Congress in FY2017b

Yesb

No

Yes
(by House Appropriations Committee, House administrative provisions section)

Yes
(by Senate Appropriations Committee, Senate administrative provisions section)

Yes
(by P.L. 114-254)

require computer networks to block the viewing, downloading, and exchanging of pornography

No

No

Yes
(by the House Appropriations Committee)

No

Yes

prohibit the use of funds for delivering printed copies of the United States House of Representatives Telephone Directory to the office of any Member of the House of Representatives

No

No

Yes
(by H.Amdt. 1168)

No

Yes
(as House administrative provision)

prohibit the use of funds for delivering a printed copy of the Budget of the United States Government; Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government; or the Appendix, Budget of the United States Government, to the office of any Member of the House

No

No

Yes
(by H.Amdt. 1169)

No

Yes
(as House administrative provision)

prohibit the use of funds for delivering a printed copy of the Federal Register to a Member of the House

No

No

Yes
(by H.Amdt. 1172)

No

Yes
(as House administrative provision)

prohibit the use of funds to enter into a contract with certain contractors due to conviction, civil judgement, or indictment for certain offences

No

No

Yes
(by H.Amdt. 1170)

No

No

Source: P.L. 114-113, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2017, H.Rept. 114-594, S.Rept. 114-258, and P.L. 115-31.

a. This list does not include a provision to authorize landscape maintenance by the Architect of the Capitol in a specified area. This provision was included in the FY2017 Senate-reported bill, but a similar provision was enacted into permanent law in P.L. 114-113 (129 Stat. 2672, December 18, 2015, 2 U.S.C. 2186).

b. Members of Congress last received a pay adjustment in January 2009. Absent either a statutory prohibition for Member pay or automatic limitations related to the General Schedule (GS), Members of Congress are scheduled to receive a maximum of 1.6%, or $2,800, in January 2017. The legislative branch bill does not contain language funding or increasing Member pay, and a provision prohibiting the automatic Member pay adjustments could be included in any bill, or be introduced as a separate bill. The provision prohibiting a cost of living adjustment for Members of Congress in FY2016 was contained in Section 9 (Adjustments to compensation) of the act.

Introduction to Summary Tables and Appendix

Table 5 through Table 9 provide information on funding levels for the legislative branch overall, the Senate, the House of Representatives, the Capitol Police, and the Architect of the Capitol.

The tables are followed by an Appendix, which lists House, Senate, and conference bills and reports; public law numbers; and enactment dates since FY1998.

Table 5. Legislative Branch Appropriations: Funding Levels by Agency or Entity

(in thousands of dollars)

Entity

FY2016 Enacted

FY2017 Requested

FY2017
House-
Passed

FY2017 Senate-Reported

FY2017 Enacted

Title 1: Legislative Branch Appropriations

Senate

$870,159

$935,686

$871,177

$871,177

House of Representatives

1,180,909a

1,187,309

1,189,049

1,189,223a

Joint Itemsb

20,732b

21,010

19,565b

19,482b

19,565

Capitol Police

375,000

409,588

391,300

387,000

393,300

Office of Compliance

3,959

4,315

3,959

3,959

3,959

Congressional Budget Office

46,500

47,637

46,500

46,500

46,500

Architect of the Capitolc

612,904

694,301

551,735c

419,255c

617,887

Library of Congress, Including CRS

599,912

667,215

628,912

608,907

631,958

Congressional Research Service, Lib. of Cong.

106,945

114,408

107,945

106,945

107,945

Government Publishing Office

117,068

117,068

117,068

117,068

117,068

Government Accountability Office

531,000

567,825

533,100

542,406

544,506

Open World Leadership Center

5,600

5,800

1,000

5,600

5,600

Stennis Center for Public Service

430

430

430

430

430

Other

-1,000

1,000

-1,000

-1,000

-1,000

Title II: General Provisions

0

0

0

0

0

Total Legislative Branch

$4,363,172

$4,659,184

$3,481,618

$3,020,784

$4,440,173

Source: P.L. 114-113, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2017, H.Rept. 114-594, S.Rept. 114-258, P.L. 115-31, and CRS calculations.

a. This total includes one gratuity payment of $174,000.

b. The FY2017 act contains the following under "Joint Items": the Joint Economic Committee, the Joint Committee on Taxation, the Office of the Attending Physician, and the Office of Congressional Accessibility Services. The FY2016 act provided funding for these four items, plus $1.25 million for the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. When adjusting for this difference, the FY2017 level is equivalent to an $83,000 (+0.4%) increase from FY2016.

c. By tradition, the House does not consider appropriations for Senate office buildings and the Senate does not consider appropriations for House office buildings.

Table 6. Senate Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Accounts

FY2016 Enacted

FY2017 Requested

FY2017
Housea

FY2017 Senate-Reported

FY2017 Enacted

Payments—Heirs of Deceased Members of Congress

$0

$0

$0

$0

Expense Allowances and Representation

205

205

205

205

Salaries, Officers, and Employees

179,184

186,260

182,287

182,287

Office of Legislative Counsel

5,409

5,842

5,809

5,809

Office of Legal Counsel

1,120

1,144

1,120

1,120

Expense Allowances for Secretary of Senate, et al.

28

28

28

28

Contingent Expenses (subtotal)

684,213

742,207

681,728

681,728

Inquiries and Investigations

133,265

135,799

133,265

133,265

Senate Intl. Narcotics Caucus

508

520

508

508

Secretary of the Senateb

8,750

10,250

10,250

10,250

Sergeant at Arms/Doorkeeperc

130,000

128,535

126,535

126,535

Miscellaneous Items

21,390

20,870

20,870

20,870

Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account

390,000

445,933

390,000

390,000

Official Mail Costs

300

300

300

300

Total, Senate

$870,159

$935,686

$871,177

$871,177

Source: P.L. 114-113, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2017, S.Rept. 114-258, P.L. 115-31 and CRS calculations.

a. By tradition, the House does not consider appropriations for Senate operations.

b. Office operations of the Office of the Secretary of the Senate are also funded under "Salaries, Officers, and Employees."

c. Office operations of the Office of Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper are also funded under "Salaries, Officers, and Employees."

Table 7. House of Representatives Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Accounts

FY2016 Enacted

FY2017 Requested

FY2017
House-Passed

FY2017 Senate-Reporteda

FY2017 Enacted

Payments—Heirs of Deceased Members of Congressb

$174b

0

0

$174b

House Leadership Offices

22,278

22,278

22,278

22,278

Members' Representational Allowance

554,318

554,318

562,632

562,632

Committee Employees (subtotal)

147,174

150,324

150,324

150,324

Standing Committees, Special and Select, except Appropriations

123,903

127,053

127,053

127,053

Appropriations Committee

23,271

23,271

23,271

23,271

Salaries, Officers, and Employees (subtotal)

178,532

181,756

181,487

181,487

Office of the Clerk

24,981

26,411

26,268

26,268

Office of the Sergeant at Arms

14,827

15,571

15,505

15,505

Office of Chief Administrative Officer

117,165

117,165

117,165

117,165

Office of Inspector General

4,742

4,987

4,963

4,963

Office of General Counsel

1,413

1,451

1,444

1,444

Office of the Parliamentarian

1,975

2,010

1,999

1,999

Office of the Law Revision Counsel

3,120

3,182

3,167

3,167

Office of the Legislative Counsel

8,353

8,979

8,979

8,979

Office of Interparliamentary Affairs

814

814

814

814

Other Authorized Employees

1,142

1,186

1,183

1,183

Allowances and Expenses (subtotal)

278,432

278,633

272,328

272,328

Supplies, Materials, Administrative Costs and Federal Tort Claims

3,625

3,625

3,625

3,625

Official Mail for committees, leadership, administrative and legislative offices

190

190

190

190

Government Contributions

251,629

251,630

245,334

245,334

Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Emergency Appropriations

16,217

16,217

16,217

16,217

Transition Activities

2,084

2,084

2,084

2,084

Wounded Warrior Programc

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,500

Office of Congressional Ethics

1,467

1,667

1,658

1,658

Miscellaneous Items

720

720

720

720

House of Representatives, Total

$1,180,909d

$1,187,309

$1,189,049

$1,189,223d

Sources: P.L. 114-113, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2017, H.Rept. 114-594, P.L. 115-31 and CRS calculations.

Notes: Numbers may not add due to rounding.

a. By tradition, the Senate does not consider appropriations for House operations.

b. The FY2016 gratuity payment was provided in P.L. 114-53. The FY2017 gratuity payment was provided in P.L. 114-223.

c. The House Wounded Warrior Program, which is operated through the House of Representatives Chief Administrative Officer's office, provides two-year paid fellowships within the House of Representatives for disabled veterans. Fellows are eligible for the benefits of other House employees. The program has received funding since FY2009. Additional information is available at http://cao.house.gov/wounded-warrior.

d. Including the "Payments—Heirs of Deceased Members of Congress."

Table 8. Capitol Police Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Accounts

FY2016
Enacted

FY2017 Requested

FY2017
House-
Passed

FY2017 Senate-Reported

FY2017 Enacted

Salaries, Capitol Police

$309,000

$333,128

$325,300

$320,000

$325,300

General Expenses

66,000

76,460

66,000

67,000

68,000

Total, Capitol Police

$375,000

$409,588

$391,300

$387,000

$393,300

Source: P.L. 114-113, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2017, H.Rept. 114-594, S.Rept. 114-258, P.L. 115-31, and CRS calculations.

Table 9. Architect of the Capitol Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Accounts

FY2016
Enacted

FY2017 Requested

FY2017
House- Passed

FY2017 Senate-Reported

FY2017 Enacted

Capital construction and operations

$91,589

$103,650

$88,042a

$92,957

92,957

Capitol building

46,737

44,010

33,255a

33,082

32,584

Capitol grounds

11,880

13,083

12,826

11,712

12,826

Senate office buildings

84,221

88,406

b

88,406

88,406

House of Representatives

 

 

 

 

 

House office buildings

174,962

189,528

187,731a

c

185,731

House Historic Buildings Revitalization Fund

10,000

10,000

17,000

c

17,000

Capitol Power Plantd

94,722

105,765

104,480

86,646

86,646

Library buildings and grounds

40,689

65,959

47,080

42,179

47,080

Capitol Police buildings and grounds

25,434

37,513

26,697

29,649

20,033

Botanic garden

12,113

15,081

14,067

14,067

14,067

Capitol Visitor Center

20,557

21,306

20,557

20,557

20,557

Total, Architect of the Capitol

$612,904

$694,301

$551,735

$419,255

$617,887

Source: P.L. 114-113, the Budget for Fiscal Year 2017, H.Rept. 114-594, S.Rept. 114-258, P.L. 115-31, and CRS calculations.

a. This includes H.Amdt. 1166 to H.R. 5325, which transferred $500,000 from the AOC's Capital Construction and Operations account to the AOC's Capitol Building and House Office Buildings accounts, providing $250,000 to each to bring the Capitol and House office buildings into compliance with General Services Administration requirements for federal buildings regarding lactation stations for breastfeeding mothers. The amendment was agreed to by voice vote.

b. The House does not consider appropriations for Senate office buildings.

c. The Senate does not consider appropriations for House office buildings.

d. Not including offsetting collections.

Appendix. Fiscal Year Information and Resources

Table A-1. Overview of Legislative Branch Appropriations: FY1998-FY2017

House, Senate, Conference, and CRS Reports and Related Legislative Vehicles

Fiscal Year

House

Senate

Conference

Enacted

Enactment
Vehicle Title

CRS
Report

2017

H.Rept. 114-594
(H.R. 5325) (H.Res. 771)

S.Rept. 114-258
(S. 2955)

explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 244)

5/5/2017
(P.L. 115-31)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017

CRS Report R44515, Legislative Branch: FY2017 Appropriations, by [author name scrubbed]

2016

H.Rept. 114-110 (H.R. 2250)
(H.Res. 271)

S.Rept. 114-64 (H.R. 2250)

explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record

12/18/2015
(P.L. 114-113)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016

CRS Report R44029, Legislative Branch: FY2016 Appropriations

2015

H.Rept. 113-417 (H.R. 4487)
(H.Res. 557)

S.Rept. 113-196
(H.R. 4487)

explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 83)

12/16/2014 (P.L. 113-235)

Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015

CRS Report R43557, Legislative Branch: FY2015 Appropriations

2014

H.Rept. 113-173 (H.R. 2792)

S.Rept. 113-70 (S. 1283)

explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 3547)

1/17/2014 (P.L. 113-76)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014

CRS Report R43151, Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations

2013

H.Rept. 112-511
(H.R. 5882) (H.Res. 679)

S.Rept. 112-197
(H.R. 5882)

___

3/26/2013 (P.L. 113-6)

Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013

CRS Report R42500, Legislative Branch: FY2013 Appropriations

2012

H.Rept. 112-148
(H.R. 2551)

S.Rept. 112-80 (H.R. 2551)

H.Rept. 112-331
(H.R. 2055)

12/23/2011
(P.L. 112-74)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012

CRS Report R41870, Legislative Branch: FY2012 Appropriations

2011

___

S.Rept. 111-294
(S. 3799)

___

4/15/2011
(P.L. 112-10)

Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011

CRS Report R41214, Legislative Branch: FY2011 Appropriations

2010

H.Rept. 111-160
(H.R. 2918)

S.Rept. 111-29
(S. 1294)

H.Rept. 111-265
(H.R. 2918)

10/1/2009
(P.L. 111-68)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010

CRS Report R40617, Legislative Branch: FY2010 Appropriations

2009

___

___

explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record and issued in a committee print
(H.R. 1105)

3/11/2009
(P.L. 111-8)

Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009

CRS Report RL34490, Legislative Branch: FY2009 Appropriations

2008

H.Rept. 110-198
(H.R. 2771)

S.Rept. 110-89
(S. 1686)

explanatory materials inserted into the Congressional Record
(H.R. 2764)

12/26/2007
(P.L. 110-161)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008

CRS Report RL34031, Legislative Branch: FY2008 Appropriations

2007

H.Rept. 109-485
(H.R. 5521)

S.Rept. 109-267
(H.R. 5521)

___

2/15/2007
(P.L. 110-5)

Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007

CRS Report RL33379, Legislative Branch: FY2007 Appropriations

2006

H.Rept. 109-139
(H.R. 2985)

S.Rept. 109-89 (H.R. 2985)

H.Rept. 109-189
(H.R. 2985)

8/02/2005
(P.L. 109-55)

FY2006 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act

CRS Report RL32819, Legislative Branch: FY2006 Appropriations

2005

H.Rept. 108-577
(H.R. 4755)

S.Rept. 108-307
(S. 2666)

H.Rept. 108-792
(H.R. 4818)

12/8/2004
(P.L. 108-447)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005

CRS Report RL32312, Appropriations for FY2005: Legislative Branch

2004

H.Rept. 108-186
(H.R. 2657)

S.Rept. 108-88
(S. 1383)

H.Rept. 108-279
(H.R. 2657)

9/30/2003
(P.L. 108-83)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2004

CRS Report RL31812, Appropriations for FY2004: Legislative Branch

2003

H.Rept. 107-576
(H.R. 5121)

S.Rept. 107-209
(S. 2720)

___

2/20/2003
(P.L. 108-7)

Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003

CRS Report RL31312, Appropriations for FY2003: Legislative Branch

2002

H.Rept. 107-169
(H.R. 2647)

S.Rept. 107-37
(S. 1172)

H.Rept. 107-259
(H.R. 2647)

11/12/2001
(P.L. 107-68)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2002

CRS Report RL31012, Appropriations for FY2002: Legislative Branch

2001

H.Rept. 106-635
(H.R. 4516)

S.Rept. 106-304
(S. 2603)

H.Rept. 106-796
(H.R. 4516, incorporated into H.R. 4577)

12/21/2000
(P.L. 106-554)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2001

CRS Report RL30512, Appropriations for FY2001: Legislative Branch

2000

H.Rept. 106-156
(H.R. 1905)

S.Rept. 106-75
(S. 1206)

H.Rept. 106-290
(H.R. 1905)

9/29/1999
(P.L. 106-57)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2000

CRS Report RL30212, Appropriations for FY2000: Legislative Branch

1999

H.Rept. 105-595
(H.R. 4112)

S.Rept. 105-204
S. 2137)

H.Rept. 105-734
(H.R. 4112)

10/21/1998
(P.L. 105-275)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 1999

CRS Report 98-212, Appropriations for FY1999: Legislative Branch

1998

H.Rept. 105-196
(H.R. 2209)

S.Rept. 105-47
(S. 1019)

H.Rept. 105-254
(H.R. 2209)

10/7/1997
(P.L. 105-55)

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 1998

CRS Report 97-212, Appropriations for FY1998: Legislative Branch

Source: Congressional Research Service examination of LIS.

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Specialist on the Congress ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Footnotes

1.

Office of Management and Budget, Appendix, Budget of the United States Government, FY2017 (Washington: GPO, 2016), pp. 13-44, available at https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2017/assets/leg.pdf. A budget amendment submitted on April 5, 2016, would "add language inadvertently omitted" in the Open World Leadership Center portion of the budget request, but not change funding levels. The budget request language would prohibit the use of funds "for officials of the central government of Russia," while the amendment would specify that this prohibition applies to senior officials. (https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/budget_amendments/amendment_04_05_16.pdf.)

2.

Pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 1105, "Estimated expenditures and proposed appropriations for the legislative branch and the judicial branch to be included in each budget ... shall be submitted to the President ... and included in the budget by the President without change." Division C of the FY2012 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 112-74) added language to 31 U.S.C. 1107 relating to budget amendments, stating: "The President shall transmit promptly to Congress without change, proposed deficiency and supplemental appropriations submitted to the President by the legislative branch and the judicial branch."

3.

According to the Library's website (https://www.loc.gov/aba/cataloging/subject/):

The Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is perhaps the most widely adopted subject indexing language in the world, has been translated into many languages, and is used around the world by libraries large and small. LCSH has been actively maintained since 1898 to catalog materials held at the Library of Congress. Proposals for additions and changes are reviewed regularly at staff meetings in the Policy and Standards Division (PSD) and an approved list is published.

Revisions to the Library of Congress Subject Headings are announced in the "Summary of Decisions from the Weekly (and Monthly, as of May 2011) Editorial Meeting." Decisions since 2005 are available online at http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/saco/cpsoed/cpsoeditorial.html.

4.

"Summary of Decisions," Editorial Meeting Number 3, March 21, 2016, https://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/saco/cpsoed/psd-160321.html. See also "Library of Congress to Cancel the Subject Heading 'Illegal Aliens,'" March 22, 2016, https://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/illegal-aliens-decision.pdf.

5.

"Summary of Decisions," Editorial Meeting Number 12, December 15, 2014, http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/saco/cpsoed/psd-141215.html; American Library Association, 2016 ALA Midwinter Meeting, CD#34, "Resolution on Replacing the Library of Congress Subject Heading 'Illegal Aliens' with 'Undocumented Immigrants.'"

6.

For further information with regard to the BCA spending limits, see Office of Management and Budget (OMB), OMB OMB Sequestration Preview Report to the President and Congress for Fiscal Year 2017, February 9, 2016, available at https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/legislative_reports/sequestration/sequestration_preview_report_fy17_house.pdf.

7.

302(a) and 302(b) refer to the section of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-344) addressing the allocation of totals and reports by committees.

8.

For a discussion of budget enforcement mechanisms that may be adopted in the absence of a budget resolution, see CRS Report R44296, Deeming Resolutions: Budget Enforcement in the Absence of a Budget Resolution, by [author name scrubbed]; and CRS Report R43535, Provisions in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 as an Alternative to a Traditional Budget Resolution, by [author name scrubbed].

9.

The authority for these actions is provided by Section 102 of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-74). The levels were filed by the Senate Budget Committee chair on April 18, 2016. ("Allocation of Spending Authority to Senate Committee on Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2017," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 162, no. 59 [April 18, 2016], p. S2121.) No comparable authority for the House Budget Committee chair was provided by the Bipartisan Budget Act.

10.

U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Allocation to Subcommittees of Budget Totals for Fiscal Year 2017, 114th Cong., 2nd sess., April 18, 2017, S.Rept. 114-238 (Washington: GPO, 2017). See also http://www.appropriations.senate.gov/news/majority/fiscal-year-2017-subcommittee-allocations-background and http://www.appropriations.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/FY17-302b-Allocations-Chart1.pdf. Revised 302(b) suballocations were announced in S.Rept. 114-253 and S.Rept. 114-257, although the legislative branch total remained unchanged.

11.

Since 1995, these structured rules include FY2016, H.Res. 271; FY2015, H.Res. 557; FY2013, H.Res. 679; FY2012, H.Res. 359; FY2010, H.Res. 559; FY2008, H.Res. 502; FY2007, H.Res. 849; FY2006, H.Res. 334; FY2005, H.Res. 707; FY2004, H.Res. 311; FY2003, H.Res. 489; FY2002, H.Res. 213; FY2001, H.Res. 530; FY2000, H.Res. 190; FY1999, H.Res. 489; FY1998, H.Res. 197; FY1997, H.Res. 473; and FY1996, H.Res. 169 and H.Res. 239. The House did not consider a separate legislative branch bill for FY2009, FY2011, and FY2014.

12.

Additional information available at https://rules.house.gov/bill/114/hr-5325.

13.

During consideration of the FY2016 bill, the House considered and adopted an amendment (H.Amdt. 240) prohibiting any funds for delivering printed copies of the Congressional Pictorial Directory, which was agreed to by voice vote. During consideration of the FY2015 bill, the House considered and adopted by voice vote an amendment to prohibit funds from being used to deliver printed copies of the Statement of Disbursements of the House to any Member of the House (H.Amdt. 647) and an amendment to prohibit funding for the delivery of printed copies of the House Daily Calendar to any Member of the House (H.Amdt. 648). During consideration of the FY2013 bill, the House considered and adopted by voice vote an amendment to limit the number of copies of the U.S. Code printed for the House of Representatives to 50 copies (H.Amdt. 1283). During consideration of the FY2012 bill, the House considered and adopted by voice vote an amendment to prevent the distribution of printed legislation to Member offices unless a Member requests the legislation (H.Amdt. 705) and an amendment to prevent use of funds to distribute printed copies of the Congressional Record to Member offices (H.Amdt. 706). The adopted provisions have been included in subsequent appropriations acts.

14.

The motion would have required the bill to be reported back to the House with an amendment to decrease the AOC's Capital Construction and Operations account by $200,000 and increase the Library of Congress Salaries and Expenses by that amount ("Motion to Recommit," House debate, Congressional Record, daily edition, June 10, 2016, p. H3691.) During debate on this motion, the use of the term "illegal alien" as a Library of Congress Subject Heading was discussed.

15.

For additional information on these acts, including a discussion of the "funding rate" under the CRs, see CRS Report R44653, Overview of Continuing Appropriations for FY2017 (H.R. 5325), coordinated by [author name scrubbed] and CRS Report R44723, Overview of Further Continuing Appropriations for FY2017 (H.R. 2028), coordinated by [author name scrubbed].

16.

Calculations by CRS with data from Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Historical Tables, Budget of the United States Government, FY2017, Table 5.4—Discretionary Budget Authority By Agency: 1976–2021; available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Historicals. The calculations have some limitations, since the OMB data do not completely align with items funded in the annual and supplemental legislative branch appropriations acts. The differences may be partially traced to the definition of "legislative branch" in the OMB Public Budget Database "user's guide." Some entities regularly included with the legislative branch in many OMB budget documents, like the United States Tax Court and some Legislative Branch Boards and Commissions, are not funded through the annual legislative branch appropriations acts. Consequently, an examination of the discretionary budget authority listed in the Historical Tables reveals some differences with the reported total budget authority provided in the annual legislative branch appropriations acts. The difference in legislative branch budget authority resulting from the different definitions of the legislative branch in the OMB budget documents and in the appropriations acts, however, does not represent a large difference in the proportion of total discretionary budget authority.

17.

The legislative branch previously experienced a funding gap in FY1996 (November 14-18, 1995).

18.

FY2013 level from the CBO cost estimate for "Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2014 (H.J.Res. 59), Including the Amendment Reported by the House Committee on Rules on September 18, 2013 (H.Res. 352) Discretionary spending" (http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/hjres59amendment.pdf), which lists a total for legislative branch budget authority of $4.061 billion, noting that it "includes effects of the 2013 sequestration." This bill contained a small anomaly for the legislative branch.

19.

White House, President Obama, Sequestration Order for Fiscal Year 2013 Pursuant to Section 251A of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, As Amended, March 1, 2013, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/2013sequestration-order-rel.pdf.

20.

Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, OMB Report to the Congress on the Joint Committee Sequestration for Fiscal Year 2013, March 1, 2013, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/legislative_reports/fy13ombjcsequestrationreport.pdf.

21.

P.L. 111-5, February 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 191.

22.

U.S. Congress, conference committee, Making Supplemental Appropriations for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2009, and for Other Purposes, report to accompany H.R. 2346, 111th Cong., 1st sess., H.Rept. 111-151 (Washington: GPO, 2009), p. 117.

23.

U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch, 2016, report to accompany H.R. 2250, 114th Cong., 1st sess., June 11, 2015, S.Rept. 114-64 (Washington: GPO, 2015), p. 4.

24.

For additional information, see CRS Report R44399, Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account (SOPOEA): History and Usage, by [author name scrubbed].

25.

The FY2016 total does not include one gratuity payment.

26.

For additional information, see CRS Report R40962, Members' Representational Allowance: History and Usage, by [author name scrubbed].

27.

P.L. 104-1, 109 Stat. 3, January 23, 1995. The act, as amended, applies 12 civil rights, labor, and workplace safety laws to Congress and certain legislative branch agencies. These laws are the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, Americans with Disabilities Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Employee Polygraph Protection Act, Fair Labor Standards Act, Family and Medical Leave Act, Federal Services Labor-Management Relations Act, Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Rehabilitation Act of 1970, Veterans' employment and reemployment rights at Chapter 43 of Title 38 of the U.S. Code, Worker Adjustment and Retraining Act, and Veterans Employment Opportunities Act.

28.

Among the office's activities are administration of a dispute resolution process, investigation and enforcement of occupational safety and health and disability provisions of the act, investigation of labor relations and enforcement of applicable provisions, and development of educational programs regarding the act's provisions.

29.

The Congressional Budget Office is required to use estimates provided by the Joint Committee on Taxation for all revenue legislation (Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, P.L. 99-177, §273, 99 Stat.1098, December 12, 1985; 2 U.S.C. §621 (et seq.)).

30.

Figure obtained from the Annual Report of the Librarian of Congress for Fiscal Year 2014, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 2015, p. 9. Available at http://www.loc.gov/about/reports/.

31.

An example of receipts is fees paid to the LOC for copyright registration.

32.

Formerly known as the Government Printing Office. For additional information on GPO, see CRS Report R40897, Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

33.

The FY2015 act renamed these accounts: (1) the former congressional printing and binding account was renamed congressional publishing, (2) the former Office of Superintendent of Documents (salaries and expenses) account was renamed Public Information Programs of the Superintendent of Documents (salaries and expenses), and (3) the revolving fund was renamed the Government Publishing Office Business Operations Revolving Fund.

34.

For additional information, see CRS Report R40939, Legislative Branch Revolving Funds, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

35.

GAO's guidelines for initiating studies are contained in U.S. Government Accountability Office, GAO's Congressional Protocols, GAO-04-310G (Washington: GAO, 2004). Posted on the website of the Government Accountability Office at http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/d04310g.pdf.

36.

Offsetting collections include funds derived from reimbursable audits and rental of space in the GAO building.

37.

P.L. 106-554, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-120, December 21, 2000; P.L. 108-7, 117 Stat. 382, February 20, 2003. According to the 2003 act, the additional countries include "any country specified in §3 of the FREEDOM Support Act (22 U.S.C. 5801)," and "Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania." The countries specified in 22 U.S.C. 5801 are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

38.

P.L. 108-447, 118 Stat. 3192, December 8, 2004.

39.

U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2017, report to accompany H.R. 5325, 114th Cong., 2nd sess., May 25, 2016, H.Rept. 114-594 (Washington: GPO, 2016).

40.

Available at https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/budget_amendments/amendment_04_05_16.pdf.

41.

Available at http://appropriations.house.gov/uploadedfiles/hrpt-114-hr-fy2016-legbranch.pdf.

42.

U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, FY2014 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, H.Rept. 113-173, report to accompany H.R. 2792 (Washington: GPO, 2013), p. 20.

43.

U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, FY2013 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, H.Rept. 112-511, report to accompany H.R. 5882 (Washington: GPO, 2012), p. 42.

44.

The rescission equaled 0.032% for security programs, as defined by 250(c)(4)(B) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985.

45.

U.S. Congress, House Appropriations Committee, FY2012 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, report to accompany H.R. 2551, H.Rept. 112-148 (Washington: GPO, 2011), p. 28.

46.

U.S. Congress, Senate Appropriations Committee, FY2012 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, report to accompany H.R. 2551, S.Rept. 112-80 (Washington: GPO, 2011), p. 45.

47.

U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, 2010, H.Rept. 111-160, (Washington: GPO, 2009), p. 29.

48.

U.S. Congress, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2010, H.Rept. 111-265, conference report to accompany H.R. 2918 (Washington: GPO, 2009), p. 42.

49.

Testimony of Ambassador John O'Keefe, executive director, U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2009, hearings, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., March 12, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), pp. 359-420.

50.

Congressional Record, February 23, 2009, p. H2398.

51.

In H.R. 2771 (110th Cong.), the House-passed version of the FY2008 appropriations bill, the House Appropriations Committee recommended $6.0 million for Open World. The committee report stated that an additional $6.0 million would be provided for transfer to the program in the FY2008 State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriation. The House-passed bill, which retained the committee-recommended funding level, also contained an administrative provision transferring the Open World Leadership Center to the Department of State effective October 1, 2008. The Senate-reported bill (S. 1686, 110th Cong.) would have provided $13.5 million in new budget authority for Open World.

52.

P.L. 110-161, 121 Stat. 2251, December 26, 2007.

53.

Available at http://gao.gov/assets/250/241737.pdf.

54.

2 U.S.C. 1105. See also http://www.stennis.gov/.