National Statuary Hall Collection: Background and Legislative Options

The National Statuary Hall Collection, located in the United States Capitol, comprises 100 statues provided by individual states to honor persons notable for their historic renown or for distinguished services. The collection was authorized in 1864, at the same time that Congress redesignated the hall where the House of Representatives formerly met as National Statuary Hall. The first statue, depicting Nathanael Greene, was provided in 1870 by Rhode Island. The collection has consisted of 100 statues—two statues per state—since 2005, when New Mexico sent a statue of Po’pay. At various times, aesthetic and structural concerns necessitated the relocation of some statues throughout the Capitol. Today, some of the 100 individual statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection are located in the House and Senate wings of the Capitol, the Rotunda, the Crypt, and the Capitol Visitor Center.

Legislation to increase the size of the National Statuary Hall Collection was introduced in several Congresses. These measures would permit states to furnish more than two statues or allow the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories to provide statues to the collection. None of these proposals were enacted.

Should Congress choose to expand the number of statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection, the Joint Committee on the Library and the Architect of the Capitol (AOC) may need to address statue location to address aesthetic, structural, and safety concerns in National Statuary Hall, the Capitol Visitor Center, and other areas of the Capitol.

This report provides historical information on the National Statuary Hall Collection and National Statuary Hall. It examines the creation, design, placement, and replacement of statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection. The report then discusses recent legislative proposals to increase the size of the National Statuary Hall Collection. Finally, the report discusses potential issues for congressional consideration.

National Statuary Hall Collection: Background and Legislative Options

October 24, 2016 (R42812)
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Summary

The National Statuary Hall Collection, located in the United States Capitol, comprises 100 statues provided by individual states to honor persons notable for their historic renown or for distinguished services. The collection was authorized in 1864, at the same time that Congress redesignated the hall where the House of Representatives formerly met as National Statuary Hall. The first statue, depicting Nathanael Greene, was provided in 1870 by Rhode Island. The collection has consisted of 100 statues—two statues per state—since 2005, when New Mexico sent a statue of Po'pay. At various times, aesthetic and structural concerns necessitated the relocation of some statues throughout the Capitol. Today, some of the 100 individual statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection are located in the House and Senate wings of the Capitol, the Rotunda, the Crypt, and the Capitol Visitor Center.

Legislation to increase the size of the National Statuary Hall Collection was introduced in several Congresses. These measures would permit states to furnish more than two statues or allow the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories to provide statues to the collection. None of these proposals were enacted.

Should Congress choose to expand the number of statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection, the Joint Committee on the Library and the Architect of the Capitol (AOC) may need to address statue location to address aesthetic, structural, and safety concerns in National Statuary Hall, the Capitol Visitor Center, and other areas of the Capitol.

This report provides historical information on the National Statuary Hall Collection and National Statuary Hall. It examines the creation, design, placement, and replacement of statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection. The report then discusses recent legislative proposals to increase the size of the National Statuary Hall Collection. Finally, the report discusses potential issues for congressional consideration.


National Statuary Hall Collection: Background and Legislative Options

Introduction

The United States Capitol is home to extensive art collections. These collections are considered by Congress as "an integral part of the history of this renowned building."1 Perhaps the most prominent collection is the National Statuary Hall Collection, which contains statues of notable citizens provided by each state. The collection was authorized in 1864, when Congress designated the large, two-story, semicircular former chamber of the House of Representatives—the Old Hall of the House—as National Statuary Hall.2 The first statue in the collection, depicting Nathanael Greene, was provided by Rhode Island in 1870. As the Union grew, the number of statues in the collection increased; by 1933,the hall held 65 statues, some of which stood three deep. Aesthetic and structural concerns necessitated the relocation of some statues throughout the Capitol.3 The collection reached 100 statues in 2005 when New Mexico, which became a state in 1912, added the statue of Po'pay.4 Today, 34 statues are displayed in National Statuary Hall, with the rest in the House5 and Senate wings of the Capitol, the Rotunda, the Crypt, and the Capitol Visitor Center (CVC).6

Collection statues—chosen by the states to honor prominent citizens—are furnished to Congress for display in the Capitol. In the 106th Congress (1999-2000), for the first time, states were allowed to replace a statue previously donated to the National Statuary Hall Collection.7 In past congresses, legislation has been introduced to alter the size of the collection by allowing each state to contribute three statues instead of two or allow the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. territories to provide one statue each.8

This report discusses the creation of the National Statuary Hall Collection and the redesignation of the Old Hall of the House as the National Statuary Hall. It examines the creation, design, placement, and replacement of statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection. The report then discusses recent legislative proposals to increase the size of the National Statuary Hall Collection. Finally, the report discusses potential issues for congressional consideration.

The National Statuary Hall Collection

Pictures of individuals memorialized in the National Statuary Hall Collection and the location of statues are available from the Architect of the Capitol, at http://www.aoc.gov/the-national-statuary-hall-collection?capitol_hill=TRUE. A list of all statues in the collection, by state, can be found in Appendix A.

Establishing the National Statuary Hall Collection

On January 6, 1864, Representative Justin Morrill introduced a resolution, which was agreed to by voice vote, requesting that the House Committee on Public Buildings examine the possibility of using the Old Hall of the House of Representatives to display statues.

Resolved, That the Committee on Public Buildings be requested to examine and report as to the expediency of setting apart the old hall of the House of Representatives as a hall for statuary; and also as to the cost of a new flooring and bronze railing on each side of the passage-way through the hall, preparatory to the reception of such works of arts.9

On April 19, 1864, Representative John Hovey Rice introduced, on behalf of the House Committee on Public Buildings, which he chaired, a joint resolution to create a statuary hall in the Old Hall of the House and to authorize existing appropriations to repair the old House chamber.10 The resolution called for the President to "invite each of the states to provide and furnish statues in marble or bronze, not exceeding two in number each, of men who have been citizens thereof, illustrious in their historical renown or distinguished for their civic or military services, such as each State shall determine are worthy of national remembrance.... "11 The joint resolution passed the House by a vote of 87 to 2012 and was referred in the Senate to the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, where it was reported without amendment and with the recommendation that it "ought not to pass."13 The Senate took no further action on the joint resolution.

Subsequently, in June 1864, during House consideration of a civil appropriations bill, Representative Thaddeus Stevens offered an amendment similar to the joint resolution previously passed by the House.14 The amendment was agreed to in the House,15 but was removed from the bill when it was considered in the Senate.16 The proposed language, however, was restored in conference committee, which stated,

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That a marble floor, similar to that of the Congressional Library or the Senate vestibule, shall be constructed in the old Hall of the House of Representatives, using such marble as may be now on hand and not otherwise required, and that suitable structures and railings shall be therein erected for the reception and protection of statuary, and the same shall be under the supervision and direction of the Commissioner of Public Buildings; and so much of the moneys now or heretofore appropriated for the capitol extension as may be necessary, not exceeding the sum of fifteen thousand dollars, is hereby set apart and shall be disbursed for the porse [purposes] hereinbefore mentioned. And the President is hereby authorized to invite each and all the States to provide and furnish statues, in marble or bronze, not exceeding two in number for each state, of deceased persons who have been citizens thereof, and illustrious for their historic renown or from distinguished civic or military services, such as each state shall determine to be worthy of this national commemoration; and when so furnished the same shall be placed in the old hall of the House of Representatives, in the capitol of the United States, which is hereby set apart, or so much thereof as may be necessary, as a national statuary hall, for the purposes herein indicated.17

Statues in the Collection: Design, Placement, and Replacement

Pursuant to the July 1864 civil appropriations bill, each state may donate up to two statues for inclusion in the National Statuary Hall Collection. Statues donated to the collection are to be made of "... marble or bronze, not exceeding two in number for each State, of deceased persons who have been citizens thereof, and illustrious for their historic renown or for distinguished civic or military service.... "18

In 2005, Congress enacted a requirement that an individual depicted on a statue displayed in National Statuary Hall must be deceased for at least 10 years. Exceptions to the restrictions were provided for the two statues allowed per state pursuant to the July 1864 law, including any potential replacement statues, as well as a statue of Rosa Parks from the U.S. Capitol Art Collection that was placed in National Statuary Hall in 2013. 19

Statue Design and Placement Guidelines

Statues donated to the collection must be formally accepted by the Joint Committee on the Library. To assist states, the AOC has published guidelines, which are subject to modification by the Joint Committee, for creating statues for the collection. The guidelines address numerous aspects of statuary design, including subject,20 material, pedestal, inscriptions, size and weight, patina and coating, and other considerations.21

Additionally, the Architect of the Capitol (AOC), upon the approval of the Joint Committee on the Library, with the advice of the Commission of Fine Arts as requested,22 is authorized and directed to locate or relocate collection statues within the Capitol.23 The AOC, under the guidance of the Joint Committee, established a nine-step process for the acceptance of a new or replacement statute. This process is part of the statue design and placement guidelines.

Statue Design and Placement Guidelines

Specific requirements and guidelines for statue design and placement are available from the Architect of the Capitol, at http://www.aoc.gov/sites/default/files/statue_replacement_guidelines_3.pdf.

Replacement of Statues

Since 2000, states have been allowed to replace statues donated to the collection. Regulations for the replacement of statues were established by the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2001.24 To replace a statue, a state must

  • request—through the approval of a resolution adopted by the state legislature and signed by the governor—in writing, approval from the Joint Committee; and
  • ensure that the statue to be replaced has been displayed in the collection for at least 10 years.25

Upon the Joint Committee's approval of the replacement request, the AOC is authorized to enter into an agreement with the state, subject to any conditions imposed by the Joint Committee. Once accepted, the state is responsible for paying all related costs, including the design, construction, transportation, and placement of the new statue, the removal and transportation of the statue being replaced (back to the state or other location determined by the state legislature), and any unveiling ceremony.26

Since the authorization of replacements within the collection in 2000, Alabama, California, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, and Ohio have sent a replacement statue. A list of statues replaced in the collection can be found in Appendix B.

Proposals to Expand the Collection

Legislation to increase the size of the collection might fall into two categories. The first would increase the number of statues that states are permitted to donate, from a maximum of two per state to three per state. The second would permit the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories to contribute one or more statues to the collection.

Expansion of Permitted Statues Per State

Since the redesignation of the Old Hall of the House as National Statuary Hall in 1864, each state has been allowed to place two statues in the collection. Supporters of providing a third statue per state argue that additional statues could provide an opportunity to increase the diversity of the collection, which currently includes 16 statues of women or minorities.27

A proposal to add a third statue per state was first introduced in the 103rd Congress (1993-1994) by Representative Douglas (Pete) Peterson. The bill (H.R. 3368) would have provided a third statue to each state and restricted the ability of states to furnish an additional statue or replace an existing statue for "100 years after the date on which it furnishes its third statue.... "28 H.R. 3368 was referred to the Committee on House Administration but did not receive further action.

Most recently, legislation was introduced in the 112th Congress (2011-2012) by Representative Stephen Cohen (H.R. 1289, the Share America's Diverse History in the Capitol Act) to expand the National Statuary Hall Collection from two statues per state to three. H.R. 1289 was referred to the Committee on House Administration on March 31, 2011, and did not receive further action.

If Congress were to authorize an additional statue per state, states would have the ability, but not be required, to add statues to the collection. Increasing the collection by up to 50 statues may take some time, as states debate who might be honored, raise funds, and commission artists to create new statues.

Should the National Statuary Hall Collection expand to more than 100 statues, space for the additional statues in the Capitol complex could become an issue. Currently, collection statues are located in the Rotunda, the Crypt, the House wing of the Capitol in National Statuary Hall, the Hall of Columns, and adjacent to the House chamber, the Senate wing of the Capitol, and the CVC. When the CVC opened in 2008, collection statues were moved to Emancipation Hall and other CVC locations to reduce the number of statues in National Statuary Hall and other Capitol locations. The addition of 50 or more statues might require the AOC to place statues closer together in those locations. If more statues are placed in National Statuary Hall itself, some display and structural concerns that have arisen in the past may be revisited.

Statues for the District of Columbia and U.S. Territories

Measures to authorize the District of Columbia and the territories to provide statues for the National Statuary Hall Collection have been introduced since at least the 93rd Congress (1973-1974). In both the 93rd and 94th (1975-1976) Congresses, Senator Hubert Humphrey introduced legislation to "provide authority for the District of Columbia to place two statues in Statuary Hall of the Capitol."29 Both bills were referred to the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration and neither received further action.30

In the 111th Congress (2009-2010), for the first time, legislation to allow statues from the District of Columbia and the territories passed the House. These bills were H.R. 5493, introduced by Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton to provide for statues from the District of Columbia; and H.R. 5711, introduced by Delegate Faleomavaega to provide statues for the U.S. territories. In July 2010, the Committee on House Administration held a markup on both bills. After an amendment to merge the bills was offered by Representative Dan Lungren, then-ranking Member of the panel, was defeated, the committee reported both bills.31

Between the reporting of H.R. 5493 and H.R. 5711 by the Committee on House Administration and the consideration of these bills in the House, Representative Robert Brady, then-chair of the panel, helped negotiate a merger of the bills. Subsequently, H.R. 5493 was debated in the House with an amendment that would permit the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories to place statues in the collection. The bill passed the House, as amended, under suspension of the rules.32 In the Senate, the bill was referred to the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, and no further action was taken.

In the 112th Congress (2011-2012), Representative Dan Lungren, then-chair of the Committee on House Administration, reintroduced a bill that is nearly identical in language to H.R. 5493 in the 111th Congress. His bill, H.R. 3106, would permit the District of Columbia and the territories to place statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection.33 Upon introduction, H.R. 3106 was referred to the Committee on House Administration. No further action was taken.

While not part of the National Statuary Hall collection, in the 112th Congress, the placement of a statue of Frederick Douglass, was donated by the District of Columbia government and accepted by Congress for placement in Emancipation Hall of the Capital Visitor Center.34 The statue was officially unveiled on June 19, 2013.35

Issues for Congress

Over the past four decades, Congress has considered several proposals to increase the number of statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection. One group of legislative proposals involves adding additional statues for each state; another would expand the collection by allowing the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories to provide statues to the collection. If either or both options were adopted, proponents argue that states could donate statues that better represent various aspects of the state's history.

Increasing the number of statues in the collection, however, could result in further space issues for statue display in the Capitol. When the CVC opened, the Architect, under the direction of the Joint Committee on the Library, reduced the number of collection statues on display in National Statuary Hall as well as in the House and Senate wings of the Capitol by moving them to Emancipation Hall and other locations within the CVC. Adding additional statues to the collection might necessitate relocating existing statues.

Any changes to the collection would likely be weighed against the potential costs to states, or if approved, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories, who might provide new statues. In the case of expanding the number of statues that might be added to the collection, a further concern is whether the larger collection could be displayed in the Capitol in an appropriate manner. Other considerations include structural, traffic management, and life safety constraints of the physical environment.

Appendix A. National Statuary Hall Collection Statues

Since 2005, when New Mexico provided its second statue—Po'Pay—the National Statuary Hall Collection has contained 100 statues. Table A-1 provides a list of statues currently in the collection, by state, with the name of the statue and the year it was placed in the collection.

Table A-1. National Statuary Hall Collection Statues

State

Statue

Year Placed

Alabama

Helen Keller

2009

Alabama

Joseph Wheeler

1925

Alaska

Ernest Gruening

1977

Alaska

Edward Lewis Bartlett

1971

Arizona

Eusebio Kino

1965

Arizona

Barry Goldwater

2015

Arkansas

James Paul Clarke

1921

Arkansas

Uriah Milton Rose

1917

California

Father Junipero Serra

1931

California

Ronald Wilson Reagan

2009

Colorado

John L. Swigert

1997

Colorado

Florence R. Sabin

1959

Connecticut

Roger Sherman

1872

Connecticut

Jonathan Trumbull

1872

Delaware

Caesar Rodney

1934

Delaware

John Middleton Clayton

1934

Florida

Edmund Kirby Smith

1922

Florida

John Gorrie

1914

Georgia

Crawford W. Long

1926

Georgia

Alexander Hamilton Stephens

1927

Hawaii

Kamehameha I

1969

Hawaii

Father Damien

1969

Idaho

William Edgar Borah

1947

Idaho

George Laird Shoup

1910

Illinois

James Shields

1893

Illinois

Frances E. Willard

1905

Indiana

Lewis Wallace

1910

Indiana

Oliver Hazard Perry Morton

1900

Iowa

Dr. Norman E. Borlaug

2014

Iowa

Samuel Jordan Kirkwood

1913

Kansas

John James Ingalls

1905

Kansas

Dwight D. Eisenhower

2003

Kentucky

Ephraim McDowell

1929

Kentucky

Henry Clay

1929

Louisiana

Edward Douglass White

1955

Louisiana

Huey Pierce Long

1941

Maine

William King

1878

Maine

Hannibal Hamlin

1935

Maryland

Charles Carroll

1903

Maryland

John Hanson

1903

Massachusetts

Samuel Adams

1876

Massachusetts

John Winthrop

1876

Michigan

Lewis Cass

1889

Michigan

Gerald R. Ford, Jr.

2011

Minnesota

Maria L. Sanford

1958

Minnesota

Henry Mower Rice

1916

Mississippi

James Zachariah George

1931

Mississippi

Jefferson Davis

1931

Missouri

Francis Preston Blair, Jr.

1899

Missouri

Thomas Hart Benton

1899

Montana

Jeanette Rankin

1985

Montana

Charles Marion Russell

1959

Nebraska

Julius Sterling Morton

1937

Nebraska

William Jennings Bryan

1937

Nevada

Sarah Winnemucca

2005

Nevada

Patrick Anthony McCarran

1960

New Hampshire

John Stark

1894

New Hampshire

Daniel Webster

1894

New Jersey

Richard Stockton

1888

New Jersey

Philip Kearny

1888

New Mexico

Po'pay

2005

New Mexico

Dennis Chavez

1966

New York

Robert R. Livingston

1875

New York

George Clinton

1873

North Carolina

Charles Brantley Aycock

1932

North Carolina

Zebulon Baird Vance

1916

North Dakota

Sakakawea

2003

North Dakota

John Burke

1963

Ohio

Thomas Edison

2016

Ohio

James A. Garfield

1886

Oklahoma

Will Rogers

1939

Oklahoma

Sequoyah

1917

Oregon

John McLoughlin

1953

Oregon

Jason Lee

1953

Pennsylvania

John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg

1889

Pennsylvania

Robert Fulton

1889

Rhode Island

Nathanael Greene

1870

Rhode Island

Roger Williams

1872

South Carolina

John Caldwell Calhoun

1910

South Carolina

Wade Hampton

1929

South Dakota

Joseph Ward

1963

South Dakota

William Henry Harrison Beadle

1938

Tennessee

John Sevier

1931

Tennessee

Andrew Jackson

1928

Texas

Stephen Austin

1905

Texas

Sam Houston

1905

Utah

Philo T. Farnsworth

1990

Utah

Brigham Young

1950

Vermont

Ethan Allen

1876

Vermont

Jacob Collamer

1881

Virginia

Robert E. Lee

1934

Virginia

George Washington

1934

Washington

Mother Joseph

1980

Washington

Marcus Whitman

1953

West Virginia

John E. Kenna

1901

West Virginia

Francis Harrison Pierpont

1910

Wisconsin

Jacques Marquette

1896

Wisconsin

Robert M. La Follette

1929

Wyoming

Washakie

2000

Wyoming

Esther Hobart Morris

1960

Source: CRS compilation from Architect of the Capitol National Statuary Hall Collection website, at http://www.aoc.gov/the-national-statuary-hall-collection?capitol_hill=TRUE.

Appendix B. Statues Replaced in the National Statuary Hall Collection

Since 2000, states have been allowed to replace statues donated to the collection. Regulations for the replacement of statues were established by the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2001.36 Table B-1 provides a list of states that have replaced statues, the year of the replacement, the original statue, and the replacement statue.

Table B-1. Replaced States in the National Statuary Hall Collection

State

Year

Original Statue

Replacement Statue

Kansas

2003

George W. Glick

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Alabama

2009

Lamar Monroe Curry

Helen Keller

California

2009

Thomas Starr King

Ronald Wilson Reagan

Michigan

2011

Zachariah Chandler

Gerald R. Ford, Jr.

Iowa

2014

James Harlan

Dr. Norman E. Borlaug

Arizona

2015

John Campbell Greenway

Barry Goldwater

Ohio

2016

William Allen

Thomas Edison

Source: CRS Compilation from Architect of the Capitol National Statuary Hall Collection Website, at http://www.aoc.gov/the-national-statuary-hall-collection.

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Specialist on the Congress ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])
[author name scrubbed], Specialist in American National Government ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Footnotes

1.

U.S. Congress, House Joint Committee on the Library, Art in the United States Capitol, prepared by the Architect of the Capitol, 91st Cong., 2nd sess., H.Doc. 91-368 (Washington: GPO, 1976), p. ix.

2.

The House generally met in the Old Hall from 1807 until the completion in 1857 of the present House wing of the Capitol.

3.

"Statuary Hall," House Debate, Congressional Record, vol. 76, part 4 (February 20, 1933), pp. 4533-4534; and "Statuary Hall," Congressional Record, vol. 76, part 4 (February 20, 1933), pp. 4533-4534. Also, see "Statuary Hall Creaks 'Neath the Weight of Fame," The Christian Science Monitor, January 25, 1933, p. 1.

4.

U.S. Congress, Architect of the Capitol, "Po'pay," Capitol Campus Art, at http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/popay.cfm.

5.

National Statuary Hall Collection statues are also displayed in the Hall of Columns on the first floor, and adjacent to the current House chamber.

6.

The location of statues in the collection is available from the Architect of the Capitol, at http://www.aoc.gov/the-national-statuary-hall-collection?capitol_hill=TRUE.

7.

P.L. 106-554, §1(a)(2), 114 Stat. 2763A-119, December 21, 2000.

8.

Current statutory requirements for statues placed in National Statuary Hall can be found in Title 2 United States Code 2131, 2131a, and 2132.

9.

U.S. Congress, Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 83rd Cong. 1st sess., January 6, 1864 (Washington: GPO, 1863), p. 108.

10.

Rep. John Rice et al., "The Old House Hall," House debate, Congressional Globe, vol. 34, part 2 (April 19, 1864), pp. 1736-1737.

11.

Ibid., p. 1736.

12.

Ibid., p. 1737.

13.

U.S. Congress, Journal of the Senate of the United States of America, 83rd Cong. 1st sess., April 25, 1864 (Washington: GPO, 1863), p. 366.

14.

Rep. Thaddeus Stevens, "Civil Appropriations Bill," House debate, Congressional Globe, vol. 34, part 4 (June 20, 1864), pp. 3106-3107.

15.

U.S. Congress, Joint Committee on the Library, Legislation Creating the National Statuary Hall in the Capitol, 64th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1916), p. 12.

16.

"Civil Appropriations Bill," Senate debate, Congressional Globe, vol. 34, part 4 (June 24, 1864), p. 3225.

17.

13 Stat. 347, July 2, 1864. Authority over the Capitol Building and Grounds was transferred to the Architect of the Capitol in 1876 (19 Stat. 147, August 15, 1876). For more information on the creation of National Statuary Hall, see U.S. Congress, Joint Committee on the Library, Legislation Creating the National Statuary Hall in the Capitol: With the Proceedings in Congress Relating to the Statues Placed in the National Statuary Hall by the States, prepared by H.A. Vale, 64th cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1916), pp. 5-17.

18.

2 U.S.C. §2131.

19.

2 U.S.C. §2131a (a); P.L. 109-116, 119 Stat. 2524, December 1, 2008. P.L. 109-116 also provided for the Joint Committee on the Library to "enter into an agreement to obtain a statue of Rosa Parks, under such terms and conditions as the Joint Committee considers appropriate consistent with applicable law" for permanent placement in National Statuary Hall. The statue of Mrs Parks, a part of the U.S. Capitol Art Collection, was unveiled on February 27, 2013. See "Rosa Parks," https://www.aoc.gov/art/other-statues/rosa-parks.

20.

2 U.S.C. §2131. Also, see Architect of the Capitol, Procedure for Admission of Statues to Statuary Hall, p. 1. A copy of this document is available from the authors.

21.

Other considerations include requirements that statues and pedestals not be safety hazards and should not include sharp or protruding elements.

22.

The Commission of Fine Arts was created by Congress in 1910. The commission advises Congress, the President, and heads of department and agencies on the location of statues, fountains, and monuments in public spaces in the District of Columbia; selection of models and artists for statues, fountains, and monuments erected under the authority of the federal government; and responds to questions of art, when required. A 2002 revision of the law states that the commission's responsibilities do "not apply to the Capitol Building and the Library of Congress buildings," suggesting it no longer has a role in decisions regarding the location of the collection within the Capitol. See 40 U.S.C. §9102.

23.

H.Con. Res. 47 (72nd Congress), agreed to February 24, 1933. Statutory authority was enacted in 2000, 2 U.S.C. §2132 (e).

24.

This section is based on P.L. 106-554, 114 Stat. 2763A-119, December 21, 2000, codified at 22 U.S.C. §2132, and other sources as noted.

25.

The Joint Committee on the Library may waive the 10-year requirement for cause at the request of the state, 2 U.S.C. §2132.

26.

For example, please see the state of Iowa's account of the replacement of a statue of James Harlan with a statue of Dr. Norman E. Borlaug in 2014, at http://iowaborlaugstatue.org/.

27.

Rep. Stephen Cohen, "Support More Diversity in the United States Capitol," remarks in the House, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 157, (March 30, 2011), p. H2049.

28.

H.R. 3368 (103rd Congress), introduced October 26, 1993.

29.

S. 566 (94th Congress), introduced February 5, 1975. See also S. 3678 (93rd Congress), introduced June 20, 1974. "Introduction of Bill and Joint Resolutions," Congressional Record, vol. 121, part 2 (February 5, 1975), p. 2447.

30.

Similar legislation to authorize the District of Columbia and territories to provide statues to the collection were introduced in the 99th Congress (H.R. 3778) and the 109th Congress (H.R. 4070). H.R. 4070 would have provided that the District of Columbia and each territory with one statue in the collection.

31.

U.S. Congress, Committee on House Administration, Markup of H.R. 5493, H.R. 5711, H.R. 5681, H.R. 5682, H.R. 5717, and Two Committee Resolutions, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., July 14, 2010 (Washington: GPO, 2010), pp. 31-48; U.S. Congress, Committee on House Administration, To Provide for the Furnishing of Statues by the District of Columbia for Display in Statuary Hall in the United States Capitol, report to accompany H.R. 5493, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., July 22, 2010, H.Rept. 111-561 (Washington: GPO, 2010); and U.S. Congress, Committee on House Administration, Providing for the Furnishing of Statues by the Territories of the United States for Display in Statuary Hall in the United States Capitol, report to accompany H.R. 5711, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., July 30, 2010, H.Rept. 111-583 (Washington: GPO, 2010).

32.

"Authorizing Statues in Capitol for District of Columbia and Territories," Congressional Record, daily edition, House debate, vol. 156 (December 15, 2010), pp. H8492-H8495.

33.

"Public Bills and Resolutions," Congressional Record, vol. 157, daily edition (October 5, 2011), p. H6624. In addition to legislation introduce to authorize the District of Columbia to donate a statue to the collection, P.L. 112-174 authorized " ... the Joint Committee on the Library to accept from the District of Columbia the donation of a statue depicting Frederick Douglass.... " Pursuant to the law, the statue will not be part of the National Statuary Hall Collection. For more information on P.L. 112-174 (126 Stat. 1311, September 20, 2012), see "Accepting and Depicting Frederick Douglass Statue," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 158 (September 12, 2012), pp. S6284-S6285; and "Acceptance of Statue of Frederick Douglass for Placement in Emancipation Hall," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 158 (September 10, 2012), pp. H5745-H5746.

34.

P.L. 112-174, 126 Stat. 1311, September 20, 2012.

35.

S.Con.Res. 16 (113th Congress), May 21, 2013.

36.

This section is based on P.L. 106-554, 114 Stat. 2763A-119, December 21, 2000, codified at 22 U.S.C. §2132, and other sources as noted.