Small Business Administration (SBA) Funding: Overview and Recent Trends

This report examines the Small Business Administration’s (SBA’s) appropriations (new budget authority, minus rescissions and sequestration) over time, focusing on developments and trends since FY2000. It also provides total available funding (which includes carryover from the prior fiscal year, carryover into the next fiscal year, account transfers, rescissions, and sequestration) and, for entrepreneurial development noncredit programs, actual and anticipated expenditures for comparative purposes.

SBA appropriations, as a whole, have varied significantly from year to year since FY2000 and across all three of the agency’s major spending categories: disaster assistance, business loan credit subsidies, and “other programs,” a category that includes salaries and expenses, business loan administration, the Office of Inspector General, the Office of Advocacy, and entrepreneurial development programs. Overall, the SBA’s appropriations have ranged from a high of $2.359 billion in FY2018 to a low of $571.8 million in FY2007. Much of this volatility is due to significant variation in appropriations for disaster assistance, which ranged from a high of $1.7 billion in FY2006 to a low of $0 in FY2009. This variation can be attributed primarily to supplemental appropriations provided to address disaster needs arising from the impact of major hurricanes, such as Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, and more recently, Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria.

The SBA’s appropriations for business loan credit subsidies have also varied since FY2000, ranging from a high of $319.7 million in FY2013 ($337.3 million before sequestration and rescission) to a low of $1.3 million in FY2006 and FY2007. This variation is due to the impact of changing economic conditions on the SBA’s guaranteed loan portfolios. During good economic times, revenue from SBA fees and collateral liquidation is typically sufficient to cover the costs of purchasing guaranteed loans that have defaulted. During and immediately following recessions, however, that revenue is typically insufficient to cover the costs of purchasing guaranteed loans that have defaulted.

The SBA’s appropriations for other programs, as a collective, have also varied since FY2000, ranging from a high of $1.6253 billion in FY2010 to a low of $455.6 million in FY2007. This variation is primarily due to congressional response to changing economic conditions. For example, Congress approved significant, temporary increases in appropriations for the SBA’s other programs spending category in FY2009 and FY2010. Overall, since FY2000, appropriations for other programs have increased at a pace that exceeds inflation. This report provides appropriations for all five major components of the other programs spending category, including the SBA’s entrepreneurial development programs.

The SBA’s appropriations for FY1954 through FY1999 are provided in the Appendix.

Small Business Administration (SBA) Funding: Overview and Recent Trends

Updated March 30, 2018 (R43846)
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Contents

Tables

Summary

This report examines the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) appropriations (new budget authority, minus rescissions and sequestration) over time, focusing on developments and trends since FY2000. It also provides total available funding (which includes carryover from the prior fiscal year, carryover into the next fiscal year, account transfers, rescissions, and sequestration) and, for entrepreneurial development noncredit programs, actual and anticipated expenditures for comparative purposes.

SBA appropriations, as a whole, have varied significantly from year to year since FY2000 and across all three of the agency's major spending categories: disaster assistance, business loan credit subsidies, and "other programs," a category that includes salaries and expenses, business loan administration, the Office of Inspector General, the Office of Advocacy, and entrepreneurial development programs. Overall, the SBA's appropriations have ranged from a high of $2.359 billion in FY2018 to a low of $571.8 million in FY2007. Much of this volatility is due to significant variation in appropriations for disaster assistance, which ranged from a high of $1.7 billion in FY2006 to a low of $0 in FY2009. This variation can be attributed primarily to supplemental appropriations provided to address disaster needs arising from the impact of major hurricanes, such as Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, and more recently, Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria.

The SBA's appropriations for business loan credit subsidies have also varied since FY2000, ranging from a high of $319.7 million in FY2013 ($337.3 million before sequestration and rescission) to a low of $1.3 million in FY2006 and FY2007. This variation is due to the impact of changing economic conditions on the SBA's guaranteed loan portfolios. During good economic times, revenue from SBA fees and collateral liquidation is typically sufficient to cover the costs of purchasing guaranteed loans that have defaulted. During and immediately following recessions, however, that revenue is typically insufficient to cover the costs of purchasing guaranteed loans that have defaulted.

The SBA's appropriations for other programs, as a collective, have also varied since FY2000, ranging from a high of $1.6253 billion in FY2010 to a low of $455.6 million in FY2007. This variation is primarily due to congressional response to changing economic conditions. For example, Congress approved significant, temporary increases in appropriations for the SBA's other programs spending category in FY2009 and FY2010. Overall, since FY2000, appropriations for other programs have increased at a pace that exceeds inflation. This report provides appropriations for all five major components of the other programs spending category, including the SBA's entrepreneurial development programs.

The SBA's appropriations for FY1954 through FY1999 are provided in the Appendix.


Introduction

The Small Business Administration (SBA) currently administers several types of programs to support small businesses, including loan guaranty and venture capital programs to enhance small businesses' access to capital; contracting programs to increase small businesses' opportunities in federal contracting; direct loan programs for businesses, homeowners, and renters to aid in their recovery from natural disasters; and small business management and technical assistance training programs to assist in business formation and expansion. Congressional interest in these programs has increased in recent years, primarily because small businesses are viewed as a means to stimulate economic activity and create jobs. Many Members of Congress also regularly receive constituent inquiries about the SBA's programs.

This report examines appropriations for the SBA (new budget authority, minus rescissions and sequestration) over time, focusing on developments and trends since FY2000.

This report also provides total available funding (which includes carryover from the prior fiscal year, carryover into the next fiscal year, account transfers, rescissions, and sequestration) and, for comparative purposes, actual and anticipated expenditures for the SBA's entrepreneurial development noncredit programs.

SBA appropriations, as a whole, have varied significantly from year to year since FY2000 and across all three major SBA spending categories: appropriations for disaster assistance, business loan credit subsidies, and "other programs," a spending category that includes appropriations for salaries and expenses, business loan administration, the Office of Inspector General, the Office of Advocacy, and entrepreneurial development noncredit programs.

The variation in appropriations for disaster assistance since FY2000 is largely due to supplemental appropriations provided to address disaster needs arising from the impact of major hurricanes.

Business loan credit subsidies represent the net present value of cash flows to and from the SBA over the life of the agency's loan portfolios.1 For guaranteed loans, the net present value of cash flows is affected by several factors, but it is primarily the difference between the cost of purchasing loans that have defaulted and the revenue generated from fees and collateral liquidation. For direct (Microloan) lending, it is primarily the cost of offering below-market interest rates to Microloan intermediaries.2

The variation in appropriations for SBA business loan credit subsidies since FY2000 is primarily due to the impact of changing economic conditions on the SBA's guaranteed loan portfolios. During good economic times, revenue from SBA fees and collateral liquidation is typically sufficient to cover the SBA's cost of purchasing guaranteed loans that have defaulted. During and immediately following economic slowdowns, however, revenue from SBA fees and collateral liquidation is typically insufficient to cover the SBA's cost of purchasing guaranteed loans that have defaulted. The shortfall occurs because the SBA's cost of purchasing guaranteed loans tends to increase when the economy slows (primarily because guaranteed loans are more likely to default during and immediately following recessions) and revenue from loan liquidation tends to be constrained during slow economic times (primarily because commercial real estate values typically fall during and immediately following recessions). As a result, additional appropriations are needed to cover these expenses, which are guaranteed by the "full faith and credit of the United States."

Since FY2000, the variation in appropriations for the other programs spending category is attributable primarily to congressional response to changing economic conditions. As the report will discuss, appropriations for this spending category have generally increased at a pace that exceeds inflation.3 In addition, Congress approved significant, temporary increases in appropriations for SBA programs in the other programs spending category in FY2009 and FY2010. It approved these temporary increases primarily as a means to enhance small businesses' access to capital, which had become constrained during and immediately following the Great Recession (December 2007 to June 2009).4

The SBA's appropriations for FY1954 through FY1999 are provided in the Appendix.

SBA Funding Trends: FY2000-FY2019

As shown in Table 1, the SBA's appropriations have varied significantly since FY2000, ranging from a high of $2.359 billion in FY2018 to a low of $571.8 million in FY2007.5 Much of this volatility is due to significant variation in appropriations for disaster assistance, which ranged from a high of $1.7 billion in FY2006 to a low of $0 in FY2009. This variation is attributable primarily to supplemental appropriations provided to address disaster needs arising from the impact of major hurricanes, such as Hurricanes Katrina, Sandy, Harvey, Irma, and Maria.

In addition, as shown in Table 1, appropriations for business loan credit subsidies have varied significantly since FY2000, ranging from a high of $319.7 million in FY2013 ($337.3 million before sequestration and rescission) to a low of $1.3 million in FY2006 and FY2007. As mentioned previously, the variation in appropriations for business loan credit subsidies results primarily from the impact of changing economic conditions on the SBA's loan portfolios. During good economic times, revenue from fees and collateral liquidation is typically sufficient to cover the costs of purchasing defaulted loans. During and immediately following recessions, revenue from fees and collateral liquidation is typically not sufficient to cover those costs.

Table 1. Small Business Administration, FY2000-FY2019

(appropriations and available funds; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Disaster Assistance

Disaster Assistance Supplemental

Business Loan Credit Subsidies

Other Programs

Appropriation

Total Available Funds

2019 (request)

$186.5

$0.0

$4.0

$643.6

$834.1

NA

2018

$0.0

$1,659.0

$3.4

$697.4

$2,359.8

2017

$186.0

$450.0

$4.3

$696.5

$1,336.8

2016

$186.9

$0.0

$3.3

$680.8

$871.0

$1,058.1

2015

$186.9

$0.0

$47.5

$653.2

$887.6

$921.2

2014

$191.9

$0.0

$111.6

$625.4

$928.9

$951.2

2013

$111.2

$740.0

$319.7

$583.6

$1,375.0

2012

$117.3

$0.0

$210.8

$590.7

$918.8

$1,039.3

2011

$45.4

$0.0

$82.8

$601.5

$729.7c

$1,002.9

2010

$78.2

$0.0

$83.0

$1,625.3d

$1,786.5

$966.7

2009

$0.0e

$0.0

$8.5f

$1,336.7g

$1,345.2

$980.8

2008

$0.0

$1,052.8

$2.0

$579.9

$1,634.7

$928.2

2007

$114.9

$0.0

$1.3

$455.6

$571.8h

$1,053.6

2006

$0.0

$1,700.0

$1.3

$532.1

$2,233.4i

$2,308.0

2005

$111.8

$929.0

$1.4

$498.0

$1,540.2j

$907.7

2004

$198.9

$0.0

$80.2

$507.1

$786.2k

$808.6

2003

$190.3

$0.0

$88.5

$507.5

$786.3l

$893.6

2002

$209.7

$75.0

$154.9

$478.4

$918.0m

$973.5

2001

$184.1

$100.0

$165.0

$550.4

$999.5n

$947.6

2000

$276.4

$40.9

$137.8

$459.5

$914.6o

$906.0

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; P.L. 106-113, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2000; P.L. 106-554, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2001; P.L. 107-206, the 2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery From and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States; P.L. 108-7, the Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003; P.L. 108-199, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2004; P.L. 108-447, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005; P.L. 109-108, the Science, State, Justice, Commerce, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2006; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; P.L. 110-5, the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007; P.L. 110-161, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008; P.L. 110-252, the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2008; P.L. 110-329, the Consolidated Security, Disaster Assistance, and Continuing Appropriations Act, 2009; P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; P.L. 111-118, the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 111-144, the Temporary Extension Act of 2010; P.L. 111-157, the Continuing Extension Act of 2010; P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs and Credit Act of 2010; P.L. 111-150, to permit the use of previously appropriated funds to extend the Small Business Loan Guarantee Program; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012; P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-2, the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; P.L. 113-235, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015; P.L. 114-113, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016; P.L. 115-31, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017; P.L. 115-56, the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2018 and Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster Relief Requirements Act, 2017; P.L. 115-123, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018; and P.L. 115-141, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018.

a. This figure takes into account the rescission of $55 million in unobligated balances available for the 504/CDC loan guaranty program (see P.L. 115-31, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017).

b. Implementation of P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission in FY2013. The SBA's FY2013 appropriation was reduced by $92.681 million under sequestration and $2.091 million by the rescission. Prior to these reductions, the SBA's FY2013 appropriation was $897.3 million for disaster assistance, $337.3 million for loan credit subsidies, $615.7 million for other programs, and $1,850.3 million in total.

c. The SBA's FY2011 appropriation of $731.201 million ($45.5 million for SBA disaster assistance, $83.0 million for business loan subsidies, and $602.7 million for other SBA programs) was reduced to $729.738 million by a 0.2% across-the-board rescission imposed on most appropriations accounts by P.L. 112-10.

d. The initial appropriation for other programs in FY2010 was $662.8 million. An additional $962.5 million was provided: $775.0 million in temporary funding for 7(a) and 504/Certified Development Company (CDC) loan guaranty program fee subsidies and loan modifications and $187.5 million for other SBA programs. P.L. 111-118 provided $125 million; P.L. 111-144 provided $60 million; P.L. 111-157, the Continuing Extension Act of 2010, provided $80 million; and P.L. 111-240 provided $510 million to provide temporary fee subsidies for the SBA's 7(a) and 504/CDC loan guaranty programs and to temporarily increase the 7(a) program's maximum loan guaranty percentage from up to 85% of loans of $150,000 or less and up to 75% of loans exceeding $150,000 to 90% for all 7(a) loans. P.L. 111-240 extended the subsidies and 90% loan guaranty through December 31, 2010, and provided $187.5 million for other SBA programs that remained available through FY2011. Also, P.L. 111-150 authorized the SBA to use $40 million in previously appropriated funds for fee subsidies and the 7(a) loan modification.

e. SBA disaster assistance funding in FY2009 was carried over from the previous fiscal year.

f. The initial appropriation for business loan credit subsidies in FY2009 was $2.5 million for direct (Microloan) lending. P.L. 111-5 provided another $6 million for credit subsidies for the Microloan program to remain available through September 30, 2010.

g. The initial appropriation for other programs in FY2009 was $612.7 million. P.L. 111-5 provided $6 million for Microloan credit subsidies and $724 million for other SBA programs, including $375 million for loan fee subsidies and loan modifications for the 7(a) and 504/CDC programs and $255 million for a new, temporary small business stabilization program, later named the America's Recovery Capital (ARC) Loan program.

h. Includes reductions by P.L. 109-108 and P.L. 110-5, which rescinded $13.5 million of unobligated balances from the SBA ($6.192 million from unobligated disaster assistance administrative expenses, $5.031 million from unobligated balances in the (7a) general business loan guaranty program, and $2.323 million from unobligated balances in the direct loans program).

i. Includes reductions by P.L. 109-148, which imposed a rescission of 1.0% on federal agencies, resulting in a $6.992 million reduction from the SBA ($0.017 million from business loan subsidies, $5.160 million from salaries and expenses, $1.600 from business loan administration, $0.178 million from the Office of Inspector General [OIG], and $0.037 million from the surety bond program).

j. Includes reductions by P.L. 108-447, which imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $8.277 million reduction from the SBA ($1.395 million from disaster assistance, $0.019 million from business loan subsidies, $4.951 million from salaries and expenses, $1.692 from business loan administration, $0.181 million from the OIG, and $0.039 million from the surety bond program).

k. Includes reductions by P.L. 108-199, which imposed a rescission of 0.59% on federal agencies, resulting in a $8.042 million reduction from the SBA ($1.700 million from disaster assistance, $0.853 million from business loan subsidies, $4.001 million from salaries and expenses, $1.347 from business loan administration, and $0.141 million from the OIG).

l. Includes reductions by P.L. 108-7, which imposed a rescission of 0.65% on federal agencies, resulting in a $5.144 million reduction from the SBA ($1.244 million from disaster assistance, $0.579 million from business loan subsidies, $2.401 million from salaries and expenses, $0.839 from business loan administration, and $0.081 million from the OIG).

m. Includes reductions by P.L. 107-206, which imposed a rescission on federal agencies' administrative and travel accounts, resulting in a $0.485 million reduction from the SBA ($0.164 million from disaster assistance, $0.315 million from salaries and expenses, and $0.006 million from the OIG).

n. Includes reductions by P.L. 106-554, which imposed a rescission of 0.22% on federal agencies, resulting in a $1.983 million reduction from the SBA ($0.406 million from disaster assistance, $0.364 million from business loan subsidies, $0.903 million from salaries and expenses, $0.284 million from business loan administration, and $0.026 million from the OIG).

o. Includes reductions by P.L. 106-113, which imposed a rescission of 0.38% on federal agencies, resulting in a $3.280 million reduction from the SBA ($3.185 million from salaries and expenses and $0.095 million from the OIG).

As shown in Table 1, appropriations for the all other programs category have also varied since FY2000, ranging from a high of $1.6253 billion in FY2010 to a low of $455.6 million in FY2007. Much of this variation resulted from significant, temporary increases in appropriations for the SBA's other programs in FY2009 ($724.0 million) and FY2010 ($962.5 million). These additional appropriations were approved primarily as a means to enhance small businesses' access to capital, which had become constrained during and immediately following the Great Recession.6 As mentioned previously, from FY2000 to FY2018, appropriations for the SBA's other programs spending category, as a whole, have exceeded the rate of inflation.

For comparative purposes, Table 1 also presents the SBA's total available funds. As indicated in the table, the SBA's carryovers and account transfers tend to reduce variation in its budget from one fiscal year to the next. Much of this "evening out" process is due to disaster assistance appropriations, which are provided in one fiscal year and then typically spent over several fiscal years.

SBA Funding Within the Other Programs Category

The following section examines appropriations and total available funding for FY2000-FY2019 for the five main components of the SBA's other programs spending category: (1) salaries and expenses, (2) business loan administration, (3) the Office of Inspector General (OIG), (4) the Office of Advocacy (Advocacy), and (5) entrepreneurial development (ED) noncredit programs.

Salaries and Expenses

The SBA's salaries and expenses account currently provides funding for the following:

  • office operating budgets, which are used by program and administrative offices for daily operations, such as travel, supplies, and contracted services;
  • agency-wide costs, such as rent and telecommunications, which are managed centrally;
  • employee compensation and benefits, which are also managed centrally; and
  • reimbursable expenses for programs for which the SBA receives reimbursable budget authority from other federal government agencies.

Several adjustments were made to the SBA's reported appropriations for its salaries and expenses account to enable meaningful comparisons over time. For example, prior to FY2014, appropriations for the SBA's ED programs were included in the salaries and expenses account. They now have their own, separate appropriations account. Therefore, to allow for meaningful comparisons with current appropriations, Table 2 lists and deducts the reported appropriations for ED programs prior to FY2014 from the reported appropriations for salaries and expenses.

In addition, the SBA previously included appropriations for congressional initiatives (earmarks) under the salaries and expenses account. Therefore, to allow for meaningful comparisons with current appropriations and focus the comparison on administrative expenses, appropriations for earmarks are deducted from the reported appropriations for salaries and expenses.

Prior to FY2012, Advocacy was funded through the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount. Advocacy now has its own, separate appropriations account. To allow for meaningful comparisons with current appropriations, Table 2 lists Advocacy's funding provided through the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount prior to FY2012 and deducts that amount from the reported appropriations for salaries and expenses.

Table 2. Salaries and Expenses, FY2000-FY2019

(appropriations and available funds; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Appropriation

Minus Entrepreneurial Development Programsa

Minus Office of Advocacyb

Other Modifications

Final

Total Available Fundsc

2019 (request)

$265.000

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$268.500

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$268.500

$449.340

2017

$269.500

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$269.500

$451.330

2016

$268.000

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$268.000

$435.101

2015

$257.000

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$257.000

$427.126

2014

$250.000

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$250.000

$430.881

2013

$417.348d

($172.348)

‒‒

($21.830)e

$223.170

$380.642

2012

$417.348

($172.348)

‒‒

‒‒

$245.000

$401.701

2011

$433.438

($185.350)

($9.120)

($0.867)f

$238.101

$427.162

2010

$492.438

($185.350)

($7.361 est.)

$31.500g

$331.227

$487.687

2009

$455.503

($162.288)

($8.421 est.)

$45.000h

$329.794

$482.196

2008

$423.574

($140.946)

($7.215 est.)

‒‒

$275.413

$426.116

2007

$327.592

($128.500)

($7.788 est.)

‒‒

$191.304

$339.168

2006

$404.029

($128.500)

($7.398 est.)

($5.160)i

$262.971

$412.705

2005

$362.335

($134.463)

($7.481)

($4.951)j

$215.440

$361.321

2004

$371.650

($139.650)

($7.394)

($4.001)k

$220.605

$362.823

2003

$369.457

($136.475)

($6.857)

($2.401)l

$223.724

$379.544

2002

$338.476

($145.894)

($5.019)

($0.315)m

$187.248

$339.278

2001

$410.635

($200.994)

($5.443)

($0.903)n

$203.295

$321.743

2000

$322.800

($167.505)

($5.620)

($3.185)o

$176.490

$326.361

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; SBA, Performance and Accountability Report [FY2003-FY2005]; P.L. 106-113, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2000; H.Rept. 106-479, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2000, and for other Purposes; H.Rept. 106-1005, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2001, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 107-278, Making Appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2002, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 108-7, the Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003; H.Rept. 108-10, Making Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2003, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-401, Making Appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2004, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-792, Making Appropriations for Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2005, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; H.Rept. 109-272, Making Appropriations for Science, the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2006, and For Other Purposes; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2008), committee print, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 908; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2009), committee print, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2010 (Washington: GPO, 2010), p. 996; P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; P.L. 111-117, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010; H.Rept. 111-366, Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012; P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-2, the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; P.L. 113-235, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015; P.L. 114-113, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016; P.L. 115-31, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017; and P.L. 115-141, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018.

a. From FY2000 to FY2005, Congress recommended appropriations for Advocacy's research program in its discussion of the SBA's entrepreneurial development (ED) programs. These recommended appropriations were deducted from the total for ED programs to avoid double counting. Advocacy's funding totals include its research program.

b. Advocacy's funding from the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount for FY2006-FY2010 is not available. The figures reported here for FY2006-FY2010 were estimated by CRS using the three previous fiscal year allocations (each were 79% of Advocacy's reported total program cost).

c. Appropriations prior to FY2014 for the SBA's ED programs were deducted from total available funds for comparative purposes. Appropriations prior to FY2012 for Advocacy were deducted from total available funds for comparative purposes. Reported total available funds already accounted for rescissions.

d. P.L. 113-2 appropriated $20.0 million for salaries and expenses to provide technical assistance related to disaster recovery. The $20.0 million is not included in the table for comparative purposes.

e. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed a federal government-wide sequestration process and a 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $21.830 million reduction for salaries and expenses.

f. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.867 million reduction for salaries and expenses.

g. In FY2010, P.L. 111-240 appropriated $155.0 million for salaries and expenses ($123.5 million of that amount was for ED programs and is not included in the table for comparative purposes).

h. In FY2009, P.L. 111-5 appropriated $69.0 million for salaries and expenses ($24.0 million of that amount was for the Microloan Technical Assistance program and is not included in the table for comparative purposes).

i. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $5.16 million reduction from salaries and expenses.

j. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $4.951 million reduction from salaries and expenses.

k. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $4.001 million reduction from salaries and expenses.

l. In FY2003, P.L. 108-7 imposed a 0.65% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $2.401 million reduction from salaries and expenses.

m. In FY2002, P.L. 107-206 imposed a rescission on federal agency administrative and travel accounts, resulting in a $0.315 million reduction from salaries and expenses.

n. In FY2001, P.L. 106-554 imposed a 0.22% rescission on federal agencies in FY2001, resulting in a $0.903 million reduction from salaries and expenses.

o. In FY2000, P.L. 106-113 imposed a 0.38% rescission on federal agencies in FY2000, resulting in a $3.185 million reduction from salaries and expenses.

As discussed in greater detail below (see "Office of Advocacy"), data concerning Advocacy's funding provided through the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount are not available for FY2006-FY2010. However, in FY2003, FY2004, and FY2005, Advocacy's funding provided through the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount was 79% of its reported total cost. The estimates provided in the table for FY2006-FY2010 were derived by multiplying Advocacy's total program cost reported for each of those fiscal years by 79%.

As shown in Table 2, the SBA's appropriations for salaries and expenses have varied from year to year, with increases in some years and decreases in others. Overall, appropriations for the SBA's salaries and expenses have increased from $176.490 million in FY2000 to $268.500 million in FY2018. This increase has exceeded the rate of inflation.7

The SBA has statutory authorization to transfer appropriations from the business loan administration account into the salaries and expenses account. As evidenced by the amounts listed in the total available funds column in the table, the SBA exercised that authority in every fiscal year from FY2000 to FY2018 (and is expected to do so again in FY2019), transferring the entire appropriation for business loan administration into the salaries and expenses account in each of those fiscal years.

Business Loan Administration

As shown in Table 3, appropriations for the SBA's business loan administration account have varied since FY2000, with increases in some years and decreases in others.8 Overall, appropriations for SBA business loan administration increased from $129 million in FY2000 to $152.782 million in FY2018. This increase has not kept pace with inflation.9

Table 3. Business Loan Administration, FY2000-FY2019

(appropriations and available funds; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Appropriation

Modifications

Final Appropriation

Total Available Funds

2019 (request)

$155.150

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$152.782

‒‒

$152.782

$0.0

2017

$152.726

‒‒

$152.726

$0.0

2016

$152.726

‒‒

$152.726

$0.0

2015

$147.726

‒‒

$147.726

$0.0

2014

$151.560

‒‒

$151.560

$0.0

2013

$147.958

($7.739)a

$140.219

$0.0

2012

$147.958

‒‒

$147.958

$0.0

2011

$153.000

($0.306)b

$152.694

$0.0

2010

$153.000

$6.500c

$159.500

$0.0

2009

$138.480

‒‒

$138.480

$0.0

2008

$135.414

‒‒

$135.414

$0.0

2007

$124.862

‒‒

$124.862

$0.0

2006

$125.307

($1.600)d

$123.707

$0.0

2005

$126.653

($1.692)e

$124.961

$0.0

2004

$128.000

($1.347)f

$126.653

$0.0

2003

$129.000

$(0.839)g

$128.161

$0.0

2002

$129.000

‒‒

$129.000

$0.0

2001

$129.000

($0.284)h

$128.716

$0.0

2000

$129.000

‒‒

$129.000

$0.0

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; H.Rept. 106-479, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2000, and for other Purposes; P.L. 106-554, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2001; H.Rept. 106-1005, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2001, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 107-278, Making Appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2002, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-10, Making Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2003, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 108-199, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2004; H.Rept. 108-401, Making Appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2004, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 108-447, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005; H.Rept. 108-792, Making Appropriations for Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2005, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; H.Rept. 109-272, Making Appropriations for Science, the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2006, and For Other Purposes; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2008), committee print, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 908; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2009), committee print, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2010 (Washington: GPO, 2010), p. 996; P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; P.L. 111-117, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010; H.Rept. 111-366, Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012; P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-2, the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; P.L. 113-235, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015; P.L. 114-113, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016; P.L. 115-31, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017; and P.L. 115-141, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018.

a. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25, and P.L. 113-6 imposed a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $7.739 million reduction from business loan administration.

b. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.306 million reduction from business loan administration.

c. In FY2010, P.L. 111-240 appropriated $6.5 million for business loan administration (for costs associated with the Small Business Intermediary Lending Pilot Program).

d. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $1.6 million reduction from business loan administration.

e. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $1.692 million reduction from business loan administration.

f. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $1.347 million reduction from business loan administration.

g. In FY2003, P.L. 108-7 imposed a 0.65% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.839 million reduction from business loan administration.

h. In FY2001, P.L. 106-554 imposed a 0.22% rescission on federal agencies in FY2001, resulting in a $0.284 million reduction from business loan administration.

As evidenced by the $0.0 balance in the total funds available column for the business loan administration account, the SBA has routinely transferred all business loan administration appropriations to the salaries and expenses account. The combined appropriations for SBA salaries and expenses and business loan administration increased from $305.490 million in FY2000 to $421.282 million in FY2018. This increase has not kept pace with inflation.10

Office of Inspector General

According to the SBA, the OIG's mission is to "provide independent, objective oversight to improve the integrity, accountability, and performance of the SBA and its programs for the benefit of the American people."11 The office was created within the SBA by the Inspector General Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-452, as amended). The inspector general, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate, directs the office. The Inspector General Act provides the OIG with the following responsibilities:

  • promote economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in the management of SBA programs and supporting operations;
  • conduct and supervise audits, investigations, and reviews relating to the SBA's programs and support operations;
  • detect and prevent fraud, waste, and abuse;
  • review existing and proposed legislation and regulations and make appropriate recommendations;
  • maintain effective working relationships with other governmental agencies and nongovernmental entities regarding the inspector general's mandated duties;
  • keep the SBA administrator and Congress informed of serious problems and recommend corrective actions and implementation measures;
  • comply with the comptroller general's audit standards;
  • avoid duplication of Government Accountability Office activities; and
  • report violations of federal criminal law to the U.S. attorney general.12

As shown in Table 4, the OIG's appropriations have increased from $11.405 million in FY2000 to $19.900 million in FY2018 ($26.900 million when including $7.0 million in supplemental appropriations provided by P.L. 115-123, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, to oversee SBA disaster loans). This increase (excluding the $7.0 million supplemental appropriation) has exceeded the rate of inflation.13

The OIG typically receives a transfer of appropriations from the disaster assistance account for auditing expenses. It was also provided additional appropriations in FY2006, FY2013, and FY2018 for expenses related to the review of SBA disaster loans following major hurricanes (e.g., Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma in 2005, Hurricane Sandy in 2012, and Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria in 2018) and in FY2009 to conduct reviews and audits of $730 million provided to the SBA by P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

Table 4. Office of Inspector General, FY2000-FY2019

(appropriations and available funds; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Appropriation

Transfer from the Disaster Account

Other Modifications

Final Appropriation

Total Available Funds

2019 (request)

$21.900

$1.000

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$19.900

$0.000

$7.000a

$26.900

$26.900

2017

$19.900

$1.000

‒‒

$20.900

$20.839

2016

$19.900

$1.000

‒‒

$20.900

$22.012

2015

$19.400

$1.000

‒‒

$20.400

$19.895

2014

$19.000

$1.000

‒‒

$20.000

$17.713

2013

$16.267

$1.000

$5.000

($1.101)b

$21.166

$16.524

2012

$16.267

$1.000

‒‒

$17.267

$17.874

2011

$16.300

$1.000

($0.033)c

$17.267

$18.189

2010

$16.300

$1.000

‒‒

$17.300

$18.579

2009

$16.750

$0.000

$10.000d

$26.750

$26.750

2008

$18.000

$1.000

‒‒

$19.000

$17.374

2007

$13.835

$1.985

‒‒

$15.820

$16.278

2006

$13.900

$1.500

$5.000

($0.178)e

$20.222

$14.953

2005

$13.014

$0.500

($0.181)f

$13.333

$13.488

2004

$13.000

$0.500

($0.141)g

$13.359

$13.359

2003

$12.422

$0.497

($0.081)h

$12.838

$12.635

2002

$11.464

$0.500

($0.006)i

$11.958

$12.428

2001

$11.953

$0.500

($0.026)j

$12.427

$12.368

2000

$11.000

$0.500

($0.095)k

$11.405

$11.338

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; P.L. 106-113, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2000; P.L. 106-554, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2001; P.L. 107-206, the 2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery From and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States; P.L. 108-7, the Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003; P.L. 108-199, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2004; P.L. 108-447, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; P.L. 110-5, the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007; P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; P.L. 111-117, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-2, the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; P.L. 113-235, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015; P.L. 114-113, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016; P.L. 115-31, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017; P.L. 115-123, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018; and P.L. 115-141, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018.

a. In FY2018, P.L. 115-123. the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, provided the OIG $7.0 million to remain available until expended for expenses related to several hurricanes.

b. In FY2013, P.L. 113-2 provided the OIG $5.0 million to remain available until expended for expenses related to Hurricane Sandy. In addition, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed in a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $1.101 million reduction from the OIG.

c. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.033 million reduction from the OIG.

d. In FY2009, P.L. 111-5 provided the OIG $10.0 million for oversight and audit of ARRA programs, grants, and projects to remain available through September 30, 2013.

e. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 provided the OIG $5.0 million "for necessary expenses related to the consequences of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico in calendar year 2005." The act also imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.178 million reduction from the OIG.

f. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.181 million reduction from the OIG.

g. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.141 million reduction from the OIG.

h. In FY2003, P.L. 108-7 imposed a rescission of 0.65% on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.081 million reduction from the OIG.

i. In FY2002, P.L. 107-206 imposed a rescission on federal agency administrative and travel accounts, resulting in a $0.006 million reduction from the OIG.

j. In FY2001, P.L. 106-554 imposed a 0.22% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.026 million reduction from the OIG.

k. In FY2000, P.L. 106-113 required a 0.38% across-the-board rescission for federal agencies in FY2000, resulting in a $0.095 million reduction from the OIG.

Office of Advocacy14

The SBA indicates that its Office of Advocacy is "an independent voice for small business within the federal government."15 The chief counsel for Advocacy, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate, directs the office. Advocacy's mission is to "encourage policies that support the development and growth of American small businesses" by

  • intervening early in federal agencies' regulatory development processes on proposals that affect small businesses and providing Regulatory Flexibility Act compliance training to federal agency policymakers and regulatory development officials;
  • producing research to inform policymakers and other stakeholders on the impact of federal regulatory burdens on small businesses, document the vital role of small businesses in the economy, and explore and explain the wide variety of issues of concern to the small business community; and
  • fostering two-way communication between federal agencies and the small business community.16

As shown in Table 5, Advocacy's funding has increased from $5.620 million in FY2000 to $9.120 million in FY2018. This increase has exceeded the rate of inflation.17

Table 5. Office of Advocacy, FY2000-FY2019

(appropriations and available funds; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Appropriation

Modifications

Final Appropriation

Total Available Funds

2019 (request)

$9.120

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$9.120

‒‒

$9.120

$9.120

2017

$9.220

‒‒

$9.220

$8.113

2016

$9.120

‒‒

$9.120

$9.157

2015

$9.120

‒‒

$9.120

$9.120

2014

$8.750

‒‒

$8.750

$8.628

2013

$9.120

($0.477)a

$8.643

$8.644

2012

$9.120

‒‒

$9.120

$8.440

2011

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$9.120

2010

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$7.361 est.b

2009

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$8.421 est.b

2008

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$7.215 est.b

2007

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$7.788 est.b

2006

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$7.398 est.b

2005

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$7.481

2004

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$7.394

2003

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$6.857

2002

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$5.019

2001

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$5.443

2000

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$5.620

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; SBA, Office of Advocacy, Congressional Budget Justification, Fiscal Year 2013, p. 3, at http://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/files/3-508%20Compliant%20FY%202013%20Office%20of%20Advocacy%20CBJ(1).pdf; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012; P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; P.L. 113-235, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015; P.L. 114-113, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016; P.L. 115-31, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017; and P.L. 115-141, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018.

a. In FY3013, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $0.477 million reduction for Advocacy.

b. Estimate of the funding provided from the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount, assuming that 79% of Advocacy's reported total program cost was provided from the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount, as it was in FY2003, FY2004, and FY2005.

P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010, enhanced Advocacy's independence by ending the practice of funding Advocacy through the SBA's salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount. Instead, P.L. 111-240 requires the President to provide a separate statement of the appropriations request for Advocacy, "which shall be designated in a separate account in the General Fund of the Treasury." The act also requires the SBA administrator to provide Advocacy with "appropriate and adequate office space at central and field office locations, together with such equipment, operating budget, and communications facilities and services as may be necessary, and ... necessary maintenance services for such offices and the equipment and facilities located in such offices." In addition, Congress has provided Advocacy its own, separate appropriations amount since FY2012.

As mentioned previously, prior to FY2012, the SBA reported Advocacy's total program cost, which includes funding provided through the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount, agency-wide overhead costs (rent, telecommunications, etc.), and other support costs (e.g., management and administrative support, including human resources support). From FY2000 to FY2005, the SBA provided relatively detailed information concerning Advocacy's budget, including the amount of funding Advocacy received through the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount. Also, Advocacy's FY2013 congressional budget justification document included the amount of funding Advocacy received through the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount in FY2011. However, those data are not available for FY2006-FY2010, and it was therefore necessary to estimate Advocacy's funding from the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount for those years. The estimates provided in the table were derived by multiplying Advocacy's total program cost for each of those fiscal years by 79%, which was the proportion of Advocacy's total program costs provided from the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount in FY2003, FY2004, and FY2005.

Entrepreneurial Development Noncredit Programs18

The SBA's entrepreneurial development (ED) noncredit programs provide a variety of management and training services to small businesses. Congress provides appropriations for

  • eight management and technical assistance training programs: Small Business Development Centers, the Microloan Technical Assistance Program, Women Business Centers, SCORE, the Program for Investment in Microentrepreneurs (PRIME), Veterans Programs (including Veterans Business Outreach Centers, Boots to Business, Boots to Business: Reboot, Veteran Women Igniting the Spirit of Entrepreneurship [VWISE], and Entrepreneurship Bootcamp for Veterans with Disabilities), the 7(j) Technical Assistance Program, and the Native American Outreach Program;
  • two relatively long-standing nontraining programs: the National Women's Business Council and HUBZone administration;
  • three initiatives: the Entrepreneurial Development Initiative (Clusters), the Entrepreneurship Education Initiative, and Growth Accelerators; and
  • the Step Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Pilot Grant program.19

Initially, the SBA provided its own management and technical assistance training programs. Over time, however, the SBA has increasingly relied on third parties to provide that training. The SBA reports that more than 1 million aspiring entrepreneurs and small business owners receive training from an SBA-supported resource partner each year.20

Congress specifies appropriations in appropriations acts for the Small Business Development Center (SBDC) program, the Microloan Technical Assistance program, and the STEP program. Congress provides an overall appropriation for the SBA's ED programs and recommends appropriations for the SBA's other ED programs, typically in the conference agreement or "Explanatory Statement" accompanying the appropriations act. As a result, the following tables refer to appropriations for the SBDC and Microloan Technical Assistance programs and recommended appropriations for other ED programs. Although not legally binding, the SBA has traditionally adhered to these recommended funding amounts.

Small Business Development Centers

SBDCs provide free or low-cost assistance to small businesses using programs customized to local conditions. SBDCs support small business in marketing and business strategy, finance, technology transfer, government contracting, management, manufacturing, engineering, sales, accounting, exporting, and other topics. They are funded by grants from the SBA and matching funds. There are 63 lead SBDC service centers, at least one in each state (with four in Texas and six in California), the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa. These lead SBDC service centers manage more than 900 SBDC outreach locations.

As shown in Table 6, appropriations for SBDCs have increased from $84.179 million in FY2000 to $130.000 million in FY2018. This increase has exceeded the rate of inflation.21 In addition, as shown in the table, SBDCs received an additional $50 million in temporary funding in FY2010, which was spent over two fiscal years.22

The SBA reports actual and anticipated expenditures for its ED programs in its annual budget justification document. SBDC expenditures in FY2000-FY2017 and anticipated SBDC expenditures in FY2018 are presented in the table's last column for comparative purposes.

Table 6. Small Business Development Centers, FY2000-FY2019

(appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Appropriation

Modifications

Final Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$110.000

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$130.000

‒‒

$130.000

$130.000

2017

$125.000

‒‒

$125.000

$126.532

2016

$117.000

‒‒

$117.000

$121.200

2015

$115.000

‒‒

$115.000

$114.895

2014

$113.625

‒‒

$113.625

$110.510

2013

$112.500

($9.060)a

$103.440

$104.854

2012

$112.500

‒‒

$112.500

$114.558

2011

$113.000

($0.226)
$33.800b

$146.574

$153.716

2010

$113.000

$16.200c

$129.200

$128.824

2009

$110.000

‒‒

$110.000

$116.068

2008

$97.120

‒‒

$97.120

$97.321

2007

$89.000

‒‒

$89.000

$88.973

2006

$89.000

($0.890)d

$88.110

$88.424

2005

$89.000

($0.712)e

$88.288

$88.576

2004

$89.000

($0.525)f

$88.475

$89.161

2003

$89.000

($0.578)g

$88.422

$85.791

2002

$88.000

‒‒

$88.000

$90.100

2001

$88.000

($0.194)h

$87.806

$85.993

2000

$84.500

($0.321)i

$84.179

$84.074

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; P.L. 113-235, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015; P.L. 114-113, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016; and P.L. 115-31, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017; and P.L. 115-141, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018.

a. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed in a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $9.060 million reduction from SBDCs.

b. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.226 million reduction from SBDCs.

c. In FY2010, P.L. 111-240 provided the SBDC program $50 million to remain available until September 30, 2012. The SBA provided $16.2 million of this amount to the SBDC program in FY2010 and the remaining $33.8 million in FY2011.

d. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.890 million reduction from SBDCs.

e. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.712 million reduction from SBDCs.

f. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.525 million reduction from SBDCs.

g. In FY2003, P.L. 108-7 imposed a rescission of 0.65% on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.578 million reduction from SBDCs.

h. In FY2001, P.L. 106-554 imposed a 0.22% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.194 million reduction from SBDCs.

i. In FY2000, P.L. 106-113 required a 0.38% across-the-board rescission for federal agencies in FY2000, resulting in a $0.321 million reduction from SBDCs.

Microloan Technical Assistance Program

The SBA's Microloan lending program is designed to address the perceived disadvantages faced by women, low-income, veteran, and minority entrepreneurs and business owners in gaining access to capital for starting or expanding their business (see P.L. 102-140, the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1992). Under the Microloan program, the SBA provides direct loans to qualified nonprofit intermediary Microloan lenders who, in turn, provide "microloans" of up to $50,000 to small business owners, entrepreneurs, and nonprofit child care centers.

The SBA's Microloan Technical Assistance program is part of the SBA's Microloan program but receives a separate appropriation. It provides grants to Microloan intermediaries to offer management and technical training assistance to Microloan program borrowers and prospective borrowers.23 There are currently 144 active Microloan intermediaries, serving 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.24

As shown in Table 7, the Microloan Technical Assistance program's appropriations have varied over the years. Overall, Microloan Technical Assistance Program appropriations have increased from $23.112 million in FY2000 to $31.000 million in FY2018. This increase has been less than the rate of inflation.25

Microloan Technical Assistance expenditures in FY2000-FY2017 and anticipated Microloan Technical Assistance expenditures in FY2018 are presented in the table's last column for comparative purposes.

Table 7. Microloan Technical Assistance Program, FY2000-FY2019

(appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Appropriation

Modifications

Final Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$25.000

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$31.000

‒‒

$31.000

$31.000

2017

$31.000

‒‒

$31.000

$23.535

2016

$25.000

‒‒

$25.000

$24.340

2015

$22.300

‒‒

$22.300

$22.247

2014

$20.000

‒‒

$20.000

$19.267

2013

$20.000

($0.191)a

$19.809

$19.985

2012

$20.000

‒‒

$20.000

$19.446

2011

$22.000

($0.044)b

$21.956

$24.603

2010

$22.000

$24.000c

$46.000

$43.220

2009

$20.000

‒‒

$20.000

$19.813

2008

$15.000

‒‒

$15.000

$14.816

2007

$13.000

‒‒

$13.000

$12.800

2006

$13.000

($0.130)d

$12.870

$12.792

2005

$14.000

($0.112)e

$13.888

$13.813

2004

$15.000

($0.089)f

$14.911

$14.655

2003

$15.000

($0.098)g

$14.902

$14.899

2002

$17.500

‒‒

$17.500

$17.742

2001

$20.000

($0.044)h

$19.956

$18.385

2000

$23.200

($0.088)i

$23.112

$19.243

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; P.L. 113-235, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015; P.L. 114-113, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016; and P.L. 115-31, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017; and P.L. 115-141, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018.

a. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed in a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $0.191 million reduction from the Microloan Technical Assistance program.

b. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.044 million reduction from the Microloan Technical Assistance program.

c. In FY2009, P.L. 111-5 provided the Microloan Technical Assistance Program an additional $24 million to remain available until September 30, 2010. The funds were awarded in FY2010.

d. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.130 million reduction from the Microloan Technical Assistance program.

e. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.112 million reduction from the Microloan Technical Assistance program.

f. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.089 million reduction from the Microloan Technical Assistance program.

g. In FY2003, P.L. 108-7 imposed a rescission of 0.65% on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.098 million reduction from the Microloan Technical Assistance program.

h. In FY2001, P.L. 106-554 imposed a 0.22% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.044 million reduction from the Microloan Technical Assistance program.

i. In FY2000, P.L. 106-113 required a 0.38% across-the-board rescission for federal agencies in FY2000, resulting in a $0.088 million reduction from the Microloan Technical Assistance program.

Women Business Centers

Women Business Centers (WBCs) provide financial, management, and marketing assistance to small businesses, including start-up businesses, owned and controlled by women. Since its inception, the program has targeted the needs of socially and economically disadvantaged women (see P.L. 100-533, the Women's Business Ownership Act of 1988).26 Currently, there are 111 WBCs located throughout most of the United States and the territories.27

As shown in Table 8, WBC's recommended appropriations have increased from $8.966 million in FY2000 to $18.000 million in FY2018. This increase has exceeded the rate of inflation.28

WBC expenditures in FY2000-FY2017 and anticipated WBC expenditures in FY2018 are presented in the table's last column for comparative purposes.

Table 8. Women Business Centers, FY2000-FY2019

(recommended appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Recommended Appropriation

Modifications

Final Recommended Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$16.000

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$18.000

‒‒

$18.000

$18.000

2017

$18.000

‒‒

$18.000

$15.849

2016

$17.000

‒‒

$17.000

$17.335

2015

$15.000

‒‒

$15.000

$14.500

2014

$14.000

‒‒

$14.000

$13.982

2013

$14.000

($1.112)a

$12.888

$12.887

2012

$14.000

‒‒

$14.000

$13.721

2011

$14.000

($0.028)b

$13.972

$13.866

2010

$14.000

‒‒

$14.000

$13.997

2009

$13.750

‒‒

$13.750

$13.750

2008

$13.000

‒‒

$13.000

$12.981

2007

$12.500

‒‒

$12.500

$12.340

2006

$12.500

($0.125)c

$12.375

$12.197

2005

$12.500

($0.100)d

$12.400

$12.205

2004

$12.500

($0.074)e

$12.426

$12.245

2003

$12.500

($0.081)f

$12.419

$12.298

2002

$12.000

‒‒

$12.000

$12.000

2001

$12.000

($0.026)g

$11.974

$11.989

2000

$9.000

($0.034)h

$8.966

$8.926

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; H.Rept. 106-479, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2000, and for other Purposes; H.Rept. 106-1005, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2001, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 107-278, Making Appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2002, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-10, Making Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2003, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-401, Making Appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2004, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-792, Making Appropriations for Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2005, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; H.Rept. 109-272, Making Appropriations for Science, the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2006, and For Other Purposes; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2008), committee print, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 908; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2009), committee print, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2010 (Washington: GPO, 2010), p. 996; H.Rept. 111-366, Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 83," Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151-Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9740; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding House Amendment No. 1 to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 2029 Consolidated Appropriations Act," Congressional Record, vol. 161, no. 184-Book II (December 17, 2015), p. H10139; P.L. 114-223, the Continuing Appropriations and Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2017; Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 244 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017]," Congressional Record, vol. 163, no. 76-Book II (May 3, 2017), p. H3786; and "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 1625 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018] (Division E – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2018)," p. 87, at http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/DIV%20E%20FSGG%20SOM%20FY18%20OMNI.OCR.pdf.

a. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed in a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $1.112 million reduction from WBCs.

b. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.028 million reduction from WBCs.

c. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.125 million reduction from WBCs.

d. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.100 million reduction from WBCs.

e. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.074 million reduction from WBCs.

f. In FY2003, P.L. 108-7 imposed a rescission of 0.65% on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.081 million reduction from WBCs.

g. In FY2001, P.L. 106-554 imposed a 0.22% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.026 million reduction from WBCs.

h. In FY2000, P.L. 106-113 required a 0.38% across-the-board rescission for federal agencies in FY2000, resulting in a $0.034 million reduction from WBCs.

SCORE

The SBA provides financial assistance to SCORE (formerly the Service Corps of Retired Executives) to provide in-person mentoring and online training to small business owners and prospective owners.29 SCORE's 320 chapters and more than 800 branch offices are located throughout the United States and partner with more than 11,000 volunteer counselors, who are working or retired business owners, executives and corporate leaders, to provide management and training assistance to small businesses "at no charge or at very low cost."30

As shown in Table 9, SCORE's recommended appropriations have increased from $3.487 million in FY2000 to $11.500 in FY2018. This increase has exceeded the rate of inflation.31

SCORE expenditures in FY2000-FY2017 and anticipated SCORE expenditures in FY2018 are presented in the table's last column for comparative purposes.

Table 9. SCORE, FY2000-FY2019

(recommended appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Recommended Appropriation

Modifications

Final Recommended Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$9.900

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$11.500

‒‒

$11.500

$11.500

2017

$10.500

‒‒

$10.500

$10.500

2016

$10.500

‒‒

$10.500

$10.500

2015

$8.000

‒‒

$8.000

$8.000

2014

$7.000

‒‒

$7.000

$7.000

2013

$7.000

($0.556)a

$6.444

$6.440

2012

$7.000

‒‒

$7.000

$7.000

2011

$7.000

($0.014)b

$6.986

$6.986

2010

$7.000

‒‒

$7.000

$7.000

2009

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$5.000

2008

$4.950

‒‒

$4.950

$4.950

2007

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$4.936

2006

$5.000

($0.050)c

$4.950

$4.936

2005

$5.000

($0.040)d

$4.960

$4.933

2004

$5.000

($0.030)e

$4.970

$4.958

2003

$5.000

($0.033)f

$4.967

$4.977

2002

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$5.010

2001

$3.750

($0.008)g

$3.742

$3.750

2000

$3.500

($0.013)h

$3.487

$3.471

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; H.Rept. 106-479, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2000, and for other Purposes; H.Rept. 106-1005, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2001, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 107-278, Making Appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2002, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-10, Making Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2003, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-401, Making Appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2004, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-792, Making Appropriations for Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2005, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; H.Rept. 109-272, Making Appropriations for Science, the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2006, and For Other Purposes; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2008), committee print, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 908; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2009), committee print, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2010 (Washington: GPO, 2010), p. 996; H.Rept. 111-366, Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 83," Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151-Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9740; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding House Amendment No. 1 to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 2029 Consolidated Appropriations Act," Congressional Record, vol. 161, no. 184-Book II (December 17, 2015), p. H10139; P.L. 114-223, the Continuing Appropriations and Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2017; Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 244 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017]," Congressional Record, vol. 163, no. 76-Book II (May 3, 2017), p. H3786; and "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 1625 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018] (Division E – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2018)," p. 87, at http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/DIV%20E%20FSGG%20SOM%20FY18%20OMNI.OCR.pdf.

a. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed in a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $0.556 million reduction from SCORE.

b. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.014 million reduction from SCORE.

c. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.050 million reduction from SCORE.

d. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.040 million reduction from SCORE.

e. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.030 million reduction from SCORE.

f. In FY2003, P.L. 108-7 imposed a rescission of 0.65% on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.033 million reduction from SCORE.

g. In FY2001, P.L. 106-554 imposed a 0.22% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.008 million reduction from SCORE.

h. In FY2000, P.L. 106-113 required a 0.38% across-the-board rescission for federal agencies in FY2000, resulting in a $0.013 million reduction from SCORE.

Program for Investment in Microentrepreneurs

The Program for Investment in Microentrepreneurs (PRIME) provides grants to nonprofit microenterprise development organizations or programs that have "a demonstrated record of delivering microenterprise services to disadvantaged entrepreneurs; an intermediary; a microenterprise development organization or program that is accountable to a local community, working in conjunction with a state or local government or Indian tribe; or an Indian tribe acting on its own, if the Indian tribe can certify that no private organization or program referred to in this paragraph exists within its jurisdiction."32

As shown in Table 10, PRIME's recommended appropriations have varied from year to year and, in recent years, have decreased. Overall, PRIME's recommended appropriations have decreased from $14.964 million in FY2001 (the program's first recommended appropriation) to $5.000 million in FY2018.

PRIME expenditures in FY2001-FY2017 and anticipated PRIME expenditures in FY2018 are presented in the table's last column for comparative purposes.

Table 10. Program for Investment in Microentrepreneurs (PRIME), FY2001-FY2019

(recommended appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Recommended Appropriation

Modifications

Final Recommended Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$0.000

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$5.000

2017

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$4.700

2016

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$5.000

2015

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$5.000

2014

$3.500

‒‒

$3.500

$3.500

2013

$3.500

($3.500)a

$0.000

$0.000

2012

$3.500

‒‒

$3.500

$3.343

2011

$8.000

($0.016)b

$7.984

$7.983

2010

$8.000

‒‒

$8.000

$8.000

2009

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$5.000

2008

$3.000

‒‒

$3.000

$2.715

2007

$2.000

‒‒

$2.000

$1.835

2006

$2.000

($0.020)c

$1.980

$1.920

2005

$5.000

($0.040)d

$4.960

$4.903

2004

$5.000

($0.030)e

$4.970

$4.947

2003

$5.000

($0.033)f

$4.964

$4.537

2002

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$4.500

2001

$15.000

($0.033)g

$14.964

$15.000

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; H.Rept. 106-479, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2000, and for other Purposes; H.Rept. 106-1005, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2001, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 107-278, Making Appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2002, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-10, Making Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2003, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-401, Making Appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2004, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-792, Making Appropriations for Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2005, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; H.Rept. 109-272, Making Appropriations for Science, the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2006, and For Other Purposes; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2008), committee print, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 908; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2009), committee print, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2010 (Washington: GPO, 2010), p. 996; H.Rept. 111-366, Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 83," Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151-Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9740; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding House Amendment No. 1 to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 2029 Consolidated Appropriations Act," Congressional Record, vol. 161, no. 184-Book II (December 17, 2015), p. H10139; P.L. 114-223, the Continuing Appropriations and Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2017; Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 244 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017]," Congressional Record, vol. 163, no. 76-Book II (May 3, 2017), p. H3786; and "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 1625 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018] (Division E – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2018)," p. 87, at http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/DIV%20E%20FSGG%20SOM%20FY18%20OMNI.OCR.pdf.

a. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed in a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $3.500 million reduction from PRIME.

b. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.016 million reduction from PRIME.

c. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.020 million reduction from PRIME.

d. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.040 million reduction from PRIME.

e. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.030 million reduction from PRIME.

f. In FY2003, P.L. 108-7 imposed a rescission of 0.65% on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.033 million reduction from PRIME.

g. In FY2001, P.L. 106-554 imposed a 0.22% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.033 million reduction from PRIME.

The Obama Administration argued that PRIME overlaps and duplicates the SBA's Microloan Technical Assistance program and recommended in its FY2012-FY2017 budget requests that PRIME receive no appropriations. As shown in the table, in FY2013, the Obama Administration eliminated PRIME's appropriation as part of the SBA's sequestration process.

The Trump Administration recommended in its FY2018 and FY2019 budget requests that the PRIME program receive no appropriations.33

Veterans Programs

The SBA's Office of Veterans Business Development (OVBD) administers several management and training programs to assist veteran-owned businesses, including

  • the Entrepreneurship Bootcamp for Veterans with Disabilities Consortium of Universities, which provides "experiential training in entrepreneurship and small business management to post-9/11 veterans with disabilities" at eight universities;34
  • the Veteran Women Igniting the Spirit of Entrepreneurship (V-WISE) program, which is administered through a cooperative agreement with Syracuse University, offers women veterans a 15-day, online course focused on entrepreneurship skills and the "language of business," followed by a 3-day conference (offered twice a year at varying locations) in which participants "are exposed to successful entrepreneurs and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies and leaders in government" and participate in courses on business planning, marketing, accounting and finance, operations and production, human resources, and work-life balance;35
  • the Operation Endure and Grow Program, which is administered through a cooperative agreement with Syracuse University, offers an eight-week online training program "focused on the fundamentals of launching and/or growing a small business" and is available to National Guard and reservists and their family members;36
  • the Boots to Business program (started in 2012), which is "an elective track within the Department of Defense's revised Training Assistance Program called Transition Goals, Plans, Success (Transition GPS) and has three parts: the Entrepreneurship Track Overview—a 10-minute introductory video shown during the mandatory five-day Transition GPS course which introduces entrepreneurship as a post-service career option; Introduction to Entrepreneurship—a two-day classroom course on entrepreneurship and business fundamentals offered as one of the three Transition GPS elective tracks; and Foundations of Entrepreneurship—an eight-week, instructor-led online course that offers in-depth instruction on the elements of a business plan and tips and techniques for starting a business";37
  • the Boots to Business Reboot program (started in 2014), which assists veterans who have already transitioned to civilian life;38 and
  • the Veterans Business Outreach Centers (VBOC) program, which provides veterans and their spouses management and technical assistance training at 15 locations, including assistance with the Boots to Business program, the development and maintenance of a five-year business plan, and referrals to other SBA resource partners when appropriate for additional training or mentoring services.39

Prior to FY2016, Congress recommended appropriations for VBOCs and, in FY2014 and FY2015, for the Boots to Business initiative ($7.0 million in FY2014 and $7.5 million in FY2015). Funding for the OVBD's other veterans assistance programs were provided through the SBA's salaries and expenses account.

Starting in FY2016, Congress has not provided separate recommended appropriations for VBOCs and the Boots to Business initiative. Instead, Congress has provided a recommended appropriation of $12.3 million for the OVBD's programs as a whole.

OVBD expenditures in FY2015-FY2017 and anticipated OVBD expenditures in FY2018 are presented in the table's last column for comparative purposes.

Table 11. Veterans Outreach Programs, FY2015-FY2019

(recommended appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Recommended Appropriation

Modifications

Final Recommended Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$11.250

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$12.300

‒‒

$12.300

$12.300

2017

$12.300

‒‒

$12.300

$12.572

2016

$12.300

‒‒

$12.300

$12.808

2015

$10.500

‒‒

$10.500

$10.733

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2016-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 83," Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151-Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9740; P.L. 114-223, the Continuing Appropriations and Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2017; Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 244 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017]," Congressional Record, vol. 163, no. 76-Book II (May 3, 2017), p. H3786; and "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 1625 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018] (Division E – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2018)," p. 87, at http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/DIV%20E%20FSGG%20SOM%20FY18%20OMNI.OCR.pdf.

Recommended appropriations for VBOCs from FY2000-FY2015 are presented in Table 12 for historical comparisons. As the data indicate, recommended appropriations for VBOCs increased from $0.613 million in FY2000 to $3.000 million in FY2015. This increase exceeded the rate of inflation.40

OVBD expenditures in FY2000-FY2015 are presented in the table's last column for comparative purposes.

Table 12. Veterans Business Outreach Centers (VBOC) Program, FY2000-FY2015

(recommended appropriations and expenditures, $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Recommended Appropriation

Modifications

Final Recommended Appropriation

Expenditures

2015

$3.000

‒‒

$3.000

$3.000

2014

$2.500

‒‒

$2.500

$2.500

2013

$2.500

($0.003)a

$2.497

$2.497

2012

$2.500

‒‒

$2.500

$2.500

2011

$2.500

($0.005)b

$2.495

$2.495

2010

$2.500

‒‒

$2.500

$2.500

2009

$1.200

‒‒

$1.200

$1.200

2008

$0.743

‒‒

$0.743

$0.743

2007

$0.750

‒‒

$0.750

$0.741

2006

$0.750

($0.008)c

$0.742

$0.738

2005

$0.750

($0.006)d

$0.744

$0.731

2004

$0.750

($0.004)e

$0.746

$0.737

2003

$0.750

($0.005)f

$0.745

$0.667

2002

$0.750

‒‒

$0.750

$0.617

2001

$0.000g

‒‒

$0.000

NA

2000

$0.615

($0.002)h

$0.613

$0.615

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2016], at http://www.sba.gov/about-sba-services/217; H.Rept. 106-479, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2000, and for other Purposes; H.Rept. 106-1005, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2001, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 107-278, Making Appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2002, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-10, Making Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2003, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-401, Making Appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2004, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-792, Making Appropriations for Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2005, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; H.Rept. 109-272, Making Appropriations for Science, the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2006, and For Other Purposes; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2008), committee print, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 908; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2009), committee print, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2010 (Washington: GPO, 2010), p. 996; H.Rept. 111-366, Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; and Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 83," Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151-Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9740.

a. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25, and P.L. 113-6 imposed in a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $0.003 million reduction from the VBOC program.

b. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.005 million reduction from the VBOC program.

c. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.008 million reduction from the VBOC program.

d. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.006 million reduction from the VBOC program.

e. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.004 million reduction from the VBOC program.

f. In FY2003, P.L. 108-7 imposed a rescission of 0.65% on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.005 million reduction from the VBOC program.

g. In FY2001, Congress recommended an appropriation of $4.0 million to establish the National Veterans Business Development Corporation. The SBA funded the four VBOCs operating in FY2001 from the salaries and expenses account.

h. In FY2000, P.L. 106-113 required a 0.38% across-the-board rescission for federal agencies in FY2000, resulting in a $0.002 million reduction from the VBOC program.

7(j) Technical Assistance Program

The SBA's 7(j) Technical Assistance Program provides "a wide variety of management and technical assistance to eligible individuals or concerns to meet their specific needs, including: (a) counseling and training in the areas of financing, management, accounting, bookkeeping, marketing, and operation of small business concerns; and (b) the identification and development of new business opportunities."41 Eligible individuals and businesses include "8(a) certified firms, small disadvantaged businesses, businesses operating in areas of high unemployment, or low income or firms owned by low income individuals."42

As shown in Table 13, recommended appropriations for the 7(j) Technical Assistance Program have varied since FY2000, with increases in some years and decreases in others. Overall, the SBA's 7(j) Technical Assistance Program's recommended appropriations have decreased from $3.584 million in FY2000 to $2.800 million in FY2018.

7(j) Technical Assistance Program expenditures in FY2000-FY2017 and anticipated 7(j) Technical Assistance Program expenditures in FY2018 are presented in the table's last column for comparative purposes.

Table 13. 7(j) Technical Assistance Program, FY2000-FY2019

(recommended appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Recommended Appropriation

Modifications

Final Recommended Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$2.800

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$2.800

‒‒

$2.800

$2.800

2017

$2.800

‒‒

$2.800

$1.796

2016

$2.800

‒‒

$2.800

$1.407

2015

$2.800

‒‒

$2.800

$2.441

2014

$2.790

‒‒

$2.790

$2.723

2013

$3.100

($0.246)a

$2.854

$3.080

2012

$3.100

‒‒

$3.100

$4.768

2011

$3.400

($0.007)b

$3.393

$6.354

2010

$3.400

‒‒

$3.400

$3.275

2009

$2.380

‒‒

$2.380

$2.380

2008

$2.300

‒‒

$2.300

$2.300

2007

$1.500

‒‒

$1.500

$1.481

2006

$1.500

($0.015)c

$1.485

$1.481

2005

$1.500

($0.012)d

$1.488

$1.479

2004

$2.000

($0.012)e

$1.988

$1.963

2003

$1.500

($0.010)f

$1.490

$1.171

2002

$3.600

‒‒

$3.600

$3.189

2001

$3.600

($0.008)g

$3.592

$3.241

2000

$3.600

($0.014)h

$3.584

$3.950

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; H.Rept. 106-479, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2000, and for other Purposes; H.Rept. 106-1005, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2001, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 107-278, Making Appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2002, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-10, Making Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2003, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-401, Making Appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2004, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-792, Making Appropriations for Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2005, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; H.Rept. 109-272, Making Appropriations for Science, the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2006, and For Other Purposes; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2008), committee print, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 908; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2009), committee print, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2010 (Washington: GPO, 2010), p. 996; H.Rept. 111-366, Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 83," Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151-Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9740; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding House Amendment No. 1 to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 2029 Consolidated Appropriations Act," Congressional Record, vol. 161, no. 184-Book II (December 17, 2015), p. H10139; P.L. 114-223, the Continuing Appropriations and Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2017; Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 244 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017]," Congressional Record, vol. 163, no. 76-Book II (May 3, 2017), p. H3786; and "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 1625 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018] (Division E – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2018)," p. 87, at http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/DIV%20E%20FSGG%20SOM%20FY18%20OMNI.OCR.pdf.

a. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed in a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $0.246 million reduction from the 7(j) program.

b. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.007 million reduction from the 7(j) program.

c. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.015 million reduction from the 7(j) program.

d. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.012 million reduction from the 7(j) program.

e. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.012 million reduction from the 7(j) program.

f. In FY2003, P.L. 108-7 imposed a rescission of 0.65% on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.010 million reduction from the 7(j) program.

g. In FY2001, P.L. 106-554 imposed a 0.22% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.008 million reduction from the 7(j) program.

h. In FY2000, P.L. 106-113 required a 0.38% across-the-board rescission for federal agencies in FY2000, resulting in a $0.014 million reduction from the 7(j) program.

Native American Outreach Program

The SBA's Native American Outreach (NAO) program provides management and technical educational assistance to American Indians, Alaska natives, native Hawaiians, and "the indigenous people of Guam and American Samoa … to promote entity-owned and individual 8(a) certification, government contracting, entrepreneurial education, and capital access."43 The program's management and technical assistance services are available to members of these groups living in most areas of the nation.44

As shown in Table 14, the NAO program's recommended appropriations have varied somewhat since FY2003 (the first year it received recommended appropriations), ranging from $1.0 million to $2.0 million. The program's recommended appropriations have not kept pace with inflation.45 NAO program expenditures in FY2003-FY2017 and anticipated NAO expenditures in FY2018 are presented in the table's last column for comparative purposes.

Table 14. Native American Outreach (NAO) Program, FY2003-FY2019

(recommended appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Recommended Appropriation

Modifications

Final Recommended Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$1.500

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$2.000

‒‒

$2.000

$2.000

2017

$2.000

‒‒

$2.000

$1.541

2016

$2.000

‒‒

$2.000

$1.778

2015

$2.000

‒‒

$2.000

$1.924

2014

$2.000

‒‒

$2.000

$1.859

2013

$1.250

($0.318)a

$0.932

$0.915

2012

$1.250

‒‒

$1.250

$1.245

2011

$1.250

($0.003)b

$1.247

$1.132

2010

$1.250

‒‒

$1.250

$1.243

2009

$1.033

‒‒

$1.033

$1.027

2008

$1.000

‒‒

$1.000

$0.933

2007

$1.000

‒‒

$1.000

$0.884

2006

$1.000

($0.010)c

$0.990

$0.978

2005

$1.000

($0.008)d

$1.092

$0.902

2004

$2.000

($0.012)e

$1.988

$1.964

2003

$2.000

($0.013)f

$1.987

$1.778

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; H.Rept. 106-479, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2000, and for other Purposes; H.Rept. 106-1005, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2001, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 107-278, Making Appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2002, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-10, Making Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2003, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-401, Making Appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2004, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-792, Making Appropriations for Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2005, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; H.Rept. 109-272, Making Appropriations for Science, the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2006, and For Other Purposes; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2008), committee print, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 908; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2009), committee print, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2010 (Washington: GPO, 2010), p. 996; H.Rept. 111-366, Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 83," Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151-Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9740; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding House Amendment No. 1 to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 2029 Consolidated Appropriations Act," Congressional Record, vol. 161, no. 184-Book II (December 17, 2015), p. H10139; P.L. 114-223, the Continuing Appropriations and Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2017; Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 244 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017]," Congressional Record, vol. 163, no. 76-Book II (May 3, 2017), p. H3786; and "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 1625 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018] (Division E – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2018)," p. 87, at http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/DIV%20E%20FSGG%20SOM%20FY18%20OMNI.OCR.pdf.

a. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed in a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $0.318 million reduction from the NAO program.

b. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.003 million reduction from the NAO program.

c. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.010 million reduction from the NAO program.

d. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.008 million reduction from the NAO program.

e. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.012 million reduction from the NAO program.

f. In FY2003, P.L. 108-7 imposed a rescission of 0.65% on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.013 million reduction from the NAO program.

National Women's Business Council

The National Women's Business Council (NWBC) is a bipartisan federal advisory council created to serve as an independent source of advice and counsel to the President, Congress, and the SBA on economic issues of importance to women business owners. The council's mission "is to promote bold initiatives, policies, and programs designed to support women's business enterprises at all stages of development in the public and private sector marketplaces—from start-up to success to significance."46

As shown in Table 15, the recommended appropriation for the NWBC has increased from $0.598 million in FY2000 to $1.500 million in FY2018. This increase has exceeded the rate of inflation.47

NWBC expenditures in FY2000-FY2017 and NWBC anticipated expenditures in FY2018 are presented in the table's last column for comparative purposes.

Table 15. National Business Women's Council (NWBC), FY2000-FY2019

(recommended appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Recommended Appropriation

Modifications

Final Recommended Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$1.500

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$1.500

‒‒

$1.500

$1.500

2017

$1.500

‒‒

$1.500

$1.337

2016

$1.500

‒‒

$1.500

$1.286

2015

$1.000

‒‒

$1.000

$0.958

2014

$1.000

‒‒

$1.000

$0.980

2013

$0.998

($0.080)a

$0.918

$0.736

2012

$0.998

‒‒

$0.998

$0.875

2011

$1.000

($0.002)b

$0.998

$0.954

2010

$1.000

‒‒

$1.000

$0.920

2009

$0.775

‒‒

$0.775

$0.751

2008

$0.743

‒‒

$0.743

$0.714

2007

$0.750

‒‒

$0.750

$0.712

2006

$0.750

($0.008)c

$0.742

$0.675

2005

$0.750

($0.006)d

$0.744

$0.550

2004

$0.750

($0.004)e

$0.746

$0.731

2003

$0.750

($0.005)f

$0.745

$0.699

2002

$0.750

‒‒

$0.750

$0.729

2001

$0.750

($0.002)g

$0.748

$0.714

2000

$0.600

($0.002)h

$0.598

$0.600

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; H.Rept. 106-479, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2000, and for other Purposes; H.Rept. 106-1005, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2001, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 107-278, Making Appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2002, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-10, Making Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2003, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-401, Making Appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2004, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-792, Making Appropriations for Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2005, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; H.Rept. 109-272, Making Appropriations for Science, the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2006, and For Other Purposes; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2008), committee print, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 908; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2009), committee print, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2010 (Washington: GPO, 2010), p. 996; H.Rept. 111-366, Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 83," Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151-Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9740; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding House Amendment No. 1 to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 2029 Consolidated Appropriations Act," Congressional Record, vol. 161, no. 184-Book II (December 17, 2015), p. H10139; P.L. 114-223, the Continuing Appropriations and Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2017; Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 244 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017]," Congressional Record, vol. 163, no. 76-Book II (May 3, 2017), p. H3786; and "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 1625 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018] (Division E – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2018)," p. 87, at http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/DIV%20E%20FSGG%20SOM%20FY18%20OMNI.OCR.pdf.

a. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed in a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $0.080 million reduction from the NWBC.

b. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.002 million reduction from the NWBC.

c. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.008 million reduction from the NWBC.

d. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.006 million reduction from the NWBC.

e. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.004 million reduction from the NWBC.

f. In FY2003, P.L. 108-7 imposed a rescission of 0.65% on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.005 million reduction from the NWBC.

g. In FY2001, P.L. 106-554 imposed a 0.22% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.002 million reduction from the NWBC.

h. In FY2000, P.L. 106-113 required a 0.38% across-the-board rescission for federal agencies in FY2000, resulting in a $0.002 million reduction from the NWBC.

HUBZone Administration

The HUBZone program helps small businesses located in designated Historically Underutilized Business Zones (HUBZones) to compete for federal contracts. Federal agencies may award contracts directly to HUBZone-certified small businesses through a sole-source contract, limit contact competitions to HUBZone-certified firms through a contract set-aside, or provide HUBZone-certified firms a price evaluation preference in full and open competitions.48

The HUBZone program was initially funded through the SBA's salary and expenses account. As shown in Table 16, Congress started recommending an appropriation for the program in FY2004. This recommended appropriation remained relatively stable until FY2015, when it increased to $3.0 million. With the recent increase, the HUBZone program's recommended appropriations have exceeded inflation.49

The HUBZone program's expenditures in FY2000-FY2017 and the HUBZone program's anticipated expenditures in FY2018 are presented in the table's last column for comparative purposes.

Table 16. Historically Underutilized Business Zones (HUBZone) Program,
FY2000-FY2019

(recommended appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Recommended Appropriation

Modifications

Final Recommended Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$2.500

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$3.000

‒‒

$3.000

$3.000

2017

$3.000

‒‒

$3.000

$2.792

2016

$3.000

‒‒

$3.000

$3.184

2015

$3.000

‒‒

$3.000

$2.561

2014

$2.250

‒‒

$2.250

$2.248

2013

$2.500

($0.524)a

$1.976

$1.952

2012

$2.500

‒‒

$2.500

$2.155

2011

$2.200

($0.004)b

$2.196

$2.194

2010

$2.200

‒‒

$2.200

$2.189

2009

$2.150

‒‒

$2.150

$2.150

2008

$2.100

‒‒

$2.100

$1.924

2007

$2.000

‒‒

$2.000

$1.931

2006

$2.000

($0.020)c

$1.980

$1.974

2005

$1.979

($0.016)d

$1.963

$1.892

2004

$2.000

($0.012)e

$1.988

$1.974

2003

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$1.807

2002

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$1.618

2001

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$1.791

2000

‒‒

‒‒

‒‒

$1.978

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Congressional Budget Justification [FY2002-FY2010]; SBA, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; H.Rept. 106-479, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2000, and for other Purposes; H.Rept. 106-1005, Making Appropriations for the Government of the District of Columbia and Other Activities Chargeable in Whole or in Part Against Revenues of Said District for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2001, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 107-278, Making Appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2002, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-10, Making Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2003, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-401, Making Appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2004, and For Other Purposes; H.Rept. 108-792, Making Appropriations for Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2005, and For Other Purposes; P.L. 109-148, the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006; H.Rept. 109-272, Making Appropriations for Science, the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2006, and For Other Purposes; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2008), committee print, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 908; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (Division D - Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2009), committee print, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., January 1, 2010 (Washington: GPO, 2010), p. 996; H.Rept. 111-366, Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 83," Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151-Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9740; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding House Amendment No. 1 to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 2029 Consolidated Appropriations Act," Congressional Record, vol. 161, no. 184-Book II (December 17, 2015), p. H10139; P.L. 114-223, the Continuing Appropriations and Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2017; Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 244 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017]," Congressional Record, vol. 163, no. 76-Book II (May 3, 2017), p. H3786; and "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 1625 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018] (Division E – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2018)," p. 87, at http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/DIV%20E%20FSGG%20SOM%20FY18%20OMNI.OCR.pdf.

a. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed in a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $0.520 million reduction from the HUBZone program.

b. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.004 million reduction from the HUBZone program.

c. In FY2006, P.L. 109-148 imposed a 1.0% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.020 million reduction from the HUBZone program.

d. In FY2005, P.L. 108-447 imposed a 0.8% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.016 million reduction from the HUBZone program.

e. In FY2004, P.L. 108-199 imposed a 0.59% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.012 million reduction from the HUBZone program.

The Entrepreneurial Development Initiative (Clusters)

The SBA reports that "regional innovative clusters are on-the-ground collaborations between business, research, education, financing and government institutions that work to develop and grow a particular industry or related set of industries in a particular geographic region."50 The SBA has supported regional innovative clusters since FY2009, and the initiative has received recommended appropriations from Congress since FY2010.

As shown in Table 17, funding for the Entrepreneurial Development Initiative (Clusters) initiative has been reduced from a recommended appropriation of $10.0 million in FY2010 to $5.0 million in FY2018. The table's last column indicates that the SBA's expenditures for the initiative have often been less than the amount appropriated.

The Trump Administration recommended in its FY2018 and FY2019 budget requests that the Entrepreneurial Development Initiative receive no appropriations.51

Table 17. Entrepreneurial Development Initiative (Clusters), FY2010-FY2019

(recommended appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Recommended Appropriation

Modifications

Final Recommended Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$0.000

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$5.000

2017

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$3.259

2016

$6.000

‒‒

$6.000

$5.824

2015

$6.000

‒‒

$6.000

$5.936

2014

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$4.995

2013

$5.000

($1.311)a

$3.689

$3.590

2012

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$3.325

2011

$10.000

($0.020)b

$9.980

$6.581

2010

$10.000

‒‒

$10.000

$9.989

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; H.Rept. 111-366, the Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 111-117, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; H.Rept. 112-331, the Military Construction and Veterans Affairs and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2012 (Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012); P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; SBA, "General Statement Regarding the Implications of Sequestration," provided to the author by the SBA, Office of Congressional and Legislative Affairs, on May 5, 2013; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 3547, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014," Congressional Record, vol. 160, part No 9-Book II (January 15, 2014), p. H908; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 83," Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151-Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9740; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding House Amendment No. 1 to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 2029 Consolidated Appropriations Act," Congressional Record, vol. 161, no. 184-Book II (December 17, 2015), p. H10139 ; P.L. 114-223, the Continuing Appropriations and Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2017; Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 244 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017]," Congressional Record, vol. 163, no. 76-Book II (May 3, 2017), p. H3786; and "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 1625 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018] (Division E – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2018)," p. 87, at http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/DIV%20E%20FSGG%20SOM%20FY18%20OMNI.OCR.pdf.

a. In FY2013, P.L. 112-25 and P.L. 113-6 imposed in a federal government-wide sequestration process and a required 0.2% across-the-board rescission, resulting in a $1.311 million reduction from the Entrepreneurial Development Initiative (Clusters).

b. In FY2011, P.L. 112-10 imposed a 0.2% rescission on federal agencies, resulting in a $0.020 million reduction from the Entrepreneurial Development Initiative (Clusters).

Entrepreneurship Education Initiative

The SBA's Entrepreneurship Education initiative offers high‐growth small businesses in underserved communities "a seven‐month executive leader education series" consisting of "more than 100 hours of specialized training, technical resources, a professional networking system, and other resources to strengthen their business model and promote economic development within urban communities."52 At the conclusion of the training, "participants produce a three‐year strategic growth action plan with benchmarks and performance targets that help them access the necessary support and resources to move forward for the next stage of business growth."53

As shown in Table 18, the Entrepreneurship Education initiative received its first recommended appropriation from Congress in FY2014 ($5.0 million), $7.0 million in FY2015, $10.0 million in FY2016 and FY2017, and $6.0 million in FY2018.

Table 18. Entrepreneurship Education Initiative, FY2014-FY2019

(recommended appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Recommended Appropriation

Modifications

Final Recommended Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$2.000

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$6.000

‒‒

$6.000

$6.000

2017

$10.000

‒‒

$10.000

$2.442

2016

$10.000

‒‒

$10.000

$7.219

2015

$7.000

‒‒

$7.000

$6.711

2014

$5.000

‒‒

$5.000

$4.953

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; H.Rept. 111-366, the Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 111-117, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; H.Rept. 112-331, the Military Construction and Veterans Affairs and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2012 (Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012); P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; SBA, "General Statement Regarding the Implications of Sequestration," provided to the author by the SBA, Office of Congressional and Legislative Affairs, on May 5, 2013; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 3547, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014," Congressional Record, vol. 160, part No 9-Book II (January 15, 2014), p. H908; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 83," Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151-Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9740; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding House Amendment No. 1 to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 2029 Consolidated Appropriations Act," Congressional Record, vol. 161, no. 184-Book II (December 17, 2015), p. H10139; P.L. 114-223, the Continuing Appropriations and Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2017; Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 244 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017]," Congressional Record, vol. 163, no. 76-Book II (May 3, 2017), p. H3786; and "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 1625 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018] (Division E – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2018)," p. 87, at http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/DIV%20E%20FSGG%20SOM%20FY18%20OMNI.OCR.pdf.

Growth Accelerator Initiative

The SBA describes growth accelerators as "organizations that help entrepreneurs start and scale their businesses."54 Growth accelerators are typically run by experienced entrepreneurs and help small businesses access seed capital and mentors. The SBA claims that growth accelerators "help accelerate a startup company's path towards success with targeted advice on revenue growth, employee growth, sourcing outside funding and avoiding pitfalls."55

As shown in Table 19, the Growth Accelerator initiative received its first recommended appropriation from Congress in FY2014 ($2.5 million), $4.0 million in FY2015, and $1.0 million in FY2016, FY2017, and FY2018. It provides $50,000 matching grants each year to universities and private sector accelerators "to support the development of accelerators and their support of startups in parts of the country where there are fewer conventional sources of access to capital (i.e., venture capital and other investors)."56

The Trump Administration recommended in its FY2018 and FY2019 budget requests that the Growth Accelerator Initiative receive no appropriations.57

Table 19. Growth Accelerator Initiative, FY2014-FY2019

(recommended appropriations and expenditures; $ in millions)

Fiscal Year

Initial Recommended Appropriation

Modifications

Final Recommended Appropriation

Expenditures

2019 (request)

$0.000

‒‒

NA

NA

2018

$1.000

‒‒

$1.000

$1.000

2017

$1.000

‒‒

$1.000

$1.000

2016

$1.000

‒‒

$1.000

$3.500

2015

$4.000

‒‒

$4.000

$3.950

2014

$2.500

‒‒

$2.500

$2.500

Sources: U.S. Small Business Administration, Congressional Budget Justification [FY2011-FY2019], at https://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba-performance/performance-budget-finances/congressional-budget-justification-annual-performance-report; H.Rept. 111-366, the Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 111-117 , the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010; P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011; P.L. 112-25, the Budget Control Act of 2011; H.Rept. 112-331, the Military Construction and Veterans Affairs and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2012 (Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012); P.L. 112-175, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2013; P.L. 113-6, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013; SBA, "General Statement Regarding the Implications of Sequestration," provided to the author by the SBA, Office of Congressional and Legislative Affairs, on May 5, 2013; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 3547, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014," Congressional Record, vol. 160, part No 9-Book II (January 15, 2014), p. H908; P.L. 113-76, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 83," Congressional Record, vol. 160, no. 151-Book II (December 11, 2014), p. H9740; Rep. Harold Rogers, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Rogers of Kentucky, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding House Amendment No. 1 to the Senate Amendment on H.R. 2029 Consolidated Appropriations Act," Congressional Record, vol. 161, no. 184-Book II (December 17, 2015), p. H10139; P.L. 114-223, the Continuing Appropriations and Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2017; Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, "Explanatory Statement Submitted By Mr. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 244 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017]," Congressional Record, vol. 163, no. 76-Book II (May 3, 2017), p. H3786; and "Explanatory Statement Submitted by Mr. Frelinghuysen, Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Regarding the House Amendment to the Senate Amendments on H.R. 1625 [the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018] (Division E – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2018)," p. 87, at http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/DIV%20E%20FSGG%20SOM%20FY18%20OMNI.OCR.pdf.

Appendix. SBA Appropriations, FY1954-FY1999

Table A-1. Small Business Administration Appropriations, FY1980-FY1999

($ in millions)

FY

Disaster Assistance

Business Loan Capital Appropriation

Other Programs

Total

FY1999

$293.3

$224.2

$302.5

$820.0

FY1998

$173.2

$181.2

$361.7

$716.1

FY1997

$326.9

$183.7

$341.8

$852.4

FY1996

$331.0

$160.7

$322.5

$814.2

FY1995

$130.2

$271.0

$390.8

$792.0

FY1994

$18.6

$223.4

$408.7

$650.7

FY1993

$401.7

$370.0

$436.4

$1,208.1

FY1992

$705.0

$348.3

$598.8

$1,652.1

FY1991

($129.3)

$157.0

$436.2

$463.9

FY1990

$342.3

$159.5

$426.5

$928.3

FY1989

$0.0

$168.6

$251.6

$420.2

FY1988

$0.0

$165.7

$262.6

$428.3

FY1987

$0.0

$378.2

$225.5

$603.7

FY1986

$0.0

$505.0

$209.4

$714.4

FY1985

$0.0

$511.6

$742.1

$1,253.7

FY1984

$0.0

$363.4

$234.5

$597.9

FY1983

$0.0

$742.7

$274.6

$1,017.3

FY1982

$0.0

$326.0

$243.9

$569.9

FY1981

$325.0

$609.0

$265.9

$1,199.9

FY1980

$1,237.0

$565.0

$194.1

$1,996.1

Sources: U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies, "Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations for [various years]," hearings [various years]; U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Budget of the United States Government, FY1986; Appendix: Small Business Administration, pp. I-XI – IX9; and OMB, Budget of the United States Government, FY1987; Appendix: Small Business Administration, pp. I-XI – IX10.

Notes: In FY1985, an additional $524.96 million was appropriated to the Federal Financing Bank. In FY1995, there was a $6 million rescission, which was subtracted from the other programs column.

Table A-2. Small Business Administration Appropriations, FY1954-FY1979

($ in millions)

FY

Disaster Assistance

Capital Appropriation/ First Revolving Fund

Other Programs

Total

FY1979

$1,235.0

$520.5

$239.0

$1,994.5

FY1978

$2,640.8

$605.0

$230.0

$3,475.8

FY1977

$291.3

$601.6

$90.5

$983.4

FY1976

$100.0

$278.8

$29.4

$418.2

FY1975

$91.8

$307.5

$28.5

$445.8

FY1974

$1.6

$226.0

$23.0

$250.6

FY1973

$1,857.2

$397.0

$22.6

$2,276.8

FY1972

$172.4

$278.1

$22.8

$473.3

FY1971

$366.0

$267.4

$20.0

$653.4

FY1970

$180.0

$3.3

$17.5

$200.8

FY1969

$3.8

$6.0

$11.4

$21.2

FY1968

$2.0

$154.0

$9.9

$165.9

FY1967

$128.3

$722.6

$8.1

$859.0

FY1966

comingled

$310.0

$7.2

$317.2

FY1965

comingled

$145.0

$7.5

$152.5

FY1964

comingled

$90.0

$8.5

$98.5

FY1963

comingled

$300.0

$5.9

$305.9

FY1962

comingled

$220.0

$7.1

$227.1

FY1961

comingled

$50.0

$5.9

$55.9

FY1960

comingled

$150.0

$4.9

$154.9

FY1959

comingled

$200.0

$31.3

$231.3

FY1958

$8.0

$112.0

$2.3

$122.3

FY1957

$12.0

$83.0

$1.9

$96.9

FY1956

$35.0

$10.0

$2.1

$47.1

FY1955

$10.0

$15.0

$2.4

$27.4

FY1954

$5.0

$50.0

$2.7

$57.5

Sources: OMB, Budget of the United States Government [various years]; and Appropriations Acts [various years]: P.L. 83-207, P.L. 84-219, P.L. 84-533, P.L. 84-604, P.L.85-19, P.L. 85-170, P.L. 85-457, P.L. 85-766, P.L. 86-88, P.L. 86-451, P.L. 87-125, P.L. 87-332, P.L. 87-843, P.L. 88-245, and P.L. 89-164.

Notes: The SBA had a single revolving loan fund for both disaster and business loans until 1966 (P.L. 89-409). For FY1954 through FY1958, budgetary documents indicated the amount provided to the revolving loan fund, which was designated for disaster assistance, and the amount designated for business loans. For FY1959 through FY1966, budgetary documents no long provided this level of specificity. In FY1959, $27.5 million was provided for management and training grants, which were awarded through FY1960. The SBA reported that most of the increase in funding for other programs in FY1970 was due to an increase in funding for the SBA's minority management and technical assistance grant program. Most of the increase in funding for other programs in FY1977 was due to the provision of $36 million for the surety bond guarantee program and $15 million for the pollution control equipment guarantee revolving fund.

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Senior Specialist in American National Government ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Footnotes

1.

The U.S. Small Business Administration's (SBA's) Office of Financial Analysis and Modeling is responsible for ensuring that the computation of subsidy rates for the SBA's credit programs are in compliance with the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (FCRA). As indicated on the office's website,

The FCRA requires all credit agencies, including the SBA, to budget and account for the cost of credit programs by determining the net present value of cash flows to and from the Government over the life of the portfolio and expressing the net amount as a credit subsidy rate. The process to develop a subsidy rate is lengthy and complex, requiring unique data collection techniques and analysis efforts. SBA develops its subsidy rates by creating models that incorporate data on loan maturity, borrowers' interest rates, fees, grace periods, interest subsidies, delinquencies, purchases or defaults, recoveries, prepayments, advances and borrower characteristics.

See SBA, Office of Financial Analysis and Modeling, "Summary of Responsibilities," at http://www.sba.gov/offices/headquarters/ocfo/resources/13299.

2.

Fees and collateral collections have less impact on Microloan credit subsides than on guaranteed loan credit subsidies because the SBA does not charge intermediaries fees and Microloan intermediaries are required to maintain a loss reserve fund to help defray the SBA's cost of purchasing Microloans that default.

3.

The SBA's FY2018 appropriation of $697.4 million for other programs is $495.0 million in constant FY2000 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is higher than the SBA's FY2000 appropriation of $459.5 million for other programs. Congressional Research Service (CRS) calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx.

4.

Recessions are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research, which defines a recession as "a significant decline in economic activity [that] spreads across the economy and can last from a few months to more than a year." See National Bureau of Economic Research, "Statement of the NBER Business Cycle Dating Committee on the Determination of the Dates of Turning Points in the U.S. Economy," at http://www.nber.org/cycles/general_statement.html.

5.

Program costs and expenditures typically differ from new budget authority provided by appropriations due to the carryover of budget authority either from the previous fiscal year or into the next fiscal year or to program transfers.

6.

For further information and analysis concerning congressional action in recent Congresses to address small business access to capital, see CRS Report R40985, Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation, by [author name scrubbed].

7.

The SBA's FY2018 appropriation of $268.500 million for salaries and expenses is $190.579 million in constant FY2000 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is higher than the SBA's FY2000 appropriation of $176.490 million for salaries and expenses. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx. Also, the salaries and expenses account includes appropriations for congressional initiatives (earmarks). Congress no longer provides appropriations for congressional initiatives. If those appropriations are excluded, the increase in appropriations for the salaries and expenses account further exceeds the rate of inflation. Appropriations for congressional initiatives were $30.0 million in FY2000; $40 million in FY2001; $30.0 million in FY2002; $58.45 million in FY2003; $45.9 million in FY2004; $41.0 million in FY2005; $91.0 million in FY2006; $0.0 in FY2007 (the SBA was funded by a continuing resolution in FY2007, meaning no new congressional initiatives were specified in the language accompanying the appropriations act); $69.451 million in FY2008; $65.654 million in FY2009; and $59.0 million in FY2010 (available until September 30, 2011). The Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, Section 1566, eliminated appropriations earmarked for congressional initiatives related to small business development and entrepreneurship in FY2011. The SBA spent $10.865 million on congressional initiatives in FY2011, presumably using appropriations made available in FY2010 until September 30, 2011.

8.

The SBA's business loan administration account provides funding for administrative expenses to carry out the SBA's direct (Microloan) and guarantied business loan programs (e.g. the 7(a) and 504/Certified Development Company programs).

9.

The SBA's FY2018 appropriation of $152.782 million for business loan administration is $108.444 million in constant FY2000 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is lower than the SBA's FY2000 appropriation of $129.000 million for business loan administration. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx.

10.

The SBA's FY2018 combined appropriations of $421.282 million for salaries and expenses and business loan administration is $299.023 million in constant FY2000 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is lower than the SBA's FY2000 combined appropriations for these accounts of $305.490 million. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx.

11.

SBA, Office of Inspector General (OIG), "Strategic Plan Fiscal Years 2012-2017," p. 3, at http://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/oig/SBA-OIG%202012-2017%20Strategic%20Plan%20.pdf.

12.

Ibid., p. 3.

13.

The OIG's base FY2018 appropriation of $19.900 million (excluding the $7.0 million supplemental appropriation to oversee disaster assistance) is $14.125 million in constant FY2000 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is higher than its FY2000 appropriation of $11.405 million. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx.

14.

For further information and analysis concerning the Office of Advocacy, see CRS Report R43625, SBA Office of Advocacy: Overview, History, and Current Issues, by [author name scrubbed].

15.

SBA, "Office of Advocacy: About Us," at http://www.sba.gov/category/advocacy-navigation-structure/about-us.

16.

SBA, Office of Advocacy, FY2013 Congressional Budget Justification, p. 2, at http://www.sba.gov/about-sba-info/46741.

17.

Advocacy's FY2018 appropriation of $9.120 million is $6.473 million in constant FY2000 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is higher than Advocacy's FY2000 funding from the salaries and expenses' executive direction subaccount of $5.620 million. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx.

18.

For further information and analysis concerning the SBA's entrepreneurial development noncredit programs, see CRS Report R41352, Small Business Management and Technical Assistance Training Programs, by [author name scrubbed].

19.

P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010, authorized the Step Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Pilot Grant program for three years and appropriated $30 million for the program both in FY2011 and FY2012. The SBA awarded STEP grants to states with the goal of assisting eligible small businesses with exporting in FY2011 and FY2012. The STEP program's authorization expired at the end of FY2013. STEP was subsequently appropriated $8 million FY2014, $17.4 million in FY2015, $18.0 million in FY2016, FY2017, and FY2018. The Trump Administration has recommended that the program receive $10 million in FY2019. For additional information and analysis, see CRS Report R43155, Small Business Administration Trade and Export Promotion Programs, by [author name scrubbed].

20.

SBA, FY2019 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2017 Annual Performance Report, p. 20, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/aboutsbaarticle/SBA_FY_2019_CBJ_APR_2_12_post.pdf.

21.

The Small Business Development Center (SBDC) program's FY2018 appropriation of $130.000 million is $92.273 million in constant FY2000 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is more than its FY2000 appropriation of $84.179 million. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx.

22.

In recent years, SBDCs and their advocates have indicated an interest in receiving additional funding to implement several of the Obama Administration's management and training initiatives in lieu of (or in combination with) those initiatives receiving their own, separate appropriations.

23.

For further analysis of the SBA's Microloan program, see CRS Report R41057, Small Business Administration Microloan Program, by [author name scrubbed].

24.

SBA, FY2019 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2017 Annual Performance Report, p. 38, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/aboutsbaarticle/SBA_FY_2019_CBJ_APR_2_12_post.pdf. For a list of all Microloan intermediaries, regardless of lending volume, see SBA, Microloan Program: Partner Identification & Management System Participating Intermediary Microlenders Report, June 21, 2017, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/articles/microlenderrpt5_20170621.pdf.

25.

The Microloan Technical Assistance program's FY2018 appropriation of $31.000 million is $22.004 million in constant FY2000 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is less than its FY2000 appropriation of $23.112 million. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx.

26.

U.S. Congress, House Committee on Small Business, Review of Women's Business Center Program, 106th Cong., February 11, 1999, Serial No. 106-2 (Washington: GPO, 1999), p. 4.

27.

SBA, "Women's Business Centers Directory," at https://www.sba.gov/tools/local-assistance/wbc.

28.

The WBC program's FY2018 recommended appropriation of $18.000 million is $12.776 million in constant FY2000 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is higher than its FY2000 recommended appropriation of $8.966 million. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx.

29.

U.S. Congress, Senate Select Committee on Small Business and House Select Committee on Small Business, 1966 Federal Handbook for Small Business: A Survey of Small Business Programs in the Federal Government Agencies, committee print, 89th Cong., 3rd sess., January 31, 1966 (Washington: GPO, 1966), p. 5; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Small Business, Subcommittee on Rural Development, Entrepreneurship, and Trade, Subcommittee Hearing on Legislative Initiatives to Modernize SBA's Entrepreneurial Development Programs, 111th Cong., 1st sess., April 2, 2009 (Washington: GPO, 2009), p. 6; and SBA, FY2013 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2011 Annual Performance Report, p. 45, at http://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/files/FY%202013%20CBJ%20FY%202011%20APR.pdf.

30.

SCORE (Service Corps of Retired Executives), "About SCORE," Washington, DC, at https://www.score.org/about-score.

31.

SCORE's FY2018 recommended appropriation of $11.500 million is $8.163 million in constant FY2000 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is higher than its FY2000 recommended appropriation of $3.487 million. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx.

32.

P.L. 106-102, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, Section 173. Establishment of Program and Section 175. Qualified Organizations.

33.

SBA, FY2018 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2016 Annual Performance Report, p. 12, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/aboutsbaarticle/FINAL_SBA_FY_2018_CBJ_May_22_2017c.pdf; and SBA, FY2019 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2017 Annual Performance Report, p. 13, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/aboutsbaarticle/SBA_FY_2019_CBJ_APR_2_12_post.pdf.

34.

Syracuse University, "About the EBV," Syracuse, NY, at http://whitman.syr.edu/ebv/about/; and SBA, "SBA Expands Entrepreneurship Boot Camp for Vets: Announces Two New Programs for Women Vets, Guard, Reservists and Families," November 10, 2010, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/news_release_10-63.pdf.

35.

Syracuse University, "Women Veterans Igniting the Spirit of Entrepreneurship (V-WISE)," Syracuse, NY, at http://whitman.syr.edu/vwise/about.aspx; and SBA, "SBA Expands Entrepreneurship Boot Camp for Vets: Announces Two New Programs for Women Vets, Guard, Reservists and Families," November 10, 2010, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/news_release_10-63.pdf.

36.

Syracuse University, "About Operation Endure and Grow," Syracuse, NY, at http://vets.syr.edu/education/endure-grow/.

37.

SBA, "Operation Boots to Business: From Service to Startup," at https://www.sba.gov/offices/headquarters/ovbd/resources/160511; and SBA, "Operation Boots to Business: Fact Sheet," at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/files/B2B_Fact%20Sheet.pdf.

38.

Ibid., pp. 90, 99.

39.

SBA, "Veterans Business Outreach Centers," at https://www.sba.gov/offices/headquarters/ovbd/resources/362341. VBOC grants, starting at $180,000, "are made for up to a three-year period of performance, consisting of a base period of 12 months from the date of award and up to two renewal option periods of 12 months each. Exercise of the option periods will be solely at SBA's discretion and is subject to continuing program authority, the availability of funds, and the recipient's continued satisfactory performance and compliance." Also, "funding per VBOC will vary based on proposed Boots to Business (B2B) program delivery and associated outreach." See SBA, Office of Veterans Business Development, "FY 2015 Program Announcement No. VBOC-2015-02," pp. 6-7, at https://www.sba.gov/offices/headquarters/ovbd/spotlight. In FY2013, the Veterans Business Outreach Centers Program conducted its ninth annual "Customer Satisfaction Survey." The FY2013 survey found that 91% of the clients using the centers were satisfied or highly satisfied with the quality, relevance, and timeliness of the assistance provided. See SBA, FY2015 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2013 Annual Performance Report, p. 81, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/files/FY%202015%20CBJ%20FY%202013%20APR%20FINAL%20508(1).pdf.

40.

The Veterans Business Outreach Centers Program's FY2015 recommended appropriation of $3.000 million is $2.254 million in constant FY2000 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is higher than its FY2000 recommended appropriation of $0.613 million. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2017: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2021," at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BUDGET-2017-TAB/pdf/BUDGET-2017-TAB.pdf.

41.

13 C.F.R. §124.702.

42.

SBA, FY2017 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2015 Annual Performance Report, p. 50, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/FY17-CBJ_FY15-APR.pdf.

43.

SBA, FY2011 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2009 Annual Performance Report, p. 65, at http://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/Congressional_Budget_Justification.pdf.

44.

Ibid.

45.

The SBA's FY2018 recommended appropriation of $2.000 million for the Native American Outreach Program is $1.505 million in constant FY2003 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is lower than its initial FY2003 recommended appropriation of $1.987 million. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx

46.

The National Women's Business Council, "About the Council," Washington, DC, at http://www.nwbc.gov/aboutus/ABOUT_THE_COUNCIL.html.

47.

The SBA's FY2018 recommended appropriation of $1.500 million for the National Women's Business Council is $1.064 million in constant FY2000 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is higher than its FY2000 recommended appropriation of $0.598 million. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx.

48.

For additional information and analysis concerning the HUBZone program, see CRS Report R41268, Small Business Administration HUBZone Program, by [author name scrubbed].

49.

The SBA's FY2018 recommended appropriation of $3.000 million for the HUBZone program is $2.252 million in constant FY2004 dollars (adjusted for inflation), which is higher than its FY2004 recommended appropriation of $1.988 million. CRS calculation using inflation data from U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), "Budget of the United States Government, FY2019: Historical Tables, Table 10.1 ‒ Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940–2023," at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hist10z1-fy2019.xlsx.

50.

SBA, FY2014 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2012 Annual Performance Report, p. 60, at http://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/files/1-FY%202014%20CBJ%20FY%202012%20APR.PDF.

51.

SBA, FY2018 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2016 Annual Performance Report, p. 12, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/aboutsbaarticle/FINAL_SBA_FY_2018_CBJ_May_22_2017c.pdf; and SBA, FY2019 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2017 Annual Performance Report, p. 13, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/aboutsbaarticle/SBA_FY_2019_CBJ_APR_2_12_post.pdf.

52.

SBA, FY2014 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2012 Annual Performance Report, p.71, at http://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/files/1-FY%202014%20CBJ%20FY%202012%20APR.PDF.

53.

Ibid.

54.

Ibid., p. 59.

55.

Ibid. See also Jonathan Porat, "Exploring the Policy Relevance of Startup Accelerators," SBA, Office of Advocacy, Issue Brief No. 4, November 17, 2014, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/advocacy/Issue%20Brief%204%20Accelerators%20FINAL.pdf.

56.

SBA, "SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition: The 2017 Growth Accelerator Fund Competition," at https://www.sba.gov/node/1428931/leadership/.

57.

U.S. Office of Management and Budget, America First: A Budget Blueprint to Make America Great Again, p. 45, at https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/omb/budget/fy2018/2018_blueprint.pdf; and SBA, FY2019 Congressional Budget Justification and FY2017 Annual Performance Report, p. 13, at https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/aboutsbaarticle/SBA_FY_2019_CBJ_APR_2_12_post.pdf.