Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic

. Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic Rita Tehan Information Research Specialist June 10, 2015 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R42507 c11173008 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic . Summary This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other government agencies, trade associations, and interest groups. The reports and related websites are grouped under the following cybersecurity topics: • • • • • • • • • Policy overview National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) Cloud computing and the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP) Critical infrastructure Cybercrime, data breaches, and data security National security, cyber espionage, and cyberwar (including Stuxnet) International efforts Education/training/workforce Research and development (R&D) In addition, the report lists selected cybersecurity-related websites for congressional and government agencies; news; international organizations; and other organizations, associations, and institutions. c11173008 Congressional Research Service Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic . Contents CRS Reports, by Topic .................................................................................................................... 1 Cybersecurity Policy: CRS Reports and Other CRS Products .................................................. 1 Critical Infrastructure: CRS Reports ....................................................................................... 16 Cybercrime and Data Security: CRS Reports and Other CRS Products ................................. 34 Selected Reports, by Federal Agency ............................................................................................ 92 Department of Defense and National Security: CRS Reports and Other CRS Products ....... 109 CRS Product: Cybersecurity Framework .............................................................................. 116 Related Resources: Other Websites ............................................................................................. 138 Tables Table 1. Cybersecurity Overview .................................................................................................... 2 Table 2. National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) ...................................... 8 Table 3. Cloud Computing, “The Internet of Things,” and FedRAMP ........................................ 10 Table 4. Critical Infrastructure ....................................................................................................... 17 Table 5. Cybercrime, Data Breaches, and Data Security ............................................................... 35 Table 6. National Security, Cyber Espionage, and Cyberwar ........................................................ 47 Table 7. International Efforts ......................................................................................................... 59 Table 8. Education/Training/Workforce......................................................................................... 77 Table 9. Research and Development (R&D) ................................................................................. 86 Table 10. Government Accountability Office (GAO) .................................................................... 92 Table 11. White House and Office of Management and Budget.................................................. 104 Table 12. Department of Defense (DOD) .................................................................................... 110 Table 13. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) .............................................. 117 Table 14. Other Federal Agencies ................................................................................................ 122 Table 15. State, Local, and Tribal Governments .......................................................................... 134 Table 16. Related Resources: Congressional and Government ................................................... 138 Table 17. Related Resources: International Organizations .......................................................... 140 Table 18. Related Resources: News ............................................................................................. 141 Table 19. Related Resources: Other Associations and Institutions .............................................. 141 Contacts Author Contact Information......................................................................................................... 143 Key Policy Staff ........................................................................................................................... 143 c11173008 Congressional Research Service Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic . CRS Reports, by Topic1 This section provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other government agencies, think tanks, trade associations, trade press, and technology research firms. For each topic, CRS reports are listed first, followed by tables with reports from other organizations. Cybersecurity Policy: CRS Reports and Other CRS Products • • • • • • • • • • • • CRS Report R43831, Cybersecurity Issues and Challenges: In Brief, by Eric A. Fischer CRS Report IF10001, Cybersecurity Issues and Challenges, by Eric A. Fischer CRS Report R42114, Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Overview of Major Issues, Current Laws, and Proposed Legislation, by Eric A. Fischer CRS Report R43941, Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Legal Challenges and Solutions, by Andrew Nolan CRS Report R41941, The Obama Administration’s Cybersecurity Proposal: Criminal Provisions, by Gina Stevens CRS Report R42984, The 2013 Cybersecurity Executive Order: Overview and Considerations for Congress, by Eric A. Fischer et al. CRS Report R40150, A Federal Chief Technology Officer in the Obama Administration: Options and Issues for Consideration, by John F. Sargent Jr. CRS Report R42409, Cybersecurity: Selected Legal Issues, by Edward C. Liu et al. CRS Report R42887, Overview and Issues for Implementation of the Federal Cloud Computing Initiative: Implications for Federal Information Technology Reform Management, by Patricia Moloney Figliola and Eric A. Fischer CRS Report R43015, Cloud Computing: Constitutional and Statutory Privacy Protections, by Richard M. Thompson II CRS Legal Sidebar WSLG478, House Intelligence Committee Marks Up Cybersecurity Bill CISPA, by Richard M. Thompson II CRS Legal Sidebar WSLG263, Can the President Deal with Cybersecurity Issues via Executive Order?, by Vivian S. Chu 1 For information on legislation and hearings in the 112th and 113th Congresses, see CRS Report R43317, Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents, by Rita Tehan. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 1 . Table 1. Cybersecurity Overview Title Date Pages Notes Cyber Threat Information Sharing: Recommendations for Congress and the Administration Center for Strategic and International Studies March 10, 2015 18 The success of the president’s executive order promoting cyberthreat information sharing depends on legislation passing Congress. The report recommends that legislation should not be one-size-fits-all; have a minimal role for government; build on existing information sharing; streamline mechanisms to share info; add value for all parties participating; protect information shared from FOIA requests, litigation or regulatory enforcement; and protect organizations from civil and criminal liability for monitoring and sharing on cyberthreats if done in good faith. The Emergence of Cybersecurity Law Indiana University Maurer School of Law February 2015 31 This paper examines cyberlaw as a growing field of legal practice and the roles that lawyers play in helping companies respond to cybersecurity threats. Drawing on interviews with lawyers, consultants, and academics knowledgeable in the intersection of law and cybersecurity, as well as a survey of lawyers working in general counsel’s offices, this study examines the broader context of cybersecurity, the current legal framework for data security and related issues, and the ways in which lawyers learn about and involve themselves in cybersecurity issues. OMG Cyber! Thirteen Reasons Why Hype Makes for Bad Policy The RUSI Journal November 4, 2014 8 The article argues that cyber is “hyped out.” Overstating the threat does have benefits (for some); it also comes with significant costs. The benefits are short-lived and easy to spot, whereas the costs are long-term and harder to understand—and they are piling up fast and high. Indeed, the costs are so high that the debate inches toward a turning point for all parties involved. The authors list 13 reasons why cybersecurity hype is counterproductive. CRS-2 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes Ten Strategies of a World-Class Cybersecurity Operations Center MITRE Corporation October 2014 346 All too often, cybersecurity operations centers (CSOCs) are set up and operate with a focus on technology without adequately addressing people and process issues. The main premise of this book is that a more balanced approach would be more effective. The book describes the 10 strategies of effective CSOCs—regardless of their size, offered capabilities, or type of constituency served cost. How Do We Know What Information Sharing Is Really Worth? Exploring Methodologies to Measure the Value of Information Sharing and Fusion Efforts RAND Corporation June 27, 2014 33 Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the sharing of intelligence and law enforcement information has been a central part of U.S. domestic security efforts. Although much of the public debate about such sharing focuses on addressing the threat of terrorism, organizations at all levels of government routinely share varied types of information through multiagency information systems, collaborative groups, and other links. Resource constraints have given rise to concerns about the effectiveness of information sharing and fusion activities and, therefore, the value of these efforts relative to the public funds invested in them. Solid methods for evaluating these efforts are lacking, however, limiting the ability to make informed policy decisions. Drawing on a substantial literature review and synthesis, this report lays out the challenges of evaluating information-sharing efforts that frequently seek to achieve multiple goals simultaneously; reviews past evaluations of information-sharing programs; and lays out a path to improve the evaluation of such efforts going forward. Defending an Open, Global, Secure, and Resilient Internet Council on Foreign Relations June 2013 127 The task force recommends that the United States develop a digital policy framework based on four pillars, the last of which is that U.S.-based industry work rapidly to establish an industry-led approach to counter current and future cyberattacks. CRS-3 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes Measuring What Matters: Reducing Risk by Rethinking How We Evaluate Cybersecurity Safegov.org, in coordination with the National Academy of Public Administration March 2013 39 This report recommends that rather than periodically auditing whether an agency’s systems meet the standards enumerated in the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) at a static moment in time, agencies and their inspectors general should keep running scorecards of “cyber risk indicators” based on continual inspector general assessments of a federal organization’s cyber vulnerabilities. Developing a Framework to Improve Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity (Federal Register Notice; Request for Information) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) February 12, 2013 5 NIST announced the first step in the development of a cybersecurity framework, which will be a set of voluntary standards and best practices to guide industry in reducing cyber risks to the networks and computers that are vital to the nation’s economy, security, and daily life. SEI [Software Engineering Institute] Emerging Technology Center: Cyber Intelligence Tradecraft Project Carnegie Mellon University January 2013 23 This report addresses the endemic problem of functional cyber intelligence analysts not effectively communicating with nontechnical audiences. It also notes organizations’ reluctance to share information within their own entities, industries, and across economic sectors. The National Cyber Security Framework Manual NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Center of Excellence December 11, 2012 253 This report provides detailed background information and in-depth theoretical frameworks to help the reader understand the various facets of national cybersecurity, according to different levels of public policy formulation. The four levels of government—political, strategic, operational, and tactical/technical—each have their own perspectives on national cybersecurity, and each is addressed in individual sections within the manual. 20 Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defense Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) November 2012 89 The top 20 security controls from a public-private consortium. Members of the consortium include the National Security Agency, U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team, Department of Defense (DOD) Joint Task Force-Global Network Operations, Department of Energy Nuclear Laboratories, Department of State, and DOD Cyber Crime Center plus commercial forensics experts in the banking and critical infrastructure communities. CRS-4 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes Cyber Security Task Force: Public-Private Information Sharing Bipartisan Policy Center July 2012 24 Outlines a series of proposals that would enhance information sharing. The recommendations have two major components: (1) mitigating perceived legal impediments to information sharing, and (2) incentivizing private sector information sharing by alleviating statutory and regulatory obstacles. Cyber-security: The Vexed Question of Global Rules McAfee and the Security Defense Agenda February 2012 108 This independent report examines the current state of cyber-preparedness around the world and is based on survey results from 80 policymakers and cybersecurity experts in the government, business, and academic sectors from 27 countries. The countries were ranked on their state of cyber-preparedness. Mission Critical: A Public-Private Strategy for Effective Cybersecurity Business Roundtable October 11, 2011 28 The report suggests that “[p]ublic policy solutions must recognize the absolute importance of leveraging policy foundations that support effective global risk management, in contrast to ‘check-the-box’ compliance approaches that can undermine security and cooperation.” The document concludes with specific policy proposals and activity commitments. World Cybersecurity Technology Research Summit (Belfast 2011) Centre for Secure Information Technologies (CSIT) September 12, 2011 14 The Belfast 2011 event attracted international cybersecurity experts from leading research institutes, government bodies, and industry who gathered to discuss current cybersecurity threats, predict future threats and necessary mitigation techniques, and develop a collective strategy for further research. A Review of Frequently Used Cyber Analogies National Security Cyberspace Institute July 22, 2011 7 From the report: “The current cybersecurity crisis can be described several ways with numerous metaphors. Many compare the current crisis with the lawlessness to that of the Wild West and the out-dated tactics and race to security with the Cold War. When treated as a distressed ecosystem, the work of both national and international agencies to eradicate many infectious diseases serves as a model as how poor health can be corrected with proper resources and execution. Before these issues are discussed, what cyberspace actually is must be identified.” CRS-5 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes America’s Cyber Future: Security and Prosperity in the Information Age Center for a New American Security May 31, 2011 296 To help U.S. policymakers address the growing danger of cyber insecurity, this two-volume report features chapters on cybersecurity strategy, policy, and technology by some of the world’s leading experts on international relations, national security, and information technology. Resilience of the Internet Interconnection Ecosystem European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) April 11, 2011 238 This study consists of several parts. Part I provides a summary and recommendations. Part II: State of the Art Review offers a detailed description of the Internet’s routing mechanisms and an analysis of their robustness at the technical, economic, and policy levels. Part III: Report on the Consultation reports and summarizes the results of consultation with a broad range of stakeholders. Part IV includes the bibliography and appendices. Improving our Nation’s Cybersecurity through the Public-Private Partnership: A White Paper Business Software Alliance, Center for Democracy and Technology, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Internet Security Alliance, and Tech America March 8, 2011 26 This paper proposes expanding the existing partnership within the framework of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan. Specifically, it makes a series of recommendations that build upon the conclusions of President Obama’s Cyberspace Policy Review. Cybersecurity Two Years Later CSIS Commission on Cybersecurity for the 44th Presidency January 2011 22 From the report: “We thought then [in 2008] that securing cyberspace had become a critical challenge for national security, which our nation was not prepared to meet.... In our view, we are still not prepared.” Toward Better Usability, Security, and Privacy of Information Technology: Report of a Workshop National Research Council (NRC) September 21, 2010 70 The report discusses computer system security and privacy, their relationship to usability, and research at their intersection. It is drawn from remarks made at the NRC’s July 2009 Workshop on Usability, Security and Privacy of Computer Systems as well as reports from the NRC’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board on security and privacy. CRS-6 c11173008 Source . Title National Security Threats in Cyberspace Source Joint Workshop of the National Security Threats in Cyberspace and the National Strategy Forum Date Pages September 15, 2009 37 Source: Highlights compiled by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) from the reports. CRS-7 c11173008 Notes The two-day workshop brought together more than two dozen experts with diverse backgrounds, including physicists; telecommunications executives; Silicon Valley entrepreneurs; federal law enforcement, military, homeland security, and intelligence officials; congressional staffers; and civil liberties advocates. Participants engaged in an open-ended discussion of cyber policy as it relates to national security, under Chatham House Rules: their comments were for the public record, but they were not for attribution. . Table 2. National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) Title National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) Identity Ecosystem Framework Steering Group (IDESG) Date Pages Notes National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Ongoing N/A The NSTIC pilot projects seek to catalyze a marketplace of online identity solutions that ensures the envisioned Identity Ecosystem is trustworthy and has the confidence of individuals. Using privacy-enhancing architectures in real-world environments, the pilots are testing new methods for identification online for consumers that increase usability, security, and interoperability to safeguard online transactions. IDESG Ongoing N/A The NSTIC called for the establishment of a private sector-led steering group to administer the development and adoption of the Identity Ecosystem Framework: the IDESG. The IDESG receives its authority to operate from the active participation of its membership in accordance with the rules of association that follow. The IDESG has been initiated with the support of the NIST. Following an initial period, the IDESG will transition to a self-sustaining organization. 68 Since 2012, the NSTIC has awarded approximately $30 million to pilot projects for shaping the identity ecosystem (a system for consumers to create online identities). The study finds common themes, including: the opportunity for increased revenue, emerging identities architecture, and standards and interoperability. NSTIC Pilots: Catalyzing the Identity Ecosystem NIST April 2015 NIST Announces Pilot Grants Competition to Improve Security and Privacy of Online Identity Verification Systems NIST February 12, 2015 N/A NIST announces a fourth round of grants meant to create market conditions for a post-password world. The agency says it anticipates funding several projects with awards of approximately $1 million to $2 million over two years through its NSTIC program. Administration officials say the NSTIC end goal is creation of an “identity ecosystem” that allows Americans to safely conduct online transactions under a variety of security and privacy settings. NIST Awards Grants to Improve Online Security and Privacy NIST September 17, 2013 N/A NIST announced more than $7 million in grants to support the NSTIC. The funding will enable five U.S. organizations to develop pilot identity protection and verification systems that offer consumers more privacy, security, and convenience online. CRS-8 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes N/A NIST announced more than $9 million in grant awards to support the NSTIC. Five U.S. organizations will pilot identity solutions that increase confidence in online transactions, prevent identity theft, and provide individuals with more control over how they share their personal information. Five Pilot Projects Receive Grants to Promote Online Security and Privacy NIST September 20, 2012 Recommendations for Establishing an Identity Ecosystem Governance Structure NIST February 17, 2012 51 NIST responds to comments received in response to the related notice of inquiry (NOI) published in the Federal Register on June 14, 2011. This report summarizes the responses to the NOI and provides recommendations and intended government actions to serve as a catalyst for establishing such a governance structure. The recommendations result from comments and suggestions by the NOI respondents as well as best practices and lessons learned from similarly scoped governance efforts. Models for a Governance Structure for the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace NIST June 14, 2011 4 The department seeks public comment on potential models from all stakeholders, including the commercial, academic and civil society sectors, and consumer and privacy advocates, in the form of recommendations and key assumptions in the formation and structure of the steering group. Administration Releases Strategy to Protect Online Consumers and Support Innovation and Fact Sheet on National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace White House April 15, 2011 N/A National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace White House April 15, 2011 52 The NSTIC aims to make online transactions more trustworthy, thereby giving businesses and consumers more confidence in conducting business online. National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace: Creating Options for Enhanced Online Security and Privacy White House June 25, 2010 39 The NSTIC, which is in response to one of the near-term action items in the President’s Cyberspace Policy Review, calls for the creation of an online environment, or an identity ecosystem, in which individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with confidence, trusting the identities of each other and of the infrastructure in which transactions occur. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS-9 c11173008 Source Press release on a proposal to administer the processes for policy and standards adoption for the Identity Ecosystem Framework in accordance with the NSTIC. . Table 3. Cloud Computing, “The Internet of Things,” and FedRAMP Title Date About FedRAMP General Services Administration (GSA) Ongoing Formation of the Office of Technology Research and Investigation (OTRI) Federal Trade Commission (FTC) March 23, 2015 Insecurity in the Internet of Things (IoT) Symantec March 12, 2015 CRS-10 c11173008 Source Pages Notes N/A The Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP) is a government-wide program that provides a standardized approach to security assessment, authorization, and continuous monitoring for cloud products and services. The OTRI will provide expert research, investigative techniques, and further insights to the agency on technology issues involving all facets of the FTC’s consumer protection mission, including privacy, data security, connected cars, smart homes, algorithmic transparency, emerging payment methods, big data, and the Internet of Things. Like the former Mobile Technology Unit (MTU), the new office will be housed in the Bureau of Consumer Protection and is the agency’s latest effort to ensure that its core consumer protection mission keeps pace with the rapidly evolving digital economy. Kristin Cohen, the current chief of the MTU, will lead the work of the OTRI. 20 Symantec analyzed 50 smart home devices that are available today and found that none of the devices enforced strong passwords, used mutual authentication, or protected accounts against bruteforce attacks. Almost 2 out of 10 of the mobile apps used to control the tested IoT devices did not use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to encrypt communications to the cloud. The tested IoT technology also contained many common vulnerabilities. . Title Date Pages Notes N/A GSA released a draft of security controls it will require for cloud-computer systems purchased by federal agencies for “high-impact” uses. High-impact data will likely consist of health and law-enforcement data, but not classified information. Cloud computing vendors seeking to sell to federal agencies currently must get security accreditation through FedRAMP. To date, FedRAMP has offered accreditations up to the “moderate-impact” level. About 80% of federal IT systems are low- and moderate-impact. FedRAMP High Baseline GSA February 3, 2015 What is The Internet of Things? (free; registration required) O’Reilly Media January 2015 32 Ubiquitous connectivity is meeting the era of data. Since working with large quantities of data became dramatically cheaper and easier a few years ago, everything that touches software has become instrumented and optimized. Finance, advertising, retail, logistics, academia, and practically every other discipline has sought to measure, model, and tweak its way to efficiency. Software can ingest data from lots of inputs, interpret it, and then issue commands in real time. FedRAMP Forward: 2 Year Priorities GSA December 17, 2014 14 The report addresses how the program will develop over the next two years. GSA is focusing on three goals for FedRAMP: increased compliance and agency participation, improved efficiencies, and continued adaptation. The Internet of Things: 2014 OECD Tech Insight Forum OECD December 11, 2014 N/A The Internet of Things extends internet connectivity beyond traditional machines like computers, smartphones and tablets to a diverse range of everyday devices that use embedded technology to interact with the environment, all via the Internet. How can this collected data be used? What new opportunities will this create for employment and economic growth? How can societies benefit from technical developments to health, transport, safety and security, business and public services? The OECD Technology Foresight Forum facilitated discussion on what policies and practices will enable or inhibit the ability of economies to seize the benefits of the Internet of Things. CRS-11 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes DOD Cloud Computing Strategy Needs Implementation Plan and Detailed Waiver Process Department of Defense (DOD) Inspector General December 4, 2014 40 Report states that the DOD chief information officer “did not develop an implementation plan that assigned roles and responsibilities as well as associated tasks, resources and milestones,” despite promises that an implementation plan would directly follow the cloud strategy’s release. NSTAC Report to the President on the Internet of Things President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee November 18, 2014 56 The NSTAC unanimously approved a recommendation that governmental Internet traffic could get priority transmission during emergencies. The government already gets emergency priority in more traditional communications networks like the ‘phone system through programs such as the Government Emergency Telecommunications Service — now NSTAC is proposing a GETS for the Internet. The Department of Energy’s Management of Cloud Computing Activities: Audit Report Department of Energy (DOE) Inspector General September 1, 2014 20 DOE should do a better job buying, implementing and managing its cloud computing services. Programs and sites department-wide have independently spent more than $30 million on cloud services, the inspector general report said, but the chief information officer’s office could not accurately account for the money. Cloud Computing: The Concept, Impacts, and the Role of Government Policy Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) August 19, 2014 240 This report gives a clear overview of cloud computing, presenting the concept, the services it provides, and deployment models. It provides an overview of how cloud computing changes the way computing is carried out and evaluates the impacts of cloud computing (including its benefits and challenges as well as its economic and environmental impacts). Finally, the report discusses the policy issues raised by cloud computing and the role of governments and other stakeholders in addressing these issues. Internet of things: the influence of M2M data on the energy industry GigaOm Research March 4, 2014 21 This report examines the drivers of machine-2machine (M2M)-data exploitation in the smart-grid sector and the oil and gas sector, as well as the risks and opportunities for buyers and suppliers of the related core technologies and services. CRS-12 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes Software Defined Perimeter Cloud Security Alliance December 1, 2013 13 The Software Defined Perimeter (SDP) initiative by the Cloud Security Alliance aims to make “invisible networks” accessible to a wider range of government agencies and corporations. The initiative will foster development of an architecture for securing the “Internet of Things” by using the cloud to create highly secure end-to-end networks between any IPaddressable entities. Delivering on the Promise of Big Data and the Cloud Booz Allen Hamilton January 9, 2013 7 From the report: “Reference architecture does away with conventional data and analytics silos, consolidating all information into a single medium designed to foster connections called a ‘data lake,’ which reduces complexity and creates efficiencies that improve data visualization to allow for easier insights by analysts.” Cloud Computing: An Overview of the Technology and the Issues facing American Innovators House Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Intellectual Property, Competition, and the Internet July 25, 2012 156 Overview and discussion of cloud computing issues. Information Technology Reform: Progress Made but Future Cloud Computing Efforts Should be Better Planned Government Accountability Office (GAO) July 11, 2012 43 GAO recommends that the Secretaries of Agriculture, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, State, and the Treasury, and the Administrators of the General Services Administration (GSA) and Small Business Administration should direct their respective chief information officers to establish estimated costs, performance goals, and plans to retire associated legacy systems for each cloud-based service discussed in this report, as applicable. Cloud Computing Strategy DOD Chief Information Officer July 2012 44 The DOD Cloud Computing Strategy introduces an approach to move the department from the current state of a duplicative, cumbersome, and costly set of application silos to an end state that is agile, secure, and cost-effective and to a service environment that can rapidly respond to changing mission needs. A Global Reality: Governmental Access to Data in the Cloud—A Comparative Analysis of Ten International Jurisdictions Hogan Lovells May 23, 2012 13 This white paper compares the nature and extent of governmental access to data in the cloud in many jurisdictions around the world. CRS-13 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes Policy Challenges of Cross-Border Cloud Computing U.S. International Trade Commission May 2012 38 This report examines the main policy challenges associated with cross-border cloud computing—data privacy, security, and ensuring the free flow of information—and the ways countries are addressing them through domestic policymaking, international agreements, and other cooperative arrangements. Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations (SP 800-146) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) May 2012 81 NIST’s guide explains cloud technologies in plain terms to federal agencies and provides recommendations for IT decision makers. Global Cloud Computing Scorecard a Blueprint for Economic Opportunity Business Software Alliance February 2, 2012 24 This report notes that although many developed countries have adjusted their laws and regulations to address cloud computing, the wide differences in those rules make it difficult for companies to invest in the technology. Concept of Operations: FedRAMP GSA February 7, 2012 47 Implementation of FedRAMP will be in phases. This document describes all the services that will be available at initial operating capability, targeted for June 2012. The concept of operations will be updated as the program evolves toward sustained operations. Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP) Federal Chief Information Officers Council January 4, 2012 N/A FedRAMP has been established to provide a standard approach to assessing and authorizing (A&A) cloud computing services and products. Security Authorization of Information Systems in Cloud Computing Environments (FedRAMP) White House/Office of Management and Budget (OMB) December 8, 2011 7 FedRAMP will now be required for all agencies purchasing storage, applications, and other remote services from vendors. The Administration promotes cloud computing as a means to save money and accelerate the government’s adoption of new technologies. U.S. Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap, Volume I, Release 1.0 (Draft). High-Priority Requirements to Further USG Agency Cloud Computing Adoption (SP 500-293) NIST December 1, 2011 32 Volume I is aimed at interested parties that wish to gain a general understanding and overview of the background, purpose, context, work, results, and next steps of the U.S. Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap initiative. CRS-14 c11173008 Source . Title Source Date Pages Notes U.S. Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap, Volume II, Release 1.0 (Draft), Useful Information for Cloud Adopters (SP 500-293) NIST December 1, 2011 85 Volume II is designed as a technical reference for those actively working on strategic and tactical cloud computing initiatives including, but not limited to, U.S. government cloud adopters. This volume integrates and summarizes the work completed to date and explains how these findings support the roadmap introduced in Volume I. Information Security: Additional Guidance Needed to Address Cloud Computing Concerns GAO October 6, 2011 17 Twenty-two of 24 major federal agencies reported that they were either concerned or very concerned about the potential information security risks associated with cloud computing. GAO recommended that the NIST issue guidance specific to cloud computing security. Cloud Computing Reference Architecture (SP 500-292) NIST September 1, 2011 35 This special publication, which is not an official U.S. government standard, is designed to provide guidance to specific communities of practitioners and researchers. Guide to Cloud Computing for Policy Makers Software and Information Industry Association (SAII) July 26, 2011 27 The SAII concludes that “there is no need for cloudspecific legislation or regulations to provide for the safe and rapid growth of cloud computing, and in fact, such actions could impede the great potential of cloud computing.” Federal Cloud Computing Strategy White House February 13, 2011 43 The strategy outlines how the federal government can accelerate the safe, secure adoption of cloud computing and provides agencies with a framework for migrating to the cloud. It also examines how agencies can address challenges related to the adoption of cloud computing, such as privacy, procurement, standards, and governance. 25 Point Implementation Plan to Reform Federal Information Technology Management White House December 9, 2010 40 The plan’s goals are to reduce the number of federally run data centers from 2,100 to approximately 1,300; rectify or cancel one-third of troubled IT projects, and require federal agencies to adopt a “cloud first” strategy in which they will move at least one system to a hosted environment within a year. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. Note: These reports analyze cybersecurity issues related to the federal government’s adoption of cloud computing storage options. CRS-15 c11173008 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic . Critical Infrastructure: CRS Reports • • • • • • • • • c11173008 CRS Report R42683, Critical Infrastructure Resilience: The Evolution of Policy and Programs and Issues for Congress, by John D. Moteff CRS Report RL30153, Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation, by John D. Moteff CRS Report R42660, Pipeline Cybersecurity: Federal Policy, by Paul W. Parfomak CRS Report R41536, Keeping America’s Pipelines Safe and Secure: Key Issues for Congress, by Paul W. Parfomak CRS Report R41886, The Smart Grid and Cybersecurity—Regulatory Policy and Issues, by Richard J. Campbell CRS Report R42338, Smart Meter Data: Privacy and Cybersecurity, by Brandon J. Murrill, Edward C. Liu, and Richard M. Thompson II CRS Report RL33586, The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities, by Patricia Moloney Figliola CRS Report 97-868, Internet Domain Names: Background and Policy Issues, by Lennard G. Kruger CRS Report IN10027, Open-Source Software and Cybersecurity: The Heartbleed Bug, by Eric A. Fischer, Catherine A. Theohary, and John W. Rollins Congressional Research Service 16 . Table 4. Critical Infrastructure Title Date Pages Notes HHS Breach Portal: Breaches Affecting 500 or More Individuals Health and Human Services (HHS) Ongoing Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program (CEDS) Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Ongoing N/A The program assists the energy sector asset owners (electric, oil, and gas) by developing cybersecurity solutions for energy delivery systems through integrated planning and a focused research and development effort. CEDS co-funds projects with industry partners to make advances in cybersecurity capabilities for energy delivery systems. Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (C2M2) DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Ongoing N/A The model was developed by the DOE and industry as a cybersecurity control evaluation and improvement management tool for energy sector firms. It tells adherents how to assess and grade adoption of cybersecurity practices. GridEx North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Ongoing N/A The objectives of the NERC Grid Security Exercise (GridEx) series are to use simulated scenarios (with no real-world effects) to exercise the current readiness of participating electricity subsector entities to respond to cyber- or physical security incidents and provide input for security program improvements to the bulk power system. GridEx is a biennial international grid security exercise that uses best practices and other contributions from the Department of Homeland Security, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. CRS-17 c11173008 Source As required by Section 13402(e)(4) of the HITECH Act, the Secretary must post a list of breaches of unsecured protected health information affecting 500 or more individuals. These breaches are now posted in a new, more accessible format that allows users to search and sort the posted breaches. Additionally, this new format includes brief summaries of the breach cases that OCR has investigated and closed, as well as the names of private practice providers who have reported breaches of unsecured protected health information to the Secretary. . Title Date Pages Notes ICBA Data Breach Toolkit Independent Community Bankers of America Ongoing N/A ICBA and Visa have teamed up to bring a special communications toolkit to community banks. This comprehensive communications guide gives community banks the means of communicating with card customers and the media within 24 hours of a data compromise. Having this contingency plan in place can make all the difference in a data breach episode. The toolkit Includes a brochure on communications best practices following a data breach and customizable template materials, such as cardholder letters, statement inserts, FAQs, and media statements. Appendix J: Strengthening the Resilience of Outsourced Technology Services Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) Ongoing N/A The increasing sophistication and volume of cyber threats and their ability to disrupt operations or corrupt data can affect the business resilience of financial institutions and technology service providers (TSPs). Financial institutions and their TSPs need to incorporate the potential impact of a cyber event into their business continuity planning (BCP) process and ensure appropriate resilience capabilities are in place. The changing cyber threat landscape may include risks that must be managed to achieve resilience. Cybersecurity Risk Management and Best Practices (WG4): Cybersecurity Framework for the Communications Sector Federal Communications Commission, Communications Security, Reliability and Interoperability Council (CSRIC) March 18, 2015 415 The CSRIC is a federal advisory committee that provides recommendations to the FCC regarding best practices and actions the commission can take to help ensure security, reliability, and interoperability of communications systems and infrastructure. The CSRIC approved a report that identifies best practices, provides a variety of important tools and resources for communications companies of different sizes and types to manage cybersecurity risks, and recommends a path forward. Tracking & Hacking: Security & Privacy Gaps Put American Drivers at Risk Senator Edward Markey February 11, 2015 14 Nearly all modern vehicles have some sort of wireless connection that hackers could potentially use to gain access to their critical systems. The company’s protections on those connections are “inconsistent and haphazard” across the industry. In addition to security weaknesses, the report also found that many auto companies are collecting detailed location data from cars and often transmitting it insecurely. CRS-18 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes N/A U.S. Senate health committee Chairman Lamar Alexander (RTenn.) and Ranking Member Patty Murray (D-Wash.) today announced a bipartisan initiative focused on examining the security of health information technology and the health industry’s preparedness for cyber threats. The goal of the Alexander-Murray initiative is to examine whether Congress can help ensure the safety of health information technology, including electronic health records, hospital networks, insurance records, and network-connected medical devices, like pacemakers and continuous glucose monitors. Begun last month, the ongoing staff meetings will include participants from relevant government oversight agencies, independent cybersecurity experts, health industry leaders, and others. Senators Alexander, Murray Announce Oversight Initiative on Security of Health IT Senate Committee on Labor, Health, Education and Pensions February 6, 2015 Report on Cybersecurity Practices Financial Industry Regulatory Authority February 2015 46 The report presents an approach to cybersecurity grounded in risk management to address these threats. It identifies principles and effective practices for firms to consider, while recognizing that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to cybersecurity. Incident Response/Vulnerability Coordination in 2014 ICS/CERT Monitor September 2014-February 2015 15 In FY2014, the Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) received and responded to 245 incidents reported by asset owners and industry partners. The Energy Sector led all others again in 2014 with the most reported incidents. ICS-CERT’s continuing partnership with the Energy Sector provides many opportunities to share information and collaborate on incident response efforts. In addition, in 2014 the Critical Manufacturing Sector reported incidents, some of which were from control systems equipment manufacturers. Guidance on Maritime Cybersecurity Standards (Federal Register Notice of Public Meeting and Request for Comments) U.S. Coast Guard December 12, 2014 2 From the summary: “The U.S. Coast Guard announces a public meeting to be held in Washington, DC, to receive comments on the development of cybersecurity assessment methods for vessels and facilities regulated by the Coast Guard. This meeting will provide an opportunity for the public to comment on development of security assessment methods that assist vessel and facility owners and operators identify and address cybersecurity vulnerabilities that could cause or contribute to a Transportation Security Incident. The Coast Guard will consider these public comments in developing relevant guidance, which may include standards, guidelines, and best practices to protect maritime critical infrastructure.” CRS-19 c11173008 Source . Title Date Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) Cybersecurity Assessment: General Observations FFIEC November 3, 2014 Inquiry into Cyber Intrusions Affecting U.S. Transportation Command Contractors Senate Armed Services Committee September 17, 2014 Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS [Department of Homeland Security] Action Needed to Enhance Integration and Coordination of Vulnerability Assessment Efforts Government Accountability Office (GAO) September 15, 2014 Energy Sector Cybersecurity Framework Implementation Guidance: Draft For Public Comment and Comment Submission Form DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability September 12, 2014 CRS-20 c11173008 Source Pages Notes Companies are critically dependent on IT. Financial companies should routinely scan IT networks for vulnerabilities and anomalous activity and test systems for their potential exposure to cyberattacks. The study recommends sharing threat data through such avenues as the Financial Services Information Sharing and Analysis Center. 52 82 N/A Hackers associated with the Chinese government successfully penetrated the computer systems of Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) contractors 20 times in the course of a single year. Chinese hackers tried to get into the systems 50 times. The congressional committee found that only two of the intrusions were detected. It also found that officials were unaware due in large part to unclear requirements and methods for contractors to report breaches and for government agencies to share information. DHS used 10 different assessment tools and methods from FY2011 through FY2013 to assess critical infrastructure vulnerabilities. Four of the 10 assessments did not include cybersecurity. The differences in the assessment tools and methods mean DHS is not positioned to integrate its findings in identifying priorities. Energy companies need not make a choice between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity framework and the DOE’s C2M2. The NIST framework tells organizations to grade themselves on a four-tier scale based on their overall cybersecurity program sophistication. C2M2 tells users to assess cybersecurity control implementation across 10 domains of cybersecurity practices, such as situational awareness, according to their specific “maturity indicator level.” . Title Date Pages Notes Guidelines for Smart Grid Cybersecurity, Smart Grid Cybersecurity Strategy, Architecture, and High-Level Requirements (3 volumes) NIST September 2014 668 This three-volume report, Guidelines for Smart Grid Cybersecurity, presents an analytical framework that organizations can use to develop effective cybersecurity strategies tailored to their particular combinations of smart gridrelated characteristics, risks, and vulnerabilities. Organizations in the diverse community of smart grid stakeholders—from utilities to providers of energy management services to manufacturers of electric vehicles and charging stations—can use the methods and supporting information presented in this report as guidance for assessing risk and identifying and applying appropriate security requirements. This approach recognizes that the electric grid is changing from a relatively closed system to a complex, highly interconnected environment. Each organization’s cybersecurity requirements should evolve as technology advances and as threats to grid security inevitably multiply and diversify. A Criticism of the Current Security, Privacy and Accountability Issues in Electronic Health Records International Journal of Applied Information Systems September 2014 8 Unless a different approach is used, the reliant on cryptography and password or escrow based system for key management will impede trust of the electronic health records (EHR) system and hence its acceptability. In addition, users with right access should also be monitored without affecting the clinician workflow. This paper presents a detailed review of some selected recent approaches to ensuring security, privacy, and accountability in EHR and identifies gaps for future research. Security in the New Mobile Ecosystem (Free registration required.) Ponemon Institute and Raytheon August 2014 30 Mobile devices are quickly becoming an integral tool for the workforce, but the security practices and budgets in most organizations are not keeping pace with the growing number of devices that must be managed and kept secure. Critical Infrastructure: Security Preparedness and Maturity Unisys and the Ponemon Institute July 2014 34 Unisys and the Ponemon Institute surveyed nearly 600 IT security executives of utility, energy, and manufacturing organizations. Overall, the report finds organizations are simply not prepared to deal with advanced cyber threats. Only half of companies have actually deployed IT security programs and, according to the survey, the top threat actually stems from negligent insiders. CRS-21 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes Securing the U.S. Electrical Grid: Understanding the Threats to the Most Critical of Critical Infrastructure, While Securing a Changing Grid Center for the Study of the Presidency and Congress July 2014 180 From the report: “While [electrical grid] modernization entails significant challenges in its own right, it also provides an opportunity to ‘bake security in’—both in the hardware and software controlling these systems and in the business models, regulatory systems, financial incentives, and insurance structures that govern the generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power.… In this report and the aforementioned dozen recommendations, we have sought to identify the immediate action that can be taken by the White House, the Congress, and the private sector to mitigate current threats to the electrical grid.” Maritime Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Needs to Better Address Port Cybersecurity GAO June 5, 2014 54 GAO’s objective was to identify the extent to which DHS and other stakeholders have taken steps to address cybersecurity in the maritime port environment. GAO examined relevant laws and regulations, analyzed federal cybersecurity-related policies and plans, observed operations at three U.S. ports selected for being high-risk ports and leaders in calls by vessel type (e.g., container), and interviewed federal and nonfederal officials. Executive Leadership of Cybersecurity: What Today’s CEO Needs To Know About the Threats They Don’t See FFIEC May 7, 2014 30 The FFIEC highlighted key focus areas for senior management and boards of directors of community institutions as they assess their institutions’ abilities to identify and mitigate cybersecurity risks. Sector Risks Snapshots DHS May 2014 52 DHS’s snapshots provide an introduction to the diverse array of critical infrastructure sectors, touching on some of the key threats and hazards concerning these sectors and highlighting the common, first-order dependencies and interdependencies between sectors. Critical Infrastructure Protection Issues Identified in Order No. 791 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) April 24, 2014 CRS-22 c11173008 Source N/A FERC will hold a technical meeting on cybersecurity and communications security standards for power generators. Among other issues, the meeting will consider possible disjunctures between FERC’s regulatory standards for grid reliability and the new voluntary cybersecurity framework for critical infrastructure that NIST rolled earlier this year. . Title Date Pages Notes Notice of Completion of Notification of CyberDependent Infrastructure and Process for Requesting Reconsideration of Determinations of Cyber Criticality DHS Programs Directorate April 17, 2014 3 The Secretary of DHS has been directed to identify critical infrastructure in which a cybersecurity incident could reasonably result in catastrophic regional or national effects on public health or safety, economic security, or national security. In addition to identifying such infrastructure, the Secretary has also been directed to confidentially notify owners and operators of critical infrastructure identified and establish a mechanism through which entities can request reconsideration of that identification, whether inclusion or exclusion from this list. This notice informs owners and operators of critical infrastructure that the confidential notification process is complete and describes the process for requesting reconsideration. Cybersecurity Procurement Language for Energy Delivery Systems DOE Energy Sector Control Systems Working Group April 2014 46 This guidance suggests procurement strategies and contract language to help U.S. energy companies and technology suppliers build in cybersecurity protections during product design and manufacturing. It was “developed through a public-private working group including federal agencies and private industry leaders.” Benchmarking Trends: Interest in Cyber Insurance Continues to Climb (Requires free registration to access.) Marsh USA March 31, 2014 4 As cyber incidents increased in frequency and severity in 2013, the percentage of companies that purchased cyber insurance rose by double digits (see figure 1 in the report). Early signs in 2014 indicate that the trend is not just continuing but accelerating. Recent high-profile data breaches, growing boardlevel concern, and the increasing vulnerability of operations to technology failure appear to be influencing purchasing decisions. Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) Cybersecurity Risk Management Strategy for Alert Originators Carnegie Mellon/Pittsburgh Software Institute March 2014 183 From the report: “The Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) service depends on computer systems and networks to convey potentially life-saving information to the public in a timely manner. However, like other cyber-enabled services, it is susceptible to risks that may enable attackers to disseminate unauthorized alerts or to delay, modify, or destroy valid alerts. Successful attacks may result in property destruction, financial loss, injury, or death and may damage WEA credibility to the extent that users ignore future alerts or disable alerting. This report describes a four-stage cybersecurity risk management (CSRM) strategy that alert originators can use throughout WEA adoption, operations, and sustainment, as well as a set of governance activities for developing a plan to execute the CSRM.” CRS-23 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes Cybersecurity and the North American Electric Grid: New Policy Approaches to Address an Evolving Threat Bipartisan Policy Center February 28, 2014 Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity NIST February 12, 2014 41 The voluntary framework consists of cybersecurity standards that can be customized to various sectors and adapted by both large and small organizations. Additionally, so that the private sector may fully adopt this framework, DHS announced the Critical Infrastructure Cyber Community (C3)—or “C-cubed”— Voluntary Program. The C3 program gives companies that provide critical services such as cell phones, email, banking, and energy and state and local governments direct access to cybersecurity experts within DHS who have knowledge about specific threats, ways to counter those threats, and how, over the long term, to design and build systems that are less vulnerable to cyber threats. ITI Recommendations to the Department of Homeland Security Regarding its Work Developing a Voluntary Program Under Executive Order 163636, “Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity.” Information Technology Industry Council (ITI) February 11, 2014 3 ITI released a set of recommendations eying further improvement of the framework, changes that call for DHS to “de-emphasize the current focus on incentives.” Partly, ITI recognizes the cyber order can produce change even in an environment in which fiscal constraints and congressional inaction stall carrots for adoption—but a bigger biz argument, made in its report yesterday, is that ITI and others do not want incentives if they come at the cost of “compliance-based programs.” CRS-24 c11173008 Source The Bipartisan Policy Center’s initiative identifies urgent priorities, including strengthening existing protections, enhancing coordination at all levels, and accelerating the development of robust protocols for response and recovery in the event of a successful attack. The initiative developed recommendations in four policy areas: standards and best practices, information sharing, response to a cyberattack, and paying for cybersecurity. The recommendations are targeted to Congress, federal government agencies, state public utility commissions (PUCs), and industry. . Title Date Pages Notes The Federal Government’s Track Record on Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee (Minority Staff) February 4, 2014 19 Since 2006, the federal government has spent at least $65 billion on securing its computers and networks, according to an estimate by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). NIST, the government’s official body for setting cybersecurity standards, has produced thousands of pages of precise guidance on every significant aspect of IT security. And yet agencies— even agencies with responsibilities for critical infrastructure or vast repositories of sensitive data—continue to leave themselves vulnerable, often by failing to take the most basic steps toward securing their systems and information. Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (ES-C2M2) (Case Study) Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute January 23, 2014 39 ES-C2M2 is a White House initiative, led by DOE in partnership with the Department of Homeland Security and representatives of electricity subsector asset owners and operators, to manage dynamic threats to the electric grid. Its objectives are to strengthen cybersecurity capabilities, enable consistent evaluation and benchmarking of cybersecurity capabilities, and share knowledge and best practices. NIPP 2013: Partnering for Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience DHS 2013 57 The National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) 2013 meets the requirements of Presidential Policy Directive-21, “Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience,” signed in February 2013. The plan was developed through a collaborative process involving stakeholders from all 16 critical infrastructure sectors, all 50 states, and all levels of government and industry. It provides a clear call to action to leverage partnerships, innovate for risk management, and focus on outcomes. World Federation of Exchanges (WFE) Launches Global Cyber Security Committee WFE December 12, 2013 N/A The WFE announced the launch of the exchange industry’s first cybersecurity committee with a mission to aid in the protection of the global capital markets. The working group will bring together representation from a number of exchanges and clearinghouses across the globe to collaborate on best practices in global security. The Critical Infrastructure Gap: U.S. Port Facilities and Cyber Vulnerabilities Brookings Institution/ Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence July 2013 50 The study argues that the level of cybersecurity awareness and culture in U.S. port facilities is relatively low and that a cyberattack at a major U.S. port would quickly cause significant damage to the economy. FFIEC Forms Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure Working Group FFIEC June 6, 2013 2 FFIEC formed a working group to further promote coordination across federal and state banking regulatory agencies on critical infrastructure and cybersecurity issues. CRS-25 c11173008 Source . Title Source Date Pages Notes Electric Grid Vulnerability: Industry Responses Reveal Security Gaps Representative Edward Markey and Representative Henry Waxman May 21, 2013 35 The report found that less than one-quarter of investor-owned utilities and less than one-half of municipally and cooperatively owned utilities followed through with voluntary standards issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission after the Stuxnet worm struck in 2010. Initial Analysis of Cybersecurity Framework RFI [Request for Information] Responses NIST May 20, 2013 33 Comments on the challenges of protecting the nation’s critical infrastructure have identified a handful of issues for the more than 200 people and organizations that responded to a formal RFI. NIST has released an initial analysis of 243 responses to the Feb. 26 RFI. The analysis will form the basis for an upcoming workshop at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh as NIST moves forward on creating a cybersecurity framework for essential energy, utility, and communications systems. Joint Working Group on Improving Cybersecurity and Resilience Through Acquisition, Notice of Request for Information General Services Administration May 13, 2013 3 Among other things, Presidential Policy Directive-21requires the General Services Administration, in consultation with the Department of Defense and DHS, to jointly provide and support government-wide contracts for critical infrastructure systems and ensure that such contracts include audit rights for the security and resilience of critical infrastructure. 2013 Annual Report Financial Stability Oversight Council (FSOC) April 25, 2013 195 Under the Dodd-Frank Act, FSOC must report annually to Congress on a range of issues, including significant financial market and regulatory developments and potential emerging threats to the financial stability of the United States. FSOC’s recommendations address heightened risk management and supervisory attention to operational risks, including cybersecurity and infrastructure. Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards (Notice of Proposed Rulemaking) FERC April 24, 2013 18 FERC proposes to approve the Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Reliability Standards, CIP-002-5 through CIP011-1, submitted by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, the commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization. The proposed reliability standards, which pertain to the cybersecurity of the bulk electric system, represent an improvement over the current commission-approved CIP Reliability Standards as they adopt new cybersecurity controls and extend the scope of the systems that are protected by the existing standards. CRS-26 c11173008 . Title Date Pages Notes Wireless Cybersecurity Syracuse University New York, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science April 2013 167 This project dealt with various threats in wireless networks, including eavesdropping in a broadcast channel, noncooperative eavesdropping in a single-source, single-sink planar network, and primary user emulation attack in a cognitive radio network. The major contributions were detailed analysis of performance trade-off in the presence of the eavesdropping threat, a combined encoding and routing approach that provides provable security against noncooperating eavesdropping, and a physical layer approach to counter the primary emulation attack. The research results under this effort significantly advanced our understanding on some of the fundamental trade-offs among various performance metrics in a wireless system. Practically feasible wireless security measures were also obtained that could lead to more assured operations in which secured wireless networks play an indispensable role. This project led to one PhD dissertation, one pending patent application, two archival journal papers, and a number of peer-reviewed conference papers. Incentives to Adopt Improved Cybersecurity Practices NIST and the National Telecommunication s and Information Administration March 28, 2013 N/A The Department of Commerce (DOC) is investigating ways to incentivize companies and organizations to improve their cybersecurity. To better understand what stakeholders—such as companies, trade associations, academics, and others—believe would best serve as incentives, the department has released a series of questions to gather public comments in a notice of inquiry. Cybersecurity: The Nation’s Greatest Threat to Critical Infrastructure U.S. Army War College March 2013 38 This paper provides a background on what constitutes national critical infrastructure and critical infrastructure protection; discusses the immense vulnerabilities, threats, and risks associated in the protection of critical infrastructure; and outlines governance and responsibilities of protecting vulnerable infrastructure. The paper makes recommendations for federal responsibilities and legislation to direct nation critical infrastructure efforts to ensure national security, public safety, and economic stability. SCADA [Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition] and Process Control Security Survey SANS Institute February 1, 2013 19 SANS Institute surveyed professionals who work with SCADA and process control systems. Of the nearly 700 respondents, 70% said they consider their SCADA systems to be at high or severe risk; one-third of them suspected that these systems had been already been infiltrated. CRS-27 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes Follow-up Audit of the Department’s Cyber Security Incident Management Program DOE Inspector General’s Office December 2012 25 In 2008, the DOE’s Cyber Security Incident Management Program (DOE/IG-0787, January 2008) reported the department and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) established and maintained a number of independent, at least partially duplicative, cybersecurity incident management capabilities. Several issues were identified that limited the efficiency and effectiveness of the department’s cybersecurity program and adversely affected the ability of law enforcement to investigate incidents. In response to the findings, management concurred with the recommendations and indicated that it had initiated actions to address the issues identified. Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System National Academies of Science November 2012 146 Focuses on measures that could make the electric power delivery system less vulnerable to attacks, restore power faster after an attack, and make critical services less vulnerable when delivery of conventional electric power has been disrupted. New FERC Office to Focus on Cyber Security DOE September 20, 2012 N/A FERC announced the creation of the agency’s new Office of Energy Infrastructure Security, which will work to reduce threats to the electric grid and other energy facilities. The goal is for the office to help FERC, and other agencies and private companies, better identify potential dangers and solutions. Canvassing the Targeting of Energy Infrastructure: The Energy Infrastructure Attack Database Journal of Energy Security August 7, 2012 8 The Energy Infrastructure Attack Database (EIAD) is a noncommercial dataset that structures information on reported (criminal and political) attacks to energy infrastructure worldwide by nonstate actors since 1980. In building this resource, the objective was to develop a product that could be broadly accessible and connect to existing available resources. Smart-Grid Security Center for Infrastructure Protection and Homeland Security, George Mason School of Law August 2012 26 Highlights the significance of and the challenges with securing the Smart Grid. Cybersecurity: Challenges in Securing the Electricity Grid GAO July 17, 2012 25 In a prior report, GAO made recommendations related to electricity grid modernization efforts, including developing an approach to monitor compliance with voluntary standards. These recommendations have not yet been implemented. CRS-28 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes Energy Department Develops Tool with Industry to Help Utilities Strengthen Their Cybersecurity Capabilities DOE June 28, 2012 N/A The Cybersecurity Self-Evaluation Tool uses best practices developed for the Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model Initiative, which involved a series of workshops with the private sector to draft a maturity model that can be used throughout the electric sector to better protect the grid. ICS-CERT Incident Response Summary Report, 20092011 U.S. Industrial Control System Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) May 9, 2012 17 The number of reported cyberattacks on U.S. critical infrastructure increased sharply—from 9 incidents in 2009 to 198 in 2011. Water sector-specific incidents, when added to the incidents that affected several sectors, accounted for more than half of all incidents. In more than half of the most serious cases, implementing best practices such as log-in limitation or a properly configured firewall would have deterred the attack, reduced the time it would have taken to detect an attack, and minimized its impact. Cybersecurity Risk Management Process (Electricity Subsector) DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability May 2012 96 The guideline describes a risk-management process that is targeted to the specific needs of electricity sector organizations. Its objective is to build upon existing guidance and requirements to develop a flexible risk-management process tuned to the diverse missions, equipment, and business needs of the electric power industry. ICT Applications for the Smart Grid: Opportunities and Policy Implications Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) January 10, 2012 44 This report discusses “smart” applications of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for more sustainable energy production, management, and consumption. The report outlines policy implications for government ministries dealing with telecommunications regulation, ICT sector and innovation promotion, and consumer and competition issues. The Department’s Management of the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program DOE Inspector General January 20, 2012 21 According to the DOE inspector general, the department’s rush to award stimulus grants for projects under the next generation of the power grid, known as the Smart Grid, resulted in some firms receiving funds without submitting complete plans for how to safeguard the grid from cyberattacks. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Cybersecurity Guidance Is Available, but More Can Be Done to Promote Its Use GAO December 9, 2011 77 According to GAO, given the plethora of guidance available, individual entities within the sectors may be challenged in identifying the guidance that is most applicable and effective in improving their security posture. Improved knowledge of the available guidance could help both federal and private-sector decision makers better coordinate their efforts to protect critical cyber-reliant assets. CRS-29 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes The Future of the Electric Grid Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) December 5, 2011 39 Chapter 1 provides an overview of the status of the electric grid, the challenges and opportunities it will face, and major recommendations. To facilitate selective reading, detailed descriptions of the contents of each section in Chapters 2–9 are provided in each chapter’s introduction, and recommendations are collected and briefly discussed in each chapter’s final section. (See Chapter 9, “Data Communications, Cybersecurity, and Information Privacy,” pages 208-234). FCC’s Plan for Ensuring the Security of Telecommunications Networks Federal Communications Commission (FCC) June 3, 2011 1 FCC Chairman Genachowski’s response to letter from Representative Anna Eshoo dated November 2, 2010, regarding concerns about the implications of foreign-controlled telecommunications infrastructure companies providing equipment to the U.S. market. Cyber Infrastructure Protection U.S. Army War College May 9, 2011 324 Part 1 deals with strategic and policy cybersecurity-related issues and discusses the theory of cyberpower, Internet survivability, large-scale data breaches, and the role of cyberpower in humanitarian assistance. Part 2 covers social and legal aspects of cyber infrastructure protection and discusses the attack dynamics of political and religiously motivated hackers. Part 3 discusses the technical aspects of cyber infrastructure protection, including the resilience of data centers, intrusion detection, and a strong emphasis on Internet protocol (IP) networks. In the Dark: Crucial Industries Confront Cyberattacks McAfee and Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) April 21, 2011 28 The study reveals an increase in cyberattacks on critical infrastructure such as power grids, oil, gas, and water; it also shows that many of the world’s critical infrastructures lacked protection of their computer networks and reveals the cost and impact of cyberattacks. Cybersecurity: Continued Attention Needed to Protect Our Nation’s Critical Infrastructure and Federal Information Systems GAO March 16, 2011 17 According to GAO, executive branch agencies have made progress instituting several government-wide initiatives aimed at bolstering aspects of federal cybersecurity, such as reducing the number of federal access points to the Internet, establishing security configurations for desktop computers, and enhancing situational awareness of cyber events. Despite these efforts, the federal government continues to face significant challenges in protecting the nation’s cyber-reliant critical infrastructure and federal information systems. CRS-30 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s Monitoring of Power Grid Cyber Security DOE Office of Inspector General January 26, 2011 30 NERC developed Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) cybersecurity reliability standards, which were approved by the FERC in January 2008. Although the commission had taken steps to ensure CIP cybersecurity standards were developed and approved, NERC’s testing revealed that such standards did not always include controls commonly recommended for protecting critical information systems. In addition, the CIP standards implementation approach and schedule approved by the commission were not adequate to ensure that systems-related risks to the nation’s power grid were mitigated or addressed in a timely manner. Electricity Grid Modernization: Progress Being Made on Cybersecurity Guidelines, but Key Challenges Remain to be Addressed GAO January 12, 2011 50 From the report: “To reduce the risk that NIST’s smart grid cybersecurity guidelines will not be as effective as intended, the Secretary of Commerce should direct the Director of NIST to finalize the agency’s plan for updating and maintaining the cybersecurity guidelines, including ensuring it incorporates (1) missing key elements identified in this report, and (2) specific milestones for when efforts are to be completed. Also, as a part of finalizing the plan, the Secretary of Commerce should direct the Director of NIST to assess whether any cybersecurity challenges identified in this report should be addressed in the guidelines.” Partnership for Cybersecurity Innovation White House Office of Science and Technology Policy December 6, 2010 4 The Obama Administration released a memorandum of understanding signed by DOC’s NIST, DHS’s Science and Technology Directorate (DHS/S&T), and the Financial Services Sector Coordinating Council (FSSCC). The goal of the agreement is to speed up the commercialization of cybersecurity research innovations that support the nation’s critical infrastructures. WIB Security Standard Released International Instrument Users Association (WIB) November 10, 2010 CRS-31 c11173008 Source The Netherlands-based WIB, an international organization that represents global manufacturers in the industrial automation industry, announced the second version of the Process Control Domain Security Requirements for Vendors document—the first international standard that outlines a set of specific requirements focusing on cybersecurity best practices for suppliers of industrial automation and control systems. . Title Date Pages Notes 15 This study describes the standards Microsoft follows to address current and evolving cloud security threats. It also depicts the internal structures within Microsoft that handle cloud security and risk management issues. Information Security Management System for Microsoft Cloud Infrastructure Microsoft November 2010 NIST Finalizes Initial Set of Smart Grid Cyber Security Guidelines NIST September 2, 2010 N/A NIST released a three-volume set of recommendations relevant to securing the Smart Grid. The guidelines address a variety of topics, including high-level security requirements, a risk assessment framework, an evaluation of privacy issues in residences and recommendations for protecting the evolving grid from attacks, malicious code, cascading errors, and other threats. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Key Private and Public Cyber Expectations Need to Be Consistently Addressed GAO July 15, 2010 38 Private-sector stakeholders reported that they expect their federal partners to provide usable, timely, and actionable cyber threat information and alerts; access to sensitive or classified information; a secure mechanism for sharing information; security clearances; and a single centralized government cybersecurity organization to coordinate government efforts. However, according to private-sector stakeholders, federal partners are not consistently meeting these expectations. The Future of Cloud Computing Pew Research Center’s Internet and American Life Project June 11, 2010 26 Technology experts and stakeholders expect they will “live mostly in the cloud” in 2020 and not on the desktop, working mostly through cyberspace-based applications accessed through networked devices. The Reliability of Global Undersea Communications Cable Infrastructure (The ROGUCCI Report) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the EastWest Institute May 26, 2010 186 This study submits 12 major recommendations to privatesector, government, and other stakeholders—especially the financial sector—for the purpose of improving the reliability, robustness, resilience, and security of the world’s undersea communications cable infrastructure. NSTB Assessments Summary Report: Common Industrial Control System Cyber Security Weaknesses DOE, Idaho National Laboratory May 2010 123 This report by the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) program notes that computer networks controlling the electric grid are plagued with security holes that could allow intruders to redirect power delivery and steal data. Many of the security vulnerabilities are strikingly basic and fixable problems. Explore the reliability and resiliency of commercial broadband communications networks FCC April 21, 2010 N/A The FCC launched an inquiry into the ability of existing broadband networks to withstand significant damage or severe overloads as a result of natural disasters, terrorist attacks, pandemics, or other major public emergencies, as recommended in the National Broadband Plan. CRS-32 c11173008 Source . Title Date Pages Notes Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Focus in Cloud Computing V2.1 Cloud Security Alliance December 2009 76 From the report, “Through our focus on the central issues of cloud computing security, we have attempted to bring greater clarity to an otherwise complicated landscape, which is often filled with incomplete and oversimplified information. Our focus ... serves to bring context and specificity to the cloud computing security discussion: enabling us to go beyond gross generalizations to deliver more insightful and targeted recommendations.” 21 Steps to Improve Cyber Security of SCADA Networks DOE, Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration January 1, 2007 10 The President’s Critical Infrastructure Protection Board and DOE have developed steps to help any organization improve the security of its SCADA networks. The steps are divided into two categories: specific actions to improve implementation and actions to establish essential underlying management processes and policies. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS-33 c11173008 Source Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic . Cybercrime and Data Security: CRS Reports and Other CRS Products • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • c11173008 CRS Report 97-1025, Cybercrime: An Overview of the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and Related Federal Criminal Laws, by Charles Doyle CRS Report 94-166, Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law, by Charles Doyle CRS Report R43955, Cyberwarfare and Cyberterrorism: In Brief, by Catherine A. Theohary and John W. Rollins CRS Report R42403, Cybersecurity: Cyber Crime Protection Security Act (S. 2111, 112th Congress)—A Legal Analysis, by Charles Doyle CRS Report 98-326, Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping, by Gina Stevens and Charles Doyle CRS Report RL32706, Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress, by Patricia Moloney Figliola CRS Report CRS Report R41975, Illegal Internet Streaming of Copyrighted Content: Legislation in the 112th Congress, by Brian T. Yeh CRS Report R42112, Online Copyright Infringement and Counterfeiting: Legislation in the 112th Congress, by Brian T. Yeh CRS Report R40599, Identity Theft: Trends and Issues, by Kristin Finklea CRS Report R41927, The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement, by Kristin Finklea CRS Report RL34651, Protection of Children Online: Federal and State Laws Addressing Cyberstalking, Cyberharassment, and Cyberbullying, by Alison M. Smith CRS Report R42547, Cybercrime: Conceptual Issues for Congress and U.S. Law Enforcement, by Kristin Finklea and Catherine A. Theohary CRS Report R43382, Data Security and Credit Card Thefts: CRS Experts, by Eric A. Fischer CRS Legal Sidebar WSLG483, Obstacles to Private Sector Cyber Threat Information Sharing, by Edward C. Liu and Edward C. Liu CRS Legal Sidebar WSLG672, Online Banking Fraud: Liability for Unauthorized Payment from Business Checking Account, by M. Maureen Murphy CRS Legal Sidebar WSLG831, Federal Securities Laws and Recent Data Breaches, by Michael V. Seitzinger CRS Legal Sidebar WSLG 906, Hackers Cannot Always Be Tried Where ThirdParty Victims Reside, by Charles Doyle CRS Legal Sidebar WSLG 959, In the Matter of LabMD: The FTC Must Publicly Disclose Its Data Security Standards, by Gina Stevens CRS Report IN10218, Information Warfare: Cyberattacks on Sony, by Catherine A. Theohary Congressional Research Service 34 . Table 5. Cybercrime, Data Breaches, and Data Security Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes ThreatExchange Facebook Ongoing ThreatExchange is a set of application programming interfaces, or APIs, that let disparate companies trade information about the latest online attacks. Built atop the Facebook Platform—the standard set of tools for coding applications atop the company’s worldwide social network—ThreatExchange is used by Facebook and a handful of other companies, including Tumblr, Pinterest, Twitter, and Yahoo. Access to the service is strictly controlled, but [Facebook] hopes to include other companies as time goes on. HHS Breach Portal: Breaches Affecting 500 or More Individuals Health and Human Services (HHS) Ongoing As required by Section 13402(e)(4) of the HITECH Act, the Secretary must post a list of breaches of unsecured protected health information affecting 500 or more individuals. These breaches are now posted in a new, more accessible format that allows users to search and sort the posted breaches. Additionally, this new format includes brief summaries of the breach cases that OCR has investigated and closed, as well as the names of private practice providers who have reported breaches of unsecured protected health information to the Secretary. ThreatWatch NextGov Ongoing N/A ThreatWatch is a snapshot of the data breaches hitting organizations and individuals, globally, on a daily basis. It is not an authoritative list because many compromises are never reported or even discovered. The information is based on accounts published by outside news organizations and researchers. Criminal Underground Economy Series Trend Micro Ongoing N/A A review of various cybercrime markets around the world. Digital Attack Map Arbor Networks Ongoing N/A The map is powered by data fed from 270+ ISP customers worldwide who have agreed to share network traffic and attack statistics. The map displays global activity levels in observed attack traffic, which it collected anonymously, and does not include any identifying information about the attackers or victims involved in any particular attack. Global Botnet Map Trend Micro Ongoing N/A Trend Micro continuously monitors malicious network activities to identify command-and-control (C&C) servers and help increase protection against botnet attacks. The real-time map indicates the locations of C&C servers and victimized computers they control that have been discovered in the previous six hours. CRS-35 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes HoneyMap Honeynet Project Ongoing N/A The HoneyMap displays malicious attacks as they happen. Each red dot represents an attack on a computer. Yellow dots represent honeypots or systems set up to record incoming attacks. The black box on the bottom gives the location of each attack. The Honeynet Project is an international 501c3 nonprofit security research organization, dedicated to investigating the latest attacks and developing open source security tools to improve Internet security. The Cyberfeed Anubis Networks Ongoing N/A This site provides real-time threat intelligence data worldwide. Regional Threat Assessment: Infection Rates and Threat Trends by Location Regional Threat Assessment: Infection Rates and Threat Trends by Location (Note: Select “All Regions” or a specific country or region to view threat assessment reports) Microsoft Security Intelligence Report (SIR) Ongoing N/A This report provides data on infection rates, malicious websites, and threat trends by regional location, worldwide. Meet ‘Tox': Ransomware for the Rest of Us McAfee Labs May 23, 2015 N/A The packaging of malware and malware-construction kits for cybercrime “consumers” has been a long-running trend. Various turnkey kits that cover remote access plus botnet plus stealth functions are available just about anywhere. Ransomware, though very prevalent, has not yet appeared in force in easy-to-deploy kits. However, Tox is now available–and it’s free. 2014 Internet Crime Report Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) May 19, 2015 48 IC3, a joint project of the National White Collar Crime Center and the FBI, received 269,422 complaints last year consisting of a wide array of scams affecting victims across all demographic groups. In 2014, victims of Internet crimes in the United States lost more than $800 million. On average, approximately 22,000 complaints were received each month. Fifth Annual Benchmark Study on Privacy and Security of Healthcare Data Ponemon Institute May 2015 7 A rise in cyberattacks against doctors and hospitals is costing the U.S. health-care system $6 billion a year as organized criminals who once targeted retailers and financial firms increasingly go after medical records. Criminal attacks are up 125% compared with five years ago replacing lost laptops as the leading threat. The study also found most organizations are unprepared to address new threats and lack adequate resources to protect patient data. CRS-36 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Best Practices for Victim Response and Reporting of Cyber Incidents Department of Justice April 29, 2015 15 DOJ issued new guidance for businesses on best practices for handling cyber incidents. The guidance is broken down into what companies should do— and should not do— before, during and after an incident. The recommendations include developing an incident response plan, testing it, identifying highly sensitive data and risk management priorities, and connecting with law enforcement and response firms in advance. 2015 Data Breach Investigations Report (DBIR) Verizon April 14, 2015 70 A full three-quarters of attacks spread from the first victim to the second in 24 hours or less, and more than 40% spread from the first victim to the second in under an hour. On top of the speed with which attackers compromise multiple victims, the useful lifespan of shared information can sometimes be measured in hours. Researchers also found that of the IP addresses observed in current information sharing feeds, only 2.7% were valid for more than a day, and the number dwindles from there. Data show that information sharing has to be good to be effective. 2014 Global Threat Intel Report CrowdStrike February 6, 2015 N/A This report summarizes CrowdStrike’s year-long daily scrutiny of more than 50 groups of cyber threat actors, including 29 different state-sponsored and nationalist adversaries. Key findings explain how financial malware changed the threat landscape and point of sale malware became increasingly prevalent. The report also profiles a number of new and sophisticated adversaries from China and Russia, including Hurricane Panda, Fancy Bear, and Berserk Bear. Unique in the shopping mall: On the reidentifiability of credit card metadata Science Magazine January 30, 2015 5 Ransomware on the Rise: FBI and Partners Working to Combat This Cyber Threat FBI January 20, 2015 N/A CRS-37 MIT scientists showed they can identify an individual with more than 90% accuracy by looking at just four purchases, three if the price is included—and this is after companies “anonymized" the transaction records, saying they wiped away names and other personal details. Ransomware scams involve a type of malware that infects computers and restricts users’ access to their files or threatens the permanent destruction of their information unless a ransom— anywhere from hundreds to thousands of dollars—is paid. The site offers information on the FBI’s and federal, international, and private-sector partners’ proactive steps to neutralize some of the more significant ransomware scams through law enforcement actions against major botnets. . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes 26 Sophos Labs Hungary evaluated the malware and APT campaigns of several groups that all leveraged a particular exploit—a sophisticated attack against a specific version of Microsoft Office. The report found that none of the groups were able to modify the attack enough to infect other versions of Office, even though several versions were theoretically vulnerable to the same type of attack. Despite the aura of skill and complexity that seems to surround APTs, they are much less sophisticated than they are given credit for. The APT groups are lacking in quality assurance. Many attacks are not thoroughly tested and attackers fail to recognize when some functionality of the attack is not working properly. Exploit This: Evaluating the Exploit Skills of Malware Groups Sophos Labs Hungary January 2015 The Cost of Malware Containment (free registration required) Ponemon Institute January 2015 Addressing the cybersecurity Malicious Insider threat Schluderberg, Larry (Utica College Master's Thesis) January 2015 80 The purpose of this research was to investigate who constitutes MI threats, why and how they initiate attacks, the extent to which MI activity can be modeled or predicted, and to suggest some risk mitigation strategies. The results reveal that addressing the Malicious Insider threat is much more than just a technical issue. Dealing effectively with the threat involves managing the dynamic interaction between employees, their work environment and work associates, the systems with which they interact, and organizational policies and procedures. The Underground Hacker Markets are Booming with Counterfeit Documents, Premiere Credit Cards, Hacker Tutorials, and 1000% Satisfaction Guarantees Dell Secure Works December 2014 16 Researchers examined dozens of underground hacker markets for this second annual survey and found that business is booming. Prices have gone down for many items, and the offerings have expanded. As the report puts it: “Underground hackers are monetizing every piece of data they can steal or buy and are continually adding services so other scammers can successfully carry out online and in-person fraud." CRS-38 A survey of more than 600 U.S. IT and IT security practitioners found that in a typical week, organizations receive an average of nearly 17,000 malware alerts; only 19% are deemed reliable, or worthy of action. Compounding the problem, respondents believe their prevention tools miss 40% of malware infections in a typical week. . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes What Happens When You Swipe Your Card? 60 Minutes November 30, 2014 N/A From the script for the segment “Swiping Your Card”: “Sophisticated cyberthieves steal your credit card information. Common criminals buy it and go on shopping sprees—racking up billions of dollars in fraudulent purchases. The cost of the fraud is calculated into the price of every item you buy. When computer crooks swipe your card number, we all end up paying the price. 2014 is becoming known as the ‘year of the data breach.’" Continuing Federal Cyber Breaches Warn Against Cybersecurity Regulation Heritage Foundation October 27, 2014 N/A This is a list of federal government cybersecurity breaches and failures, most of which occurred during 2013 and 2014. The list is part of a continuing series published by Heritage that serves as a long-term compilation of open-source data about federal cybersecurity breaches dating back to 2004. 2014 Cost of Cybercrime Global Report (Email registration required.) Hewlett-Packard Enterprise Security and the Ponemon Institute October 8, 2014 30 This 2014 global study of U.S.-based companies, which spanned seven nations, found that over the course of a year the average cost of cybercrime climbed by more than 9% to $12.7 million for companies in the United States, up from $11.6 million in the 2013 study. The average time to resolve a cyberattack is also rising, climbing to 45 days from 32 days in 2013. How Consumers Foot the Bill for Data Breaches (infographic) NextGov.com August 7, 2014 Is Ransomware Poised for Growth? Symantec July 14, 2014 iDATA: Improving Defences Against Targeted Attack Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (UK) July 2014 CRS-39 More than 600 data breaches occurred in 2013 alone, with an average organizational cost of more than $5 million. But in the end, it is the customers who are picking up the tab, from higher retail costs to credit card reissue fees. N/A 8 Ransomware usually masquerades as a virtual “wheel clamp” for the victim’s computer. For example, pretending to be from the local law enforcement, it might suggest the victim had been using the computer for illicit purposes and claim that to unlock his or her computer the victim would have to pay a fine—often between $100 and $500. The use of Ransomware escalated in 2013, with a 500% (sixfold) increase in attack numbers between the start and end of the year. The iDATA program consists of a number of projects aimed at addressing threats posed by nation-states and state-sponsored actors. iDATA has resulted in several outputs for the cybersecurity community. This document provides a description of the iDATA program and a summary of the reports. . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Cyber Risks: The Growing Threat Insurance Information Institute June 27, 2014 27 Although cyber risks and cybersecurity are widely acknowledged to be serious threats, many companies today still do not purchase cyber risk insurance. Insurers have developed specialist cyber insurance policies to help businesses and individuals protect themselves from the cyber threat. Market intelligence suggests that the types of specialized cyber coverage being offered by insurers are expanding in response to this fast-growing market need. Hackers Wanted: An Examination of the Cybersecurity Labor Market RAND Corporation June 24, 2014 110 RAND examined the current status of the labor market for cybersecurity professionals—with an emphasis on their being employed to defend the United States. This effort was in three parts: first, a review of the literature; second, interviews with managers and educators of cybersecurity professionals, supplemented by reportage; and third, an examination of the economic literature about labor markets. RAND also disaggregated the broad definition of “cybersecurity professionals” to unearth skills differentiation as relevant to this study. Global Cybercrime: The Interplay of Politics and Law Centre for International Governance Innovation June 20, 2014 23 This paper explores the recent unsealing of a 31-count indictment against 5 Chinese government officials and a significant cyber breach perpetrated by Chinese actors against Western oil, energy, and petrochemical companies. The paper concludes by noting that increased cooperation between governments is necessary but unlikely to occur as long as the discourse surrounding cybercrime remains so heavily politicized and securitized. If governments coalesced around the notion of trying to prevent the long-term degradation of trust in the online economy, then they might profitably advance the dialogue away from mutual suspicion and toward mutual cooperation. Net Losses: Estimating the Global Cost of Cybercrime Center for Strategic and International Studies and McAfee June 2014 24 This report explores the economic impact of cybercrime, including estimation, regional variances, IP theft, opportunity and recovery costs, and the future of cybercrime. 2014 U.S. State of Cybercrime Survey PricewaterhouseCooper s, CSO Magazine, the CERT Division of the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, and the U.S. Secret Service May 29, 2014 21 The cybersecurity programs of U.S. organizations do not rival the persistence, tactical skills, and technological prowess of their potential cyber adversaries. This year, three out of four (77%) respondents to the survey had detected a security event in the past 12 months, and more than one-third (34%) said the number of security incidents detected had increased over the previous year. CRS-40 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Privileged User Abuse and The Insider Threat (Requires free registration to access.) Ponemon Institute and Raytheon May 21, 2014 32 The report looks at what companies are doing right and the vulnerabilities that need to be addressed with policies and technologies. One problematic area is the difficulty in actually knowing if an action taken by an insider is truly a threat. Sixty-nine percent of respondents say they do not have enough contextual information from security tools to make this assessment, and 56% say security tools yield too many false positives. Online Advertising and Hidden Hazards to Consumer Security and Data Privacy Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations May 15, 2014 47 The report found consumers could expose themselves to malware just by visiting a popular website. It noted that the complexity of the industry made it possible for both advertisers and host websites to defer responsibility and that consumer safeguards failed to protect against online abuses. The report also warned that current practices do not create enough incentives for “online advertising participants” to take preventive measures. Sharing Cyberthreat Information Under 18 USC § 2702(a)(3) Department of Justice May 9, 2014 7 The Department of Justice issued guidance for Internet service providers to assuage legal concerns about information sharing. The white paper interprets the Stored Communications Act, which prohibits providers from voluntarily disclosing customer information to governmental entities. The white paper says the law does not prohibit companies from divulging data in the aggregate, without any specific details about identifiable customers. The Rising Strategic Risks of Cyberattacks McKinsey and Company May 2014 N/A Big Data: Seizing Opportunities, Preserving Values White House May 2014 85 Findings include a set of consumer protection recommendations, such as national data-breach legislation, and a fresh call for baseline consumer-privacy legislation first recommended in 2012. The Target Breach, by the Numbers Krebs on Security May 6, 2014 N/A A synthesis of numbers associated with the Target data breach of December 19, 2013 (e.g., number of records stolen, estimated dollar cost to credit unions and community banks, amount of money Target estimates it will spend upgrading payment terminals to support Chip-and-PIN enabled cards). CRS-41 Companies are struggling with their capabilities in cyber risk management. As highly visible breaches occur with increasing regularity, most technology executives believe they are losing ground to attackers. Organizations large and small lack the facts to make effective decisions, and traditional “protect the perimeter” technology strategies are proving insufficient. . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Heartbleed’s Impact Pew Research Center April 30, 2014 13 The Heartbleed security flaw on one of the most widely used “secure socket” encryption programs on the Internet had an impact on a notable share of Internet users. Some 60% of adults (and 64% of Internet users) said they had heard about the bug. Some 19% of adults said they had heard a lot about it, and 41% said they had heard a little about it. However, the Heartbleed story drew much less intensity and scope of attention than other big news stories. Russian Underground Revisited Trend Micro April 28, 2014 25 The price of malicious software—designed to enable online bank fraud, identity theft, and other cybercrimes—is falling dramatically in some of the Russian-language criminal markets in which it is sold. Falling prices are a result not of declining demand but rather of an increasingly sophisticated marketplace. This report outlines the products and services being sold and what their prices are. A “Kill Chain” Analysis of the 2013 Target Data Breach Senate Commerce Committee March 26, 2014 18 This report analyzes what has been reported to date about the Target data breach, using the intrusion kill chain framework, an analytical tool introduced by Lockheed Martin security researchers in 2011 and today widely used by information security professionals in both the public and private sectors. This analysis suggests that Target missed a number of opportunities along the kill chain to stop the attackers and prevent the massive data breach. Markets for Cybercrime Tools and Stolen Data RAND Corporation National Security Research Division and Juniper Networks March 25, 2014 83 This report, part of a multiphase study on the future security environment, describes the fundamental characteristics of the criminal activities in cyberspace markets and how they have grown into their current state to explain how their existence can harm the information security environment. CRS-42 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes N/A Trade associations representing the merchant and financial services industries announced a new cybersecurity partnership. The partnership will focus on exploring paths to increased information sharing, better card security technology, and maintaining the trust of customers. Discussion regarding the partnership was initiated by the Retail Industry Leaders Association and the Financial Services Roundtable, joined by the American Bankers Association, the American Hotel and Lodging Association, the Clearing House, the Consumer Bankers Association, the Food Marketing Institute, the Electronic Transactions Association, the Independent Community Bankers of America, the International Council of Shopping Centers, the National Associations of Convenience Stores, the National Grocers Association, the National Restaurant Association, and the National Retail Federation. Merchant and Financial Trade Associations Announce Cybersecurity Partnership Retail Industry Leaders Association February 13, 2014 FTC Statement Marking the FTC’s 50th Data Security Settlement Federal Trade Commission (FTC) January 31, 2014 2 The FTC announces its 50th data security settlement. What started in 2002 with a single case applying established FTC Act precedent to the area of data security has grown into an enforcement program that has helped to increase protections for consumers and encouraged companies to make safeguarding consumer data a priority. Worst Practices Guide to Insider Threats: Lessons from Past Mistakes American Academy of Arts and Sciences January 2014 32 From the report: “Here, we are presenting a kind of ‘worst practices’ guide of serious mistakes made in the past regarding insider threats. While each situation is unique, and serious insider problems are relatively rare, the incidents we describe reflect issues that exist in many contexts and that every nuclear security manager should consider. Common organizational practices—such as prioritizing production over security, failure to share information across subunits, inadequate rules or inappropriate waiving of rules, exaggerated faith in group loyalty, and excessive focus on external threats—can be seen in many past failures to protect against insider threats.” ENISA Threat Landscape 2013—Overview of Current and Emerging Cyber-Threats European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) December 11, 2013 70 The report is a collection of top cyber threats that have been assessed in the reporting period (i.e., within 2013). ENISA has collected more than 250 reports regarding cyber threats, risks, and threat agents. This report is a comprehensive compilation of the top 15 cyber threats assessed. CRS-43 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Cyber-enabled Competitive Data Theft: A Framework for Modeling Long-Run Cybersecurity Consequences Brookings Institution December 2013 18 Economic espionage has existed at least since the industrial revolution, but the scope of modern cyber-enabled competitive data theft may be unprecedented. In this paper, the authors present what they believe is the first economic framework and model to understand the long-run impact of competitive data theft on an economy by taking into account the actual mechanisms and pathways by which theft harms the victims. Trends in Incident Response in 2013 U.S. Industrial Control System Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Monitor OctoberDecember 2013 14 In 2013, ICS-CERT responded to 256 incidents reported either directly from asset owners or through other trusted partners. Most of these incidents were initially detected in business networks of critical infrastructure organizations that operate industrial control systems. Of the 256 reported incidents, 59%, or 151 incidents, occurred in the energy sector, which exceeded all incidents reported in other sectors combined. Illicit Cyber Activity Involving Fraud Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute August 8, 2013 28 Technical and behavioral patterns were extracted from 80 fraud cases—67 insider and 13 external—that occurred between 2005 and the present. These cases were used to develop insights and risk indicators to help private industry, government, and law enforcement more effectively prevent, deter, detect, investigate, and manage malicious insider activity within the banking and finance sectors. The Economic Impact of Cybercrime and Cyber Espionage Center for Strategic and International Studies July 22, 2013 20 Losses to the United States (the country in which data is most accessible) may reach $100 billion annually. The cost of cybercrime and cyber espionage to the global economy is some multiple of this, likely measured in hundreds of billions of dollars. Cyber-Crime, Securities Markets, and Systemic Risk World Federation of Exchanges and the International Organization of Securities Commissions July 16, 2013 59 This report explores the nature and extent of cybercrime in securities markets so far and the potential systemic risk aspects of this threat. It presents the results of a survey to the world’s exchanges on their experiences with cybercrime, cybersecurity practices, and perceptions of the risk. Towards Trustworthy Social Media and Crowdsourcing Wilson Center May 2013 12 Individuals and organizations interested in using social media and crowdsourcing currently lack two key sets of information: a systematic assessment of the vulnerabilities in these technologies and a comprehensive set of best practices describing how to address those vulnerabilities. Identifying those vulnerabilities and developing those best practices are necessary to address a growing number of cybersecurity incidents ranging from innocent mistakes to targeted attacks that have claimed lives and cost millions of dollars. CRS-44 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Remaking American Security: Supply Chain Vulnerabilities and National Security Risks Across the U.S. Defense Industrial Base Alliance for American Manufacturing May 2013 355 Because the supply chain is global, it makes sense for U.S. officials to cooperate with other nations to ward off cyberattacks. Increased international cooperation to secure the integrity of the global IT system is a valuable long-term objective. Comprehensive Study on Cybercrime United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime February 2013 320 The study examined the problem of cybercrime from the perspective of governments, the private sector, academia, and international organizations. It presents its results in eight chapters, covering Internet connectivity and cybercrime; the global cybercrime picture; cybercrime legislation and frameworks; criminalization of cybercrime; law enforcement and cybercrime investigations; electronic evidence and criminal justice; international cooperation in criminal matters involving cybercrime; and cybercrime prevention. HoneyMap - Visualizing Worldwide Attacks in Real-Time and Honeynet Map The Honeynet Project October 1, 2012 N/A The HoneyMap shows a real-time visualization of attacks against the Honeynet Project’s sensors deployed around the world. Does Cybercrime Really Cost $1 Trillion? ProPublica August 1, 2012 N/A In a news release to announce its 2009 report, Unsecured Economies: Protecting Vital Information, computer security firm McAfee estimated a $1 trillion global cost for cybercrime. The number does not appear in the report itself. This estimate is questioned even by the three independent researchers from Purdue University whom McAfee credits with analyzing the raw data from which the estimate was derived. An examination by ProPublica has found new grounds to question the data and methods used to generate these numbers, which McAfee and Symantec say they stand behind. Information Security: Cyber Threats Facilitate Ability to Commit Economic Espionage Government Accountability Office (GAO) June 28, 2012 20 This statement discusses (1) cyber threats facing the nation’s systems, (2) reported cyber incidents and their impacts, (3) security controls and other techniques available for reducing risk, and (4) the responsibilities of key federal entities in support of protecting Internet protocol. Measuring the Cost of Cybercrime 11th Annual Workshop on the Economics of Information Security June 25, 2012 N/A From the report: “For each of the main categories of cybercrime we set out what is and is not known of the direct costs, indirect costs and defence costs—both to the UK and to the world as a whole.” The Impact of Cybercrime on Businesses Ponemon Institute May 2012 21 The study found that targeted attacks on businesses cost enterprises an average of $214,000. The expenses are associated with forensic investigations, investments in technology, and brand recovery costs. CRS-45 . Title Source Date Pages Proactive Policy Measures by Internet Service Providers against Botnets Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) May 7, 2012 25 This report analyzes initiatives in a number of countries through which end-users are notified by Internet service providers (ISPs) when their computers are identified as being compromised by malicious software and encouraged to take action to mitigate the problem. Developing State Solutions to Business Identity Theft: Assistance, Prevention and Detection Efforts by Secretary of State Offices National Association of Secretaries of State (NASS) January 2012 23 This white paper is the result of efforts by the 19-member NASS Business Identity Theft Task Force to develop policy guidelines and recommendations for state leaders dealing with identity fraud cases involving public business records. Twenty Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defense: Consensus Audit Guidelines SANS Institute October 3, 2011 77 The 20 security measures are intended to focus agencies’ limited resources on plugging the most common attack vectors. Revealed: Operation Shady RAT: an Investigation Of Targeted Intrusions Into 70+ Global Companies, Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations During the Last 5 Years McAfee August 2, 2011 14 A cyber-espionage operation lasting many years penetrated 72 government and other organizations, most of them in the United States, and has copied everything from military secrets to industrial designs, according to technology security company McAfee. (See page 4 for the types of compromised parties, page 5 for the geographic distribution of victim’s country of origin, pages 7-9 for the types of victims, and pages 10-13 for the number of intrusions for 2007-2010). The Role of Internet Service Providers in Botnet Mitigation: an Empirical Analysis Based on Spam Data OECD November 12, 2010 31 This working paper considers whether ISPs can be critical control points for botnet mitigation, how the number of infected machines varies across ISPs, and why. Untangling Attribution: Moving to Accountability in Cyberspace (Testimony) Council on Foreign Relations July 15, 2010 14 Robert K. Knake’s testimony before the House Committee on Science and Technology on the role of attack attribution in preventing cyberattacks and how attribution technologies can affect the anonymity and privacy of Internet users. Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities National Research Council 2009 368 This report explores important characteristics of cyberattacks. It describes the current international and domestic legal structure as it might apply to cyberattacks and considers analogies to other domains of conflict to develop relevant insights. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. c11173008 CRS-46 Notes . Table 6. National Security, Cyber Espionage, and Cyberwar Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Cyberthreat: Real-Time Map Kaspersky Labs Ongoing N/A Kaspersky Labs has launched an interactive cyber threat map that lets viewers see cybersecurity incidents as they occur around the world in real time. The interactive map includes malicious objects detected during on-access and on-demand scans, email and web antivirus detections, and objects identified by vulnerability and intrusion detection subsystems. Cybersecurity: Jihadism and the internet European Parliament Think Tank May 18, 2015 2 Since the beginning of the conflict in Syria in March 2011, the numbers of European citizens supporting or joining the ranks of ISIL/Da'esh have been growing steadily, and may now be as high as 4,000 individuals. At the same time, the possible avenues for radicalisation are multiplying and the risks of domestic terrorism increasing. The proliferation of global jihadi messaging online and their reliance on social networks suggest that the Internet is increasingly a tool for promoting jihadist ideology, collecting funds and mobilizing their ranks. APT30 and the Mechanics of a Long-Running CyberEspionage Operation: How a Cyber Threat Group Exploited Governments and Commercial Entities Across Southeast Asia and India for Over a Decade FireEye April 2015 70 A Chinese government hacking team has used the same basic set of tools to spy on Southeast Asian and Indian dignitaries for a decade, demonstrating the low level of cyber defenses protecting government information across broad swaths of the world. The fact this group, APT30, has been able to use the same basic set of malware tools against government networks since at least 2005 suggests its targets remained unaware for more than a decade they were being spied on, or were incapable of countering the threat. Excepted Service (DoD) Office of Personnel Management March 5, 2015 3 DOD is given authority to make permanent, time-limited and temporary appointments not to exceed 3,000 positions that require unique cybersecurity skills and knowledge to perform cyber risk and strategic analysis, incident handling and malware/vulnerability analysis, program management, distributed control systems security, cyber incident response, cyber exercise facilitation and management, cyber vulnerability detection and assessment, network and systems engineering, enterprise architecture, investigation, investigative analysis and cyber-related infrastructure inter-dependency analysis. CRS-47 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community Director of National Intelligence February 26, 2015 29 Cybersecurity is the first threat listed in this annual review of worldwide threats to the United States. Despite ever-improving network defenses, the diverse possibilities for remote hacking intrusions, supply chain operations to insert compromised hardware or software, and malevolent activities by human insiders will hold nearly all ICT systems at risk for years to come. In short, the cyber threat cannot be eliminated; rather, cyber risk must be managed. Moreover, the risk calculus employed by some private-sector entities does not adequately account for foreign cyber threats or the systemic interdependencies between different critical infrastructure sectors. The Impact of the Dark Web on Internet Governance and Cyber Security Global Commission on Internet Governance February 2015 18 There has not been much consideration of the governance of the deep Web and the dark Web. The term deep Web is used to denote a class of content on the Internet that, for various technical reasons, is not indexed by search engines. The dark Web is a part of the deep Web that has been intentionally hidden and is inaccessible through standard Web browsers. The deep Web has the potential to host an increasingly high number of malicious services and activities. To formulate comprehensive strategies and policies for governing the Internet, it is important to consider insights on its farthest reaches— the deep Web and, more importantly, the dark Web. The paper endeavors to provide a broader understanding of the dark Web and its impact on people lives. Attributing Cyber Attacks Thomas Rid and Ben Buchanan, Journal of Strategic Studies December 23, 2014 36 “This article argues that attribution is what states make of it. To show how, we introduce the Q Model: designed to explain, guide, and improve the making of attribution. Matching an offender to an offence is an exercise in minimizing uncertainty on three levels: tactically, attribution is an art as well as a science; operationally, attribution is a nuanced process not a black-and-white problem; and strategically, attribution is a function of what is at stake politically. Successful attribution requires a range of skills on all levels, careful management, time, leadership, stress-testing, prudent communication, and recognizing limitations and challenges.” CRS-48 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Operation Cleaver Cylance December 2, 2014 86 A sophisticated hacking group with ties to Iran has probed and infiltrated targets across the United States and 15 other nations during the past two years in a series of cyberattacks dubbed “Operation Cleaver.” The Cleaver group has evolved faster than any previous Iranian campaign, according to the report, which calls Iran “the new China” and expresses concern that the group’s surveillance operations could evolve into sophisticated, destructive attacks. Legal Issues Related to Cyber NATO Legal Gazette December 2014 74 The NATO Legal Gazette contains thematically organized articles usually written by authors who are military or civilian legal personnel working at NATO or in the governments of NATO and partner nations. Its purpose is to share articles of significance for the large NATO legal community and connect legal professionals of the Alliance. It is not a formal NATO document. The National Intelligence Strategy of the United States of America 2014 Office of the Director of National Intelligence September 18, 2014 24 Cyber intelligence is one of four “primary topical missions” the intelligence community must accomplish. Both state and nonstate actors use digital technologies to achieve goals, such as fomenting instability or achieving economic and military advantages. They do so “often faster than our ability to understand the security implications and mitigate potential risks,” the strategy states. To become more effective in the cyber arena, the intelligence community will improve its ability to correctly attribute attacks. Today’s Rising Terrorist Threat and the Danger to the United States: Reflections on the Tenth Anniversary of the 9/11 Commission Report The Annenberg Public Policy Center and the Bipartisan Policy Center July 22, 2014 48 Members of the panel that studied the 2001 attacks urge Congress to enact cybersecurity legislation, the White House to communicate the consequences of potential cyberattacks to Americans, and leaders to work with allies to define what constitutes an online attack on another country. Surviving on a Diet of Poisoned Fruit: Reducing the National Security Risks of America’s Cyber Dependencies Center for a New American Security July 2014 64 In the report, the author examines existing information on technology security weaknesses and provides nine specific recommendations for the U.S. government and others to cope with these insecurities. CRS-49 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Baseline Review: ICT-Related Processes and Events, Implications for International and Regional Security (20112013) ICT4Peace May 1, 2014 50 The report is structured around the following three areas: (1) international and regional security (the predominant focus); (2) transnational crime and terrorism; and (3) governance, human rights, and development. These areas are obviously interdependent, with developments in one area often impacting another, yet they have traditionally been approached separately through distinct communities of practice and fora. The report will serve as a baseline for future annual reports. It covers the period spanning from January 2011 to December 2013 and provides background on earlier events. M Trends: Beyond the Breach: 2014 Threat Report Mandiant April 2014 28 From the report: “One conclusion is inescapable: the list of potential targets has increased, and the playing field has grown, Cyber-threat actors are expanding the uses of computer network exploitation to fulfill an array of objectives, from the economic to the political. Threat actors are not only interested in seizing the corporate crown jewels but are also looking for ways to publicize their views, cause physical destruction and influence global decision makers. Private organizations have increasingly become collateral damage in political conflicts. With no diplomatic solution in sight, the ability to detect and respond to attacks has never been more important.” Emerging Cyber Threats Report 2014 Georgia Institute of Technology January 2014 16 Brief compilation of academic research on losing control of cloud data, insecure but connected devices, attackers adapting to mobile ecosystems, the high costs of defending against cyberattacks, and advances in information manipulation. Cybersecurity and Cyberwar: What Everyone Needs to Know Brookings Institution January 2014 306 Authors Peter W. Singer and Allan Friedman look at cybersecurity issues faced by the military, government, businesses, and individuals and examine what happens when these entities try to balance security with freedom of speech and the ideals of an open Internet. Cyber-enabled Competitive Data Theft: A Framework for Modeling Long-Run Cybersecurity Consequences Brookings Institution December 2013 18 Economic espionage has existed at least since the industrial revolution, but the scope of modern cyber-enabled competitive data theft may be unprecedented. In this paper, the authors present what they believe is the first economic framework and model to understand the long-run impact of competitive data theft on an economy by taking into account the actual mechanisms and pathways by which theft harms the victims. CRS-50 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes To Kill a Centrifuge: A Technical Analysis of What Stuxnet’s Creators Tried to Achieve The Langner Group November 2013 36 This document summarizes the most comprehensive research on the Stuxnet malware so far. It combines results from reverse engineering the attack code with intelligence on the design of the attacked plant and background information on the attacked uranium enrichment process. It looks at the attack vectors of the two different payloads contained in the malware and provides an analysis of the bigger and much more complex payload that was designed to damage centrifuge rotors by overpressure. With both attack vectors viewed in context, conclusions are drawn about the reasoning behind a radical change of tactics between the complex earlier attack and the comparatively simple later attack that tried to manipulate centrifuge rotor speeds. 2013 Annual Report to Congress U.S.-China Economic Commission October 20, 2013 465 In 2013, the commission continued its close examination of China’s cyber capabilities. Strong evidence has emerged that the Chinese government is directing and executing a large-scale cyber espionage campaign against the United States, including the U.S. government and private companies. However, public exposure of Chinese cyber espionage in 2013 has apparently not changed China’s attitude about the use of cyber espionage to steal intellectual property and proprietary information. (See Chapter 2, Section 2: “China’s Cyber Activities.”) W32.Duqu: The Precursor to the Next Stuxnet Symantec November 14, 2013 N/A On October 14, 2011, a research lab with strong international connections alerted Symantec to a sample that appeared to be very similar to Stuxnet, the malware that wreaked havoc in Iran’s nuclear centrifuge farms. The lab named the threat Duqu because it creates files with the file name prefix DQ. The research lab provided Symantec with samples recovered from computer systems located in Europe as well as a detailed report with initial findings, including analysis comparing the threat to Stuxnet. Offensive Cyber Capabilities at the Operational Level The Way Ahead Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) September 16, 2013 CRS-51 20 The specific question this report examines is whether the Defense Department should make a more deliberate effort to explore the potential of offensive cyber tools at levels below that of a combatant command. . Title c11173008 Source Date Cyber Warfare: Is the risk of cyber warfare overrated? The Economist August 2, 2013 The Economic Impact of Cybercrime and Cyber Espionage Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Strategies for Resolving the Cyber Attribution Challenge Role of Counterterrorism Law in Shaping ‘ad Bellum’ Norms for Cyber Warfare CRS-52 Pages Notes N/A (Economist Debates adapt the Oxford style of debating to an online forum. Each side has three chances to persuade readers: opening, rebuttal, and closing.) From the debate: “Separating hype from the urgent questions is hard. Amid talk of a ‘digital Pearl Harbour’ and ‘advanced persistent threats’ it is hard to know whether we are really ‘losing the war’ against the purveyors and users of malware and digital weapons.” July 22, 2013 20 Losses to the United States (the country in which data is most accessible) may reach $100 billion annually. The cost of cybercrime and cyber espionage to the global economy is some multiple of this, likely measured in hundreds of billions of dollars. Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base May 2013 109 Private-sector reports have proven that it is possible to determine the geographic reference of threat actors to varying degrees. Based on these assumptions, nation-states, rather than individuals, should be held culpable for the malicious actions and other cyber threats that originate in or transit information systems within their borders or that are owned by their registered corporate entities. This work builds on other appealing arguments for state responsibility in cyberspace. International Law Studies (U.S. Naval War College) April 1, 2013 42 From the report: “The prospect of cyber war has evolved from science fiction and over-the-top doomsday depictions on television, films, and in novels to reality and front-page news.… To date there has been little attention given to the possibility that international law generally and counterterrorism law in particular could and should develop a subset of cyber-counterterrorism law to respond to the inevitability of cyberattacks by terrorists and the use of cyber weapons by governments against terrorists, and to supplement existing international law governing cyber war where the intrusions do not meet the traditional kinetic thresholds.” . Title c11173008 Source Date Cyber Incidents Attributed to China Center for Strategic and International Studies March 11, 2013 15 Evidence that China and Chinese hackers are responsible for the many incidents attributed to them. CSIS did a review of open source literature identifying China as the source of hacking and cyber espionage incidents. This is an initial list, as we know of other major cyber incidents attributed to China by officials in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, India, Japan, the UK, and other countries not discussed here. We have broken our list into two parts. The first section lists reports that identify specific individuals and entities; the second section refers to incidents ascribed generally to China. These reports identify six groups and fourteen individuals, all but one connected to the Chinese government and most with connections to the PLA, as responsible for cyber espionage The Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare Cambridge University Press/ NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Center of Excellence March 5, 2013 302 The Tallinn Manual identifies the international law applicable to cyber warfare and sets out 95 “black-letter rules” governing such conflicts. An extensive commentary accompanies each rule, which sets forth the rule’s basis in treaty and customary law, explains how the group of experts interpreted applicable norms in the cyber context, and outlines any disagreements within the group as to the rule’s application. (Note: The manual is not an official NATO publication but rather an expression of opinions of a group of independent experts acting solely in their personal capacities.) Cyberterrorism: A Survey of Researchers Swansea University March 2013 21 This report provides an overview of findings from a project designed to capture current understandings of cyberterrorism within the research community. The project ran between June 2012 and November 2012, and it employed a questionnaire that was distributed to more than 600 researchers, authors, and other experts. Potential respondents were identified using a combination of methods, including targeted literature reviews, standing within relevant academic communities, snowballing from earlier participants or contacts, and the use of two mailing lists. A total of 118 responses were received from individuals working in 24 countries across 6 continents. Please contact the research team with any enquiries on the project’s methods and findings (see p. 21 for contact details). CRS-53 Pages Notes . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes APT1 [Advanced Persistent Threat 1]: Exposing One of China’s Cyber Espionage Units Mandiant February 19, 2013 76 Video demo of Chinese hacker activity (Click on “APT1 Video” at top right of screen.) Mandiant February 19, 2013 N/A Responding to Cyber Attacks and the Applicability of Existing International Law Army War College January 2013 34 This paper identifies how the United States should respond to the threat of cyber operations against essential government and private networks. First, it examines the applicability of established international law to cyber operations. Next, it proposes a method for categorizing cyber operations across a spectrum synchronized with established international law. Finally, it discusses actions already taken by the United States to protect critical government and private networks and concludes with additional steps the United States should take to respond to the threat of cyber operations. Crisis and Escalation in Cyberspace RAND Corporation December 2012 200 The report considers how the Air Force should integrate kinetic and nonkinetic operations. Central to this process was careful consideration of how escalation options and risks should be treated, which, in turn, demanded a broader consideration across the entire crisis-management spectrum. Such crises can be managed by taking steps to reduce the incentives for other states to step into crisis, controlling the narrative, understanding the stability parameters of the crises, and trying to manage escalation if conflicts arise from crises. Cyberattacks Among Rivals: 2001-2011 (from the article, “The Fog of Cyberwar” by Brandon Variano and Ryan Maness [subscription required]) Foreign Affairs November 21, 2012 N/A A chart showing cyberattacks by initiator and victim, 2001-2011. Emerging Cyber Threats Report 2013 Georgia Institute of Technology November 14, 2012 9 CRS-54 Mandiant conducted hundreds of investigations on computer security breaches around the world. The details analyzed during these investigations signal that the groups conducting these breaches are based primarily in China and that the Chinese government is aware of them. Five-minute video of APT1 attacker sessions and intrusion activities. An examination of the cyber challenges of 2013, including new and increasingly sophisticated means to capture and exploit user data, escalating battles over the control of online information, and continuous threats to the U.S. supply chain from global sources. (From the annual Georgia Tech Cyber Security Summit 2012.) . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Proactive Defense for Evolving Cyber Threats Sandia National Labs November 2012 Safeguarding Cyber-Security, Fighting in Cyberspace International Relations and Security Network (ISN) October 22, 2012 N/A Before We Knew It: An Empirical Study of Zero-Day Attacks In The Real World Symantec Research Labs October 16, 2012 12 The paper describes a method for automatically identifying zeroday attacks from field-gathered data that records when benign and malicious binaries are downloaded on 11 million real hosts around the world. Searching this data set for malicious files that exploit known vulnerabilities indicates which files appeared on the Internet before the corresponding vulnerabilities were disclosed. Investigative Report on the U.S. National Security Issues Posed by Chinese Telecommunications Companies Huawei and ZTE House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence October 8, 2012 60 The committee initiated this investigation in November 2011 to inquire into the counterintelligence and security threat posed by Chinese telecommunications companies doing business in the United States. Federal Support for and Involvement in State and Local Fusion Centers Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations October 3, 2012 141 A two-year bipartisan investigation found that U.S. Department of Homeland Security efforts to engage state and local intelligence “fusion centers” have not yielded significant useful information to support federal counterterrorism intelligence efforts. In Section VI, “Fusion Centers Have Been Unable to Meaningfully Contribute to Federal Counterterrorism Efforts,” Part G, “Fusion Centers May Have Hindered, Not Aided, Federal Counterterrorism Efforts,” the report discusses the Russian “cyberattack” in Illinois. Putting the “war” in cyberwar: Metaphor, analogy, and cybersecurity discourse in the United States First Monday July 2, 2012 N/A This essay argues that current contradictory tendencies are unproductive and even potentially dangerous. It argues that the war metaphor and nuclear deterrence analogy are neither natural nor inevitable and that abandoning them would open up new possibilities for thinking more productively about the full spectrum of cybersecurity challenges, including the as-yet unrealized possibility of cyberwar. CRS-55 98 Notes The project applied rigorous predictability-based analytics to two central and complementary aspects of the network defense problem—attack strategies of the adversaries and vulnerabilities of the defenders’ systems—and used the results to develop a scientifically grounded, practically implementable methodology for designing proactive cyber defense systems. Looks at the militarization of cybersecurity as a source of global tension and makes the case that cyber warfare is already an essential feature of many leading states’ strategic calculations, followed by its opposite (i.e., the case that the threat posed by cyber warfare capabilities is woefully overstated). . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies, Command and General Staff May 17, 2012 62 Explores the reality of cyber warfare through the story of Stuxnet. Three case studies evaluate cyber policy, discourse, and procurement in the United States, Russia, and China before and after Stuxnet to illustrate their similar, yet unique, realities of cyber warfare. United States Counter Terrorism Cyber Law and Policy, Enabling or Disabling? Triangle Institute for Security Studies March 2012 34 From the report: “The incongruence between national counterterrorism (CT) cyber policy, law, and strategy degrades the abilities of federal CT professionals to interdict transnational terrorists from within cyberspace. Specifically, national CT cyber policies that are not completely sourced in domestic or international law unnecessarily limit the latitude cyber CT professionals need to effectively counter terrorists through the use of organic cyber capabilities. To optimize national CT assets and to stymie the growing threat posed by terrorists’ everexpanding use of cyberspace, national decision-makers should modify current policies to efficiently execute national CT strategies, albeit within the framework of existing CT cyberrelated statutes.” A Cyberworm that Knows No Boundaries RAND Corporation December 21, 2011 55 Stuxnet-like worms pose a serious threat even to infrastructure and computer systems that are not connected to the Internet. Defending against such attacks is an increasingly complex prospect. Department of Defense Cyberspace Policy Report: A Report to Congress Pursuant to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011, Section 934 Department of Defense November 2011 14 From the report: “When warranted, we will respond to hostile attacks in cyberspace as we would to any other threat to our country. We reserve the right to use all necessary means diplomatic, informational, military and economic - to defend our nation, our allies, our partners and our interests.” Cyber War Will Not Take Place Journal of Strategic Studies October 5, 2011 29 The paper argues that cyber warfare has never taken place, is not currently taking place, and is unlikely to take place in the future. Foreign Spies Stealing U.S. Economic Secrets in Cyberspace: Report to Congress on Foreign Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage, 2009-2011 Office of the National Counterintelligen ce Executive October 2011 31 Because the United States is a leader in the development of new technologies and a central player in global financial and trade networks, foreign attempts to collect U.S. technological and economic information will continue at a high level and will represent a growing and persistent threat to U.S. economic security. The nature of the cyber threat will evolve with continuing technological advances in the global information environment. CRS-56 . Title c11173008 Source Date USCYBERCOM [U.S. Cyber Command] and Cyber Security: Is a Comprehensive Strategy Possible? Army War College May 12, 2011 A Four-Day Dive Into Stuxnet’s Heart Threat Level Blog (Wired) Did Stuxnet Take Out 1,000 Centrifuges at the Natanz Enrichment Plant? A Preliminary Assessment Pages Notes 32 Examines five aspects of USCYBERCOM: organization, command and control, computer network operations, synchronization, and resourcing. Identifies areas that currently present significant risk to USCYBERCOM’s ability to create a strategy that can achieve success in its cyberspace operations and recommends potential solutions that can increase the effectiveness of the USCYBERCOM strategy. December 27, 2010 N/A From the article: “It is a mark of the extreme oddity of the Stuxnet computer worm that Microsoft’s Windows vulnerability team learned of it first from an obscure Belarusian security company that even they had never heard of.” Institute for Science and International Security December 22, 2010 10 This report indicates that commands in the Stuxnet code intended to increase the frequency of devices targeted by the malware exactly match several frequencies at which rotors in centrifuges at Iran’s Natanz enrichment plant are designed to operate optimally or are at risk of breaking down and flying apart. Stuxnet Analysis European Network and Information Security Agency October 7, 2010 N/A A European Union cybersecurity agency warns that the Stuxnet malware is a game changer for critical information infrastructure protection; programmable logic controllers of supervisory control and data acquisition systems infected with the worm might be programmed to establish destructive over/under pressure conditions by running pumps at different frequencies. Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy National Research Council October 5, 2010 400 Per request of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the National Research Council undertook a two-phase project aimed to foster a broad, multidisciplinary examination of strategies for deterring cyberattacks on the United States and of the possible utility of these strategies for the U.S. government. CRS-57 . Title Cyber Warfare: Armageddon in a Teacup? Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. c11173008 CRS-58 Source Army Command and General Staff, Fort Leavenworth Date December 11, 2009 Pages 106 Notes This study examines cyber warfare conducted against Estonia in 2007, Georgia in 2008, and Israel in 2008. From the report: “In all three cases Cyber Warfare did not achieve strategic political objectives on its own. Cyber Warfare employed in the three cases consisted mainly of Denial of Service attacks and website defacement. These attacks were a significant inconvenience to the affected nations, but the attacks were not of sufficient scope, sophistication, or duration to force a concession from the targeted nation. Cyber Warfare offensive capability does not outmatch defensive capability to the extent that would allow the achievement of a strategic political objective through Cyber Warfare alone. The possibility of strategic-level Cyber Warfare remains great, but the capability has not been demonstrated at this time.” . Table 7. International Efforts Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes European Cybercrime Center (EC3) Europol Ongoing N/A The European Commission decided to establish a European Cybercrime Centre (EC3) at Europol. The center will be the focal point in the EU’s fight against cybercrime, contributing to faster reactions in the event of online crimes. It will support EU member states and institutions in building operational and analytical capacity for investigations and cooperation with international partners. Global Cybersecurity Index International Telecommunications Union Ongoing N/A Based on questionnaire responses received by member states of the International Telecommunications Union, a first analysis of cybersecurity development in the Arab region was compiled and one for the Africa region is under way. The objective is to release a global status of cybersecurity for 2014. The Cyber Hub Booz Allen Hamilton and the Economist Intelligence Unit Ongoing N/A The Cyber Hub’s content was built on several integral parts: an index that assesses specific aspects of the cyber environment of the G20 countries and a series of research papers that examine the implications for the business community. Cybersecurity Legislation International Telecommunications Union Ongoing N/A An integral and challenging component of any national cybersecurity strategy is the adoption of regionally and internationally harmonized, appropriate legislation against the misuse of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for criminal or other purposes. Cyber Security Strategy: Progress So Far Cabinet Office, United Kingdom Ongoing N/A From the report: “To support the Strategy we put in place a National Cyber Security Programme (NCSP) backed by £650 million of funding to 2015. This year we increased that investment with a further £210 million in 2015 to 2016. This funding will build on existing projects and also support new investment, enabling the UK to retain its emerging reputation as a leader in the field of cyber security.” CRS-59 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes FACT SHEET: The 2015 G-7 Summit at Schloss Elmau, Germany White House June 8, 2015 N/A Member nations of the Group of Seven today announced a new cooperative effort to guard the energy sector from hackers, cyber-spies, and other online attackers. The seven industrialized democracies will exchange information on methodologies for identifying cyber threats and vulnerabilities within the energy sector, sharing best practices and making “investment in cybersecurity capabilities and capacity building.” See "Launching New Work on Energy Sector Cybersecurity" on the Fact Sheet. OAS and FIRST Sign Agreement to Improve Hemispheric Response to Cyber Incidents Organization of American States May 28, 2015 N/A The Organization of American States and the Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams plan to cooperate on cybersecurity incident response and to promote good cyber hygiene across the Americas. OAS and FIRST signed an agreement pledging to “jointly organize technical incident response activities focused on the needs and challenges of OAS member states” and to help implement OAS’s Comprehensive InterAmerican Strategy to Combat Threats to Cyber Security and its Declaration on Strengthening Cyber Security in the Americas, adopted by member states in 2004 and 2012, respectively. Global Cybersecurity Index: Updated Report International Telecommunication Union and ABI Research May 28, 2015 528 Each country profile features information on measures contained in the five key pillars of the GCI, as enshrined in the ITU’s Global Cybersecurity Agenda, notably: legal, technical, organizational, capacity building and cooperation. Information on child online protection measures will be added to each profile. The GCI has been an ongoing project between ITU and ABI Research to map out cybersecurity efforts undertaken at the national level. Each of the six regions (Africa, Americas, Arab States, Asia Pacific, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and Europe) saw regional champions emerge. Good practices from each region and from each of the pillars are highlighted. CRS-60 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes European Agenda on Security European Commission April 28, 2015 21 The agenda pledges EU nations to review obstacles to cross-border cybercrime investigations, especially related to jurisdiction and evidence sharing. It also pledges EU institutions to follow through on commitments in the 28-nation bloc’s 2013 Cybersecurity Strategy, especially by adopting a proposal for a binding EU-wide directive on network and information security. EU Cybersecurity Dashboard: A Path to a Secure European Cyberspace Business Software Alliance (BSA) March 4, 2015 20 The report analyzes the current status of all 28 member states against pre-determined criteria for cybersecurity best practices. Joint Committee Report on Risks and Vulnerabilities in the EU Financial System European Banking Authority March 2015 15 Cybercrime and computer failure are areas of “great concern” and should be included in financial firms’ risk management procedures, according to a report by EU bank, insurance, and market regulators. Financial institutions should be encouraged to integrate IT security and resilience into their proprietary risk models. System security and IT strategy carry their own risks and complexities that can bleed across into more traditional forms of risk. Fact Sheet: US-United Kingdom Cybersecurity Cooperation White House January 16, 2015 N/A The UK’s Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and Security Service (MI5) are working with their U.S. partners—the National Security Agency and the Federal Bureau of Investigation—to further strengthen U.S.-UK collaboration on cybersecurity by establishing a joint cyber cell, with an operating presence in each country. The cell, which will allow staff from each agency to be co-located, will focus on specific cyber defense topics and enable cyber threat information and data to be shared at pace and at greater scale. Threat Landscape and Good Practice Guide for Internet Infrastructure European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) January 2015 64 The report details the assets composing an Internet infrastructure and classifies the threats applicable, highlighting “important specific threats” that disrupt connectivity. These include routing threats, DNS threats, and (Distributed) Denial of Service. Each threat is linked with a list of assets exposed. Overall, there is an increase in the occurrence of these threats. CRS-61 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Managing the Cyber Security Threat Hoover Institution Working Group on Foreign Policy and Grand Strategy December 12, 2014 6 From the report: “The cyber threat needs to be managed through a combination of being realistic and honest about our willingness and capacity to guarantee security in this area; accepting multilateral arrangements to protect commerce and critical infrastructure and leaving traditional forms of intelligence and military activities unregulated; and allowing private companies and individuals to use strong encryption or open-source software without built-in vulnerabilities.” “Joint Elements” from U.S.-EU Cyber Dialogue U.S. State Department and European Union (EU) December 5, 2014 N/A U.S. and EU officials said an inaugural cyber dialogue meeting in Belgium that they had reaffirmed numerous shared principles, including a commitment to a multistakeholder Internet governance model and international cooperation on cybersecurity. In a joint preliminary statement, the officials also reiterated their support for a 2013 United Nations Governmental Group of Experts consensus that international law applies in cyberspace just as it does on land or at sea and for the 2012 Budapest Convention, a treaty focused on international cooperation to fight cybercrime. Legal Issues Related to Cyber NATO Legal Gazette December 2014 74 The NATO Legal Gazette contains thematically organized articles usually written by authors who are military or civilian legal personnel working at NATO or in the governments of NATO and partner nations. Its purpose is to share articles of significance for the large NATO legal community and connect legal professionals of the Alliance. It is not a formal NATO document. Cyber defence in the EU: Preparing for cyber warfare? European Parliamentary Research Service October 31, 2014 10 A number of EU member states are among those developing their capabilities, and the EU’s own Defence Agency is also working on projects to augment cyber defenses in the union. This report includes summaries of EU member nations and NATO’s national cyberdefense policies. CRS-62 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Inquiry into Cyber Intrusions Affecting U.S. Transportation Command Contractors Senate Armed Services Committee September 17, 2014 52 Hackers associated with the Chinese government successfully penetrated the computer systems of Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) contractors 20 times in the course of a single year. Chinese hackers tried to get into the systems 50 times. The congressional committee found that only two of the intrusions were detected. It also found the officials were unaware due in large part to unclear requirements and methods for contractors to report breaches and for government agencies to share information. A Role for Civil Society in Cybersecurity Affairs? ICT4Peace Foundation September 3, 2014 26 From the report: “The paper is aimed at civil society organisations, national governments, international and regional organisations and other key actors concerned with ICTs and their impact on international and regional security. They perform a wide range of functions, including policy-oriented research, advocacy, [and] networking. In the Internet/cyber security world, civil society organisations often work in specific issues areas, many technical or functional in nature and tied to the maintenance of the Internet. Civil society does not include the private sector. Nevertheless, natural alliances are emerging between certain of the more tech-oriented civil society organisations (for example, the Internet Society or the IEEE) and some Tier 1 carriers (i.e., those carriers that have a direct connection to the Internet and the networks it uses to deliver voice and data services), and major transnational vendors and Internet Service Providers (ISPs).” European Cybersecurity Implementation Series ISACA August 26, 2014 CRS-63 N/A ISACA has released the European Cybersecurity Implementation Series primarily to provide practical implementation guidance that is aligned with European requirements and good practice. . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Consult, Command, Control, Contract: Adding a Fourth “C” to NATO’s Cyber Security Centre for International Governance Innovation August 6, 2014 10 The authors suggest that NATO should implement a contracting protocol that delineates appropriate classifications for the tasks and personnel required for private cybersecurity contracts. They conclude that establishing an oversight organization and submitting a proposal to the International Law Commission to consider the roles of private security actors would create greater transparency and accountability for contracting. Mapping the Cyber Dragon: China's Conduct of Terror in the Cyber World Defense and Diplomacy Journal July-September 2014 13 “[A]mong all the major players of the world, one country which participates in, and practices, all the above mentioned forms of cyber conflict, not only in the military sector but also in the civilian sector, is the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Therefore, for a broader perspective of global cyber security, it is imperative to understand the various types of modus operandi and other methodologies of different groups, in both military and civilian sectors involved in cyber conflicts, from China who are creating potential terror in the cyber domain.” iDATA: Improving Defences Against Targeted Attack Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (UK) July 2014 8 The iDATA program consists of a number of projects aimed at addressing threats posed by nation-states and state-sponsored actors. iDATA has resulted in several outputs for the cybersecurity community. This document provides a description of the iDATA program and a summary of the reports. Cyber-attacks: Effects on UK Oxford Economics July 2014 79 The UK Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure asked Oxford Economics to carry out a study of the impact of state-sponsored cyberattacks on UK firms. The study consists of the elaboration of an economic framework for cyberattacks, a survey of UK firms on cyberattacks, an event study on the impact of cyberattacks on stock-market valuations, and a series of case studies illustrating the experience of several UK firms with cyberattacks. CRS-64 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Global Cybercrime: The Interplay of Politics and Law Centre for International Governance Innovation June 20, 2014 23 This paper explores the recent unsealing of a 31-count indictment against five Chinese government officials and a significant cyber breach perpetrated by Chinese actors against Western oil, energy, and petrochemical companies. The paper concludes by noting that increased cooperation among governments is necessary but unlikely to occur as long as the discourse surrounding cybercrime remains so heavily politicized and securitized. If governments coalesced around the notion of trying to prevent the long-term degradation of trust in the online economy, then they might profitably advance the dialogue away from mutual suspicion and toward mutual cooperation. China and International Law in Cyberspace U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission May 7, 2014 11 Despite major differences on cyberspace policy between the United States and China, a recent development at the United Nations illustrates basic areas of agreement. The United States and China were among 15 countries affirming the applicability of international law to cyberspace in a 2013 UN report. The same group will gather in 2014 to address some of the more challenging and divisive concepts regarding state responsibility and use of force in cyberspace. Baseline Review: ICT-Related Processes and Events, Implications for International and Regional Security (2011-2013) ICT4Peace May 1, 2014 50 The report is structured around the following three areas: (1) international and regional security (the predominant focus); (2) transnational crime and terrorism; and (3) governance, human rights and development. These areas are obviously interdependent, with developments in one area often impacting another, yet they have traditionally been approached separately through distinct communities of practice and fora. The report will serve as a baseline for future annual reports. It covers the period spanning from January 2011 to December 2013 and provides background on earlier events. CRS-65 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Cyber Maturity in the Asia-Pacific Region 2014 Australian Strategic Policy Institute April 14, 2014 76 The institute assesses regional digital maturity across government, business, society and the military. Australia comes out ahead of China, Japan, and South Korea when it comes to overall digital strength in the region and ranks third behind the United States and China in cyber warfare. The Asia-Pacific region is increasingly the focus of cyberattacks, say analysts, including criminal and state-sponsored hacking and espionage. U.S.-EU Cyber Cooperation White House March 26, 2014 N/A The new high-level U.S.-EU Cyber Dialogue announced at the 2014 U.S.-EU Summit will formalize and broaden cooperation between the United States and the EU on cyber issues, building on shared commitments and achievements in key areas. Legislative Resolution on the Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Concerning Measures to Ensure a High Common Level of Network and Information Security Across the Union European Parliament March 13, 2014 N/A The directive would require companies operating critical infrastructure to maintain a specified minimum level of cybersecurity preparedness and report to national authorities about cyberattacks with a “significant impact” on the security of their networks. 10 Steps to Cyber Security UK Department. for Business Innovation and Skills and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure February 4, 2014 20 CRS-66 The joint communiqué outlines steps UK regulators and government departments have agreed to undertake to improve the country’s cyber systems and network defenses. Steps to combat cyberattacks include assessing the state of cybersecurity across each sector and working with industry to address vulnerabilities; working with industry to increase information flows on threat vulnerabilities and mitigation strategies; encouraging companies to join information-sharing initiatives, such as the Cyber Security Information Sharing Partnership, a partnership between the UK government and industry to share information and intelligence on cybersecurity threats launched in March 2013; and encouraging companies to undertake a selfassessment pursuant to guidance published by the UK Department for Business, Innovation, and Skills. . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes 2013 Joint Report U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission (BPC) December 27, 2013 40 The report includes updates from each of the BPC’s 21 working groups. (See the “Working Group on the Threats to and in the use of Information Communications Technologies in the Context of International Service” section on pages 11-12.) A key component of the discussion concerned the implementation of the bilateral confidence building measures (CBMs) announced by Presidents Obama and Putin in June 2013. These bilateral CBMs are intended to promote transparency and reduce the possibility that an incident related to the use of ICTs could unintentionally cause instability or escalation. World Federation of Exchanges (WFE) Launches Global Cyber Security Committee WFE December 12, 2013 N/A The WFE announced the launch of the exchange industry’s first cybersecurity committee with a mission to aid in the protection of the global capital markets. The working group will bring together representation from a number of exchanges and clearinghouses across the globe to collaborate on best practices in global security. Handbook on European Data Protection Law Council of Europe December 2013 214 This handbook is a first point of reference on both EU law and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) on data protection, and it explains how the field of data protection is regulated under EU law and the ECHR as well as under the Council of Europe Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (Convention 108) and other council instruments. Each chapter presents a single table of the applicable legal provisions, including important selected case law under the two separate European legal systems. CRS-67 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes 465 In 2013, the commission continued its close examination of China’s cyber capabilities. Strong evidence has emerged that the Chinese government is directing and executing a large-scale cyber-espionage campaign against the United States, including the U.S. government and private companies. However, public exposure of this cyber espionage apparently has not changed China’s attitude about the use of cyber espionage to steal intellectual property and proprietary information. (See Chapter 2, Section 2: “China’s Cyber Activities.”) 2013 Annual Report to Congress U.S.-China Economic Commission October 20, 2013 Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Attacks Against Information Systems European Parliament Civil Liberties Committee August 12, 2013 7 The objectives of this directive are (1) to approximate the criminal law of EU member states in the area of attacks against information systems by establishing minimum rules concerning the definition of criminal offenses and the relevant sanctions and (2) to improve cooperation between competent authorities, including the police and other specialized law-enforcement services of the member states, as well as the competent specialized EU agencies and bodies, such as Eurojust, Europol and its European Cyber Crime Centre, and the European Network and Information Security Agency. Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security United Nations General Assembly, Group of Governmental Experts June 24, 2013 13 The report states that UN-member states should abide by international law, particularly the UN Charter, when operating in cyberspace; honor the norm of state responsibility for cyberattacks emanating from their territory; work to develop confidence building measures to reduce the risk of conflict by increasing the predictability of state actions; and engage in capacity building efforts to assist developing countries in building the required skills to protect their networks and citizens. CRS-68 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Confidence Building Measures and International Cybersecurity ICT4Peace Foundation June 21, 2013 21 Confidence-building measures can lay the foundation for agreeing on acceptable norms of behavior for states, and confidence- and trust-building measures can help to avoid miscalculation and escalation. The report is divided into four main sections: (1) Transparency, Compliance, and Verification Measures; (2) Cooperative Measures; (3) Collaboration and Communication Mechanisms; and (4) Stability and Restraint Measures. A final section discusses next steps for diplomatic confidence-building processes. FACT SHEET: U.S.-Russian Cooperation on Information and Communications Technology Security White House June 17, 2013 N/A The United States and the Russian Federation are creating a new working group, under the auspices of the Bilateral Presidential Commission, dedicated to assessing emerging ICT threats and proposing concrete joint measures to address them. Telecommunications Networks: Addressing Potential Security Risks of Foreign-Manufactured Equipment Government Accountability Office (GAO) May 21, 2013 52 From the report: “The federal government has begun efforts to address the security of the supply chain for commercial networks.... There are a variety of other approaches for addressing the potential risks posed by foreign-manufactured equipment in commercial communications networks, including those approaches taken by foreign governments.... While these approaches are intended to improve supply chain security of communications networks, they may also create the potential for trade barriers, additional costs, and constraints on competition, which the federal government would have to take into account if it chose to pursue such approaches.” The Global Cyber Game: Achieving Strategic Resilience in the Global Knowledge Society Defence Academy of the United Kingdom May 8, 2013 127 Provides a systematic way of thinking about cyberpower and its use by a range of global players. The global cyberpower contest is framed as a global cyber game, played out on a “Cyber Gameboard”—a framework that can be used for strategic and tactical thinking about cyber strategy. CRS-69 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2013 (Annual Report to Congress) Department of Defense May 6, 2013 92 China is using its computer network exploitation capability to support intelligence collection against the U.S. diplomatic, economic, and defense industrial base sectors that support U.S. national defense programs. The information targeted could potentially be used to benefit China’s defense industry; high-technology industries; policymaker interest in U.S. leadership thinking on key China issues; and military planners building a picture of U.S. network defense networks, logistics, and related military capabilities that could be exploited during a crisis. Defence White Paper 2013 Australia Department of Defence May 3, 2013 148 From the white paper: “The Australian Cyber Security Centre will bring together security capabilities from the Defence Signals Directorate, Defence Intelligence Organisation, Australian Security Intelligence Organisation, the Attorney-General’s Department’s Computer Emergency Response Team Australia, Australian Federal Police, and the Australian Crime Commission.” Remaking American Security: Supply Chain Vulnerabilities and National Security Risks Across the U.S. Defense Industrial Base Alliance for American Manufacturing May 2013 355 Because the supply chain is global, it makes sense for U.S. officials to cooperate with other nations to ward off cyberattacks. Increased international cooperation to secure the integrity of the global IT system is a valuable long-term objective. Cyber Security Information Partnership (CISP) Cabinet Office, United Kingdom March 27, 2013 N/A CISP introduces a secure virtual “collaboration environment” in which government and industry partners can exchange information on threats and vulnerabilities in real time. CISP will be complemented by a “Fusion Cell,” which will be supported on the government side by the Security Service, Government Communications Headquarters and the National Crime Agency, and industry analysts from a variety of sectors. CRS-70 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes The Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare Cambridge University Press/ NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Center of Excellence March 5, 2013 302 The Tallinn Manual identifies the international law applicable to cyber warfare and sets out 95 “black-letter rules” governing such conflicts. An extensive commentary accompanies each rule, which sets forth each rules’ basis in treaty and customary law, explains how the group of experts interpreted applicable norms in the cyber context, and outlines any disagreements within the group as to each rules’ application. (Note: The manual is not an official NATO publication, but an expression of opinions of a group of independent experts acting solely in their personal capacity.) APT1 [Advanced Persistent Threat 1]: Exposing One of China’s Cyber Espionage Units Mandiant February 19, 2013 76 Mandiant conducted hundreds of investigations on computer security breaches around the world. The details analyzed during these investigations signal that the groups conducting these breaches are based primarily in China and that the Chinese government is aware of them. Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community (Testimony) James Clapper, Director of National Intelligence February 11, 2013 34 Clapper provided an assessment of global threats: U.S. critical infrastructure, eroding U.S. economic and national security, information control and Internet governance, and hacktivists and criminals. Linking Cybersecurity Policy and Performance Microsoft Trustworthy Computing February 6, 2013 27 Introduces a new methodology for examining how socioeconomic factors in a country or region impact cybersecurity performance. Examines measures such as use of modern technology, mature processes, user education, law enforcement, and public policies related to cyberspace. This methodology can build a model that will help predict the expected cybersecurity performance of a given country or region. CRS-71 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Comprehensive Study on Cybercrime United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime February 2013 320 The study examined the problem of cybercrime from the perspective of governments, the private sector, academia and international organizations. The results are presented in eight Chapters, covering Internet connectivity and cybercrime; the global cybercrime picture; cybercrime legislation and frameworks; criminalization of cybercrime; law enforcement and cybercrime investigations; electronic evidence and criminal justice; international cooperation in criminal matters involving cybercrime; and cybercrime prevention. Administration Strategy for Mitigating the Theft of U.S. Trade Secrets White House February 2013 141 From the report, “First, we will increase our diplomatic engagement.... Second, we will support industry-led efforts to develop best practices to protect trade secrets and encourage companies to share with each other best practices that can mitigate the risk of trade secret theft.... Third, DOJ will continue to make the investigation and prosecution of trade secret theft by foreign competitors and foreign governments a top priority.... Fourth, President Obama recently signed two pieces of legislation that will improve enforcement against trade secret theft.... Lastly, we will increase public awareness of the threats and risks to the U.S. economy posed by trade secret theft.” The Chinese Defense Economy Takes Off: Sector-by-Sector Assessments and the Role of Military End-Users University of California Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation January 25, 2013 87 This collection of 15 policy briefs explores how China has made such impressive military technological progress over the past few years, what is in store, and what are the international security implications. The briefs are summaries of a series of longer research papers presented at the third annual Chinese defense economy conference held by the Study of Innovation and Technology in China in July 2012. Defence and Cyber-Security, vol. 1 - Report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence Defence and Cyber-Security, vol. 2 - Additional Written Evidence House of Commons Defence Committee (UK) December 18, 2012 99 (vol. 1) 37 (vol. 2) From the report: “Given the inevitable inadequacy of the measures available to protect against a constantly changing and evolving threat ... it is not enough for the Armed Forces to do their best to prevent an effective attack. In its response to this report the Government should set out details of the contingency plans it has in place should such an attack occur. If it has none, it should say so—and urgently create some.” CRS-72 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes The Challenge of Cyber Power for Central African Countries: Risks and Opportunities Naval Postgraduate School December 2012 209 From the report: ”The Central African militaries, which are supposed to be the first line of defense for their governments’ institutions, are dramatically behind the times. To address this situation, the governments of Central Africa need to adopt a collaborative cyber strategy based on common investment in secure cyber infrastructures. Such cooperation will help to create a strong cyber environment conducive of the confidence and trust necessary for the emergence of a cyber community of Central African States (C3AS). For Central African militaries, massive training and recruiting will be the first move to begin the process of catching up.” Cybersecurity: Managing Risks for Greater Opportunities Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) November 29, 2012 N/A The OECD launched a broad consultation of all stakeholders from member and nonmember countries to review its security guidelines. The review takes into account newly emerging risks, technologies, and policy trends around such areas as cloud computing, digital mobility, the Internet of things, and social networking. Cybersecurity Policy Making at a Turning Point: Analysing a New Generation of National Cybersecurity Strategies for the Internet Economy OECD November 16, 2012 117 This report analyzes the latest generation of national cybersecurity strategies in 10 OECD countries and identifies commonalities and differences. 2012 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, 112th Congress, Second Session, November 2012 U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission November 2012 509 This report responds to the mandate for the commission “to monitor, investigate, and report to Congress on the national security implications of the bilateral trade and economic relationship between the United States and the People’s Republic of China.” See “China’s Cyber Activities,” Chapter 2, Section 2, pp. 147-169. CRS-73 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Australia: Telecommunications Data Retention— an Overview Parliamentary Library of Australia October 24, 2012 32 From the report: “In July 2012, the Commonwealth Attorney General’s Department released a Discussion Paper, Equipping Australia against emerging and evolving threats, on the proposed national security reforms.... Of the eighteen primary proposals and the forty-one individual reforms that they comprise, the suggestion that carriage service providers (CSPs) be required to routinely retain certain information associated with every Australian’s use of the Internet and phone services for a period of up to two years (‘data retention’) is the issue that seems to have attracted the most attention.” More Than Meets the Eye: Clandestine Funding, Cutting-Edge Technology and China’s Cyber Research and Development Program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory October 17, 2012 17 This report analyzes how the Chinese leadership views information technology research and development (R&D) as well as the role cyber R&D plays in China’s various strategic development plans. It explores the organizational structure of China’s cyber R&D base and concludes with a projection of how China might field new cyber capabilities for intelligence platforms, advanced weapons systems, and systems designed to support asymmetric warfare operations. Investigative Report on the U.S. National Security Issues Posed by Chinese Telecommunications Companies Huawei and ZTE House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence October 8, 2012 60 The committee initiated this investigation in November 2011 to inquire into the counterintelligence and security threat posed by Chinese telecommunications companies doing business in the United States. Bilateral Discussions on Cooperation in Cybersecurity China Institute of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR) and the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) June 2012 N/A Since 2009, CSIS and CICIR have held six formal meetings on cybersecurity (accompanied by several informal discussions), called “Sino-U.S. Cybersecurity Dialogues.” The meetings have been attended by a broad range of U.S. and Chinese officials and scholars responsible for cybersecurity issues. The goals of the discussions have been to reduce misperceptions and to increase both transparency among both countries’ authorities and understanding regarding how each country approaches cybersecurity. The meetings also seek to identify areas of potential cooperation. CRS-74 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Five Years after Estonia’s Cyber Attacks: Lessons Learned for NATO? NATO May 2012 8 In April 2007 a series of cyberattacks targeted Estonian information systems and telecommunication networks. Lasting 22 days, the attacks were directed at a range of servers (web, email, domain name systems) and routers. The 2007 attacks did not damage much of the Estonian IT infrastructure. However, the attacks were a true wake-up call for NATO, offering a practical demonstration that cyberattacks could now cripple an entire nation dependent on IT networks. United States Counter Terrorism Cyber Law and Policy, Enabling or Disabling? Triangle Institute for Security Studies March 2012 34 The incongruence between national counterterrorism (CT) cyber policy, law, and strategy degrades the abilities of federal CT professionals to interdict transnational terrorists from within cyberspace. Specifically, national CT cyber policies that are not completely sourced in domestic or international law unnecessarily limit the latitude cyber CT professionals need to effectively counter terrorists through the use of organic cyber capabilities. To optimize national CT assets and stymie the growing threat posed by terrorists’ ever-expanding use of cyberspace, national decisionmakers should modify current policies to efficiently execute national CT strategies, albeit within the framework of existing CT cyber-related statutes. Cyber-security: The Vexed Question of Global Rules: An Independent Report on CyberPreparedness Around the World McAfee February 1, 2012 108 Forty-five percent of legislators and cybersecurity experts representing 27 countries think cybersecurity is just as important as border security. The authors surveyed 80 professionals from business, academia, and government to gauge worldwide opinions of cybersecurity. The UK Cyber Security Strategy: Protecting and promoting the UK in a digital world Cabinet Office, United Kingdom 43 This report gives background on the growth of the networked world and the immense social and economic benefits it is unlocking. It also describes threats associated with this networked world, the impacts of which are already being felt and will grow as reliance on cyberspace grows. Lastly, the report puts forth the government’s vision for UK cybersecurity in 2015. CRS-75 November 2011 . Title Source Pages Notes Foreign Spies Stealing US Economic Secrets in Cyberspace Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive October 2011 31 According to the report, espionage and theft through cyberspace are growing threats to the United States’ security and economic prosperity, and the world’s most persistent perpetrators happen to also be U.S. allies. International Strategy for Cyberspace White House/Office of Management and Budget May 16, 2011 30 The strategy marks the first time any Administration has attempted to set forth in one document the U.S. government’s vision for cyberspace, including goals for defense, diplomacy, and international development. Cyber Dawn: Libya Cyber Security Forum Initiative May 9, 2011 70 This report uses open-source material to provide an indepth view of Libyan cyber warfare capabilities and defenses. Working Towards Rules for Governing Cyber Conflict: Rendering the Geneva and Hague Conventions in Cyberspace EastWest Institute February 3, 2011 60 According to the report, the authors “led [a group of] cyber and traditional security experts through a pointby-point analysis of the Geneva and Hague Conventions. Ultimately, the group made five immediate recommendations for Russian and U.S.-led joint assessments, each exploring how to apply a key convention principle to cyberspace.” The Reliability of Global Undersea Communications Cable Infrastructure (The ROGUCCI Report) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/EastWest Institute May 26, 2010 186 This study submits 12 major recommendations to the private sector, governments, and other stakeholders— especially the financial sector—for the purpose of improving the reliability, robustness, resilience, and security of the world’s undersea communications cable infrastructure. German Anti-Botnet Initiative OECD December 8, 2009 4 This is a private-industry initiative that aims to ensure that customers whose personal computers have become part of a botnet without them being aware of it are informed by their Internet service providers about this situation and given competent support in removing the malware. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. c11173008 Date CRS-76 . Table 8. Education/Training/Workforce Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Federal Cyber Service: Scholarship for Service (SFS) National Science Foundation Ongoing N/A This program provides funds to institutions of higher education (IHE) through two tracks: The Scholarship Track award scholarships to students in the IA and computer security fields for the final two years of undergraduate study, master's-level study, or Ph.D.-level study. Additionally, student recipients participate in a summer internship in the federal government. The Capacity Building Track funds IA faculty professional development and the development of IA academic programs. NCCoE National Cybersecurity Excellence Partnerships National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence (NCCoE) Ongoing N/A Established in 2012 through a partnership between NIST, the state of Maryland, and Montgomery County, the NCCoE is dedicated to furthering innovation through the rapid identification, integration, and adoption of practical cybersecurity solutions. The NCCoE is part of the NIST Information Technology Laboratory and operates in close collaboration with the Computer Security Division. National Initiative for Cybersecurity Careers and Studies (NICCS) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Ongoing N/A NICCS is an online resource for cybersecurity career, education, and training information. It is a partnership between DHS, NIST, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). Experimental Research Testbed (DETER) DHS Ongoing N/A The DETER testbed is used to test and evaluate cybersecurity technologies of more than 200 organizations from more than 20 states and 17 countries, including DHS-funded researchers, the larger cybersecurity research community, government, industry, academia, and educational users. CRS-77 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes National Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance (IA)/Cyber Defense (CD) DHS and National Security Agency (NSA) Ongoing N/A These programs promote higher education and research in IA and increasing the number of professionals with IA expertise in various disciplines. Postsecondary institutions may receive a CAE/IAE or CAE-R designation that is valid for five academic years. A school must successfully reapply in order to retain its CAE designation. Students attending these designated schools are eligible to apply for scholarships and grants through the DOD’s Information Assurance Scholarship Program (IASP) at and the SFS program. Internships, co-op program, scholarships, and work study programs National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) Ongoing N/A NSA/CSS provides scholarships and internships for high school, undergraduate, and graduate students. Michigan Cyber Range Partnership between the state of Michigan, Merit Network, federal and local governments, colleges and universities, and the private sector Ongoing N/A Enables individuals and organizations to develop detection and reaction skills through simulations and exercises. Information Assurance Scholarship Program DOD Ongoing N/A The Information Assurance Scholarship Program is designed to increase the number of qualified personnel entering the information assurance and information technology fields within the department. The scholarships also are an attempt to effectively retain military and civilian cybersecurity and IT personnel. National Centers of Academic Excellence (CAE) in Cyber Operations Program National Security Agency (NSA) Ongoing N/A The program is intended to be a deeply technical, interdisciplinary, higher-education program grounded in the computer science, computer engineering, or electrical engineering disciplines with extensive opportunities for hands-on applications via labs and exercises. CRS-78 . Title c11173008 Source Date Workforce Shortfall Due to Hiring Difficulties Despite Rising Salaries, Increased Budgets and High Job Satisfaction (ISC)2 April 17, 2015 Tech Hire White House March 9, 2015 U.S. Dept. of Energy to Offer $25M Grant for Cybersecurity DOE January 15, 2015 CRS-79 Pages 46 Notes In 2014, the average annual salary of a federal cybersecurity worker was $110,500, with federal contractors taking home $114,000. U.S. private-sector cyber professionals are expected to bring in $118,000 in 2015. The analysts from Frost & Sullivan forecast a shortfall of 1.5 million cyber professionals by 2020. This number is compounded by 45% of hiring managers reporting that they are struggling to support additional hiring needs and 62% of respondents reporting that their organizations have too few information security professionals. These findings were reported despite security spending increases across the board for technology, personnel and training; rising average annual salaries; and high rates of job satisfaction and low rates of change to employment status. The White House has unveiled a multi-sector effort to empower Americans with technology skills. Many jobs do not require a four-year computer science degree. To kick off TechHire, 21 regions, with more than 120,000 open technology jobs and more than 300 employer partners in need of this workforce, are announcing plans to work together to new ways to recruit and place applicants based on their actual skills and to create more fast track tech training opportunities. The President is challenging other communities across the country to follow their lead. N/A A $25 million DOE grant over five years for cybersecurity education will establish a Cybersecurity Workforce Pipeline Consortium within the DOE with funding from its Minority Serving Institutions Partnerships Program under its National Nuclear Security Administration. The participants are historically black colleges and universities, national labs, and K-12 school districts. . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Training Cyber Warriors: What Can Be Learned from Defense Language Training? RAND Corp. January 20015 97 This study seeks to help those planning future training for cyber warriors by highlighting what can be learned from another specialty: defense language. Although there is no perfect analogy between cyber personnel and another segment of the national security workforce, a number of similarities exist between the need for language skills and cyber warrior expertise, including the need for a highly specialized skill that requires extensive training, the critical role of the skill in mission effectiveness, a need to quickly build capacity, and a potentially limited pipeline of qualified candidates. In this exploratory study, the authors examine what the military services and national security agencies have done to train linguist personnel with skills in critical languages other than English and the kinds of language training provided to build and maintain this segment of the workforce. They draw from published documents, research literature, and interviews of experts in both language and cyber. Among key findings, the authors find that shared definitions and metrics are an important first step, training must be closely aligned with mission needs, and efforts should focus on building a strong pipeline of candidates. Hackers Wanted: An Examination of the Cybersecurity Labor Market RAND Corporation June 24, 2014 110 RAND examined the current status of the labor market for cybersecurity professionals with an emphasis on their being employed to defend the United States. This effort was in three parts: first, a review of the literature; second, interviews with managers and educators of cybersecurity professionals, supplemented by reportage; and third, an examination of the economic literature about labor markets. RAND also disaggregated the broad definition of “cybersecurity professionals” to unearth skills differentiation as relevant to this study. CRS-80 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes How Do We Know What Information Sharing Is Really Worth? Exploring Methodologies to Measure the Value of Information Sharing and Fusion Efforts RAND Corporation June 2014 33 Given resource constraints, there are concerns about the effectiveness of information-sharing and fusion activities and, therefore, their value relative to the public funds invested in them. Solid methods for evaluating these efforts are lacking, however, limiting the ability to make informed policy decisions. Drawing on a substantial literature review and synthesis, this report lays out the challenges of evaluating information-sharing efforts that frequently seek to achieve multiple goals simultaneously; reviews past evaluations of information-sharing programs; and lays out a path to improving the evaluation of such efforts going forward Cybersecurity for Government Contractors Robert Nichols et al., West Briefing Papers April 2014 28 The briefing paper presents a summary of the key legal issues and evolving compliance obligations that contractors now face in the federal cybersecurity landscape. It begins with an overview of the most prevalent types of cyberattacks and targets as well as the federal cybersecurity budget. Next, the paper outlines the current federal cybersecurity legal requirements applicable to government contractors, including statutory and regulatory requirements, the President’s 2013 cybersecurity Executive Order, and the resulting “cybersecurity framework” issued by NIST in February 2014, as well as highlights further developments expected this year. Finally, it identifies and discusses the real-world legal risks that contractors face when confronting cyberattacks and addresses the availability of possible liability backstops in the face of such attacks. DHS Is Generally Filling Mission-Critical Positions, but Could Better Track Costs of Coordinated Recruiting Efforts Government Accountability Office (GAO) September 17, 2013 47 One in five jobs at a key cybersecurity component within DHS is vacant, in large part due to steep competition in recruiting and hiring qualified personnel. National Protection and Programs Directorate officials cited challenges in recruiting cyber professionals because of the length of time taken to conduct security checks to grant top-secret security clearances as well as low pay in comparison with the private sector. CRS-81 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Professionalizing the Nation’s Cybersecurity Workforce?: Criteria for Decision-Making National Academies Press September 16, 2013 66 This report examines workforce requirements for cybersecurity; the segments and job functions in which professionalization is most needed; the role of assessment tools, certification, licensing, and other means for assessing and enhancing professionalization; and emerging approaches, such as performance-based measures. It also examines requirements for the federal (military and civilian) workforce, the private sector, and state and local government. Joint Professional Military Education Institutions in an Age of Cyber Threat Francesca Spidalieri (Pell Center Fellow) August 7, 2013 18 The report found that the Joint Professional Military Education at the six U.S. military graduate schools—a requirement for becoming a joint staff officer and for promotion to the senior ranks—has not effectively incorporated cybersecurity into specific courses, conferences, war-gaming exercises, or other forms of training for military officers. Although these graduate programs are more advanced on cybersecurity than most American civilian universities, a preparation gap still exists. Special Cybersecurity Workforce Project (Memo for Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies) OPM N/A OPM is collaborating with the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Chief Human Capital Officers Council, and the Chief Information Officers Council in implementing a special workforce project that tasks federal agencies’ cybersecurity, information technology, and human resources communities to build a statistical data set of existing and future cybersecurity positions in the OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration data warehouse by the end of FY2014. U.S.A. Cyber Warrior Scholarship Program (ISC)2 Foundation and Booz Allen Hamilton CRS-82 July 8, 2013 June 21, 2013 The (ISC)2 Foundation and Booz Allen Hamilton announced the launch of the U.S.A. Cyber Warrior Scholarship program, which will provide scholarships to veterans to obtain specialized certifications in the cybersecurity field. The scholarships will cover all of the expenses associated with certification, such as training, textbooks, mobile study materials, certification testing, and the first year of certification maintenance fees. . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Global Information Security Workforce Study (ISC)2 Foundation and Frost and Sullivan May 7, 2013 28 Federal cyber workers earn an average salary of $106,430, less than the average private-sector salary of $111,376. The lag in federal salaries is likely due to federal budget restraints and nearly three years of a continuing resolution. Proposed Establishment of a Federally Funded Research and Development Center-First Notice NIST April 22, 2013 2 To help NCCoE address industry’s needs most efficiently, NIST will sponsor its first Federally Funded Research and Development Center to facilitate public-private collaboration for accelerating the widespread adoption of integrated cybersecurity tools and technologies. DHS Secretary’s Honors Program: Cyber Student Initiative DHS April 18, 2013 2 The Cyber Student Initiative program will begin at Immigration and Customs Enforcement computer forensic labs in 36 cities nationwide, where students will be trained and gain hands-on experience within the department’s cybersecurity community. The unpaid volunteer program is only available to community college students and veterans pursuing a degree in the cybersecurity field. 2012 Information Technology Workforce Assessment for Cybersecurity DHS March 14, 2013 131 The report, which is based on an anonymous survey of nearly 23,000 cyber workers across 52 departments and agencies, found that while the majority (49%) of cyber federal workers has more than 10 years of service until they reach retirement eligibility, nearly 33% will be eligible to retire in the next three years. CyberSkills Task Force Report DHS October 2012 41 DHS’s task force on CyberSkills proposes far-reaching improvements to enable the department to recruit and retain the cybersecurity talent it needs. Cyber Security Test Bed: Summary and Evaluation Results Institute for Homeland Security Solutions October 2012 89 The project was a case-study analysis of how a set of interventions, including threat analysis, best-practices sharing, and executive and staff training events, over the course of one year would impact a group of nine small and mid-sized businesses in North Carolina. Pre- and post-test-bed interviews were conducted with company officials to establish a baseline and evaluate the impact of the program. After the test-bed experience, decisionmakers at these companies indicated an increase in their perceptions of the risk of cyberattacks and in their knowledge of possible solutions. CRS-83 Notes . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Preparing the Pipeline: The U.S. Cyber Workforce for the Future National Defense University August 2012 17 This paper addresses methods to close the gaps between demand and existing capabilities and capacity in the U.S. cyber workforce. A large number of professionals with not only technical skills but also an understanding of cyber policy, law, and other disciplines will be needed to ensure the continued success of the U.S. economy, government, and society in the 21st-century information age. The government, think tanks, and private sector have developed innovative methods for closing these gaps, but more needs to be done. Smart Grid Cybersecurity: Job Performance Model Report Pacific Northwest National Laboratory August 2012 178 This report outlines the work done to develop a SmartGrid cybersecurity certification. The primary purpose is to develop a measurement model that may be used to guide curriculum, assessments, and other development of technical and operational Smart-Grid cybersecurity knowledge, skills, and abilities. Cybersecurity Human Capital: Initiatives Need Better Planning and Coordination GAO November 29, 2011 86 To ensure that government-wide cybersecurity workforce initiatives are better coordinated and planned, and to better assist federal agencies in defining roles, responsibilities, skills, and competencies for their workforce, the Secretary of Commerce, Director of the Office of Management and Budget, Director of OPM, and Secretary of Homeland Security should collaborate through the National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) initiative to develop and finalize detailed plans allowing agency accountability, measurement of progress, and determination of resources to accomplish agreed-upon activities. NICE Cybersecurity Workforce Framework National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) November 21, 2011 35 The federal government’s adoption and implementation of cloud computing depend upon a variety of technical and nontechnical factors. A fundamental reference point, based on the NIST definition of cloud computing, is needed to describe an overall framework that can be used government-wide. This document presents the NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture and Taxonomy that will accurately communicate the components and offerings of cloud computing. CRS-84 . Title Source Pages Notes The State of K-12 Cyberethics, Cybersafety and Cybersecurity Curriculum in the United States National Cyber Security Alliance and Microsoft May 2011 16 This survey explores the perceptions and practices of U.S. teachers, school administrators, and technology coordinators in regards to cyberethics, cybersafety, and cybersecurity education. It finds that young people still are not receiving adequate training and that teachers are ill-prepared to teach the subjects due, in large part, to lack of professional development. Cyber Operations Personnel Report DOD April 2011 84 This report is focused on FY2009 DOD Cyber Operations personnel, with duties and responsibilities as defined in Section 934 of the FY2010 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). Its appendices include the following: Appendix A—Cyber Operations-Related Military Occupations Appendix B—Commercial Certifications Supporting the DOD Information Assurance Workforce Improvement Program Appendix C—Military Services Training and Development Appendix D—Geographic Location of National Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance The Power of People: Building an Integrated National Security Professional System for the 21st Century Project on National Security Reform November 2010 326 This study was conducted in fulfillment of Section 1054 of the FY2010 NDAA, which required the commissioning of a study by “an appropriate independent, nonprofit organization, of a system for career development and management of interagency national security professionals.” Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. c11173008 Date CRS-85 . Table 9. Research and Development (R&D) Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Annual Best Scientific Cybersecurity Paper Competition National Security Agency (NSA) Ongoing N/A The competition is for scientific papers that show an outstanding contribution to cybersecurity science. The competition was created to stimulate research toward the development of systems that are resilient to cyberattacks. Entries are judged on scientific merit, the strength and significance of the work reported, and the degree to which the papers exemplify how to perform and report scientific research in cybersecurity. IEEE Computer Society Center for Secure Design Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Cyber Security Ongoing N/A The Center for Secure Design aims to shift some of the focus in security from finding bugs to identifying common design flaws in the hope that software architects can learn from others' mistakes. Cyber Consortium Fortinet and Palo Alto Networks Ongoing N/A The consortium will seek to share intelligence on threats across large security vendors and aid a coordinated response to incidents. No customer data will be shared, only malware samples. The two companies also extend an open invitation to other security firms to join them, provided these firms can share at least 1,000 samples of new malware executables each day. Digital Intelligence and Investigation CERT Software Engineering Institute (Carnegie Mellon) Ongoing N/A Current tools and processes are inadequate for responding to increasingly sophisticated attackers and cybercrimes. The Digital Intelligence and Investigation Directorate (DIID) is addressing that problem by conducting research and developing technologies, capabilities, and practices that organizations can use to develop incident response capabilities and facilitate forensics investigations. DIID team members also develop advanced tools and techniques to address gaps that are not covered by existing resources. National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence (NCCoE) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Ongoing N/A The NCCoE is a new public-private collaboration to bring together experts from industry, government, and academia to design, implement, test, and demonstrate integrated cybersecurity solutions and promote their widespread adoption. Transparent Computing Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Ongoing N/A The Transparent Computing (TC) program is intended to develop basic technologies that are separable and usable in isolation (e.g., within a given software layer or application environment, such as web middleware) while exploring the best way to integrate multiple TC technologies in an experimental prototype. CRS-86 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Federal Cybersecurity R&D Strategic Plan: Request for Information National Science Foundation April 27, 2015 1 In response to the Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2014, federal agencies are developing a federal cybersecurity research and development strategic plan. On behalf of the agencies, the Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development Senior Steering Group seeks public input on research objectives for the plan. The strategic plan will be used to guide and coordinate federally funded cybersecurity research. DHS S&T App Technology Transitions to Commercial Market Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate December 5, 2014 1 DHS announced it would continue funding technology company Kryptowire so the company could further pursue private sector clients. Kryptowire sells software that identifies security vulnerabilities in mobile applications and archives the results. Hewlett Foundation Announces $45 Million in Grants to MIT, Stanford, UC Berkeley to Establish Major New Academic Centers for Cybersecurity Policy Research Hewlett Foundation November 18, 2014 N/A The new programs, established with $45 million in grants from the Hewlett Foundation—$15 million to each school—are supported through the foundation’s Cyber Initiative. The foundation has now committed $65 million over the next five years to strengthening the nascent field of cybersecurity, the largest such commitment to date by a private donor. Sandia cyber-testing contributes to DHS Transition to Practice DHS and Sandia National Laboratories September 10, 2014 N/A The Transition to Practice (TTP) program helps move federally funded cybersecurity technologies into broader use. The goal is to generate interest, initiate conversations, and build relationships and business partnerships that put important cyber technologies, including some developed at Sandia, into practice. Policies for Enhancing U.S. Leadership in Cyberspace National Science Foundation August 20, 2014 N/A This project focuses on three areas in which U.S. policy could provide additional leadership in cyberspace—publication of zeroday exploits; labeling of neutral infrastructure, such as networks associated with hospitals or religious sites, and shared norms to protect neutral cyberspaces; and sustainment of Internet interoperability, which allows Internet users on different networks to communicate directly without interference. The findings may benefit national security by giving policymakers a way of assessing the costs and benefits of publishing exploits or patches. Third-Party Security Assurance Information Supplement Payment Card Industry (PCI) Security Standards Council August 7, 2014 N/A The PCI Security Standards Council has created guidelines meant to help banks and merchants mitigate the risks posed by third parties that process credit card payment information. The guidance by the council includes practical recommendations on how to conduct due diligence and risk assessment when engaging third-party service providers to help organizations understand the services provided. CRS-87 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Cybersecurity Laboratory and Cybersecurity Research Program at the Computer Research Laboratory (CRL) Louisiana Tech University Ruston August 2014 6 The CRL consists of several unique facilities that include virtualization, visualization, networking, micro-aerial vehicle and sensor networks, and field programmable gate array (FPGA) laboratories. Big Data and Innovation, Setting The Record Straight: De-identification Does Work Information Technology and Innovation Foundation and the Information and Privacy Commissioner, Ontario, Canada June 16, 2014 13 The paper examines a select group of articles that are often referenced in support of the myth that de-identified data sets are at risk of re-identifying individuals through linkages with other available data. It examines the ways in which the academic research referenced has been misconstrued and finds that the primary reason for the popularity of these misconceptions is not factual inaccuracies or errors within the literature but rather a tendency on the part of commentators to overstate or exaggerate the risk of re-identification. While the research does raise important issues concerning the use of proper deidentification techniques, it does not suggest that de-identification should be abandoned. Software Defined Perimeter Working Group Cloud Security Alliance December 1, 2013 13 This document explains the software defined perimeter (SDP) security framework and how it can be deployed to protect application infrastructure from network-based attacks. The SDP incorporates security standards from organizations such as NIST as well as security concepts from organizations such as the Department of Defense (DOD) into an integrated framework. Resilience metrics for cyber systems (Free registration required to download.) Seager, Thomas (Arizona State University) November 2013 6 Despite their national and international importance, resilience metrics to inform management decisions are still in the early stages of development. The resilience matrix framework developed by Linkov et al. is applied to develop and organize effective resilience metrics for cyber systems. These metrics link national policy goals to specific system measures such that resource allocation decisions can be translated into actionable interventions and investments. The paper proposes a generic approach and could integrate actual data, technical judgment, and literature-based measures to assess system resilience across physical, information, cognitive, and social domains. CRS-88 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes DARPA Announces Cyber Grand Challenge DARPA October 23, 2013 N/A DARPA intends to hold the Cyber Grand Challenge (CGC)—the first-ever tournament for fully automatic network defense systems. The challenge will see teams creating automated systems that would compete against each other to evaluate software, test for vulnerabilities, generate security patches, and apply them to protected computers on a network. The winning team in the CGC finals would receive a cash prize of $2 million, with second place earning $1 million and third place taking home $750,000. Cybersecurity Exercise: Quantum Dawn 2 Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA) October 21, 2013 N/A Quantum Dawn 2 is a cybersecurity exercise to test incident response, resolution, and coordination processes for the financial services sector and the individual member firms to a street-wide cyberattack. A Survey of Cyber Ranges and Testbeds Defence Science And Technology Organisation Edinburgh (Australia), Cyber And Electronic Warfare Division October 2013 38 This document reviews the state-of-the-art cyber range implementations and related computer network operations testbeds. It summarizes recently published examples and describes their purpose and functionality. The compiled information should assist organizations in making an informed decision when considering a cyber-range capability. Proposed Establishment of a Federally Funded Research and Development Center—Second Notice NIST June 21, 2013 2 NIST intends to sponsor a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) to facilitate public-private collaboration for accelerating the widespread adoption of integrated cybersecurity tools and technologies. This is the second of three notices that must be published over a 90-day period to advise the public of the agency’s intention to sponsor an FFRDC. Governor McDonnell Announces Creation of MACH37, America’s Premier Market-Centric Cyber Security Accelerator Virginia Secretary of Commerce and Trade April 11, 2013 N/A Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell announced the creation of MACH37, a cybersecurity accelerator to be located at the Center for Innovative Technology. Initially funded by the Commonwealth of Virginia, the accelerator will leverage private investments to launch new, high-growth cyber technology companies in Virginia. Open Trusted Technology Provider Standard (O-TTPS)™, Version 1.0: Mitigating Maliciously Tainted and Counterfeit Products (Registration required.) The Open Group April 2013 44 Specifically intended to prevent maliciously tainted and counterfeit products from entering the supply chain, this first release of the O-TTPS codifies best practices across the entire commercial, off-the-shelf information and communication technology product life cycle, including the design, sourcing, building, fulfillment, distribution, sustainment, and disposal phases. The O-TTPS will enable organizations to implement best practice requirements and allow all providers, component suppliers, and integrators to obtain trusted technology provider status. CRS-89 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes N/A Overview of the various forums, communities, and methodologies that comprise the security assurance ecosystem—often also referred to as information assurance. The top 20 security controls were agreed upon by a consortium. Members of the consortium include the National Security Agency, the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team, DOD’s Joint Task Force-Global Network Operations, the Department of Energy Nuclear Laboratories, Department of State, DOD Cyber Crime Center, and commercial forensics experts in the banking and critical infrastructure communities. The International Cyber-Security Ecosystem (video lecture) Anthony M. Rutkowski, Distinguished Senior Research Fellow at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Nunn School Center for International Strategy Technology and Policy (CISTP) November 6, 2012 20 Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defense Center for Strategic and International Studies November 2012 89 SBIR Phase II: Information Security Risk Taking National Science Foundation (NSF) January 17, 2012 N/A The NSF is funding research on giving organizations informationsecurity risk ratings, similar to credit ratings for individuals. Anomaly Detection at Multiple Scales (ADAMS) DARPA November 9, 2011 74 The report describes a system for preventing leaks by seeding believable disinformation in military information systems to help identify individuals attempting to access and disseminate classified information. At the Forefront of Cyber Security Research NSF August 5, 2011 N/A The Team for Research in Ubiquitous Secure Technology (TRUST) is a university and industry consortium that examines cybersecurity issues related to health care, national infrastructures, law, and other issues facing the general public. Designing A Digital Future: Federally Funded Research And Development In Networking And Information Technology White House December 2010 148 The President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) has made several recommendations in a report about the state of the government’s Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program. Partnership for Cybersecurity Innovation White House Office of Science and Technology Policy December 6, 2010 10 The Obama Administration released a memorandum of understanding (see below) signed by NIST, the Science and Technology Directorate of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS/S&T), and the Financial Services Sector Coordinating Council (FSSCC). The agreement aims to speed the commercialization of cybersecurity research innovations that support the nation’s critical infrastructures. CRS-90 . Title Source Pages Notes Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) NIST, DHS, and FSSCC December 2, 2010 4 The document formalizes the intent of the parties to expedite the coordinated development and availability of collaborative research, development, and testing activities for cybersecurity technologies and processes based upon the financial services sector’s needs. Science of Cyber-Security MITRE Corporation (JASON Program Office) November 2010 86 The DOD requested that JASON, a team of scientific advisors, examine the theory and practice of cybersecurity and evaluate whether there are underlying fundamental principles that would make it possible to adopt a more scientific approach. DOD also asked JASON to identify what is needed to create a science of cybersecurity and recommend specific ways in which scientific methods can be applied. American Security Challenge: Moving Innovation to Market National Security Initiative October 18, 2010 N/A The objective of the American Security Challenge is to increase the visibility of innovative technology and help the commercialization process so that such technology can reach either the public or commercial marketplaces faster to protect U.S. citizens and critical assets. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. c11173008 Date CRS-91 . Selected Reports, by Federal Agency This section contains selected cybersecurity reports from U.S. government agencies, including the White House, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the Government Accountability Office (GAO), the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Table 10. Government Accountability Office (GAO) Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes DOD components have identified technical and policy changes to help protect classified information and systems from insider threats in the future, but DOD is not consistently collecting this information to support management and oversight responsibilities. According to Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence officials, they do not consistently collect this information because DOD has not identified a program office that is focused on overseeing the insider-threat program. Without an identified program office dedicated to oversight of insider-threat programs, DOD may not be able to ensure the collection of all needed information and could face challenges in establishing goals and in recommending resources and improvements to address insider threats. This is an unclassified version of a classified report GAO issued in April 2015. Because of the risk posed by certain cyberthreats, it is crucial that the federal government take appropriate steps to secure its information and information systems. However, the Government Accountability Office has identified a number of challenges facing the government’s approach to cybersecurity. Until agencies take actions to address these challenges—including the hundreds of recommendations made by GAO and inspectors general—their systems and information will be at increased risk of compromise from cyber-based attacks and other threats. GAO was asked to review FAA's cybersecurity efforts. This report (1) identifies the cybersecurity challenges facing FAA as it shifts to the NextGen ATC system and how FAA has begun addressing those challenges, and (2) assesses the extent to which FAA and its contractors, in the acquisition of NextGen programs, have followed federal guidelines for incorporating cybersecurity controls. GAO reviewed FAA cybersecurity policies and procedures and federal guidelines, and interviewed FAA officials, aviation industry stakeholders, and 15 select cybersecurity experts based on their work and recommendations by other experts. Insider Threats: DOD Should Strengthen Management and Guidance to Protect Classified Information and Systems June 2, 2015 55 Cybersecurity: Actions Needed to Address Challenges Facing Federal Systems April 22, 2015 21 Air Traffic Control: FAA Needs a More Comprehensive Approach to Address Cybersecurity As Agency Transitions to NextGen April 14, 2015 56 CRS-92 . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes The FDIC has implemented numerous information security controls intended to protect its key financial systems; nevertheless, weaknesses remain that place the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of financial systems and information at risk. During 2014, the corporation implemented 27 of the 36 GAO recommendations pertaining to previously reported security weaknesses that were unaddressed as of December 31, 2013; actions to implement the remaining 9 recommendations are in progress. Until IRS takes additional steps to (1) address unresolved and newly identified control deficiencies and (2) effectively implement elements of its information security program, including, among other things, updating policies, test and evaluation procedures, and remedial action procedures, its financial and taxpayer data will remain unnecessarily vulnerable to inappropriate and undetected use, modification, or disclosure. GAO is recommending that IRS take 5 additional actions to more effectively implement elements of its information security program. In a separate report with limited distribution, GAO is recommending 14 actions that IRS can take to address newly identified control weaknesses. GAO was asked to review CMS's management of the development of IT systems supporting the federal marketplace. Its objectives were to (1) describe problems encountered in developing and deploying systems supporting Healthcare.gov and determine the status of efforts to address deficiencies and (2) determine the extent to which CMS applied disciplined practices for managing and overseeing the development effort, and the extent to which HHS and OMB provided oversight. GAO is recommending that CMS take seven actions to implement improvements in its requirements management, system testing, and project oversight, and that HHS improve its oversight of the Healthcare.gov effort. GAO researchers wrote about a vast array of cyberthreats, from advanced persistent threat groups, to insiders, to criminal hackers. If cyber assets are not adequately protected, it “could lead to serious consequences and result in substantial harm to individuals and to the federal government,” GAO warned. The government still faces challenges in achieving that goal, however, in several areas, including putting risk-based cybersecurity programs in place at federal agencies, securing the global IT supply chain, securing critical infrastructure, oversight of IT contractors, improving incident response, and putting security programs in place at small agencies. FDIC Implemented Many Controls over Financial Systems, but Opportunities for Improvement Remain April 9, 2015 28 Information Security: IRS Needs to Continue Improving Controls over Financial and Taxpayer Data March 19, 2015 30 Healthcare.gov: CMS Has Taken Steps to Address Problems, but Needs to Further Implement Systems Development Best Practices March 4, 2015 86 High Risk List: Ensuring the Security of Federal Information Systems and Cyber Critical Infrastructure and Protecting the Privacy of Personally Identifiable Information February 11, 2015 CRS-93 N/A . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes Fusion centers play a key role in sharing threat information among all levels of government and the private sector. Federal agencies support these centers by providing personnel, funding, and other assistance. GAO was asked to assess how federal agencies are accounting for ongoing support provided. This report addresses the extent to which (1) DHS has helped centers assess capabilities and address gaps, (2) the federal government has defined its expectations for centers and assessed their contributions to homeland security, (3) federal agencies have deployed personnel to centers, and (4) DHS grant reforms have improved accountability for federal funds that support centers. The specific objectives of this work were to (1) describe the planned exchanges of information between the Healthcare.gov website and other organizations and (2) assess the effectiveness of programs and controls implemented by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to protect the security and privacy of the information and IT systems supporting Healthcare.gov. Although CMS has security and privacy protections in place for Healthcare.gov and related systems, weaknesses exist that put these systems and the sensitive personal information they contain at risk. GAO is making six recommendations to implement security and privacy management controls to help ensure that systems and information related to Healthcare.gov are protected. The Department of Health and Human Services largely concurred but disagreed in part with GAO’s assessment of the facts for three recommendations. However, GAO continues to believe its recommendations are valid. DHS used 10 different assessment tools and methods from FY2011 through FY2013 to assess critical infrastructure vulnerabilities. Four of these assessments did not include cybersecurity. The differences in the assessment tools and methods mean DHS is not positioned to integrate its findings in identifying priorities. DHS Is Assessing Fusion Center Capabilities and Results, but Needs to More Accurately Account for Federal Funding November 4, 2014 57 Healthcare.gov: Information Security and Privacy Controls Should Be Enhanced to Address Weaknesses September 18, 2014 17 Healthcare.gov: Actions Needed to Address Weaknesses in Information Security and Privacy Controls September 16, 2014 78 Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Action Needed to Enhance Integration and Coordination of Vulnerability Assessment Efforts September 15, 2014 82 Information Security: Agencies Need to Improve Oversight of Contractor Controls September 8, 2014 43 CRS-94 Although the six federal agencies that GAO reviewed (the Departments of Energy, Homeland Security, State, and Transportation; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Office of Personnel Management) generally established security and privacy requirements and planned for assessments to determine the effectiveness of contractor implementation of controls, five of the six agencies were inconsistent in overseeing the execution and review of those assessments, resulting in security lapses. For example, in one agency, testing did not discover that background checks of contractor employees were not conducted. . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes FDIC Made Progress in Securing Key Financial Systems, but Weaknesses Remain July 17, 2014 30 The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) has implemented numerous information security controls intended to protect its key financial systems; nevertheless, weaknesses place the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of financial systems and information at unnecessary risk. During 2013, the corporation implemented 28 of the 39 open GAO recommendations pertaining to previously reported security weaknesses that were unaddressed as of December 31, 2012. Information Security: Additional Oversight Needed to Improve Programs at Small Agencies June 25, 2014 54 The six small agencies GAO reviewed have made mixed progress in implementing elements of information security and privacy programs as required by the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002, the Privacy Act of 1974, the E-Government Act of 2002, and OMB guidance. In a separate report for limited official use only, GAO is providing specific details on the weaknesses in the six selected agencies’ implementation of information security and privacy requirements. Maritime Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Needs to Better Address Port Cybersecurity June 5, 2014 54 GAO’s objective was to identify the extent to which DHS and other stakeholders have taken steps to address cybersecurity in the maritime port environment. GAO examined relevant laws and regulations, analyzed federal cybersecurity-related policies and plans, observed operations at three U.S. ports selected based on being a high-risk port and a leader in calls by vessel type (e.g., container), and interviewed federal and nonfederal officials. Information Security: Agencies Need to Improve Cyber Incident Response Practices April 30, 2014 55 Twenty-four major federal agencies did not consistently demonstrate that they are effectively responding to cyber incidents (defined as security breaches of computerized systems and information). Based on a statistical sample of cyber incidents reported in FY2012, GAO projects that these agencies did not completely document actions taken in response to detected incidents in about 65% of cases. Information Security: SEC Needs to Improve Controls over Financial Systems and Data April 17, 2014 25 Although the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) had implemented and made progress in strengthening information security controls, weaknesses limited the effectiveness of these controls in protecting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of a key financial system. Until the SEC mitigates control deficiencies and strengthens the implementation of its security program, its financial information and systems may be exposed to unauthorized disclosure, modification, use, and disruption. These weaknesses, considered collectively, contributed to GAO’s determination that the SEC had a significant deficiency in internal control over financial reporting for FY2013. CRS-95 . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes IRS Needs to Address Control Weaknesses That Place Financial and Taxpayer Data at Risk April 8, 2014 29 Until the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) takes additional steps to (1) more effectively implement its testing and monitoring capabilities, (2) ensure that policies and procedures are updated, and (3) address unresolved and newly identified control deficiencies, its financial and taxpayer data will remain vulnerable to inappropriate and undetected use, modification, or disclosure. These deficiencies, including shortcomings in the information security program, indicate that IRS had a significant deficiency in its internal control over its financial reporting systems for FY2013. Federal Agencies Need to Enhance Responses to Data Breaches April 2, 2014 19 Major federal agencies continue to face challenges in fully implementing all components of agency-wide information security programs, which are essential for securing agency systems and the information they contain— including personally identifiable information (PII). Critical Infrastructure Protection: More Comprehensive Planning Would Enhance the Cybersecurity of Public Safety Entities’ Emerging Technology January 27, 2013 41 GAO was asked to review federal coordination with state and local governments regarding cybersecurity at public safety entities. The objective was to determine the extent to which federal agencies coordinated with state and local governments regarding cybersecurity efforts at emergency operations centers, public safety answering points, and first responder organizations involved in handling 911 emergency calls. To do so, GAO analyzed relevant plans and reports and interviewed officials at five agencies that were identified based on their roles and responsibilities established in federal law, policy, and plans as well as at selected industry associations and state and local governments. Agency Responses to Breaches of Personally Identifiable Information Need to Be More Consistent December 9, 2013 67 GAO recommends that “to improve the consistency and effectiveness of governmentwide data breach response programs, the Director of OMB should update its guidance on federal agencies’ responses to a PII-related data breach to include (1) guidance on notifying affected individuals based on a determination of the level of risk; (2) criteria for determining whether to offer assistance, such as credit monitoring to affected individuals; and (3) revised reporting requirements for PII-related breaches to US-CERT [Computer Emergency Response Team], including time frames that better reflect the needs of individual agencies and the government as a whole and consolidated reporting of incidents that pose limited risk.” GPS Disruptions: Efforts to Assess Risks to Critical Infrastructure and Coordinate Agency Actions Should Be Enhanced November 6, 2013 58 GAO was asked to review the effects of global positioning system (GPS) disruptions on the nation’s critical infrastructure. GAO examined (1) the extent to which DHS has assessed the risks and potential effects of GPS disruptions on critical infrastructure; (2) the extent to which the Department of Transportation and DHS have developed backup strategies to mitigate GPS disruptions; and (3) what strategies, if any, selected critical infrastructure sectors employ to mitigate GPS disruptions and any remaining challenges. CRS-96 . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes DHS Is Generally Filling Mission-Critical Positions, but Could Better Track Costs of Coordinated Recruiting Efforts September 17, 2013 47 One in five jobs at a key cybersecurity component within DHS is vacant, in large part due to steep competition in recruiting and hiring qualified personnel. National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD) officials cited challenges in recruiting cyber professionals because of the length of time taken to conduct security checks to grant top-secret security clearances as well as low pay in comparison with the private sector. Telecommunications Networks: Addressing Potential Security Risks of Foreign-Manufactured Equipment May 21, 2013 52 From the report: “The federal government has begun efforts to address the security of the supply chain for commercial networks.... There are a variety of other approaches for addressing the potential risks posed by foreignmanufactured equipment in commercial communications networks, including those approaches taken by foreign governments.... Although these approaches are intended to improve supply chain security of communications networks, they may also create the potential for trade barriers, additional costs, and constraints on competition, which the federal government would have to take into account if it chose to pursue such approaches.” Outcome-Based Measures Would Assist DHS in Assessing Effectiveness of Cybersecurity Efforts April 11, 2013 45 Until DHS and its sector partners develop appropriate outcome-oriented metrics, it will be difficult to gauge the effectiveness of efforts to protect the nation’s core and access communications networks and critical support components of the Internet from cyber incidents. While no cyber incidents affecting the nation’s core and access networks have been reported, communications networks operators can use reporting mechanisms established by the Federal Communications Commission and DHS to share information on outages and incidents. Information Sharing: Agencies Could Better Coordinate to Reduce Overlap in Field-Based Activities April 4, 2013 72 Agencies have neither held entities accountable for coordinating nor assessed opportunities for further enhancing coordination to help reduce the potential for overlap and achieve efficiencies. The Department of Justice, DHS, and the Office of National Drug Control Policy—the federal agencies that oversee or provide support to the five types of field-based entities—acknowledged that it is important for entities to work together and share information, but these agencies do not hold the entities accountable for such coordination. Cybersecurity: A Better Defined and Implemented National Strategy Is Needed to Address Persistent Challenges March 7, 2013 36 From the report: “[A]lthough federal law assigns the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) responsibility for oversight of federal government information security, OMB recently transferred several of these responsibilities to DHS.... [I]t remains unclear how OMB and DHS are to share oversight of individual departments and agencies. Additional legislation could clarify these responsibilities.” CRS-97 . Title c11173008 Date Pages 2013 High Risk List February 14, 2013 Cybersecurity: National Strategy, Roles, and Responsibilities Need to Be Better Defined and More Effectively Implemented February 14, 2013 112 GAO recommends that the White House cybersecurity coordinator develop an overarching federal cybersecurity strategy that includes all key elements of the desirable characteristics of a national strategy. Such a strategy would provide a more effective framework for implementing cybersecurity activities and better ensure that such activities will lead to progress in cybersecurity. Information Security: Federal Communications Commission Needs to Strengthen Controls over Enhanced Secured Network Project January 25, 2013 35 From the report: “The FCC did not effectively implement appropriate information security controls in the initial components of the Enhanced Secured Network (ESN) project.... Weaknesses identified in the commission’s deployment of components of the ESN project as of August 2012 resulted in unnecessary risk that sensitive information could be disclosed, modified, or obtained without authorization. GAO is making seven recommendations to the FCC to implement management controls to help ensure that ESN meets its objective of securing FCC’s systems and information.” Cybersecurity: Challenges in Securing the Electricity Grid July 17, 2012 25 In a prior report, GAO made recommendations related to electricity grid modernization efforts, including developing an approach to monitor compliance with voluntary standards. These recommendations have not yet been implemented. Information Technology Reform: Progress Made but Future Cloud Computing Efforts Should be Better Planned July 11, 2012 43 To help ensure the success of agencies’ implementation of cloud-based solutions, the Secretaries of Agriculture, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, State, and the Treasury and the Administrators of the General Services Administration and the Small Business Administration should direct their respective chief information officers to establish estimated costs, performance goals, and plans to retire associated legacy systems for each cloud-based service discussed in this report, as applicable. Electronic Warfare: DOD Actions Needed to Strengthen Management and Oversight July 9, 2012 46 DOD’s oversight of electronic warfare capabilities may be further complicated by its evolving relationship with computer network operations, which is also an information operations-related capability. Without clearly defined roles and responsibilities and updated guidance regarding oversight responsibilities, DOD does not have reasonable assurance that its management structures will provide effective department-wide leadership for electronic warfare activities and capabilities development and ensure effective and efficient use of its resources. CRS-98 275 Notes Every two years at the start of a new Congress, GAO calls attention to agencies and program areas that are high risk due to their vulnerabilities to fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement or are most in need of transformation. Cybersecurity programs on the list include: Protecting the Federal Government’s Information Systems and the Nation’s Cyber Critical Infrastructures and Ensuring the Effective Protection of Technologies Critical to U.S. National Security Interests. . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes Information Security: Cyber Threats Facilitate Ability to Commit Economic Espionage June 28, 2012 20 This statement discusses (1) cyber threats facing the nation’s systems, (2) reported cyber incidents and their impacts, (3) security controls and other techniques available for reducing risk, and (4) the responsibilities of key federal entities in support of protecting Internet protocol. Cybersecurity: Challenges to Securing the Modernized Electricity Grid February 28, 2012 19 As GAO reported in January 2011, securing Smart Grid systems and networks presents a number of key challenges that require attention by government and industry. GAO made several recommendations to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission aimed at addressing these challenges. The commission agreed with these recommendations and described steps it is taking to implement them. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Cybersecurity Guidance Is Available, but More Can Be Done to Promote Its Use December 9, 2011 77 Given the plethora of guidance available, individual entities within the sectors may be challenged in identifying the guidance that is most applicable and effective in improving their security posture. Improved knowledge of the available guidance could help both federal and private-sector decisionmakers better coordinate their efforts to protect critical cyber-reliant assets. Cybersecurity Human Capital: Initiatives Need Better Planning and Coordination November 29, 2011 86 All the agencies GAO reviewed faced challenges determining the size of their cybersecurity workforce because of variations in how work is defined and the lack of an occupational series specific to cybersecurity. With respect to other workforce planning practices, all agencies had defined roles and responsibilities for their cybersecurity workforce, but these roles did not always align with guidelines issued by the federal Chief Information Officers Council (CIOC) and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Federal Chief Information Officers: Opportunities Exist to Improve Role in Information Technology Management October 17, 2011 72 GAO recommends that OMB update its guidance to establish measures of accountability for ensuring that chief information officers’ responsibilities are fully implemented and to require agencies to establish internal processes for documenting lessons learned. Information Security: Additional Guidance Needed to Address Cloud Computing Concerns October 5, 2011 17 In a GAO study, 22 of 24 major federal agencies reported that they were either concerned or very concerned about the potential information security risks associated with cloud computing. GAO recommended that the NIST issue guidance specific to cloud computing security. Information Security: Weaknesses Continue Amid New Federal Efforts to Implement Requirements October 3, 2011 49 Weaknesses in information security policies and practices at 24 major federal agencies continue to place the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive information and information systems at risk. Consistent with this risk, reports of security incidents from federal agencies are on the rise, increasing by more than 650% over the past 5 years. Each of the 24 agencies reviewed had weaknesses in information security controls. CRS-99 . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes Defense Department Cyber Efforts: Definitions, Focal Point, and Methodology Needed for DOD to Develop Full-Spectrum Cyberspace Budget Estimates July 29, 2011 33 This letter discusses DOD’s cyber and information assurance budget for FY2012 and future years’ defense spending. The objectives of this review were to (1) assess the extent to which DOD has prepared an overarching budget estimate for full-spectrum cyberspace operations across the department and (2) identify the challenges DOD has faced in providing such estimates. Continued Attention Needed to Protect Our Nation’s Critical Infrastructure July 26, 2011 20 From the report: “A number of significant challenges remain to enhancing the security of cyber-reliant critical infrastructures, such as (1) implementing actions recommended by the President’s cybersecurity policy review; (2) updating the national strategy for securing the information and communications infrastructure; (3) reassessing DHS’s planning approach to critical infrastructure protection; (4) strengthening public-private partnerships, particularly for information sharing; (5) enhancing the national capability for cyber warning and analysis; (6) addressing global aspects of cybersecurity and governance; and (7) securing the modernized electricity grid.” Defense Department Cyber Efforts: DOD Faces Challenges in Its Cyber Activities July 25, 2011 79 GAO recommends that DOD evaluate how it is organized to address cybersecurity threats; assess the extent to which it has developed joint doctrine that addresses cyberspace operations; examine how it assigns command and control responsibilities; and determine how it identifies and acts to mitigate key capability gaps involving cyberspace operations. Information Security: State Has Taken Steps to Implement a Continuous Monitoring Application, but Key Challenges Remain July 8, 2011 63 The Department of State implemented a custom application called iPost and a risk-scoring program that is intended to provide continuous monitoring capabilities of information security risk to elements of the departments IT infrastructure. To improve implementation of iPost at State, the Secretary of State should direct the chief information officer to develop, document, and maintain an iPost configuration management and test process. Cybersecurity: Continued Attention Needed to Protect Our Nation’s Critical Infrastructure and Federal Information Systems March 16, 2011 16 Executive branch agencies have made progress instituting several governmentwide initiatives aimed at bolstering aspects of federal cybersecurity, such as reducing the number of federal access points to the Internet, establishing security configurations for desktop computers, and enhancing situational awareness of cyber events. Despite these efforts, the federal government continues to face significant challenges in protecting the nation’s cyber-reliant critical infrastructure and federal information systems. CRS-100 . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes Electricity Grid Modernization: Progress Being Made on Cybersecurity Guidelines, but Key Challenges Remain to be Addressed January 12, 2011 50 GAO identified six key challenges with regard to securing smart grid systems: “(1) Aspects of the regulatory environment may make it difficult to ensure Smart Grid systems’ cybersecurity. (2) Utilities are focusing on regulatory compliance instead of comprehensive security. (3) The electric industry does not have an effective mechanism for sharing information on cybersecurity. (4) Consumers are not adequately informed about the benefits, costs, and risks associated with Smart Grid systems. (5) There is a lack of security features being built into certain Smart Grid systems. (6) The electricity industry does not have metrics for evaluating cybersecurity.” Information Security: Federal Agencies Have Taken Steps to Secure Wireless Networks, but Further Actions Can Mitigate Risk November 30, 2010 50 Existing government-wide guidelines and oversight efforts do not fully address agency implementation of leading wireless security practices. Until agencies take steps to better implement these leading practices and OMB takes steps to improve government-wide oversight wireless networks will remain at an increased vulnerability to attack. Cyberspace Policy: Executive Branch Is Making Progress Implementing 2009 Policy Review Recommendations, but Sustained Leadership Is Needed October 6, 2010 66 Of the 24 recommendations in the President’s May 2009 cyber policy review report, 2 have been fully implemented and 22 have been partially implemented. Although these efforts appear to be steps forward, agencies were largely not able to provide milestones and plans that showed when and how implementation of the recommendations was to occur. DHS Efforts to Assess and Promote Resiliency Are Evolving but Program Management Could Be Strengthened September 23, 2010 46 DHS has not developed an effective way to ensure that critical national infrastructure, such as electrical grids and telecommunications networks, can bounce back from a disaster. DHS has conducted surveys and vulnerability assessments of critical infrastructure to identify gaps but has not developed a way to measure whether owners and operators of that infrastructure adopt measures to reduce risks. Information Security: Progress Made on Harmonizing Policies and Guidance for National Security and NonNational Security Systems September 15, 2010 38 OMB and NIST established policies and guidance for civilian non-national security systems, and other organizations, including the Committee on National Security Systems (CNSS), DOD, and the U.S. intelligence community, have developed policies and guidance for national security systems. GAO was asked to assess the progress of federal efforts to harmonize policies and guidance for these two types of systems. United States Faces Challenges in Addressing Global Cybersecurity and Governance August 2, 2010 53 GAO recommends that the special assistant to the President and cybersecurity coordinator should make recommendations to appropriate agencies and interagency coordination committees regarding any necessary changes to more effectively coordinate and forge a coherent national approach to cyberspace policy. CRS-101 . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes Critical Infrastructure Protection: Key Private and Public Cyber Expectations Need to Be Consistently Addressed July 15, 2010 38 The special assistant to the President and cybersecurity coordinator and the Secretary of Homeland Security should take two actions: “(1) use the results of this report to focus their information-sharing efforts, including their relevant pilot projects, on the most desired services, including providing timely and actionable threat and alert information, access to sensitive or classified information, a secure mechanism for sharing information, and security clearance and (2) bolster the efforts to build out the National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center as the central focal point for leveraging and integrating the capabilities of the private sector, civilian government, law enforcement, the military, and the intelligence community.” Federal Guidance Needed to Address Control Issues With Implementing Cloud Computing July 1, 2010 53 To assist federal agencies in identifying uses for cloud computing and information security measures to use in implementing cloud computing, the director of OMB should establish milestones for completing a strategy for implementing the federal cloud computing initiative. Continued Attention Is Needed to Protect Federal Information Systems from Evolving Threats June 16, 2010 15 Multiple opportunities exist to improve federal cybersecurity. To address identified deficiencies in agencies’ security controls and shortfalls in their information security programs, GAO and agency inspectors general have made hundreds of recommendations over the past several years, many of which agencies are implementing. In addition, the White House, OMB, and certain federal agencies have undertaken several government-wide initiatives intended to enhance information security at federal agencies. Progress has been made on these initiatives, but they all face challenges that require sustained attention. GAO has made several recommendations for improving the implementation and effectiveness of these existing initiatives. Information Security: Concerted Response Needed to Resolve Persistent Weaknesses March 24, 2010 21 Without proper safeguards, federal computer systems are vulnerable to intrusions by individuals who have malicious intentions and can obtain sensitive information. The need for a vigilant approach to information security has been demonstrated by the pervasive and sustained cyberattacks against the United States; these attacks continue to pose a potentially devastating impact to systems and the operations and critical infrastructures they support. Cybersecurity: Continued Attention Is Needed to Protect Federal Information Systems from Evolving Threats March 16, 2010 15 The White House, OMB, and certain federal agencies have undertaken several government-wide initiatives intended to enhance information security at federal agencies. Although progress has been made on these initiatives, they all face challenges that require sustained attention, and GAO has made several recommendations for improving the implementation and effectiveness of these initiatives. CRS-102 . Title Date Notes Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies April 12, 2010 40 To reduce the threat to federal systems and operations posed by cyberattacks on the United States, OMB launched, in November 2007, the Trusted Internet Connections (TIC) initiative, and later, in 2008, DHS’s National Cybersecurity Protection System (NCPS), operationally known as Einstein, which became mandatory for federal agencies as part of TIC. To further ensure that federal agencies have adequate, sufficient, and timely information to successfully meet the goals and objectives of the TIC and Einstein programs, DHS’s Secretary should, to better understand whether Einstein alerts are valid, develop additional performance measures that indicate how agencies respond to alerts. Cybersecurity: Progress Made But Challenges Remain in Defining and Coordinating the Comprehensive National Initiative March 5, 2010 64 To address strategic challenges in areas that are not the subject of existing projects within the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative but remain key to achieving the initiative’s overall goal of securing federal information systems, OMB’s director should continue developing a strategic approach to identity management and authentication, linked to the implementation of Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12, as initially described in the Chief Information Officers Councils (CIOC’s) plan for implementing federal identity, credential, and access management to provide greater assurance that only authorized individuals and entities can gain access to federal information systems. Continued Efforts Are Needed to Protect Information Systems from Evolving Threats November 17, 2009 24 GAO has identified weaknesses in all major categories of information security controls at federal agencies. For example, in FY2008, weaknesses were reported in such controls at 23 of 24 major agencies. Specifically, agencies did not consistently authenticate users to prevent unauthorized access to systems; apply encryption to protect sensitive data; or log, audit, and monitor securityrelevant events, among other actions. Efforts to Improve Information sharing Need to Be Strengthened August 27, 2003 59 Information on threats, methods, and techniques of terrorists is not routinely shared, and the information that is shared is not perceived as timely, accurate, or relevant. Computer Attacks at Department of Defense Pose Increasing Risk May 1996 48 Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) estimates indicate that DOD may have been attacked as many as 250,000 times last year. However, the exact number is not known because, according to DISA, only about 1 in 150 attacks is actually detected and reported. In addition, in testing its systems, DISA attacks and successfully penetrates DOD systems 65% of the time. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the GAO reports. c11173008 Pages CRS-103 . Table 11. White House and Office of Management and Budget Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes N/A The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is working with agencies, inspectors general, chief information officers, and senior agency officials in charge of privacy, as well as the Government Accountability Office (GAO) and Congress, to strengthen the federal government’s IT security and privacy programs. The site provides information on Cross-Agency Priority (CAP) goals, proposed cybersecurity legislation, CyberStat, continuous monitoring and remediation, using SmartCards for identity management, and standardizing security through configuration settings. 5 In a memo to agency executives, federal Chief Information Officer Tony Scott detailed four requirements for agencies to meet, starting with using a riskbased approach for determining which websites or web services to move to HTTPS first. Sites dealing with personally identifiable information (PII), where the content is sensitive or where the site receives a high level of traffic should be migrated to HTTPS as soon as possible. Agencies have until Dec. 31, 2016, to move all public facing online services to the security standard. Improving Cybersecurity Ongoing Policy to Require Secure Connections across Federal Websites and Web Services June 8, 2015 White House Summit on Cybersecurity and Consumer Protection February 13, 2015 N/A The Summit brings together leaders from across the country who have a stake in this issue—industry, tech companies, law enforcement, consumer and privacy advocates, law professors who specialize in this field, and students—to collaborate and explore partnerships that will help develop the best ways to bolster our cybersecurity. Topics include Public-Private Collaboration on Cybersecurity; Improving Cybersecurity Practices at Consumer-Oriented Businesses and Organizations; Promoting More Secure Payment Technologies; Cybersecurity Information Sharing; International Law Enforcement Cooperation on Cybersecurity; Improving Authentication: Moving Beyond the Password; and Chief Security Officers’ Perspectives: New Ideas on Technical Security. Strengthening our Nation’s Cyber Defenses (Announcing Plans for a New Cyber Threat Intelligence Integration Center) February 11, 2015 N/A The White House will establish a new Cyber Threat Intelligence Integration Center, or CTIIC, under the auspices of the Director of National Intelligence. Currently, no single government entity is responsible for producing coordinated cyber threat assessments, ensuring that information is shared rapidly among existing Cyber Centers and other elements within the government, and supporting the work of operators and policymakers with timely intelligence about the latest cyber threats and threat actors. The CTIIC is intended to fill these gaps. CRS-104 . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes National Security Strategy February 6, 2015 32 The document states the United States will “defend ourselves, consistent with U.S. and international law, against cyberattacks and impose costs on malicious cyber actors, including through prosecution of illegal cyber activity.” The strategy also praises the NIST framework for cybersecurity and promises to work with Congress to “pursue a legislative framework that ensures high [cyber] standards” for critical infrastructure. The government will also work to develop “global standards for cybersecurity and building international capacity to disrupt and investigate cyber threats,” the strategy states. The document also promises to help other nations improve the cybersecurity of their critical infrastructure and develop laws that punish hackers. Fiscal Year 2014-2015 Guidance on Improving Federal Information Security and Privacy Management Practices October 3, 2014 17 OMB is making updates to streamline agency reporting of information security incidents to the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) and to improve US-CERT’s ability to respond effectively to information security incidents. Under the updates, losses of personally identifiable information caused by non-electronic means still need to be reported within one hour of a confirmed breach, but they should be reported to the agency privacy office rather than to US-CERT. Federal Information Security Management Act, Annual Report to Congress May 1, 2014 80 The 24 largest federal departments and agencies spent $10.34 billion on cybersecurity last fiscal year. The Chief Financial Officers Act agency with the greatest expenditure was the Department of Defense (DOD), at $7.11 billion, followed by DHS at $1.11 billion. Federal agencies’ collective request for cybersecurity spending during FY2015 amounts to about $13 billion, federal Chief Information Officer Steven VanRoekel told reporters during the March rollout of the White House spending proposal for the coming fiscal year— making cybersecurity a rare area of federal information technology spending growth. Assessing Cybersecurity Regulations May 22, 2014 N/A The White House directed federal agencies to examine their regulatory authority over private-sector cybersecurity in the February 2013 executive order that also created the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NSIT) cybersecurity framework. A review of agency reports concluded that “existing regulatory requirements, when complemented with strong voluntary partnerships, are capable of mitigating cyber risks.” No new federal regulations are needed for improving the cybersecurity of privately held American critical infrastructure. Big Data: Seizing Opportunities, Preserving Values May 2014 85 The findings outline a set of consumer protection recommendations, including that Congress should pass legislation on “single national data breach standard.” CRS-105 . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes State and Local Government Cybersecurity April 2, 2014 N/A The White House in March 2014 convened an array of stakeholders, including government representatives, local-government-focused associations, privatesector technology companies, and partners from multiple federal agencies at the State and Local Government Cybersecurity Framework Kickoff Event. Liberty and Security in a Changing World: Report and Recommendations of The President’s Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies December 12, 2013 308 From the report, “The national security threats facing the United States and our allies are numerous and significant, and they will remain so well into the future. These threats include international terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and cyber espionage and warfare.... After careful consideration, we recommend a number of changes to our intelligence collection activities that will protect [privacy and civil liberties] values without undermining what we need to do to keep our nation safe.” Immediate Opportunities for Strengthening the Nation’s Cybersecurity November 2013 31 This report of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) recommends the government phase out insecure, outdated operating systems, such as Windows XP; implement better encryption technology; and encourage automatic security updates, among other changes. PCAST also recommends that the government help create cybersecurity best practices and audit their adoption in regulated industries. For independent agencies, PCAST proposes writing new rules that require businesses to report their cyber improvements. Cross Agency Priority Goal: Cybersecurity, FY2013 Q3 Status Report October 2013 24 Executive branch departments and agencies will achieve 95% implementation of the Administration’s priority cybersecurity capabilities by the end of FY2014. These capabilities include strong authentication, Trusted Internet Connections (TIC), and continuous monitoring. Incentives to Support Adoption of the Cybersecurity Framework August 6, 2013 N/A From the report, “To promote cybersecurity practices and develop these core capabilities, we are working with critical infrastructure owners and operators to create a Cybersecurity Framework – a set of core practices to develop capabilities to manage cybersecurity risk.... Over the next few months, agencies will examine these options in detail to determine which ones to adopt and how, based substantially on input from critical infrastructure stakeholders.” FY2012 Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 March 2013 68 More government programs violated data security law standards in 2012 than in the previous year. At the same time, computer security costs have increased by more than $1 billion. Inadequate training was a large part of the reason all-around scores for adherence to the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 (FISMA) slipped from 75% in 2011 to 74% in 2012. Agencies reported that about 88% of personnel with system access privileges received annual security awareness instruction, down from 99% in 2011. Meanwhile, personnel expenses accounted for the vast majority—90%—of the $14.6 billion departments spent on information technology security in 2012. CRS-106 . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes Administration Strategy for Mitigating the Theft of U.S. Trade Secrets February 20, 2013 141 From the report, “First, we will increase our diplomatic engagement.... Second, we will support industry-led efforts to develop best practices to protect trade secrets and encourage companies to share with each other best practices that can mitigate the risk of trade secret theft.... Third, DOJ will continue to make the investigation and prosecution of trade secret theft by foreign competitors and foreign governments a top priority.... Fourth, President Obama recently signed two pieces of legislation that will improve enforcement against trade secret theft.... Lastly, we will increase public awareness of the threats and risks to the U.S. economy posed by trade secret theft.” National Strategy for Information Sharing and Safeguarding December 2012 24 Provides guidance for effective development, integration, and implementation of policies, processes, standards, and technologies to promote secure and responsible information sharing. Collaborative and Cross-Cutting Approaches to Cybersecurity August 1, 2012 N/A Michael Daniel, White House cybersecurity coordinator, highlights a few recent initiatives in which voluntary, cooperative actions are helping to improve the nation’s overall cybersecurity. Trustworthy Cyberspace: Strategic Plan for the Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development Program December 2011 36 As a research and development strategy, this plan defines four strategic thrusts: inducing change, developing scientific foundations, maximizing research impact, and accelerating transition to practice. FY2012 Reporting Instructions for the Federal Information Security Management Act and Agency Privacy Management September 14, 2011 29 Rather than enforcing a static, three-year reauthorization process, agencies are expected to conduct ongoing authorizations of information systems through the implementation of continuous monitoring programs. Continuous monitoring programs thus fulfill the three year security reauthorization requirement, so a separate reauthorization process is not necessary. Cybersecurity Legislative Proposal (Fact Sheet) May 12, 2011 N/A The Administration’s proposal ensures the protection of individuals’ privacy and civil liberties through a framework designed expressly to address the challenges of cybersecurity. The Administration’s legislative proposal includes management, personnel, intrusion-prevention systems, and data centers. International Strategy for Cyberspace May 2011 30 The strategy marks the first time any Administration has attempted to set forth in one document the U.S. government’s vision for cyberspace, including goals for defense, diplomacy, and international development. National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) April 15, 2011 52 The NSTIC aims to make online transactions more trustworthy, thereby giving businesses and consumers more confidence in conducting business online. CRS-107 . Title Date Pages Notes Federal Cloud Computing Strategy February 13, 2011 43 The strategy outlines how the federal government can accelerate the safe, secure adoption of cloud computing, and provides agencies with a framework for migrating to the cloud. It also examines how agencies can address challenges related to the adoption of cloud computing, such as privacy, procurement, standards, and governance. 25 Point Implementation Plan to Reform Federal Information Technology Management December 9, 2010 40 The plan aims to reduce the number of federally run data centers from 2,100 to approximately 1,300, rectify or cancel one-third of troubled IT projects, and require federal agencies to adopt a “cloud first” strategy in which they will move at least one system to a hosted environment within a year. Clarifying Cybersecurity Responsibilities and Activities of the Executive Office of the President and the Department of Homeland Security July 6, 2010 39 This memorandum outlines and clarifies the respective responsibilities and activities of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the Cybersecurity Coordinator, and DHS, in particular with respect to the Federal Government’s implementation of FISMA. The National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace: Creating Options for Enhanced Online Security and Privacy (Draft) June 25, 2010 39 The NSTIC, which is in response to one of the near-term action items in the President’s Cyberspace Policy Review, calls for the creation of an online environment, or an identity ecosystem, where individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with confidence, trusting the identities of each other and the identities of the infrastructure in which transactions occur. Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI) March 2, 2010 5 The CNCI establishes a multipronged approach the federal government is to take in identifying current and emerging cyber threats, shoring up current and future telecommunications and cyber vulnerabilities, and responding to or proactively addressing entities that wish to steal or manipulate protected data on secure federal systems. Cyberspace Policy Review: Assuring a Trusted and Resilient Communications Infrastructure May 29, 2009 76 The President directed a 60-day, comprehensive, “clean-slate” review to assess U.S. policies and structures for cybersecurity. The review team of government cybersecurity experts engaged and received input from a broad cross-section of industry, academia, the civil liberties and privacy communities, state governments, international partners, and the legislative and executive branches. This paper summarizes the review team’s conclusions and outlines the beginning of the way forward toward a reliable, resilient, trustworthy digital infrastructure for the future. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the White House reports. Note: For a list of White House executive orders, see CRS Report R43317, Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents, by Rita Tehan. c11173008 CRS-108 . Department of Defense and National Security: CRS Reports and Other CRS Products • • c11173008 CRS-109 CRS Report R43848, Cyber Operations in DOD Policy and Plans: Issues for Congress, by Catherine A. Theohary CRS Legal Sidebar WSLG399, Legal Barriers to an Expanded Role of the Military in Defending Against Domestic Cyberattacks, by Andrew Nolan . Table 12. Department of Defense (DOD) Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes N/A DOD systems have become increasingly networked, softwareintensive, and dependent on a complicated global supply chain, which has increased the importance of security as a systems engineering design consideration. In response to this new reality, the DOD has established Program Protection/System Security Engineering as a key discipline to protect technology, components, and information from compromise through the cost-effective application of countermeasures to mitigate risks posed by threats and vulnerabilities. The analysis, decisions, and plans of acquisition programs are documented in a Program Protection Plan, which is updated prior to every milestone decision. Program Protection and System Security Engineering Initiative DOD Systems Engineering Ongoing Insider Threats: DOD Should Strengthen Management and Guidance to Protect Classified Information and Systems GAO June 2, 2015 55 DOD components have identified technical and policy changes to help protect classified information and systems from insider threats in the future, but DOD is not consistently collecting this information to support management and oversight responsibilities. According to Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence officials, they do not consistently collect this information because DOD has not identified a program office that is focused on overseeing the insider-threat program. Without an identified program office dedicated to oversight of insider-threat programs, DOD may not be able to ensure the collection of all needed information and could face challenges in establishing goals and in recommending resources and improvements to address insider threats. This is an unclassified version of a classified report GAO issued in April 2015. The DoD Cyber Strategy Department of Defense April 17, 2015 42 Deterrence is a key part of the new cyber strategy, which describes the department’s contributions to a broader national set of capabilities to deter adversaries from conducting cyberattacks. The strategy sets five strategic goals and establishes specific objectives for DOD to achieve over the next five years and beyond. CRS-110 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes DOT&E FY 2014 Annual Report DoD Office of the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation January 2015 91 A series of live fire tests of the security of the military’s computer networks this year found many combatant commands could be compromised by low-to-middling skilled hackers and might not be able to “fight through” in the face of enemy cyberattacks. The assessment echoes previous OT&E annual assessments, which routinely found that military services and combatant commands did not have a sufficiently robust security posture or training to repel sustained cyberattacks during battle. A Review of the U.S. Navy Cyber Defense Capabilities: Abbreviated Version of a Classified Report National Research Council (NRC) January 2015 13 The NRC appointed an expert committee to review the U.S. Navy's cyber defense capabilities. The Department of the Navy has determined that the final report prepared by the committee is classified in its entirety under Executive Order 13526 and therefore cannot be made available to the public. A Review of U.S. Navy Cyber Defense Capabilities is the abbreviated report and provides background information on the full report and the committee that prepared it. DOD Cloud Computing Strategy Needs Implementation Plan and Detailed Waiver Process DOD Inspector General December 4, 2014 40 Report states that the DOD chief information officer “did not develop an implementation plan that assigned roles and responsibilities as well as associated tasks, resources and milestones,” despite promises that an implementation plan would directly follow the cloud strategy’s release. State-of-the-Art Resources (SOAR) for Software Vulnerability Detection, Test, and Evaluation and Appendix E: State-of-the-Art Resources (SOAR) Matrix (Excel spreadsheet) Institute for Defense Analyses Report P-5061 July 2014 234 The purpose of this paper is to assist DOD program managers and their staffs in making effective software assurance and software supply chain risk management decisions. The paper also describes some key gaps identified in the course of this study, including difficulties in finding unknown malicious code, obtaining quantitative data, analyzing binaries without debug symbols, and obtaining assurance of development tools. Additional challenges were found in the mobile environment. Risk Management Framework (RMF) for DOD Information Technology (IT) DOD March 12, 2014 47 In a change in security policy, DOD has dropped its longstanding DOD Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Process (DIACAP) and adopted a risk-focused security approach developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The decision, issued in a DOD instruction memo (8510.01), aligns for the first time the standards DOD and civilian agencies use to ensure their IT systems comply with approved information assurance and risk management controls. CRS-111 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Improving Cybersecurity and Resilience through Acquisition DOD and the General Services Administration (GSA) January 23, 2014 24 DOD and GSA jointly released a report announcing six planned reforms to improve the cybersecurity and resilience of the Federal Acquisition System. The report provides a path forward to aligning federal cybersecurity risk management and acquisition processes. It provides strategic recommendations for addressing relevant issues, suggests how challenges might be resolved, and identifies important considerations for the implementation of the recommendations. Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Safeguarding Unclassified Controlled Technical Information DOD November 18, 2013 10 The regulation imposed two new requirements. First, it imposed an obligation on contractors to provide “adequate security” to safeguard “unclassified controlled technical information” (UCTI). Second, it obligated contractors to report “cyber incidents” that affect UCTI to contracting officers. In both obligations, UCTI is defined as “technical information with military or space application that is subject to controls on access, use, reproduction, modification, performance, display, release, disclosure, or dissemination.” UCTI should be marked with a DOD “distribution statement.” This is the first time DOD has imposed specific requirements for cybersecurity that are generally applicable to all contractors. Offensive Cyber Capabilities at the Operational Level: The Way Ahead Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) September 16, 2013 20 The report examines whether DOD should make a more deliberate effort to explore the potential of offensive cyber tools at levels below that of a combatant command. An Assessment of the Department of Defense Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace U.S. Army War College September 2013 60 This monograph is organized in three main parts. The first part explores the evolution of cyberspace strategy through a series of government publications leading up to the DoD Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace. In the second part, the monograph elaborates on and critiques each strategic initiative in terms of significance, novelty, and practicality. In the third part, it critiques the DOD strategy as a whole. Joint Professional Military Education Institutions in an Age of Cyber Threat Francesca Spidalieri (Pell Center Fellow) August 7, 2013 18 The report found that the Joint Professional Military Education at the six U.S. military graduate schools—a requirement for becoming a joint staff officer and for promotion to the senior ranks—has not effectively incorporated cybersecurity into specific courses, conferences, war-gaming exercises, or other forms of training for military officers. Although these graduate programs are more advanced on cybersecurity than most American civilian universities, a preparation gap still exists. CRS-112 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2013 (Annual Report to Congress) DOD May 6, 2013 92 China is using its computer network exploitation capability to support intelligence collection against the U.S. diplomatic, economic, and defense-industrial base sectors that support U.S. national defense programs. The information targeted could potentially be used to benefit China’s defense industry, hightechnology industries, policy-maker interest in U.S. leadership thinking on key China issues, and military planners building a picture of U.S. network defense networks, logistics, and related military capabilities that could be exploited during a crisis. Resilient Military Systems and the Advanced Cyber Threat DOD Science Board January 2013 146 The report states that, despite numerous Pentagon actions to parry sophisticated attacks by other countries, efforts are “fragmented” and DOD “is not prepared to defend against this threat.” The report lays out a scenario in which cyberattacks in conjunction with conventional warfare damaged the ability of U.S. forces to respond, creating confusion on the battlefield and weakening traditional defenses. FY2012 Annual Report DOD January 2013 372 The annual report to Congress by J. Michael Gilmore, director of Operational Test and Evaluation, assesses the operational effectiveness of systems being developed for combat. See “Information Assurance (I/A) and Interoperability (IOP)” chapter, pages 305-312, for information on network exploitation and compromise exercises. Basic Safeguarding of Contractor Information Systems (Proposed Rule) DOD, GSA, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) August 24, 2012 4 This regulation, authored by the DOD, GSA, and NASA, “would add a contract clause to address requirements for the basic safeguarding of contractor information systems that contain or process information provided by or generated for the government (other than public information).” Electronic Warfare: DOD Actions Needed to Strengthen Management and Oversight Government Accountability Office (GAO) July 9, 2012 46 DOD’s oversight of electronic warfare capabilities may be further complicated by its evolving relationship with computer network operations, which is also an information operationsrelated capability. Without clearly defined roles and responsibilities and updated guidance regarding oversight responsibilities, DOD does not have reasonable assurance that its management structures will provide effective departmentwide leadership for electronic warfare activities and capabilities development and ensure effective and efficient use of its resources. CRS-113 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Cloud Computing Strategy DOD, Chief Information Officer July 2012 44 The DOD Cloud Computing Strategy introduces an approach to move the department from the current state of a duplicative, cumbersome, and costly set of application silos to an end state, which is an agile, secure, and cost-effective service environment that can rapidly respond to changing mission needs. DOD Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Voluntary Cyber Security and Information Assurance (CS/IA) Activities Federal Register May 11, 2012 7 DOD interim final rule to establish a voluntary cybersecurity information-sharing program between DOD and eligible DIB companies. The program enhances and supplements DIB participants’ capabilities to safeguard DOD information that resides on, or transits, DIB unclassified information. DOD Information Security Program: Overview, Classification, and Declassification DOD February 24, 2012 84 Describes the DOD Information Security Program and provides guidance for classification and declassification of DOD information that requires protection in the interest of national security. Cyber Sentries: Preparing Defenders to Win in a Contested Domain Air War College February 7, 2012 38 This paper examines the current impediments to effective cybersecurity workforce preparation and offers new concepts to create Cyber Sentries through realistic training, network authorities tied to certification, and ethical training. These actions present an opportunity to significantly enhance workforce quality and allow DOD to operate effectively in the contested cyber domain in accordance with the vision established in its Strategy for Cyberspace Operations. Defense Department Cyber Efforts: Definitions, Focal Point, and Methodology Needed for DOD to Develop Full-Spectrum Cyberspace Budget Estimates GAO July 29, 2011 33 This letter discusses DOD’s cyber and information assurance budget for FY2012 and future years’ defense spending. The objectives of this review were to (1) assess the extent to which DOD has prepared an overarching budget estimate for fullspectrum cyberspace operations across the department and (2) identify the challenges DOD has faced in providing such estimates. Legal Reviews of Weapons and Cyber Capabilities Secretary of the Air Force July 27, 2011 7 Report concludes the Air Force must subject cyber capabilities to legal review for compliance with the Law of Armed Conflict and other international and domestic laws. The Air Force judge advocate general must ensure that all cyber capabilities “being developed, bought, built, modified or otherwise acquired by the Air Force” undergo legal review—except for cyber capabilities within a Special Access Program, which must undergo review by the Air Force general counsel. CRS-114 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Department of Defense Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace DOD July 2011 19 This is an unclassified summary of DOD’s cybersecurity strategy. Cyber Operations Personnel Report (DOD) DOD April 2011 84 This report focuses on FY2009 Department of Defense Cyber Operations personnel, with duties and responsibilities as defined in Section 934 of the Fiscal Year 2010 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). It includes: Appendix A—Cyber Operations-related Military Occupations Appendix B—Commercial Certifications Supporting the DOD Information Assurance Workforce Improvement Program Appendix C—Military Services Training and Development Appendix D—Geographic Location of National Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Anomaly Detection at Multiple Scales (ADAMS) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) November 9, 2011 74 The design document was produced by Allure Security and sponsored by DARPA. It describes a system for preventing leaks by seeding believable disinformation in military information systems to help identify individuals attempting to access and disseminate classified information. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense National Research Council, Committee for Advancing Software-Intensive Systems Producibility October 20, 2010 160 Assesses the nature of the national investment in software research and, in particular, considers ways to revitalize the knowledge base needed to design, produce, and employ software-intensive systems for tomorrow’s defense needs. Defending a New Domain U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense, William J. Lynn (Foreign Affairs) September/October 2010 N/A In 2008, DOD suffered a significant compromise of its classified military computer networks. It began when an infected flash drive was inserted into a U.S. military laptop at a base in the Middle East. This previously classified incident was the most significant breach of U.S. military computers ever and served as an important wake-up call. The QDR in Perspective: Meeting America’s National Security Needs In the 21st Century (QDR Final Report) Quadrennial Defense Review July 30, 2010 159 From the report: “The expanding cyber mission also needs to be examined. DOD should be prepared to assist civil authorities in defending cyberspace – beyond the department’s current role.” Cyberspace Operations: Air Force Doctrine Document 3-12 U.S. Air Force July 15, 2010 62 This Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) establishes doctrinal guidance for the employment of U.S. Air Force operations in, through, and from cyberspace. It is the keystone of Air Force operational-level doctrine for cyberspace operations. CRS-115 . Title DON (Department of the Navy) Cybersecurity/Information Assurance Workforce Management, Oversight and Compliance Source U.S. Navy Date June 17, 2010 Pages Notes 14 To establish policy and assign responsibilities for the administration of the DON Cybersecurity /Information Assurance Workforce Management Oversight and Compliance Program. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS Product: Cybersecurity Framework • c11173008 CRS-116 CRS Report WSLG829, National Institute of Standards and Technology Issues Long-awaited Cybersecurity Framework, by Andrew Nolan . Table 13. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (including the cybersecurity framework) Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes N/A Compilation of laws, regulations, and directives from 2000-2007 that govern the creation and implementation of federal information security practices. These laws and regulations provide an infrastructure for overseeing implementation of required practices and charge NIST with developing and issuing standards, guidelines, and other publications to assist federal agencies in implementing the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) of 2002 and in managing cost-effective programs to protect their information and information systems. 3 NIST is canvassing for technologies the financial-services sector could use to unify disparate computer logon systems. As part of the agency’s National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence ongoing work, the goal is for the center to review technologies that that can create a “comprehensive identity and access management system” that will unify and simply the task of dealing with multiple applications and automatically monitor activity. Computer Security Division, Computer Security Resource Center Ongoing National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence Access Rights Management Use Case for the Financial Services Sector April 3, 2015 Assessing Security and Privacy Controls in Federal Information Systems and Organizations: Building Effective Assessment Plans (SP 800-53A, rev. 4) December 12, 2014 487 This is the final draft of the special publication meant to guide federal agencies in assessing their security controls. Special Publication 800-53, Revision 4, puts forth a holistic approach to information security and risk management by providing organizations with the breadth and depth of security controls necessary to fundamentally strengthen their information systems and the environments in which those systems operate, which will contribute to systems that are more resilient in the face of cyberattacks and other threats. This “Build It Right” strategy is coupled with a variety of security controls for continuous monitoring to give organizations near real-time information that is essential for senior leaders making ongoing risk-based decisions affecting their critical missions and business functions. Update on the Cybersecurity Framework December 5, 2014 8 In a status update, NIST says there is widespread agreement among stakeholders that it is too early to update the framework. NIST will consider producing additional guidance for using the framework, including how to apply the littleunderstood four-tiered system for gauging organizational cybersecurity program sophistication. In general, information and training materials that advance framework use, including illustrative examples, will be an immediate priority for NIST. CRS-117 . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes NIST/NCCoE Establishment of a Federally Funded Research and Development Center September 22, 2014 N/A The MITRE Corporation will run NIST’s cybersecurity Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) on a contract worth up to $5 billion over five years. MITRE already operates six individual FFRDCs for agencies including the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Federal Aviation Administration. It is also active in cybersecurity, managing the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures database, which catalogues software security flaws. In addition, it developed specifications for the Structured Threat Information Expression (STIX) and Trusted Automated Exchange of Indicator Information (TAXII) under contract from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Guidelines for Smart Grid Cybersecurity, Smart Grid Cybersecurity Strategy, Architecture, and High-Level Requirements September 2014 668 This three-volume report, Guidelines for Smart Grid Cybersecurity, presents an analytical framework that organizations can use to develop effective cybersecurity strategies tailored to their particular combinations of smart gridrelated characteristics, risks, and vulnerabilities. Organizations in the diverse community of smart grid stakeholders—from utilities to providers of energy management services to manufacturers of electric vehicles and charging stations—can use the methods and supporting information presented in this report as guidance for assessing risk and identifying and applying appropriate security requirements. This approach recognizes that the electric grid is changing from a relatively closed system to a complex, highly interconnected environment. Each organization’s cybersecurity requirements should evolve as technology advances and as threats to grid security inevitably multiply and diversify. Systems Security Engineering: An Integrated Approach to Building Trustworthy Resilient Systems May 13, 2014 121 NIST has launched a four-stage process to develop detailed guidelines for “systems security engineering,” adapting a set of widely used international standards for systems and software engineering to the specific needs of security engineering. The agency has released the first set of those guidelines for public comment in a new draft document. Guidelines for the Selection, Configuration, and Use of Transport Layer Security (TLS) Implementations (SP 800-52r1) April 28, 2014 67 TLS is a common method of encrypting web traffic and email that relies on public key encryption. The federal government must upgrade its servers to handle version 1.1 of TLS and make plans by January 2015 for handling web traffic encrypted using TLS 1.2. The Internet Engineering Task Force approved TLS 1.2 in August 2008, but it is only recently that browsers have begun to support it. National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence (NCCoE) and Electric Power Sector Identity and Access Management Use Case March 18, 2014 2 NIST invites organizations to provide products and technical expertise to support and demonstrate security platforms for identity and access management for the electric-power sector. This notice is the initial step for the NCCoE in collaborating with technology companies to address cybersecurity challenges identified under the energy-sector program. Participation in the use case is open to all interested organizations. CRS-118 . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity February 12, 2014 41 The voluntary framework consists of cybersecurity standards that can be customized to various sectors and adapted by both large and small organizations. Additionally, so that the private sector may fully adopt this framework, DHS announced the Critical Infrastructure Cyber Community (C3)—or “C-cubed”— voluntary program. The C3 program gives state and local governments and companies that provide critical services such as cell phones, email, banking, and energy direct access to cybersecurity experts within DHS who have knowledge about specific threats, ways to counter those threats, and how, over the long term, to design and build systems that are less vulnerable to cyber threats. Update on the Development of the Cybersecurity Framework January 15, 2014 3 From the document, “While stakeholders have said they see the value of guidance relating to privacy, many comments stated a concern that the methodology did not reflect consensus private sector practices and therefore might limit use of the Framework. Many commenters also stated their belief that privacy considerations should be fully integrated into the Framework Core.” Proposed Establishment of a Federally Funded Research and Development Center January 10, 2014 2 NIST intends to sponsor a FFRDC to facilitate public-private collaboration for accelerating the widespread adoption of integrated cybersecurity tools and technologies. NIST published three notices in the Federal Register advising the public of the agency’s intention to sponsor an FFRDC and requesting comments from the public. This notice provides NIST’s analysis of the comments related to its proposed establishment of the FFRDC received in response to those notices. Designed-in Cyber Security for Cyber-Physical Systems November 20, 2013 60 NIST and the Cybersecurity Research Alliance held a two-day workshop (April 4-5, 2013) for industry, government, and academic cybersecurity researchers. The report’s findings lay out a logical roadmap for designing security into varied Internet protocol-based systems and platforms increasingly targeted by cyber attackers. Cybersecurity Framework October 22, 2013 47 NIST seeks comments on the preliminary version of the Cybersecurity Framework. Under Executive Order 13636, NIST is directed to work with stakeholders to develop such a framework to reduce cyber risks to critical infrastructure. A Role-Based Model for Federal Information Technology/Cybersecurity Training (Draft Special Publication 800-16 Revision 1) October 2013 152 This guidance will assist managers at all levels to understand their responsibilities in providing role-based cybersecurity training, Guide to Attribute Based Access Control Definition and Considerations (Draft SP 800-162) October 2013 48 Improving information sharing while maintaining control over access to that information is a primary goal of guidance coming from the NIST. CRS-119 . Title c11173008 Date Pages Notes Discussion Draft of the Preliminary Cybersecurity Framework August 28, 2013 36 The framework provides a common language and mechanism for organizations to (1) describe current cybersecurity posture; (2) describe their target state for cybersecurity; (3) identify and prioritize opportunities for improvement within the context of risk management; (4) assess progress toward the target state; and (5) foster communications among internal and external stakeholders. Proposed Establishment of a Federally Funded Research and Development Center-Third Notice July 16, 2013 2 This is the third of three notices that must be published over a 90-day period to advise the public of the agency’s intention to sponsor an FFRDC. DRAFT Outline—Preliminary Framework to Reduce Cyber Risks to Critical Infrastructure July 1, 2013 5 This draft is produced for discussion purposes at workshops and to further encourage private-sector input before NIST publishes a preliminary draft framework to reduce cyber risks to critical infrastructure for public comment in October. Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response June 28, 2013 3 NIST is seeking information relating to CSIC as part of the research needed to write a NIST special publication to help computer security incident response teams (CSIRTs) coordinate effectively when responding to computer-security incidents. The NIST special publication will identify technical standards, methodologies, procedures, and processes that facilitate prompt and effective response. Proposed Establishment of a Federally Funded Research and Development Center—Second Notice June 21, 2013 2 NIST intends to sponsor an FFRDC to facilitate public-private collaboration for accelerating the widespread adoption of integrated cybersecurity tools and technologies. This is the second of three notices that must be published over a 90-day period to advise the public of the agency’s intention to sponsor an FFRDC. Update on the Development of the Cybersecurity Framework June 18, 2013 3 NIST is seeking input about foundational cybersecurity practices, ideas for how to manage needs related to privacy and civil liberties, and outcome-oriented metrics that leaders can use in evaluating the position and progress of their organizations’ cybersecurity status. In a few weeks, NIST expects to post an outline of the preliminary cybersecurity framework, including existing standards and practices. Initial Analysis of Cybersecurity Framework RFI Responses May 15, 2013 34 NIST released an initial analysis of 243 responses to the February 26 request for information (RFI). The analysis will form the basis for a workshop at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh as NIST moves forward on creating a cybersecurity framework for essential energy, utility, and communications systems. Proposed Establishment of a Federally Funded Research and Development Center-First Notice April 22, 2013 2 To help the NCCoE address industry’s needs most efficiently, NIST will sponsor its first FFRDC to facilitate public-private collaboration for accelerating the widespread adoption of integrated cybersecurity tools and technologies. CRS-120 . Title Date Notes Developing a Framework To Improve Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity, Notice; Request for Information February 26, 2013 5 NIST announced the first step in the development of a cybersecurity framework, which will be a set of voluntary standards and best practices to guide industry in reducing cyber risks to the networks and computers that are vital to the nation’s economy, security, and daily life. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) December 2, 2010 4 The MOU, signed by NIST, DHS, and the Financial Services Sector Coordinating Council, formalizes the parties’ intent to expedite the coordinated development and availability of collaborative research, development, and testing activities for cybersecurity technologies and processes based upon the financial services sector’s needs. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. c11173008 Pages CRS-121 . Table 14. Other Federal Agencies Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Pulse: How federal government domains are meeting best practices on the web GSA Ongoing N/A GSA launched Pulse.cio.gov—a public dashboard that displays how well all federal domains are performing in accordance with government-wide web policy requirements and best practices. The first release of Pulse covers two areas of federal web policySecure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS) and the Digital Analytics Program (DAP). Although the initial focus is on second-level domains (e.g., cio.gov), future iterations of the site will go into more detail by examining the larger universe of subdomains (e.g., pulse.cio.gov). Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Ongoing N/A CS&C works to prevent or minimize disruptions to critical information infrastructure to protect the public, the economy, and government services. CS&C leads efforts to protect the federal “.gov” domain of civilian government networks and to collaborate with the private sector—the “.com” domain—to increase the security of critical networks. Continuous Diagnostic and Mitigation Program DHS Ongoing N/A An initiative to deploy continuous monitoring at U.S. federal government agencies will be done in phases, with the initial rollout occurring over three years. The initial phase is aimed at getting federal civilian agencies to employ continuous diagnostic tools to improve vulnerability management, enforce strong compliance settings, manage hardware and software assets, and establish white-listing of approved services and applications. Cybersecurity Collection The National Academies Press Ongoing CRS-122 N/A The prevention of cyberattacks on a nation’s important computer and communications system and networks is a problem that looms large. To best prevent such attacks, this collection explains the importance of increasing the usability of security technologies, recommends strategies for future research aimed at countering cyberattacks, and considers how information technology systems can be used to not only maximize protection against attacks but also respond to threats. . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Binding Operational Directive 15-01: Critical Vulnerability Mitigation Requirement for Federal Civilian Executive Branch Departments and Agencies’ Internet-Accessible Systems DHS May 21, 2015 3 DHS' National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) conducts persistent network and vulnerability scans to identify known critical vulnerabilities and configuration errors in Department and Agencies’ Internet connected systems. As a result of this activity, a weekly "Cyber Hygiene report" tailored for each department and agency, is delivered, to provide an enhanced understanding of the cyber posture of departments’ and agencies' Internet connected systems. This BOD applies to all current and future critical vulnerabilities in departments’ and agencies’ Internet connected systems identified in their weekly “Cyber Hygiene report." DHS developed this BOD in coordination with the Office of Management and Budget E-Gov Office. Best Practices for Victim Response and Reporting of Cyber Incidents Department of Justice April 29, 2015 15 DOJ issued new guidance for businesses on best practices for handling cyber incidents. The guidance is broken down into what companies should do— and should not do— before, during and after an incident. The recommendations include developing an incident response plan, testing it, identifying highly sensitive data and risk management priorities, and connecting with law enforcement and response firms in advance. Cybersecurity Guidance Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) April 2015 6 The SEC’s Division of Investment Management guidance states that an investment fund that cannot repay shareholders because of a cyberattack risks violating federal securities laws. The guidance recommends that advisors and funds conduct periodic assessments, have a cybersecurity strategy, and have written policies and procedures to mitigate cyberattacks. The FBI: Protecting the Homeland in the 21st Century 9/11 Review Commission March 26, 2015 128 The 9/11 Review Commission found in its report on the FBI and its modern national security mission that while the FBI and DHS’ relationship has improved in the past few years, especially on counterterrorism, that improvement has lagged in the area of cybersecurity. “The challenge for both DHS and the FBI in coordinating cyber relationships is due in large part to the lack of clarity at the national level on cyber roles and responsibilities,” the commissioners wrote. “While Washington tries to coordinate the overlapping responsibilities of various federal agencies, the private sector is left in the dark. … The FBI is limited in its cyber efforts by the muddled national cyber architecture that will continue to affect the relationship with DHS. This issue … is beyond the FBI’s ability to address in isolation.” CRS-123 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Formation of the Office of Technology Research and Investigation (OTRI) Federal Trade Commission March 23, 2015 N/A The OTRI will provide expert research, investigative techniques, and further insights to the agency on technology issues involving all facets of the FTC’s consumer protection mission, including privacy, data security, connected cars, smart homes, algorithmic transparency, emerging payment methods, big data, and the Internet of Things. Like the former MTU, the new office will be housed in the Bureau of Consumer Protection and is the agency’s latest effort to ensure that its core consumer protection mission keeps pace with the rapidly evolving digital economy. Kristin Cohen, the current Chief of the MTU, will lead the work of the OTRI. Stakeholder Engagement on Cybersecurity in the Digital Ecosystem National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Department of Commerce March 19, 2015 4 The Internet Policy Task Force (IPTF) is requesting comment to identify substantive cybersecurity issues that affect the digital ecosystem and digital economic growth where broad consensus, coordinated action, and the development of best practices could substantially improve security for organizations and consumers. The IPTF invites public comment on these issues from all stakeholders with an interest in cybersecurity, including the commercial, academic, and civil society sectors, and from relevant federal, state, local, and tribal entities. Cybersecurity Risk Management and Best Practices (WG4): Cybersecurity Framework for the Communications Sector Federal Communications Commission March 18, 2015 418 The CSRIC is a federal advisory committee that provides recommendations to the FCC regarding best practices and actions the commission can take to help ensure security, reliability, and interoperability of communications systems and infrastructure. The CSRIC approved a report that identifies best practices, provides a variety of important tools and resources for communications companies of different sizes and types to manage cybersecurity risks, and recommends a path forward. Cybersecurity Examination Sweep Summary Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) February 3, 2015 7 The SEC published findings from an assessment of more than 100 broker-dealers and investment advisers initiated in April. More than 90% of broker firms and more than 80% of advisers had written information security policies, the SEC said, with most of brokerages and just over half of advisers conducting audits. But less than one-third of brokerages and one-fifth of advisers include written policies about responsibilities for client loss in the event of a cyber incident. And although 84% of broker-dealers applied risk assessments to their vendors, only 32% of advisers did. CRS-124 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes IT Security Suffers from Noncompliance DHS Inspector General December 22, 2014 2 DHS has made progress in improving its information security program, but noncompliance by several DHS component agencies is undermining that effort. The Office of the Inspector General raised concerns over a lack of compliance by these components and urged DHS leadership to strengthen its oversight and enforcement of existing security policies. Guidance on Maritime Cybersecurity Standards (Federal Register Notice of Public Meeting and Request for Comments) U.S. Coast Guard December 12, 2014 2 From the summary: “The U.S. Coast Guard announces a public meeting to be held in Washington, DC, to receive comments on the development of cybersecurity assessment methods for vessels and facilities regulated by the Coast Guard. This meeting will provide an opportunity for the public to comment on development of security assessment methods that assist vessel and facility owners and operators identify and address cybersecurity vulnerabilities that could cause or contribute to a Transportation Security Incident. The Coast Guard will consider these public comments in developing relevant guidance, which may include standards, guidelines, and best practices to protect maritime critical infrastructure.” Final Audit Report: Federal Information Security Management Act Audit FY 2014 OPM November 12, 2014 66 OPM's inspector general's reported that the agency "does not maintain a comprehensive inventory of servers, databases, and network devices." The report also noted that eleven "major systems" were operating without the agency certifying they met security standards. Federal Incident Reporting Guidelines United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) October 1, 2014 10 This guidance instructs federal agencies to classify incidents according to their impacts rather than by categories of attack methods. It also modifies a 2007 requirement for agencies to report to US-CERT within an hour any incident involving the loss of personally identifiable information. Rather, agencies should notify US-CERT of a confirmed cyber incident within one hour of it reaching the attention of an agency’s security operations center or IT department. The Office of Management and Budget said in a concurrently released memo that losses of personally identifiable information caused by nonelectronic means still need to be reported within an hour of a confirmed breach but should be reported to the agency privacy office rather than US-CERT. CRS-125 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Content of Premarket Submissions for Management of Cybersecurity in Medical Devices Food and Drug Administration (FDA) October 1, 2014 9 This guidance, first issued as a draft in June 2013, instructs manufactures to “develop a set of cybersecurity controls.” It also tells manufactures to consider following the core functions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity framework, a model for cybersecurity activities: identify, protect, detect, respond, and recover. Annual Assessment of the Internal Revenue Service's Information Technology Program Department of Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration September 30, 2014 45 The report identifies a list of security weaknesses in the systems of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) that support the Affordable Care Act. Security control weaknesses identified in the audit could affect the IRS's ability to reliably process electronic reports submitted by insurers and drug companies. Collaborative Approaches for Medical Device and Healthcare Cybersecurity; Public Workshop; Request for Comments FDA September 23, 2014 3 The FDA announced an October 21-22 workshop on collaborative approaches for medical device and health care cybersecurity. The FDA, in collaboration with other stakeholders within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and DHS, seeks broad input from the Healthcare and Public Health (HPH) sector on medical device and health care cybersecurity. The vision for this public workshop is to catalyze collaboration among all HPH stakeholders. Health Insurance Marketplaces Generally Protected Personally Identifiable Information but Could Improve Certain Information Security Controls DHS Office of Inspector General September 22, 2014 N/A The websites and databases in some state health insurance exchanges are still vulnerable to attack, putting personally identifiable information at risk. The report examined the website and databases of the federal insurance exchange, as well as the state exchanges for Kentucky and New Mexico. Energy Sector Cybersecurity Framework Implementation Guidance - Draft For Public Comment and Comment Submission Form Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability September 12, 2014 N/A Energy companies need not choose between the NIST cybersecurity framework and the DOE’s Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (C2M2). The NIST framework tells organizations to grade themselves on a four-tier scale based on their overall cybersecurity program sophistication. C2M2 instructs users to assess cybersecurity control implementation across 10 domains of cybersecurity practices, such as situational awareness, according to the users’ specific “maturity indicator level.” CRS-126 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Implementation Status of the Enhanced Cybersecurity Services Program DHS Office of Inspector General July 2014 23 The National Protection Programs Directorate (NPPD) has made progress in expanding the Enhanced Cybersecurity Services program. As of May 2014, 40 critical infrastructure entities were participating in the program. Additionally, 22 companies had signed memorandums of agreement to join the program. Although NPPD has made progress, the Enhanced Cybersecurity Services program has been slow to expand because of limited outreach and resources. In addition, cyber threat information sharing relies on NPPD’s manual reviews and analysis, which has led to inconsistent cyber threat indicator quality. At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy: Some Basic Concepts and Issues National Academies Press May 13, 2014 102 The report is a call for action to make cybersecurity a public safety priority. For a number of years, the cybersecurity issue has received increasing public attention; however, most policy focus has been on the short-term costs of improving systems. In its explanation of the fundamentals of cybersecurity and the discussion of potential policy responses, this book will be a resource for policymakers, cybersecurity and IT professionals, and anyone who wants to understand threats to cyberspace. HHS activities to enhance cybersecurity HHS May 12, 2014 N/A Additional oversight on cybersecurity issues from outside of HHS is not necessary, according to an HHS report on its existing cyber regulatory policies. “All of the regulatory programs identified [in the HHS Section 10(a) analysis] operate within particular segments of the [Healthcare and Public Health] Sector,” the HHS report concluded. “Expanding any or each of these authorities solely to address cybersecurity issues would not be appropriate or recommended.” Sharing Cyberthreat Information Under 18 USC § 2702(a)(3) Department of Justice May 9, 2014 7 The Department of Justice issued guidance for Internet service providers to assuage legal concerns about information sharing. The white paper interprets the Stored Communications Act, which prohibits providers from voluntarily disclosing customer information to governmental entities. The white paper says that the law does not prohibit companies from divulging data in the aggregate, without any specific details about identifiable customers. CRS-127 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Inadequate Practice and Management Hinder Department’s Incident Detection and Response Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General April 24, 2014 15 Auditors sent a prolonged stream of deliberately suspicious network traffic to five public-facing websites at the department to assess incident-detection capabilities. Only one bureau— auditors do not say which—successfully moved to block the suspicious traffic. Responses at the other bureaus ranged from no action to ineffective action, even for those that paid for special security services from vendors. OCIE Cybersecurity Initiative Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) April 15, 2014 9 The SEC’s Office of Compliance Inspections and Examinations (OCIE) will be conducting examinations of more than 50 registered broker-dealers and registered investment advisers, focusing on the following: the entity’s cybersecurity governance; identification and assessment of cybersecurity risks; protection of networks and information; risks associated with remote customer access and funds transfer requests; risks associated with vendors and other third parties; detection of unauthorized activity; and experiences with certain cybersecurity threats. Antitrust Policy Statement on Sharing of Cybersecurity Information Department of Justice and Federal Trade Commission April 10, 2014 9 Information-sharing about cyber threats can be done lawfully as long as companies are not discussing competitive information such as pricing, the Justice Department and Federal Trade Commission said in a joint statement. “Companies have told us that concerns about antitrust liability have been a barrier to being able to openly share cyber threat information,” said Deputy Attorney General James Cole. “Antitrust concerns should not get in the way of sharing cybersecurity information.” Joint Working Group on Improving Cybersecurity and Resilience Through Acquisition General Services Administration (GSA) and Department of Defense (DOD) March 12, 2014 1 On January 23, 2014, the GSA and DOD posted the final report of the Joint Working Group on Improving Cybersecurity and Resilience through Acquisition on the two organizations’ websites. The report makes six recommendations to improve cybersecurity and resilience in federal acquisitions. An accompanying request for comments is being published to obtain stakeholder input on how to implement the report’s recommendations. High-Risk Security Vulnerabilities Identified During Reviews of Information Technology General Controls at State Medicaid Agencies HHS Office of Inspector General March 2014 20 The report says dozens of high-risk security vulnerabilities found in information systems at 10 state Medicaid agencies should serve as a warning to other states about the need to take action to prevent fraud. CRS-128 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes The SEC is soliciting comments on proposed amendments to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority’s (FINRA’s) arbitration codes to ensure that parties’ private information, such as Social Security and financial account numbers, are redacted to include only the last four digits of the number. The proposed amendments would apply only to documents filed with FINRA. They would not apply to documents that parties exchange with each other or submit to the arbitrators at a hearing on the merits. Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Multi-Class Spread Orders SEC February 24, 2014 1 SEC to Hold Cybersecurity Roundtable SEC February 14, 2014 N/A The SEC announced it will host a roundtable to discuss cybersecurity, the issues and challenges cybersecurity raises for market participants and public companies, and how they are addressing those concerns. The roundtable was held at the SEC’s Washington, DC, headquarters on March 26, 2014, and was open to the public and webcast live on the SEC’s website. The Critical Infrastructure Cyber Community C³ Voluntary Program DHS February 12, 2014 N/A The C³ Voluntary Program will serve as a point of contact and a customer relationship manager to assist organizations with using the Cybersecurity Framework and guide interested organizations and sectors to DHS and other public and privatesector resources to support use of the framework. The Federal Government’s Track Record on Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee (Minority Staff) February 4, 2013 19 Since 2006, the federal government has spent at least $65 billion on securing its computers and networks, according to an estimate by the Congressional Research Service. NIST, the government’s official body for setting cybersecurity standards, has produced thousands of pages of precise guidance on every significant aspect of IT security. And yet agencies—even agencies with responsibilities for critical infrastructure or vast repositories of sensitive data—continue to leave themselves vulnerable, often by failing to take the most basic steps toward securing their systems and information. Improving Cybersecurity and Resilience through Acquisition General Services Administration (GSA) and the Department of Defense January 23, 2014 24 The DOD and GSA jointly released a report announcing six planned reforms to improve the cybersecurity and resilience of the Federal Acquisition System. The report provides a path forward to aligning federal cybersecurity risk management and acquisition processes. It provides strategic recommendations for addressing relevant issues, suggests how challenges might be resolved, and identifies important considerations for the implementation of the recommendations. CRS-129 . Title c11173008 Source Date The Department of Energy’s July 2013 Cyber Security Breach DOE Inspector General December 2013 Improving Cybersecurity and Resilience through Acquisition GSA and DOD January 23, 2014 Evaluation of DHS’ Information Security Program for Fiscal Year 2013 DHS Inspector General November 2013 50 The report reiterates that the agency uses outdated security controls and Internet connections that are not verified as trustworthy. In addition, the agency does not review its topsecret information systems for vulnerabilities. Immediate Opportunities for Strengthening the Nation’s Cybersecurity President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) November 2013 31 The report recommends the government phase out insecure, outdated operating systems, like Windows XP, implement better encryption technology, and encourage automatic security updates, among other changes. PCAST also recommends, for regulated industries, that the government help create cybersecurity best practices and audit the adoption of these practices. For independent agencies, the report suggests that PCAST should write new rules that require businesses to report their cyber improvements. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s Unclassified Cyber Security Program - 2013 DOE Office of Inspector General October 2013 13 From the report: “To help protect against continuing cybersecurity threats, the commission estimated that it would spend approximately $5.8 million during FY2013 to secure its information technology assets, a 9% increase compared to FY2012.... As directed by FISMA, the Office of Inspector General conducted an independent evaluation of the Commission’s unclassified cybersecurity program to determine whether it adequately protected data and information systems. This report presents the results of our evaluation for FY2013.” CRS-130 Pages 28 Notes The report states nearly eight times as many current and former Energy Department staff members were affected by a July computer hack than was previously estimated, according to the agency’s inspector general. In August, DOE estimated that the hack affected roughly 14,000 current and former staff, leaking personally identifiable information such as Social Security numbers, birthdays, and banking information. But the breach apparently affected more than 104,000 people. 24 DOD and GSA jointly released a report announcing six planned reforms to improve the cybersecurity and resilience of the Federal Acquisition System. The report provides a path forward to aligning federal cybersecurity risk management and acquisition processes. It provides strategic recommendations for addressing relevant issues, suggests how challenges might be resolved, and identifies important considerations for the implementation of the recommendations. . Title c11173008 Source Date DHS’ Efforts to Coordinate the Activities of Federal Cyber Operations Center DHS Inspector General October 2013 Special Cybersecurity Workforce Project (Memo for Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies) Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Content of Premarket Submissions for Management of Cybersecurity in Medical Devices, Notice Pages 29 Notes DHS could do a better job sharing information among the five federal centers that coordinate cybersecurity work. The department’s National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) is tasked with sharing information about malicious activities on government networks with cybersecurity offices within DOD, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and federal intelligence agencies. But the DHS center and the five federal cybersecurity hubs do not all have the same technology or resources, preventing them from having shared situational awareness of intrusions or threats and restricting their ability to coordinate responses. The centers also have not created a standard set of categories for reporting incidents. The OPM is collaborating with the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Chief Human Capital Officers Council (CHCOC), and the Chief Information Officers Council (CIOC) in implementing a special workforce project that tasks federal agencies’ cybersecurity, information technology, and human resources communities to build a statistical data set of existing and future cybersecurity positions in the OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration (EHRI) data warehouse by the end of FY2014. July 8, 2013 N/A FDA June 14, 2013 1 This guidance identifies cybersecurity issues that manufacturers should consider in preparing premarket submissions for medical devices to maintain information confidentiality, integrity, and availability. DHS Can Take Actions to Address Its Additional Cybersecurity Responsibilities DHS June 2013 26 The National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD) was audited to determine whether the Office of Cybersecurity and Communications had effectively implemented its additional cybersecurity responsibilities to improve the security posture of the federal government. Although it has made some progress, NPPD can make further improvements to address its additional cybersecurity responsibilities. Mobile Security Reference Architecture Federal CIO Council and DHS May 23, 2013 103 Gives agencies guidance in the secure implementation of mobile solutions through their enterprise architectures. The document provides in-depth reference architecture for mobile computing. CRS-131 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Privacy Impact Assessment for EINSTEIN 3 Accelerated (E3A) DHS April 19, 2013 27 DHS will deploy EINSTEIN 3 Accelerated (E3A) to enhance cybersecurity analysis, situational awareness, and security response. Under the direction of DHS, Internet service providers will administer intrusion prevention and threat-based decision-making on network traffic entering and leaving participating federal civilian executive branch agency networks. This Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) is being conducted because E3A will include analysis of federal network traffic, which may contain personally identifiable information. DHS Secretary’s Honors Program: Cyber Student Initiative DHS April 18, 2013 2 The Cyber Student Initiative program will begin at Immigration and Customs Enforcement computer forensic labs in 36 cities nationwide, where students will be trained and gain hands-on experience within the department’s cybersecurity community. The unpaid volunteer program is only available to community college students and veterans pursuing a degree in the cybersecurity field. Regulation Systems Compliance and Integrity SEC March 25, 2013 104 The SEC is examining the exposure of stock exchanges, brokerages, and other Wall Street firms to cyberattacks. The proposed rule asks whether stock exchanges should be required to tell members about breaches of critical systems. More than half of exchanges surveyed globally in 2012 said they had experienced a cyberattack, and 67% of U.S. exchanges said a hacker tried to penetrate their systems. National Level Exercise 2012: Quick Look Report Federal Emergency Management Agency March 2013 22 National Level Exercise (NLE) 2012 was a series of exercise events that examined the ability of the United States to execute a coordinated response to a series of significant cyber incidents. As a part of the National Exercise Program, NLE 2012 emphasized the shared responsibility among all levels of government, the private sector, and the international community to secure cyber networks and coordinate responses and recovery actions. The NLE 2012 series was focused on examining four major themes: planning and implementation of the draft National Cyber Incident Response Plan (NCIRP), coordination among governmental entities, information sharing, and decision making. CRS-132 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Measuring What Matters: Reducing Risks by Rethinking How We Evaluate Cybersecurity National Academy of Public Administration and Safegov.org March 2013 39 Rather than periodically auditing whether an agency’s systems meet the standards enumerated in FISMA at a static moment in time, agencies and their inspectors general should keep running scorecards of “cyber risk indicators” based on continual information governance assessments of a federal organization’s cyber vulnerabilities. Follow-up Audit of the Department’s Cyber Security Incident Management Program DOE Inspector General December 2012 25 From the report: “In 2008, we reported in The Department’s Cyber Security Incident Management Program (DOE/IG-0787, January 2008) that the Department and NNSA established and maintained a number of independent, at least partially duplicative, cyber security incident management capabilities. Although certain actions had been taken in response to our prior report, we identified several issues that limited the efficiency and effectiveness of the Department’s cyber security incident management program and adversely impacted the ability of law enforcement to investigate incidents. For instance, we noted that the Department and NNSA continued to operate independent, partially duplicative cyber security incident management capabilities at an annual cost of more than $30 million. The issues identified were due, in part, to the lack of a unified, Department-wide cyber security incident management strategy. In response to our finding, management concurred with the recommendations and indicated that it had initiated actions to address the issues identified.” Secure and Trustworthy Cyberspace (SaTC) Program Solicitation National Science Foundation and the National Science and Technology Council October 4, 2012 N/A This grant program seeks proposals that address cybersecurity from three different perspectives: “a Trustworthy Computing Systems perspective (TWC); a Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences perspective (SBE); and a Transition to Practice perspective (TPP).” Annual Report to Congress 2012: National Security Through Responsible Information Sharing Information Sharing Environment June 30, 2012 188 From the report, “This Report, which PM-ISE is submitting on behalf of the President, incorporates input from our mission partners and uses their initiatives and PM-ISE’s management activities to provide a cohesive narrative on the state and progress of terrorism-related responsible information sharing, including its impact on our collective ability to secure the nation and our national interests.” CRS-133 . Title Cybersecurity: CF Disclosure Guidance: Topic No. 2 Source Date Pages Notes N/A This document presents the views of the Division of Corporation Finance regarding “disclosure obligations relating to cybersecurity risks and cyber incidents.” This guidance is not a rule, regulation, or statement of the SEC, and the commission has neither approved nor disapproved its content. October 13, 2011 SEC Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. Table 15. State, Local, and Tribal Governments Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes Getting Started for State, Local, Tribal, and Territorial (SLTT) Governments United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (USCERT) Ongoing N/A A list of resources available to state, local, tribal, and territorial governments that have been aligned to the five Cybersecurity Framework function areas. Some resources and programs align to more than one function area. This page will be updated as additional resources—from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), other federal agencies, and the private sector— are identified. Unmanned Aerial Systems, Governance and State CIOs: on the Radar National Association of State Chief Information Officers May 27, 2015 8 State IT officials will be saddled with the consequences if drones — and the data they collect — are not digitally secure. The brief urges state CIOs to make cybersecurity a priority as they consider what drone policies to recommend to state leaders and whether to advocate for an authoritative or advisory role for the CIO’s office on state drone policy. Rhode Island Cybersecurity Commission State of Rhode Island May 7, 2015 3 The governor of Rhode Island signed an executive order establishing a new cybersecurity commission to create an action plan for protecting the state’s vital infrastructure and recommend ways state government can promote the growth of a skilled cybersecurity workforce and business sector. The commission will consist of representatives from state agencies and other public-sector entities; research institutions; and the private-sector in the defense, financial services, IT, and energy sectors. CRS-134 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes [Virginia] Governor McAuliffe Announces State Action to Protect Against Cybersecurity Threats Virginia Governor’s Office April 20, 2015 N/A Governor Terry McAuliffe announced that the Commonwealth of Virginia is establishing the nation’s first state-level Information Sharing and Analysis Organization (ISAO). The Virginia Cyber Security Commission and “Cyber Virginia” were launched by Governor McAuliffe with his Executive Order Number Eight on February 25, 2014. How state governments are addressing cybersecurity Brookings Institution March 5, 2015 N/A From the report: “All states, with the exception of Alaska, publish an IT strategic plan and we did a content analysis of these documents to assess each state’s cybersecurity positioning. Our purpose in conducting this analysis was to determine how well states were conducting this ‘due care.’ As expected, our findings were mixed. We were able to identify two states that had strong efforts and performed better than their peers. We consider Idaho and Mississippi to be truly outstanding in their focus on cybersecurity.” NASCIO 2015 Federal Advocacy Priorities National Association of State Chief Information Officers (NASCIO) January 22, 2015 5 NASCIO states that cybersecurity is its top priority for the federal government to address this year—including through coordination with states on combating cyberthreats. 100 Resilient Cities and Microsoft Announce Partnership to Help Cities Build Cybersecurity 100 Reslient Cities and Microsoft January 15, 2015 N/A Microsoft will help cities improve their cybersecurity as a new partner to the 100 Resilient Cities project from the Rockefeller Foundation. The partnership will bring Microsoft aboard 100RC as a “platform partner,” organizations that offer tools to promote resiliency to cities worldwide. Microsoft said the partnership will be an expansion of its CityNext initiative, which helps cities implement social, mobile, cloud, and data technology solutions. State Governments at Risk: Time to Move Forward: 2014 Deloitte-NASCIO Cybersecurity Study Deloitte and Touche and National Association of State Chief Information Officers (NASCIO) October 2014 32 A majority of elected officials in state governments are confident in their abilities to defend against cyber threats, but only onequarter of state chief information security officers (CISOs) feel the same way, according to a new survey. In the survey of 49 state CISOs or their equivalents and 186 other state officials, barriers to cybersecurity that were cited included low budgets and difficulty recruiting top talent. Three-quarters of the CISOs surveyed said lack of sufficient funding is a major barrier to addressing cyber threats, although almost half said cybersecurity budgets have increased year over year. CRS-135 . Title c11173008 Source Date Pages Notes 2014 Digital States Survey Center for Digital Government September 2, 2014 N/A Every two years, the Center for Digital Government (CDG), the research and advisory arm of Government Technology’s parent company e.Republic, evaluates state government’s ability to improve internal processes and better serve citizens. Cybersecurity and Connecticut’s Public Utilities Connecticut Public Utilities Regulatory Authority April 14, 2014 31 The document is a plan for Connecticut’s utilities to help strengthen defense against possible future threats, such as a cyberattack. Connecticut is the first state to present a cybersecurity strategy in partnership with the utilities sector and will share it with other states working on similar plans. Among other findings, the report recommends that Connecticut commence self-regulated cyber audits and reports and move toward a third-party audit and assessment system. The report also makes recommendations regarding local and regional regulatory roles, emergency drills and training, coordinating with emergency management officials, and handling confidential information. State and Local Government Cybersecurity White House Blog April 2, 2014 N/A The White House in March 2014 convened a broad array of stakeholders, including government representatives, localgovernment-focused associations, private-sector technology companies, and partners from multiple federal agencies, at the State and Local Government Cybersecurity Framework Kickoff Event. State Cybersecurity Resource Guide: Awareness, Education and Training Initiatives NASCIO October 2013 64 The guide includes new information from NASCIO’s state members, who provided examples of state awareness programs and initiatives. This is an additional resource of best-practice information, together with an interactive state map to allow users to drill down to the actual resources that states have developed or are using to promote cyber awareness. It includes contact information for the CISOs; hyperlinks to state security and security awareness pages; and information describing cybersecurity awareness, training, and education initiatives. Cybersecurity for State Regulators 2.0 with Sample Questions for Regulators to Ask Utilities National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners February 2013 31 State commissions tasked with regulating local distribution utilities are slow to respond to emerging cybersecurity risks. The annual membership directory of state utility regulators lists hundreds of key staff members of state commissions throughout the country but not a single staff position had “cybersecurity” in the title. CRS-136 . Title Federal Support for and Involvement in State and Local Fusion Centers Source U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. c11173008 CRS-137 Date October 3, 2012 Pages 141 Notes A two-year bipartisan investigation found that DHS efforts to engage state and local intelligence “fusion centers” has not yielded significant useful information to support federal counterterrorism intelligence efforts. In Section VI, “Fusion Centers Have Been Unable to Meaningfully Contribute to Federal Counterterrorism Efforts,” Part G, “Fusion Centers May Have Hindered, Not Aided, Federal Counterterrorism Efforts,” the report discusses the Russian “cyberattack” in Illinois. . Related Resources: Other Websites This section contains other cybersecurity resources, including U.S. government, international, news sources, and other associations and institutions. Table 16. Related Resources: Congressional and Government Name c11173008 Source Notes Integrated Intelligence Center (IIC) Center for Internet Security Serves as a resource for state, local, tribal, and territorial government partners to engage in a collaborative information sharing and analysis environment on cybersecurity issues. Through this initiative, the IIC provides fusion centers, homeland security advisors, and law enforcement entities with access to a broad range of cybersecurity products, reflecting input from many sources. Computer Security Resource Center National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Links to NIST resources, publications, and computer security groups. Congressional Cybersecurity Caucus Led by Representatives Jim Langevin and Mike McCaul Provides statistics, news on congressional cyberspace actions, and links to other information websites. Cybersecurity White House National Security Council Links to White House policy statements, key documents, videos, and blog posts. Cybersecurity National Telecommunications and Information Administration (U.S. Department of Commerce) The Department of Commerce’s Internet Policy Task Force is conducting a comprehensive review of the nexus between cybersecurity challenges in the commercial sector and innovation in the Internet economy. Cybersecurity and Information System Trustworthiness National Academy of Sciences, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) A list of CSTB’s independent and informed reports on cybersecurity and public policy. Getting Started for State, Local, Tribal, and Territorial (SLTT) Governments United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (U.S. CERT) The resources are available to state, local, tribal, and territorial governments. These resources have been aligned to the five Cybersecurity Framework function areas. Some resources and programs align to more than one function area. This page will be updated as additional resources—from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), other federal agencies, and the private sector—are identified. President’s National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) DHS NSTAC’s goal is to develop recommendations to the President to assure vital telecommunications links through any event or crisis and to help the U.S. government maintain a reliable, secure, and resilient national communications posture. CRS-138 . Name Source Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C) DHS CS&C works to prevent or minimize disruptions to critical information infrastructure in order to protect the public, the economy, and government services. CS&C leads efforts to protect the federal “.gov” domain of civilian government networks and to collaborate with the private sector—the “.com” domain—to increase the security of critical networks Cyber Domain Security and Operations U.S. Department of Defense Links to press releases, fact sheets, speeches, announcements, and videos. U.S. Cyber-Consequences Unit U.S. Cyber-Consequences Unit (U.S.-CCU) U.S.-CCU, a nonprofit 501c(3) research institute, provides assessments of the strategic and economic consequences of possible cyberattacks and cyber-assisted physical attacks. It also investigates the likelihood of such attacks and examines the cost-effectiveness of possible counter-measures. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. c11173008 Notes CRS-139 . Table 17. Related Resources: International Organizations Name Source Center for Internet Security (Australia) Australian Communications and Media Authority The Australian Internet Security Initiative (AISI) is an anti-botnet initiative that collects data on botnets in collaboration with Internet service providers and two industry codes of practice. Cybercrime Council of Europe Links to the Convention on Cybercrime treaty, standards, news, and related information. Cybersecurity Gateway International Telecommunications Union (ITU) ITU’s Cybersecurity Gateway aims to be a collaborative platform, providing and sharing information between partners in civil society, private sector, governmental, and international organizations working in different work areas of cybersecurity Cybercrime Legislation - Country Profiles Council of Europe These profiles have been prepared within the framework of the Council of Europe’s Project on Cybercrime in view of sharing information on cybercrime legislation and assessing the current state of implementation of the Convention on Cybercrime under national legislation. ENISA: Securing Europe’s Information Society European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) ENISA informs businesses and citizens in the European Union about cybersecurity threats, vulnerabilities, and attacks. (Requires free registration to access.) International Cyber Security Protection Alliance (ICSPA) ICSPA A global not-for-profit organization that aims to channel funding, expertise, and assistance directly to law enforcement cybercrime units around the world. NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCD COE) (Tallin, Estonia) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) The center is an international effort that currently includes Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Spain as sponsoring nations to enhance NATO’s cyberdefense capability. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. c11173008 Notes CRS-140 . Table 18. Related Resources: News Source Name Computer Security (Cybersecurity) New York Times Cybersecurity NextGov.com Cyberwarfare and Cybersecurity Benton Foundation Homeland Security Congressional Quarterly (CQ) Cybersecurity Homeland Security News Wire Table 19. Related Resources: Other Associations and Institutions Name c11173008 Notes Council on Cybersecurity The council, based in the Washington, DC, area, is the successor organization to the National Board of Information Security Examiners (NBISE), founded in the United States in 2010 to identify and strengthen the skills needed to improve the performance of the cybersecurity workforce. The council will also be home to the U.S. Cyber Challenge, formerly a program of NBISE, which works with the cybersecurity community to bring accessible, compelling programs that motivate students and professionals to pursue education, development, and career opportunities in cybersecurity. Cyber Aces Foundation Offers challenging and realistic cybersecurity competitions, training camps, and educational initiatives through which high school and college students and young professionals develop the practical skills needed to excel as cybersecurity practitioners. Cybersecurity from the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Links to experts, programs, publications, and multimedia. CSIS is a bipartisan, nonprofit organization whose affiliated scholars conduct research and analysis and develop policy initiatives that look to the future and anticipate change. Cyberconflict and Cybersecurity Initiative from the Council on Foreign Relations Focuses on the relationship between cyberwar and the existing laws of war and conflict; how the United States should engage other states and international actors in pursuit of its interests in cyberspace; how the promotion of the free flow of information interacts with the pursuit of cybersecurity; and the private sector’s role in defense, deterrence, and resilience. Cyber Corps: Scholarship For Service (SFS) SFS is designed to increase and strengthen the cadre of federal information assurance professionals that protect the government’s critical information infrastructure. This program provides scholarships that fully fund the typical costs that students pay for books, tuition, and room and board while attending an approved institution of higher learning. Institute for Information Infrastructure Protection (I3P) I3P is a consortium of leading universities, national laboratories, and nonprofit institutions. It assembles multidisciplinary and multi-institutional research teams able to bring in-depth analysis to complex and pressing problems. Research outcomes are shared at I3P-sponsored workshops, professional conferences, and in peer-reviewed journals, as well as via technology transfer to end-users. Internet Security Alliance (ISA) ISA is a nonprofit collaboration between the Electronic Industries Alliance, a federation of trade associations, and Carnegie Mellon University’s CyLab. CRS-141 . Name Notes National Association of State Chief Information Officers (NASCIO) NASCIO provides state chief information officers (CIOs) and state members with products and services designed to support the challenging role of the state CIO, stimulate the exchange of information, and promote the adoption of IT best practices and innovations. The resource guide provides examples of state awareness programs and initiatives. National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) The goal of NICE is to establish an operational, sustainable, and continually improving cybersecurity education program for the nation to use sound cyber practices that will enhance the nation’s security. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is leading the NICE initiative, including more than 20 federal departments and agencies, to ensure coordination, cooperation, focus, public engagement, technology transfer, and sustainability. National Security Cyberspace Institute (NSCI) NSCI provides education, research, and analysis services to government, industry, and academic clients aiming to increase cyberspace awareness, interest, knowledge, and capabilities. U.S. Cyber Challenge (USCC) USCC’s goal is to find 10,000 of America’s best and brightest to fill the ranks of cybersecurity professionals where their skills can be of the greatest value to the nation. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports of related associations and institutions. c11173008 CRS-142 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic . Author Contact Information Rita Tehan Information Research Specialist rtehan@crs.loc.gov, 7-6739 Key Policy Staff The following table provides names and contact information for CRS experts on policy issues related to cybersecurity bills currently being debated in the 114th Congress. Legislative Issues Name/Title Phone Email Legislation in the 113th Congress Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Critical infrastructure protection John D. Moteff 7-1435 jmoteff@crs.loc.gov Chemical industry Dana Shea 7-6844 dshea@crs.loc.gov Defense industrial base Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Electricity grid Richard J. Campbell 7-7905 rcampbell@crs.loc.gov Financial institutions N. Eric Weiss 7-6209 eweiss@crs.loc.gov Industrial control systems Dana Shea 7-6844 dshea@crs.loc.gov Federal laws Charles Doyle 7-6968 cdoyle@crs.loc.gov Law enforcement Kristin M. Finklea 7-6259 kfinklea@crs.loc.gov Cybersecurity workforce Wendy Ginsberg 7-3933 wginsberg@crs.loc.gov Cyberterrorism Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Cyberwar Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Data breach notification Gina Stevens 7-2581 gstevens@crs.loc.gov Economic issues N. Eric Weiss 7-6209 eweiss@crs.loc.gov Advanced persistent threat Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Economic and industrial Kristin M. Finklea 7-6259 kfinklea@crs.loc.gov Legal issues Brian T. Yeh 7-5182 byeh@crs.loc.gov State-sponsored Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Chief Information Officers (CIOs) Patricia Maloney Figliola 7-2508 pfigliola@crs.loc.gov Commerce John F. Sargent, Jr. 7-9147 jsargent@crs.loc.gov Defense (DOD) Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Executive Office of the President (EOP) John D. Moteff 7-1435 jmoteff@crs.loc.gov Homeland Security (DHS) John D. Moteff 7-1435 jmoteff@crs.loc.gov Intelligence Community (IC) John Rollins 7-5529 jrollins@crs.loc.gov Cybercrime Espionage Federal agency roles c11173008 Congressional Research Service 143 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic . Legislative Issues Name/Title Phone Email Justice (DOJ) Kristin M. Finklea 7-6259 kfinklea@crs.loc.gov National Security Agency (NSA) Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Science agencies (NIST, NSF, OSTP) Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Treasury and financial agencies Rena S. Miller 7-0826 rsmiller@crs.loc.gov Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) John D. Moteff 7-1435 jmoteff@crs.loc.gov Federal Internet monitoring Richard M. Thompson II 7-8449 rthompson@crs.loc.gov Hacktivism Kristin M. Finklea 7-6259 kfinklea@crs.loc.gov Information sharing Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Antitrust laws Kathleen Ann Ruane 7-9135 kruane@crs.loc.gov Civil liability Edward C. Liu 7-9166 eliu@crs.loc.gov Classified information John Rollins 7-5529 jrollins@crs.loc.gov Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Gina Stevens 7-2581 gstevens@crs.loc.gov Privacy and civil liberties Gina Stevens 7-2581 gstevens@crs.loc.gov Defense and diplomatic Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Law enforcement Kristin M. Finklea 7-6259 kfinklea@crs.loc.gov Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov John Rollins 7-5529 jrollins@crs.loc.gov Public/private partnerships Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Supply chain Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Technological issues Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Botnets Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Cloud computing Patricia Maloney Figliola 7-2508 pfigliola@crs.loc.gov Mobile devices Patricia Maloney Figliola 7-2508 pfigliola@crs.loc.gov Research and development (R&D) Patricia Maloney Figliola 7-2508 pfigliola@crs.loc.gov International cooperation National strategy and policy National security c11173008 Congressional Research Service 144