Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Rita Tehan Information Research Specialist March 20, 2013 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R42507 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Summary Cybersecurity vulnerabilities challenge governments, businesses, and individuals worldwide. Attacks have been initiated by individuals, as well as countries. Targets have included government networks, military defenses, companies, or political organizations, depending upon whether the attacker was seeking military intelligence, conducting diplomatic or industrial espionage, or intimidating political activists. In addition, national borders mean little or nothing to cyberattackers, and attributing an attack to a specific location can be difficult, which also makes a response problematic. Congress has been actively involved in cybersecurity issues, holding hearings every year since 2001. There is no shortage of data on this topic: government agencies, academic institutions, think tanks, security consultants, and trade associations have issued hundreds of reports, studies, analyses, and statistics. This report provides links to selected authoritative resources related to cybersecurity issues. This report includes information on • “Legislation” • “Executive Orders and Presidential Directives” • “Data and Statistics” • “Cybersecurity Glossaries” • “Reports by Topic” • • Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports • White House/Office of Management and Budget reports • Military/DOD • Cloud Computing • Critical Infrastructure • National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) • Cybercrime/Cyberwar • International • Education/Training/Workforce • Research and Development (R&D) “Related Resources: Other Websites” The report will be updated as needed. Congressional Research Service Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1 Legislation ....................................................................................................................................... 1 Hearings in the 113th Congress ........................................................................................................ 4 Hearings in the 112th Congress ........................................................................................................ 8 Executive Orders and Presidential Directives................................................................................ 18 Data and Statistics.......................................................................................................................... 22 Cybersecurity Glossaries ............................................................................................................... 28 Reports by Topic ............................................................................................................................ 30 CRS Reports Overview: Cybersecurity Policy Framework .................................................... 30 CRS Reports: Critical Infrastructure ....................................................................................... 54 CRS Reports: Cybercrime and National Security ................................................................... 62 Related Resources: Other Websites ............................................................................................... 82 Tables Table 1. Major Legislation: Senate (113th Congress) ....................................................................... 2 Table 2. Major Legislation: House (113th Congress) ....................................................................... 2 Table 3. Major Legislation: Senate (112th Congress) ....................................................................... 2 Table 4. Senate Floor Debate: S. 3414 (112th Congress) ................................................................. 3 Table 5. Major Legislation: House (112th Congress) ....................................................................... 3 Table 6. House Hearings (113th Congress), by Date ........................................................................ 5 Table 7. House Hearings (113th Congress), by Committee .............................................................. 6 Table 8. Senate Hearings (113th Congress), by Date ........................................................................ 7 Table 9. Senate Hearings (113th Congress), by Committee.............................................................. 7 Table 10. House Hearings (112th Congress), by Date ...................................................................... 9 Table 11. House Hearings (112th Congress), by Committee .......................................................... 11 Table 12. House Markups (112th Congress), by Date .................................................................... 14 Table 13. Senate Hearings (112th Congress), by Date .................................................................... 14 Table 14. Senate Hearings (112th Congress), by Committee.......................................................... 15 Table 15. Congressional Committee Investigative Reports ........................................................... 17 Table 16. Executive Orders and Presidential Directives ................................................................ 19 Table 17. Data and Statistics: Cyber Incidents, Data Breaches, Cyber Crime............................... 23 Table 18. Glossaries of Cybersecurity Terms ................................................................................ 29 Table 19. Selected Reports: Cybersecurity Overview ................................................................... 31 Table 20. Selected Government Reports: Government Accountability Office (GAO) .................. 35 Table 21. Selected Government Reports: White House/Office of Management and Budget ........ 42 Congressional Research Service Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Table 22. Selected Government Reports: Department of Defense (DOD) .................................... 45 Table 23. Selected Government Reports: National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) .................................................................................................................. 49 Table 24. Selected Reports: Cloud Computing .............................................................................. 50 Table 25. Selected Reports: Critical Infrastructure ........................................................................ 55 Table 26. Selected Reports: Cybercrime/Cyberwar ....................................................................... 63 Table 27. Selected Reports: International Efforts .......................................................................... 68 Table 28. Selected Reports: Education/Training/Workforce.......................................................... 76 Table 29. Selected Reports: Research & Development (R&D) ..................................................... 79 Table 30. Related Resources: Congressional/Government ............................................................ 82 Table 31. Related Resources: International Organizations ............................................................ 83 Table 32. Related Resources: News ............................................................................................... 84 Table 33. Related Resources: Other Associations and Institutions ................................................ 85 Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 86 Key Policy Staff ............................................................................................................................. 86 Congressional Research Service Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Introduction Cybersecurity is a sprawling topic that includes national, international, government, and private industry dimensions. In the 113th Congress, one bill has been introduced in the Senate and two in the House. More than 40 bills and resolutions with provisions related to cybersecurity were introduced in the first session of the 112th Congress, including several proposing revisions to current laws. In the 111th Congress, the total was more than 60. Several of those bills received committee or floor action, but none have become law. In fact, no comprehensive cybersecurity legislation has been enacted since 2002. This report provides links to cybersecurity hearings and legislation under consideration in the 113th and 112th Congresses, as well as executive orders and presidential directives, data and statistics, glossaries, and authoritative reports. For CRS analysis, please see the collection of CRS reports found on the Issues in Focus: Cybersecurity site. Legislation No major legislative provisions relating to cybersecurity have been enacted since 2002, despite many recommendations made over the past decade. The Obama Administration sent Congress a package of legislative proposals in May 20111 to give the federal government new authority to ensure that corporations that own the assets most critical to the nation’s security and economic prosperity are adequately addressing the risks posed by cybersecurity threats. Cybersecurity legislation advanced in both chambers in the 112th Congress. The House passed a series of bills that address a variety of issues—from toughening law enforcement of cybercrimes to giving the Department of Homeland Security oversight of federal information technology and critical infrastructure security to lessening liability for private companies that adopt cybersecurity best practices. The Senate pursued a comprehensive cybersecurity bill with several committees working to create a single vehicle for passage, backed by the White House—to no avail. The Senate bill also got mired in a procedural dispute over amendments. Table 1 and Table 2 provide lists of Senate and House legislation under consideration in the 113th Congress, in order by date introduced. When viewed in HTML, the bill numbers are active links to the Bill Summary and Status page in the Legislative Information Service (LIS). 1 White House, International Strategy for Cyberspace: Prosperity, Security, and Openness in a Networked World, May 2011, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/international_strategy_for_cyberspace.pdf. Congressional Research Service 1 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Table 1. Major Legislation: Senate (113th Congress) Bill No. S. 21 Title Committee(s) Cybersecurity and American Cyber Competitiveness Act of 2013 Homeland Security and Government Affairs Date Introduced January 22, 2013 Source: Legislative Information System (LIS). Table 2. Major Legislation: House (113th Congress) Bill No. Title Committee(s) Date Introduced H.R. 967 Advancing America's Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Act of 2013 Science, Space, and Technology March 14, 2013 H.R. 756 Cybersecurity R&D Science, Space, and Technology February 15, 2013 H.R. 624 Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act (CISPA) Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence February 13, 2013 H.R. 86 Cybersecurity Education Enhancement Act of 2013 Education and the Workforce; Homeland Security; Science, Space and Technology January 3, 2013 Source: LIS. Table 3 and Table 5 list major Senate and House legislation considered by the 112th Congress, in order by date introduced. When viewed in HTML, the bill numbers are active links to the Bill Summary and Status page in the Legislative Information Service (LIS). The tables include bills with committee action, floor action, or significant legislative interest. Table 4 provides Congressional Record links to Senate floor debate of S. 3414, the Cybersecurity Act of 2012. Table 3. Major Legislation: Senate (112th Congress) Bill No. Title Committee(s) Date Introduced S. 413 Cybersecurity and Internet Freedom Act of 2011 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs February 17, 2011 S. 1151 Personal Data Privacy and Security Act of 2011 Judiciary June 7, 2011 S. 1342 Grid Cyber Security Act Energy and Natural Resources July 11, 2011 S. 1535 Personal Data Protection and Breach Accountability Act of 2011 Judiciary September 22, 2011 S. 2102 Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2012 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs February 13, 2012 S. 2105 Cybersecurity Act of 2012 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs February 14, 2012 S. 2151 SECURE IT Act Commerce, Science, and Transportation March 1, 2012 Congressional Research Service 2 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Bill No. Title Committee(s) Date Introduced S. 3333 Data Security and Breach Notification Act of 2012 Commerce, Science, and Transportation June 21. 2012 S. 3342 SECURE IT N/A (Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 438) June 28, 2012 S. 3414 Cybersecurity Act of 2012 N/A (Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under Read the First Time) July 19, 2012 Source: LIS. Table 4. Senate Floor Debate: S. 3414 (112th Congress) Title Date Congressional Record Pages Cybersecurity Act of 2012: Motion to Proceed November 14, 2012 S6774-S6784 Cybersecurity Act of 2012: Motion to Proceed July 26, 2012 S5419-S5449 Cybersecurity Act of 2012: Motion to Proceed - Continued July 26, 2012 Cybersecurity Act of 2012 July 31, 2012 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2012-11-14/ pdf/CREC-2012-11-14-pt1-PgS6774.pdf#page=1 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2012-07-26/ pdf/CREC-2012-07-26-pt1-PgS5419-6.pdf#page=1 S5450-S5467 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2012-07-26/ pdf/CREC-2012-07-26-pt1-PgS5450-2.pdf#page=1 S5694-S5705 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2012-07-31/ pdf/CREC-2012-07-31-pt1-PgS5694.pdf#page=1 Cybersecurity Act of 2012: Continued July 31, 2012 S5705-S5724 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2012-07-31/ pdf/CREC-2012-07-31-pt1-PgS5705-2.pdf#page=1 Cybersecurity Act of 2012: Debate and Cloture Vote August 2, 2012 S5907-S5919 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2012-08-02/ pdf/CREC-2012-08-02-pt1-PgS5904-2.pdf#page=4 Source: Congressional Record (GPO). Table 5. Major Legislation: House (112th Congress) Bill No. Title Committee(s) Date Introduced H.R. 76 Cybersecurity Education Enhancement Act of 2011 Homeland Security; House Oversight and Government Reform January 5, 2011 H.R. 174 Homeland Security Cyber and Physical Infrastructure Protection Act of 2011 Technology; Education and the Workforce; Homeland Security January 5, 2011 H.R. 2096 Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2011 Science, Space, and Technology June 2, 2011 H.R. 3523 Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act Committee on Intelligence (Permanent Select) November 30, 2011 Congressional Research Service 3 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Bill No. Title Committee(s) Date Introduced H.R. 3674 PRECISE Act of 2011 Homeland Security; Oversight and Government Reform; Science, Space, and Technology; Judiciary; Intelligence (Permanent Select) December 15, 2011 H.R. 4263 SECURE IT Act of 2012 Strengthening and Enhancing Cybersecurity by Using Research, Education, Information, and Technology Oversight and Government Reform, the Judiciary, Armed Services, and Intelligence (Permanent Select) March 27, 2012 H.R. 3834 Advancing America’s Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Act of 2012 Science, Space, and Technology January 27, 2012 H.R. 4257 Federal Information Security Amendments Act of 2012 Oversight and Government Reform April 18, 2012 Source: LIS. Hearings in the 113th Congress The following tables list cybersecurity hearings in the 113th Congress. Table 6 and Table 7 contain identical content but are organized differently. Table 6 lists House hearings arranged by date (most recent first), and Table 7 lists House hearings arranged by committee. Congressional Research Service 4 Table 6. House Hearings (113th Congress), by Date Title Date Committee Subcommittee Protecting Small Business from CyberAttacks March 21, 2013 Small Business Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure [CLOSED hearing] March 20, 2013 Appropriations Cyber Threats from China, Russia and Iran: Protecting American Critical Infrastructure March 20, 2013 Homeland Security DHS Cybersecurity: Roles and Responsibilities to Protect the Nation’s Critical Infrastructure March 13, 2013 Homeland Security Investigating and Prosecuting 21st Century Cyber Threats March 13, 2013 Judiciary Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security and Investigations Information Technology and Cyber Operations: Modernization and Policy Issues to Support the Future Force March 13, 2013 Armed Services Intelligence, Emerging Threats and Capabilities Cyber R&D [Research and Development] Challenges and Solutions February 26, 2013 Science, Space, and Technology Technology Advanced Cyber Threats Facing Our Nation February 14, 2013 Select Committee on Intelligence Source: Compiled by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). CRS-5 Healthcare and Technology Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Table 7. House Hearings (113th Congress), by Committee Committee Subcommittee Appropriations Title Date Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure [CLOSED hearing] March 20, 2013 Armed Services Subcommittee on Intelligence, Emerging Threats and Capabilities Information Technology and Cyber Operations: Modernization and Policy Issues to Support the Future Force March 13, 2013 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Cyber Threats from China, Russia and Iran: Protecting American Critical Infrastructure March 20, 2013 DHS Cybersecurity: Roles and Responsibilities to Protect the Nation’s Critical Infrastructure March 13, 2013 Homeland Security Judiciary Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security and Investigations Investigating and Prosecuting 21st Century Cyber Threats March 13, 2013 Science, Space, and Technology Technology Cyber R&D [Research and Development] Challenges and Solutions February 26, 2013 Advanced Cyber Threats Facing Our Nation February 14, 2013 Protecting Small Business from CyberAttacks March 21, 2013 Select Committee on Intelligence Small Business Source: Compiled by CRS. CRS-6 Healthcare and Technology Table 8. Senate Hearings (113th Congress), by Date Title Date Committee Defense Authorization: Cybersecurity Threats: To receive a briefing on cybersecurity threats in review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2014 and the Future Years Defense Program. March 19, 2013 Armed Services Fiscal 2014 Defense Authorization, Strategic Command: U.S. Cyber Command March 12, 2013 Armed Services The Cybersecurity Partnership Between the Private Sector and Our Government: Protecting Our National and Economic Security March 7, 2013 (Joint) Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and Commerce, Science and Transportation Subcommittee Emerging Threats and Capabilities Source: Compiled by CRS. Table 9. Senate Hearings (113th Congress), by Committee Committee Armed Services Subcommittee Date Defense Authorization: Cybersecurity Threats March 19, 2013 Armed Services Fiscal 2014 Defense Authorization, Strategic Command: U.S. Cyber Command March 12, 2013 (Joint) Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and Commerce, Science and Transportation The Cybersecurity Partnership Between the Private Sector and Our Government: Protecting Our National and Economic Security March 7, 2013 Source: Compiled by CRS. CRS-7 Emerging Threats and Capabilities Title Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Hearings in the 112th Congress The following tables list cybersecurity hearings in the 112th Congress. Table 10 and Table 11 contain identical content but are organized differently. Table 10 lists House hearings arranged by date (most recent first) and Table 11 lists House hearings arranged by committee. Table 12 lists House markups by date; Table 13 and Table 14 contain identical content. Table 13 lists Senate hearings arranged by date and Table 14 lists Senate hearings arranged by committee. When viewed in HTML, the document titles are active links. Congressional Research Service 8 Table 10. House Hearings (112th Congress), by Date Title Date Committee Subcommittee Investigation of the Security Threat Posed by Chinese Telecommunications Companies Huawei and ZTE September 13, 2012 Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence Resilient Communications: Current Challenges and Future Advancements September 12, 2012 Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness, Response and Communications Cloud Computing: An Overview of the Technology and the Issues facing American Innovators July 25, 2012 Judiciary Intellectual Property, Competition, and the Internet Digital Warriors: Improving Military Capabilities for Cyber Operations July 25, 2012 Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities Cyber Threats to Capital Markets and Corporate Accounts June 1, 2012 Financial Services Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises Iranian Cyber Threat to U.S. Homeland April 26, 2012 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies and Counterterrorism and Intelligence America is Under Cyber Attack: Why Urgent Action is Needed April 24, 2012 Homeland Security Oversight, Investigations and Management The DHS and DOE National Labs: Finding Efficiencies and Optimizing Outputs in Homeland Security Research and Development April 19, 2012 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Cybersecurity: Threats to Communications Networks and Public-Sector Responses March 28, 2012 Energy and Commerce Communications and Technology IT Supply Chain Security: Review of Government and Industry Efforts March 27, 2012 Energy and Commerce Oversight and Investigations Fiscal 2013 Defense Authorization: IT and Cyber Operations March 20, 2012 Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities Cybersecurity: The Pivotal Role of Communications Networks March 7, 2012 Energy and Commerce Communications and Technology NASA Cybersecurity: An Examination of the Agency’s Information Security February 29, 2012 Science, Space, and Technology Investigations and Oversight Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity: Assessments of Smart Grid Security February 28, 2012 Energy and Commerce Oversight and Investigations CRS-9 Title Date Committee Subcommittee Hearing on Draft Legislative Proposal on Cybersecurity December 6, 2011 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Cyber Security: Protecting Your Small Business December 1, 2011 Small Business Healthcare and Technology Cyber Security: Protecting Your Small Business November 30, 2011 Small Business Healthcare and Technology Combating Online Piracy (H.R. 3261, Stop the Online Piracy Act) November 16, 2011 Judiciary Cybersecurity: Protecting America’s New Frontier November 15, 2011 Judiciary Crime, Terrorism and Homeland Security Institutionalizing Irregular Warfare Capabilities November 3, 2011 Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities Cloud Computing: What are the Security Implications? October6, 2011 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Cyber Threats and Ongoing Efforts to Protect the Nation October 4, 2011 Permanent Select Intelligence The Cloud Computing Outlook September 21, 2011 Science, Space, and Technology Technology and Innovation Combating Cybercriminals September 14, 2011 Financial Services Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit Cybersecurity: An Overview of Risks to Critical Infrastructure July 26, 2011 Energy and Commerce Oversight and Investigations Cybersecurity: Assessing the Nation’s Ability to Address the Growing Cyber Threat July 7, 2011 Oversight and Government Reform Field Hearing: Hacked Off: Helping Law Enforcement Protect Private Financial Information June 29, 2011 Financial Services (field hearing in Hoover, AL) Examining the Homeland Security Impact of the Obama Administration’s Cybersecurity Proposal June 24, 2011 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Sony and Epsilon: Lessons for Data Security Legislation June 2, 2011 Energy and Commerce Commerce, Manufacturing, and Trade Protecting the Electric Grid: the Grid Reliability and Infrastructure Defense Act May 31, 2011 Energy and Commerce Unlocking the SAFETY Act’s [Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies - P.L. 107-296] Potential to Promote Technology and Combat Terrorism May 26, 2011 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies Protecting Information in the Digital Age: Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development Efforts May 25, 2011 Science, Space and Technology Research and Science Education CRS-10 Title Date Committee Subcommittee Cybersecurity: Innovative Solutions to Challenging Problems May 25, 2011 Judiciary Intellectual Property, Competition and the Internet Cybersecurity: Assessing the Immediate Threat to the United States May 25, 2011 Oversight and Government Reform National Security, Homeland Defense and Foreign Operations DHS Cybersecurity Mission: Promoting Innovation and Securing Critical Infrastructure April 15, 2011 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Communist Chinese Cyber-Attacks, Cyber-Espionage and Theft of American Technology April 15, 2011 Foreign Affairs Oversight and Investigations Budget Hearing - National Protection and Programs Directorate, Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection Programs March 31, 2011 Appropriations (closed/classified) Energy and Power Examining the Cyber Threat to Critical Infrastructure and the American Economy March 16, 2011 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies 2012 Budget Request from U.S. Cyber Command March 16, 2011 Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities What Should the Department of Defense’s Role in Cyber Be? February 11, 2011 Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities Preventing Chemical Terrorism: Building a Foundation of Security at Our Nation’s Chemical Facilities February 11, 2011 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies World Wide Threats February 10, 2011 Permanent Select Intelligence Source: Compiled by CRS. Table 11. House Hearings (112th Congress), by Committee Committee Subcommittee Appropriations (closed/classified) Title Date Budget Hearing - National Protection and Programs Directorate, Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection Programs March 31, 2011 Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities Digital Warriors: Improving Military Capabilities for Cyber Operations July 25, 2012 Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities Fiscal 2013 Defense Authorization: IT and Cyber Operations March 20, 2012 Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities Institutionalizing Irregular Warfare Capabilities November 3, 2011 Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities 2012 Budget Request for U.S. Cyber Command March 16, 2011 Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities What Should the Department of Defense’s Role in Cyber Be? February 11, 2011 CRS-11 Committee Subcommittee Title Date Energy and Commerce Communications and Technology Cybersecurity: Threats to Communications Networks and Public-Sector Responses March 28, 2012 Energy and Commerce Oversight and Investigations IT Supply Chain Security: Review of Government and Industry Efforts March 27, 2012 Energy and Commerce Communications and Technology Cybersecurity: The Pivotal Role of Communications Networks March 7, 2012 Energy and Commerce Oversight and Investigations Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity: Assessments of Smart Grid Security February 28, 2012 Energy and Commerce Oversight and Investigations Cybersecurity: An Overview of Risks to Critical Infrastructure July 26, 2011 Energy and Commerce Commerce, Manufacturing, and Trade Sony and Epsilon: Lessons for Data Security Legislation June 2, 2011 Energy and Commerce Energy and Power Protecting the Electric Grid: the Grid Reliability and Infrastructure Defense Act May 31, 2011 Financial Services Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises Cyber Threats to Capital Markets and Corporate Account June 1, 2012 Financial Services Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit Combating Cybercriminals September 14, 2011 Financial Services Field hearing in Hoover, AL Field Hearing: “Hacked Off: Helping Law Enforcement Protect Private Financial Information June 29, 2011 Foreign Affairs Oversight and Investigations Communist Chinese Cyber-Attacks, Cyber-Espionage and Theft of American Technology April 15, 2011 Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness, Response and Communications Resilient Communications: Current Challenges and Future Advancement September 12, 2012 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies and Counterterrorism and Intelligence Iranian Cyber Threat to U.S. Homeland April 26, 2012 Homeland Security Oversight, Investigations and Management America is Under Cyber Attack: Why Urgent Action is Needed April 24, 2012 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies The DHS and DOE National Labs: Finding Efficiencies and Optimizing Outputs in Homeland Security Research and Development April 19, 2012 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Hearing on Draft Legislative Proposal on Cybersecurity December 6, 2011 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Cloud Computing: What are the Security Implications? October 6, 2011 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Examining the Homeland Security Impact of the Obama Administration’s Cybersecurity Proposal June 24, 2011 CRS-12 Committee Subcommittee Homeland Security Title Date Unlocking the SAFETY Act’s [Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies - P.L. 107-296] Potential to Promote Technology and Combat Terrorism May 26, 2011 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies DHS Cybersecurity Mission: Promoting Innovation and Securing Critical Infrastructure April 15, 2011 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Examining the Cyber Threat to Critical Infrastructure and the American Economy March 16, 2011 Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Preventing Chemical Terrorism: Building a Foundation of Security at Our Nation’s Chemical Facilities February 11, 2011 Judiciary Intellectual Property, Competition and the Internet Cloud Computing: An Overview of the Technology and the Issues facing American Innovators July 25, 2012 Combating Online Piracy (H.R. 3261, Stop the Online Piracy Act) November 16, 2011 Judiciary Judiciary Crime, Terrorism and Homeland Security Cybersecurity: Protecting America’s New Frontier November 15, 2011 Judiciary Intellectual Property, Competition and the Internet Cybersecurity: Innovative Solutions to Challenging Problems May 25, 2011 Cybersecurity: Assessing the Nation’s Ability to Address the Growing Cyber Threat July 7, 2011 Cybersecurity: Assessing the Immediate Threat to the United States May 25, 2011 Permanent Select Intelligence Investigation of the Security Threat Posed by Chinese Telecommunications Companies Huawei and ZTE September 13, 2012 Permanent Select Intelligence Cyber Threats and Ongoing Efforts to Protect the Nation October 4, 2011 Permanent Select Intelligence World Wide Threats February 10, 2011 Oversight and Government Reform Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on National Security, Homeland Defense and Foreign Operations Science, Space and Technology Investigations and Oversight NASA Cybersecurity: An Examination of the Agency’s Information Security February 29, 2012 Science, Space and Technology Science, Space and Technology Small Business Technology and Innovation The Cloud Computing Outlook September 21, 2011 Research and Science Education Protecting Information in the Digital Age: Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development Efforts Cyber Security: Protecting Your Small Business May 25, 2011 Healthcare and Technology Source: Compiled by CRS. CRS-13 November 30, 2011 Table 12. House Markups (112th Congress), by Date Title Date Committee Consideration and Markup of H.R. 3674 February 1, 2012 Homeland Security Markup: Draft Bill: Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act of 2011 December 1, 2011 Permanent Select Intelligence Markup on H.R. 2096, Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2011 July 21, 2011 Science, Space and Technology Discussion Draft of H.R. 2577, a bill to require greater protection for sensitive consumer data and timely notification in case of breach June 15, 2011 Energy and Commerce Subcommittee Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies Commerce, Manufacturing, and Trade Source: Compiled by CRS. Table 13. Senate Hearings (112th Congress), by Date Title Date Committee State of Federal Privacy and Data Security Law: Lagging Behind the Times? July 31, 2012 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Protecting Electric Grid From Cyber Attacks July 17, 2012 Energy and Natural Resources Committee To receive testimony on U.S. Strategic Command and U.S. Cyber Command in review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2013 and the Future Years Defense Program. March 27, 2012 Armed Services To receive testimony on cybersecurity research and development in review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2013 and the Future Years Defense Program March 20, 2012 Armed Services The Freedom of Information Act: Safeguarding Critical Infrastructure Information and the Public’s Right to Know March 13, 2012 Judiciary Securing America’s Future: The Cybersecurity Act of 2012 February 16, 2012 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Cybercrime: Updating the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act to Protect Cyberspace and Combat Emerging Threats September 7, 2011 Judiciary Role of Small Business in Strengthening Cybersecurity Efforts in the United States July 25, 2011 Small Business and Entrepreneurship Privacy and Data Security: Protecting Consumers in the Modern World June 29, 2011 Commerce, Science and Transportation CRS-14 Subcommittee Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce and the District of Columbia Emerging Threats and Capabilities Title Date Committee Subcommittee Cybersecurity: Evaluating the Administration’s Proposals June 21, 2011 Judiciary Crime and Terrorism Cybersecurity and Data Protection in the Financial Sector June 21, 2011 Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Protecting Cyberspace: Assessing the White House Proposal May 23, 2011 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Cybersecurity of the Bulk-Power System and Electric Infrastructure May 5, 2011 Energy and Natural Resources To receive testimony on the health and status of the defense industrial base and its science and technology-related elements May 3, 2011 Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities Cyber Security: Responding to the Threat of Cyber Crime and Terrorism April 12, 2011 Judiciary Crime and Terrorism Oversight of the Federal Bureau of Investigation March 30, 2011 Judiciary Cybersecurity and Critical Electric Infrastructurea March 15, 2011 Energy and Natural Resources Information Sharing in the Era of WikiLeaks: Balancing Security and Collaboration March 10, 2011 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Homeland Security Department’s Budget Submission for Fiscal Year 2012 February 17, 2011 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Source: Compiled by CRS. a. The March 15, 2011, hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources was closed. The hearing notice was removed from the committee’s website. Table 14. Senate Hearings (112th Congress), by Committee Committee Subcommittee Title Date Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities To receive testimony on cybersecurity research and development in review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2013 and the Future Years Defense Program March 20, 2012 Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities To receive testimony on the health and status of the defense industrial base and its science and technology-related elements May 3, 2011 Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Cybersecurity and Data Protection in the Financial Sector June 21, 2011 Commerce, Science and Transportation Privacy and Data Security: Protecting Consumers in the Modern World June 29, 2011 Energy and Natural Resources Protecting the Electric Grid from Cyber Attacks July 17, 2012 Energy and Natural Resources Cybersecurity of the Bulk-Power System and Electric Infrastructure May 5, 2011 CRS-15 Committee Subcommittee Energy and Natural Resources (closed) Title Date Cybersecurity and Critical Electric Infrastructurea March 15, 2011 State of Federal Privacy and Data Security Law: Lagging Behind the Times? July 31, 2012 Homeland Security & Governmental Affairs Securing America’s Future: The Cybersecurity Act of 2012 February 16, 2012 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Protecting Cyberspace: Assessing the White House Proposal May 23, 2011 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Information Sharing in the Era of WikiLeaks: Balancing Security and Collaboration March 10, 2011 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Homeland Security Department’s Budget Submission for Fiscal Year 2012 February 17, 2011 Judiciary The Freedom of Information Act: Safeguarding Critical Infrastructure Information and the Public’s Right to Know March 13, 2012 Judiciary Cybercrime: Updating the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act to Protect Cyberspace and Combat Emerging Threats September 7, 2011 Homeland Security & Governmental Affairs Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce and the District of Columbia Judiciary Crime and Terrorism Cybersecurity: Evaluating the Administration’s Proposals June 21, 2011 Judiciary Crime and Terrorism Cyber Security: Responding to the Threat of Cyber Crime and Terrorism April 12, 2011 Judiciary Oversight of the Federal Bureau of Investigation March 30, 2011 Small Business and Entrepreneurship Role of Small Business in Strengthening Cybersecurity Efforts in the United States July 25, 2011 Source: Compiled by CRS. a. CRS-16 The March 15, 2011, hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources was closed. The hearing notice was removed from the committee’s website. Table 15. Congressional Committee Investigative Reports Title Committee Date Investigative Report on the U.S. National Security Issues Posed by Chinese Telecommunications Companies Huawei and ZTE House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence October 8, 2012 60 The committee initiated this investigation in November 2011 to inquire into the counterintelligence and security threat posed by Chinese telecommunications companies doing business in the United States. Federal Support for and Involvement in State and Local Fusion Centers U. S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations October 3, 2012 141 A two-year bipartisan investigation found that U.S. Department of Homeland Security efforts to engage state and local intelligence “fusion centers” has not yielded significant useful information to support federal counterterrorism intelligence efforts. In Section VI, “Fusion Centers Have Been Unable to Meaningfully Contribute to Federal Counterterrorism Efforts,” Part G, “Fusion Centers May Have Hindered, Not Aided, Federal Counterterrorism Efforts,” the report discusses the Russian “Cyberattack” in Illinois. Source: Compiled by CRS. CRS-17 Notes Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Executive Orders and Presidential Directives Executive orders are official documents through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the federal government. Presidential directives pertain to all aspects of U.S. national security policy and are signed or authorized by the President. The following reports provide additional information on executive orders and presidential directives: • CRS Report RS20846, Executive Orders: Issuance, Modification, and Revocation, by Todd Garvey and Vivian S. Chu, and • CRS Report 98-611, Presidential Directives: Background and Overview, by L. Elaine Halchin. Table 16 provides a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to information and computer security. Congressional Research Service 18 Table 16. Executive Orders and Presidential Directives (by date of issuance) Title E.O. 13636, Improving Critical Infrastructure Cyberesecurity Date Source February 12, 2013 White House The order directs agencies to take steps to expand cyberthreat information sharing with companies. It also tells them to come up with incentives for owners of the most vital and vulnerable digital infrastructure—like those tied to the electricity grid or banking system—to voluntarily comply with a set of security standards. And it orders them to review their regulatory authority on cybersecurity and propose new regulations in some cases. February 12, 2013 White House This directive establishes national policy on critical infrastructure security and resilience. This endeavor is a shared responsibility among the federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial (SLTT) entities, and public and private owners and operators of critical infrastructure (hereinafter referred to as “critical infrastructure owners and operators”). This directive also refines and clarifies the critical infrastructurerelated functions, roles, and responsibilities across the federal government, as well as enhances overall coordination and collaboration. The federal government also has a responsibility to strengthen the security and resilience of its own critical infrastructure, for the continuity of national essential functions, and to organize itself to partner effectively with and add value to the security and resilience efforts of critical infrastructure owners and operators. October 7, 2011 White House This order directs structural reforms to ensure responsible sharing and safeguarding of classified information on computer networks that shall be consistent with appropriate protections for privacy and civil liberties. Agencies bear the primary responsibility for meeting these twin goals. These policies and minimum standards will address all agencies that operate or access classified computer networks, all users of classified computer networks (including contractors and others who operate or access classified computer networks controlled by the federal government), and all classified information on those networks. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-19/pdf/201303915.pdf Presidential Policy Directive (PPD) 21 - Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/02/12/ presidential-policy-directive-critical-infrastructure-security-andresil E.O. 13587, Structural Reforms to Improve the Security of Classified Networks and the Responsible http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-13/pdf/201126729.pdf CRS-19 Notes Title E.O. 13407, Public Alert and Warning System Date Source June 26, 2006 White House Assigns the Secretary of Homeland Security the responsibility to establish or adopt, as appropriate, common alerting and warning protocols, standards, terminology, and operating procedures for the public alert and warning system to enable interoperability and the secure delivery of coordinated messages to the American people through as many communication pathways as practicable, taking account of Federal Communications Commission rules as provided by law. December 17, 2003 White House Assigns the Secretary of Homeland Security the responsibility of coordinating the nation’s overall efforts in critical infrastructure protection across all sectors. HSPD-7 also designates the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as lead agency for the nation’s information and telecommunications sectors. February 28, 2003 White House Designates the Secretary of Homeland Security the Executive Agent of the National Communication System Committee of Principals, which are the agencies, designated by the President, that own or lease telecommunication assets identified as part of the National Communication System, or which bear policy, regulatory, or enforcement responsibilities of importance to national security and emergency preparedness telecommunications. May 22, 1998 White House Sets as a national goal the ability to protect the nation’s critical infrastructure from intentional attacks (both physical and cyber) by the year 2003. According to the PDD, any interruptions in the ability of these infrastructures to provide their goods and services must be “brief, infrequent, manageable, geographically isolated, and minimally detrimental to the welfare of the United States." http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/WCPD-2006-07-03/pdf/WCPD2006-07-03-Pg1226.pdf HSPD-7, Homeland Security Presidential Directive No. 7: Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/laws/gc_1214597989952.shtm E.O. 13286, Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection With the Transfer of Certain Functions to the Secretary of Homeland Security http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2003/pdf/03-5343.pdf Presidential Decision Directive/NSC-63 http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/pdd/pdd-63.htm CRS-20 Notes Title NSD-42, National Security Directive 42 - National Policy for the Security of National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Date Source July 5, 1990 White House Establishes the National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee, now called the Committee on National Security Systems (CNSS). CNSS is an interagency committee, chaired by the Department of Defense. Among other assignments, NSD-42 directs the CNSS to provide system security guidance for national security systems to executive departments and agencies; and submit annually to the Executive Agent an evaluation of the security status of national security systems. NSD-42 also directs the Committee to interact, as necessary, with the National Communications System Committee of Principals. April 3, 1984 National Communications System (NCS) Established a national communication system as those telecommunication assets owned or leased by the federal government that can meet the national security and emergency preparedness needs of the federal government, together with an administrative structure that could ensure that a national telecommunications infrastructure is developed that is responsive to national security and emergency preparedness needs. http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/research/pdfs/nsd/nsd42.pdf E.O. 12472, Assignment of National Security and Emergency Preparedness Telecommunications Functions (amended by E.O. 13286 of February 28, 2003, and changes made by E.O. 13407, June 26, 2006) http://www.ncs.gov/library/policy_docs/eo_12472.html Note: Descriptions compiled by CRS from government websites. CRS-21 Notes Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Data and Statistics This section identifies data and statistics from government, industry, and IT security firms regarding the current state of cybersecurity threats in the United States and internationally. These include incident estimates, costs, and annual reports on data security breaches, identity theft, cyber crime, malware, and network security. Congressional Research Service 22 Table 17. Data and Statistics: Cyber Incidents, Data Breaches, Cyber Crime Title Overview of Current Cyber Attacks (logged by 97 Sensors) Date Source Pages March 6, 2013 Deutsche Telekom N/A Provides a real-time visualization and map of cyberattacks detected by a network of 97 sensors placed around the world. March 5, 2013 Akamai N/A Akamai monitors global Internet conditions around the clock. The map identifies the global regions with the greatest attack traffic. February 6, 2013 Microsoft Trustworthy Computing 27 Introduces a new methodology for examining how socio-economic factors in a country or region impact cybersecurity performance, examining measures such as use of modern technology, mature processes, user education, law enforcement and public policies related to cyberspace. This methodology can build a model that will help predict the expected cybersecurity performance of a given country or region. February 1, 2013 SANS Institute 19 SANS Institute surveyed professionals who work with SCADA and process control systems. Seventy percent of the nearly 700 respondents said they consider their SCADA systems to be at high or severe risk. One-third of them suspect that they have been already been infiltrated January 8, 2013 Deloitte 24 Report states that 88% of companies do not believe that they are vulnerable to an external cyber threat, while more than half of those surveyed have experienced a security incident in the last year. Companies rated mistakes by their employees as a top threat, with 70% highlighting a lack of security awareness as a vulnerability. Despite this, less than half of companies (48%) offer even general security-related training, with 49% saying that a lack of budget was making it hard to improve security. http://www.sicherheitstacho.eu/ Real-Time Web Monitor http://www.akamai.com/html/technology/dataviz1.html Linking Cybersecurity Policy and Performance http://blogs.technet.com/b/trustworthycomputing/archive/2013/02/ 06/linking-cybersecurity-policy-and-performance-microsoft-releasesspecial-edition-security-intelligence-report.aspx SCADA and Process Control Security Survey https://www.sans.org/reading_room/analysts_program/ sans_survey_scada_2013.pdf Blurring the Lines: 2013 TMT Global Security Study http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-UnitedKingdom/ Local%20Assets/Documents/Services/Audit/uk-ers-blurring-line2013-tmt-studyv2.pdf.pdf CRS-23 Notes Title Date Improving the Evidence Base for Information Security and Privacy Policies: Understanding the Opportunities and Challenges related to Measuring Information Security, Privacy and the Protection of Children Online December 20, 2012 Source Pages Notes Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development 94 This report provides an overview of existing data and statistics in fields of information security, privacy, and the protection of children online. It highlights the potential for the development of better indicators in these respective fields showing in particular that there is an underexploited wealth of empirical data that, if mined and made comparable, will enrich the current evidence base for policy making. November 14, 2012 Georgia Institute of Technology 9 The year ahead will feature new and increasingly sophisticated means to capture and exploit user data, escalating battles over the control of online information and continuous threats to the U.S. supply chain from global sources. (From the annual Georgia Tech Cyber Security Summit 2012). October 23, 2012 National Association of State Chief Information Officers and Deloitte 40 Assesses the state of cybersecurity across the nation found that only 24% of chief information security officers (CISOs) are very confident in their states’ ability to guard data against external threats. October 8, 2012 HP and the Ponemon Institute N/A The 2012 Cost of Cyber Crime Study found that the average annualized cost of cybercrime incurred by a benchmark sample of U.S. organizations was $8.9 million. This represents a 6% increase over the average cost reported in 2011, and a 38% increase over 2010. The 2012 study also revealed a 42% increase in the number of cyberattacks, with organizations experiencing an average of 102 successful attacks per week, compared with 72 attacks per week in 2011 and 50 attacks per week in 2010. October 2012 National Cyber Security Alliance 18 The NCSA surveyed more than 1,000 small and midsize businesses. The survey found that 83% of respondents said they don’t have a written plan for protecting their companies against cyberattacks, while 76% think they are safe from hackers, viruses, malware, and cybersecurity breaches. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/improving-theevidence-base-for-information-security-and-privacypolicies_5k4dq3rkb19n-en Emerging Cyber Threats Report 2013 http://www.gtsecuritysummit.com/pdf/2013ThreatsReport.pdf State Governments at Risk: a Call for Collaboration and Compliance http://www.nascio.org/publications/documents/DeloitteNASCIOCybersecurityStudy2012.pdf Cybercrime Costs Rise Nearly 40 Percent, Attack Frequency Doubles http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/press/2012/121008a.html 2012 NCSA/Symantec National Small Business Study http://www.staysafeonline.org/download/datasets/4389/ 2012_ncsa_symantec_small_business_study.pdf. CRS-24 Title McAfee Explains The Dubious Math Behind Its ‘Unscientific' $1 Trillion Data Loss Claim Date Source Pages Notes August 3, 2012 Forbes.com N/A No, the statistic was not simply made up. Yes, it’s just a “ballpark figure” and an “unscientific” one, the company admits. But despite Pro Publica’s criticisms and its own rather fuzzy math, the company stands by its trillion-dollar conclusion as a (very) rough estimate. August 1, 2012 ProPublica N/A In a news release from computer security firm McAfee announcing its 2009 report, “Unsecured Economies: Protecting Vital Information,” the company estimated a trillion dollar global cost for cybercrime. That number does not appear in the report itself. McAfee’s trillion-dollar estimate is questioned by the three independent researchers from Purdue University whom McAfee credits with analyzing the raw data from which the estimate was derived. An examination of their origins by ProPublica has found new grounds to question the data and methods used to generate these numbers, which McAfee and Symantec say they stand behind. June 28, 2012 U.S. Industrial Control System Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICSCERT) 17 The number of reported cyberattacks on U.S. critical infrastructure increased sharply—from 9 incidents in 2009 to 198 in 2011; water sectorspecific incidents, when added to the incidents that affected several sectors, accounted for more than half of the incidents; in more than half of the most serious cases, implementing best practices, such as login limitation or properly configured firewall, would have deterred the attack, reduced the time it would have taken to detect an attack, and minimized its impact. 11th Annual Workshop on the Economics of Information Security June 25, 2012 N/A “For each of the main categories of cybercrime we set out what is and is not known of the direct costs, indirect costs and defence costs - both to the UK and to the world as a whole.” ongoing Microsoft Security Intelligence Report (SIR) N/A Data on infection rates, malicious websites, and threat trends by regional location, worldwide. http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2012/08/03/mcafeeexplains-the-dubious-math-behind-its-unscientific-1-trillion-data-lossclaim/ Does Cybercrime Really Cost $1 Trillion? http://www.propublica.org/article/does-cybercrime-really-cost-1trillion ICS-CERT Incident Response Summary Report http://www.us-cert.gov/control_systems/pdf/ICSCERT_Incident_Response_Summary_Report_09_11.pdf Measuring the Cost of Cybercrime http://weis2012.econinfosec.org/papers/Anderson_WEIS2012.pdf Worldwide Threat Assessment: Infection Rates and Threat Trends by Location http://www.microsoft.com/security/sir/threat/ default.aspx#!introduction CRS-25 Title McAfee Research & Reports (multiple) Date Source Pages Notes N/A Links to reports on cybersecurity threats, malware, cybercrime, and spam. 2009-2012 McAfee January 19, 2012 Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) December 10, 2011 Identity Theft Resource Center (ITRC) September 2011 Check Point 7 [The] report reveals 48% of large companies and 32% of companies of all sizes surveyed have been victims of social engineering, experiencing 25 or more attacks in the past two years, costing businesses anywhere from $25,000 to over $100,000 per security incident. [P]hishing and social networking tools are the most common sources of socially engineered threats. August 2011 Ponemon Institute 30 [T]he median annualized cost for 50 benchmarked organizations is $5.9 million per year, with a range from $1.5 million to $36.5 million each year per company. This represents an increase in median cost of 56% from [Ponemon’s] first cyber cost study published last year. http://www.mcafee.com/us/about/newsroom/research-reports.aspx Significant Cyber Incidents Since 2006 http://csis.org/publication/cyber-events-2006 2011 ITRC Breach Report Key Findings http://www.idtheftcenter.org/artman2/publish/headlines/ Breaches_2011.shtml The Risk of Social Engineering on Information Security: A Survey of IT Professionals 9 N/A http://www.checkpoint.com/press/downloads/social-engineeringsurvey.pdf Second Annual Cost of Cyber Crime Study http://www.arcsight.com/collateral/whitepapers/ 2011_Cost_of_Cyber_Crime_Study_August.pdf CRS-26 A list of significant cyber events since 2006. From the report, “Significance is in the eye of the beholder, but we focus on successful attacks on government agencies, defense and high tech companies, or economic crimes with losses of more than a million dollars.” According to the report, hacking attacks were responsible for more than one-quarter (25.8%) of the data breaches recorded in the Identity Theft Resource Center’s 2011 Breach Report, hitting a five-year all time high. This was followed by “Data on the Move” (when an electronic storage device, laptop, or paper folders leave the office where they are normally stored) and “Insider Theft,” at 18.1% and 13.4% respectively. Title Revealed: Operation Shady RAT: an Investigation of Targeted Intrusions into 70+ Global Companies, Governments, and NonProfit Organizations During the Last 5 Years Date Source Pages Notes August 2, 2011 McAfee Research Labs 14 A comprehensive analysis of victim profiles from a five-year targeted operation which penetrated 72 government and other organizations, most of them in the United States, and copied everything from military secrets to industrial designs. See page 4 for types of compromised parties, page 5 for geographic distribution of victim’s country of origin, pages 7-9 for types of victims, and pages 1013 for the number of intrusions for 2007-2010. March 2011 Ponemon Institute/Symantec 39 The average organizational cost of a data breach increased to $7.2 million and cost companies an average of $214 per compromised record. March 2011 White House/ Office of Management and Budget 48 The number of attacks against federal networks increased nearly 40% last year, while the number of incidents targeting U.S. computers overall was down roughly 1% for the same period. (See pp. 1213). December 29, 2010 McAfee 11 A review of the most publicized, pervasive, and costly cybercrime exploits from 2000-2010. http://www.mcafee.com/us/resources/white-papers/wp-operationshady-rat.pdf 2010 Annual Study: U.S. Cost of a Data Breach http://www.symantec.com/content/en/us/about/media/pdfs/ symantec_ponemon_data_breach_costs_report.pdf?om_ext_cid= biz_socmed_twitter_facebook_marketwire_linkedin_2011Mar_worl dwide_costofdatabreach FY2010 Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/egov_docs/ FY10_FISMA.pdf A Good Decade for Cybercrime: McAfee’s Look Back at Ten Years of Cybercrime http://www.mcafee.com/us/resources/reports/rp-good-decade-forcybercrime.pdf Note: Statistics are from the source publication and have not been independently verified by CRS. CRS-27 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Cybersecurity Glossaries Table 18 includes links to glossaries of useful cybersecurity terms, including those related to cloud computing and cyberwarfare. Congressional Research Service 28 Table 18. Glossaries of Cybersecurity Terms Title Cloud Computing Reference Architecture http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-cloud-computing/pub/ CloudComputing/ReferenceArchitectureTaxonomy/ NIST_SP_500-292_-_090611.pdf Glossary of Key Information Security Terms Source Date Pages National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) September 2011 35 Provides guidance to specific communities of practitioners and researchers. NIST February 2011 211 The glossary provides a central resource of terms and definitions most commonly used in NIST information security publications and in Committee for National Security Systems (CNSS) information assurance publications. Center for Internet Security November 2010 175 Provides definitions for security professionals to measure some of the most important aspects of the information security status. The goal is to give an organization the ability to repeatedly evaluate security in a standardized way, allowing it to identify trends, understand the impact of activities and make responses to improve the security status. (Free registration required.) Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff November 1, 2010 16 This lexicon is the starting point for normalizing terms in all cyber-related documents, instructions, CONOPS, and publications as they come up for review. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff November 8, 2010 (as amended through January 15, 2012) 547 Provides joint policy and guidance for Information Assurance (IA) and Computer Network Operations (CNO) activities. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Risk Steering Committee September 2010 72 The lexicon promulgates a common language, facilitates the clear exchange of structured and unstructured data, and provides consistency and clear understanding with regard to the usage of terms by the risk community across the DHS. http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistir/ir7298-rev1/nistir7298-revision1.pdf CIS Consensus Information Security Metrics http://benchmarks.cisecurity.org/en-us/?route= downloads.show.single.metrics.110 Joint Terminology for Cyberspace Operations http://www.projectcyw-d.org/resources/items/show/51 Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp1_02.pdf DHS Risk Lexicon http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs-risk-lexicon2010.pdf Note: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS-29 Notes Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Reports by Topic This section gives references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other governmental agencies, and trade organizations. The reports are grouped under the following cybersecurity topics: policy framework overview, critical infrastructure, and cybercrime and national security. For each topic, CRS reports are listed first and then followed by tables with reports from other organizations. The overview reports provide an analysis of a broad range of cybersecurity issues (Table 19 to Table 24). The critical infrastructure reports (Table 25) analyze cybersecurity issues related to telecom infrastructure, the electricity grid, and industrial control systems. The cybercrime and national security reports (Table 26) analyze a wide range of cybersecurity issues, including identify theft and government policies for dealing with cyberwar scenarios. In addition, tables with selected reports on international efforts to address cybersecurity problems, training for cybersecurity professionals, and research and development efforts in other areas are also provided (Table 27 to Table 29). CRS Reports Overview: Cybersecurity Policy Framework • CRS Report R42114, Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Overview and Discussion of Proposed Revisions, by Eric A. Fischer • CRS Report R41941, The Obama Administration’s Cybersecurity Proposal: Criminal Provisions, by Gina Stevens • CRS Report R40150, A Federal Chief Technology Officer in the Obama Administration: Options and Issues for Consideration, by John F. Sargent Jr. • CRS Report R42409, Cybersecurity: Selected Legal Issues, by Edward C. Liu et al. Congressional Research Service 30 Table 19. Selected Reports: Cybersecurity Overview Title Developing a Framework To Improve Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity (Federal Register Notice; Request for Information) http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-26/pdf/2013-04413.pdf The National Cyber Security Framework Manual http://www.ccdcoe.org/publications/books/ NationalCyberSecurityFrameworkManual.pdf Cyber Security Task Force: Public-Private Information Sharing http://bipartisanpolicy.org/sites/default/files/PublicPrivate%20Information%20Sharing.pdf Cyber-security: The Vexed Question of Global Rules: An Independent Report on Cyber-Preparedness Around the World http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs-risk-lexicon-2010.pdf CRS-31 Source Date Pages Notes National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) February 12, 2013 5 NIST announced the first step in the development of a Cybersecurity Framework, which will be a set of voluntary standards and best practices to guide industry in reducing cyber risks to the networks and computers that are vital to the nation’s economy, security, and daily life. NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Center of Excellence December 11, 2012 253 Provides detailed background information and in-depth theoretical frameworks to help the reader understand the various facets of National Cyber Security, according to different levels of public policy formulation. The four levels of government—political, strategic, operational and tactical/technical—each have their own perspectives on National Cyber Security, and each is addressed in individual sections within the Manual. Bipartisan Policy Center July 2012 24 Outlines a series of proposals that would enhance information sharing. The recommendations have two major components: (1) mitigation of perceived legal impediments to information sharing, and (2) incentivizing private sector information sharing by alleviating statutory and regulatory obstacles. McAfee and the Security Defense Agenda February 2012 108 The report examines the current state of cyber-preparedness around the world, and is based on survey results from 80 policy-makers and cybersecurity experts in the government, business, and academic sectors from 27 countries. The countries were ranked on their state of cyber-preparedness. Title Mission Critical: A Public-Private Strategy for Effective Cybersecurity http://businessroundtable.org/uploads/studies-reports/downloads/ 2011_10_Mission_Critical_A_PublicPrivate_Strategy_for_Effective_Cybersecurity_4_20_12.pdf Twenty Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defense: Consensus Audit Guidelines (CAG) Source Date Pages Business Roundtable October 11, 2011 28 According to the report, “[p]ublic policy solutions must recognize the absolute importance of leveraging policy foundations that support effective global risk management, in contrast to “check-the-box” compliance approaches that can undermine security and cooperation. The document concludes with specific policy proposals and activity commitments. SANS October 3, 2011 77 The 20 critical security control measures are intended to focus agencies and large enterprises’’ limited resources by plugging the most common attack vectors. Centre for Secure Information Technologies (CSIT) September 12, 2011 14 The Belfast 2011 event attracted international cyber security experts from leading research institutes, government bodies, and industry who gathered to discuss current cyber security threats, predict future threats and the necessary mitigation techniques, and to develop a collective strategy for next research. National Security Cyberspace Institute July 22, 2011 7 The current cybersecurity crisis can be described several ways with numerous metaphors. Many compare the current crisis with the lawlessness to that of the Wild West and the out-dated tactics and race to security with the Cold War. When treated as a distressed ecosystem, the work of both national and international agencies to eradicate many infectious diseases serves as a model as how poor health can be corrected with proper resources and execution. Before these issues are discussed, what cyberspace actually is must be identified. http://www.sans.org/critical-security-controls/ World Cybersecurity Technology Research Summit (Belfast 2011) http://www.csit.qub.ac.uk/InnovationatCSIT/Reports/Filetoupload,295594,en.pdf A Review of Frequently Used Cyber Analogies http://www.nsci-va.org/WhitePapers/2011-07-22-Cyber-Analogies-WhitepaperK-McKee.pdf CRS-32 Notes Title America’s Cyber Future: Security and Prosperity in the Information Age Source Date Pages Notes Center for a New American Security June 1, 2011 296 To help U.S. policymakers address the growing danger of cyber insecurity, this two-volume report features chapters on cyber security strategy, policy, and technology by some of the world’s leading experts on international relations, national security, and information technology. Resilience of the Internet Interconnection Ecosystem http://www.enisa.europa.eu/act/res/other-areas/inter-x/report/interx-report European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) April 11, 2011 238 Part I: Summary and Recommendations; Part II: State of the Art Review (a detailed description of the Internet’s routing mechanisms and analysis of their robustness at the technical, economic and policy levels.); Part III: Report on the Consultation (a broad range of stakeholders were consulted. This part reports on the consultation and summarizes the results). Part IV: Bibliography and Appendices. Improving our Nation’s Cybersecurity through the Public-Private Partnership: A White Paper Business Software Alliance, Center for Democracy & Technology, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Internet Security Alliance, Tech America March 8, 2011 26 This paper proposes expanding the existing partnership within the framework of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan. Specifically, it makes a series of recommendations that build upon the conclusions of President Obama’s Cyberspace Policy Review. CSIS Commission on Cybersecurity for the 44th Presidency, Center for Strategic and International Studies January 2011 22 From the report: “We thought then [in 2008] that securing cyberspace had become a critical challenge for national security, which our nation was not prepared to meet.... In our view, we are still not prepared.” http://www.cnas.org/node/6405 http://www.cdt.org/files/pdfs/20110308_cbyersec_paper.pdf Cybersecurity Two Years Later http://csis.org/files/publication/ 110128_Lewis_CybersecurityTwoYearsLater_Web.pdf CRS-33 Title Toward Better Usability, Security, and Privacy of Information Technology: Report of a Workshop Source Date Pages National Research Council September 21, 2010 70 Discusses computer system security and privacy, their relationship to usability, and research at their intersection. This is drawn from remarks made at the National Research Council’s July 2009 Workshop on Usability, Security and Privacy of Computer Systems as well as recent reports from the NRC's Computer Science and Telecommunications Board on security and privacy. Joint Workshop of the National Security Threats in Cyberspace and the National Strategy Forum September 15, 2009 37 The two-day workshop brought together more than two dozen experts with diverse backgrounds: physicists; telecommunications executives; Silicon Valley entrepreneurs; federal law enforcement, military, homeland security, and intelligence officials; congressional staffers; and civil liberties advocates. For two days they engaged in an open-ended discussion of cyber policy as it relates to national security, under Chatham House Rules: their comments were for the public record, but they were not for attribution. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12998 National Security Threats in Cyberspace http://nationalstrategy.com/Portals/0/documents/ National%20Security%20Threats%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf Note: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS-34 Notes Table 20. Selected Government Reports: Government Accountability Office (GAO) Title Cybersecurity: A Better Defined and Implemented National Strategy Is Needed to Address Persistent Challenges Date Pages March 7, 2013 36 “[A]lthough federal law assigns the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) responsibility for oversight of federal government information security, OMB recently transferred several of these responsibilities to DHS.... [I]t remains unclear how OMB and DHS are to share oversight of individual departments and agencies. Additional legislation could clarify these responsibilities.” February 14, 2013 112 GAO recommends that the White House Cybersecurity Coordinator develop an overarching federal cybersecurity strategy that includes all key elements of the desirable characteristics of a national strategy. Such a strategy would provide a more effective framework for implementing cybersecurity activities and better ensure that such activities will lead to progress in cybersecurity. January 25, 2013 35 “The FCC did not effectively implement appropriate information security controls in the initial components of the Enhanced Secured Network (ESN) project.... Weaknesses identified in the commission’s deployment of components of the ESN project as of August 2012 resulted in unnecessary risk that sensitive information could be disclosed, modified, or obtained without authorization. GAO is making seven recommendations to the FCC to implement management controls to help ensure that ESN meets its objective of securing FCC's systems and information.” July 17, 2012 25 In a prior report, GAO has made recommendations related to electricity grid modernization efforts, including developing an approach to monitor compliance with voluntary standards. These recommendations have not yet been implemented. July 11, 2012 43 To help ensure the success of agencies’ implementation of cloud-based solutions, the Secretaries of Agriculture, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, State, and the Treasury, and the Administrators of the General Services Administration and Small Business Administration should direct their respective chief information officer (CIOs) to establish estimated costs, performance goals, and plans to retire associated legacy systems for each cloud-based service discussed in this report, as applicable. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-462T Cybersecurity: National Strategy, Roles, and Responsibilities Need to Be Better Defined and More Effectively Implemented http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-187 Information Security: Federal Communications Commission Needs to Strengthen Controls over Enhanced Secured Network Project http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-155 Cybersecurity: Challenges in Securing the Electricity Grid http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-926T Information Technology Reform: Progress Made but Future Cloud Computing Efforts Should be Better Planned http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-756 CRS-35 Notes Title DOD Actions Needed to Strengthen Management and Oversight Date Pages Notes July 9, 2012 46 DOD’s oversight of electronic warfare capabilities may be further complicated by its evolving relationship with computer network operations, which is also an information operations-related capability. Without clearly defined roles and responsibilities and updated guidance regarding oversight responsibilities, DOD does not have reasonable assurance that its management structures will provide effective department-wide leadership for electronic warfare activities and capabilities development and ensure effective and efficient use of its resources. June 28, 2012 20 This statement discusses (1) cyber threats facing the nation’s systems, (2) reported cyber incidents and their impacts, (3) security controls and other techniques available for reducing risk, and (4) the responsibilities of key federal entities in support of protecting IP. February 28, 2012 19 As GAO reported in January 2011, securing smart grid systems and networks presented a number of key challenges that required attention by government and industry. GAO made several recommendations to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) aimed at addressing these challenges. The commission agreed with these recommendations and described steps it is taking to implement them. December 9, 2011 77 Given the plethora of guidance available, individual entities within the sectors may be challenged in identifying the guidance that is most applicable and effective in improving their security posture. Improved knowledge of the guidance that is available could help both federal and private sector decision makers better coordinate their efforts to protect critical cyber-reliant assets. November 29, 2011 86 All the agencies GAO reviewed faced challenges determining the size of their cybersecurity workforce because of variations in how work is defined and the lack of an occupational series specific to cybersecurity. With respect to other workforce planning practices, all agencies had defined roles and responsibilities for their cybersecurity workforce, but these roles did not always align with guidelines issued by the federal Chief Information Officers Council and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). October 17, 2011 72 GAO is recommending that OMB update its guidance to establish measures of accountability for ensuring that CIOs’ responsibilities are fully implemented and require agencies to establish internal processes for documenting lessons learned. October 5, 2011 17 Twenty-two of 24 major federal agencies reported that they were either concerned or very concerned about the potential information security risks associated with cloud computing. GAO recommended that the NIST issue guidance specific to cloud computing security. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-479?source=ra Information Security: Cyber Threats Facilitate Ability to Commit Economic Espionage http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-876T Cybersecurity: Challenges to Securing the Modernized Electricity Grid http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-507T Critical Infrastructure Protection: Cybersecurity Guidance Is Available, but More Can Be Done to Promote Its Use http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-92 Cybersecurity Human Capital: Initiatives Need Better Planning and Coordination http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-8 Federal Chief Information Officers: Opportunities Exist to Improve Role in Information Technology Management http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-634 Information Security: Additional Guidance Needed to Address Cloud Computing Concerns http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-130T CRS-36 Title Information Security: Weaknesses Continue Amid New Federal Efforts to Implement Requirements Date Pages Notes October 3, 2011 49 Weaknesses in information security policies and practices at 24 major federal agencies continue to place the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive information and information systems at risk. Consistent with this risk, reports of security incidents from federal agencies are on the rise, increasing over 650% over the past 5 years. Each of the 24 agencies reviewed had weaknesses in information security controls. October 17, 2011 72 GAO is recommending that the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) update its guidance to establish measures of accountability for ensuring that CIOs’ responsibilities are fully implemented and require agencies to establish internal processes for documenting lessons learned. July 29, 2011 33 This letter discusses the Department of Defense’s cyber and information assurance budget for fiscal year 2012 and future years defense spending. The objectives of this review were to (1) assess the extent to which DOD has prepared an overarching budget estimate for full-spectrum cyberspace operations across the department; and (2) identify the challenges DOD has faced in providing such estimates. July 26, 2011 20 A number of significant challenges remain to enhancing the security of cyberreliant critical infrastructures, such as (1) implementing actions recommended by the President's cybersecurity policy review; (2) updating the national strategy for securing the information and communications infrastructure; (3) reassessing DHS's planning approach to critical infrastructure protection; (4) strengthening public-private partnerships, particularly for information sharing; (5) enhancing the national capability for cyber warning and analysis; (6) addressing global aspects of cybersecurity and governance; and (7) securing the modernized electricity grid. July 25, 2011 79 GAO recommends that DOD evaluate how it is organized to address cybersecurity threats; assess the extent to which it has developed joint doctrine that addresses cyberspace operations; examine how it assigned command and control responsibilities; and determine how it identifies and acts to mitigate key capability gaps involving cyberspace operations. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-137 Federal Chief Information Officers: Opportunities Exist to Improve Role in Information Technology Management http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-634 Defense Department Cyber Efforts: Definitions, Focal Point, and Methodology Needed for DOD to Develop Full-Spectrum Cyberspace Budget Estimates http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-695R Continued Attention Needed to Protect Our Nation’s Critical Infrastructure http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-463T Defense Department Cyber Efforts: DOD Faces Challenges in Its Cyber Activities http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-75 CRS-37 Title Critical Infrastructure Protection: Key Private and Public Cyber Expectations Need to Be Consistently Addressed Date Pages Notes August 16, 2010 38 The Special Assistant to the President and Cybersecurity Coordinator and the Secretary of Homeland Security, should take two actions: (1) use the results of this report to focus their information-sharing efforts, including their relevant pilot projects, on the most desired services, including providing timely and actionable threat and alert information, access to sensitive or classified information, a secure mechanism for sharing information, and providing security clearance and (2) bolster the efforts to build out the National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center as the central focal point for leveraging and integrating the capabilities of the private sector, civilian government, law enforcement, the military, and the intelligence community. July 8, 2011 63 The Department of State implemented a custom application called iPost and a risk scoring program that is intended to provide continuous monitoring capabilities of information security risk to elements of its information technology (IT) infrastructure. To improve implementation of iPost at State, the Secretary of State should direct the Chief Information Officer to develop, document, and maintain an iPost configuration management and test process. March 16, 2011 16 Executive branch agencies have made progress instituting several governmentwide initiatives that are aimed at bolstering aspects of federal cybersecurity, such as reducing the number of federal access points to the Internet, establishing security configurations for desktop computers, and enhancing situational awareness of cyber events. Despite these efforts, the federal government continues to face significant challenges in protecting the nation's cyber-reliant critical infrastructure and federal information systems. January 12, 2011 50 GAO identified the following six key challenges: (1) Aspects of the regulatory environment may make it difficult to ensure smart grid systems’ cybersecurity. (2) Utilities are focusing on regulatory compliance instead of comprehensive security. (3) The electric industry does not have an effective mechanism for sharing information on cybersecurity. (4) Consumers are not adequately informed about the benefits, costs, and risks associated with smart grid systems. (5) There is a lack of security features being built into certain smart grid systems. (6) The electricity industry does not have metrics for evaluating cybersecurity. November 30, 2010 50 Existing governmentwide guidelines and oversight efforts do not fully address agency implementation of leading wireless security practices. Until agencies take steps to better implement these leading practices, and OMB takes steps to improve governmentwide oversight, wireless networks will remain at an increased vulnerability to attack. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-628 Information Security: State Has Taken Steps to Implement a Continuous Monitoring Application, but Key Challenges Remain http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-149 Cybersecurity: Continued Attention Needed to Protect Our Nation’s Critical Infrastructure and Federal Information Systems http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-463T Electricity Grid Modernization: Progress Being Made on Cybersecurity Guidelines, but Key Challenges Remain to be Addressed http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-117 Information Security: Federal Agencies Have Taken Steps to Secure Wireless Networks, but Further Actions Can Mitigate Risk http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-43 CRS-38 Title Cyberspace Policy: Executive Branch Is Making Progress Implementing 2009 Policy Review Recommendations, but Sustained Leadership Is Needed Date Pages October 6, 2010 66 Of the 24 recommendations in the President’s May 2009 cyber policy review report, 2 have been fully implemented, and 22 have been partially implemented. While these efforts appear to be steps forward, agencies were largely not able to provide milestones and plans that showed when and how implementation of the recommendations was to occur. September 23, 2010 46 The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has not developed an effective way to ensure that critical national infrastructure, such as electrical grids and telecommunications networks, can bounce back from a disaster. DHS has conducted surveys and vulnerability assessments of critical infrastructure to identify gaps, but has not developed a way to measure whether owners and operators of that infrastructure adopt measures to reduce risks. September 15, 2010 38 OMB and NIST established policies and guidance for civilian non-national security systems, while other organizations, including the Committee on National Security Systems (CNSS), DOD, and the U.S. intelligence community, have developed policies and guidance for national security systems. GAO was asked to assess the progress of federal efforts to harmonize policies and guidance for these two types of systems. August 2, 2010 53 GAO recommends that the Special Assistant to the President and Cybersecurity Coordinator should make recommendations to appropriate agencies and interagency coordination committees regarding any necessary changes to more effectively coordinate and forge a coherent national approach to cyberspace policy. July 1, 2010 53 To assist federal agencies in identifying uses for cloud computing and information security measures to use in implementing cloud computing, the Director of OMB should establish milestones for completing a strategy for implementing the federal cloud computing initiative. June 16, 2010 15 Multiple opportunities exist to improve federal cybersecurity. To address identified deficiencies in agencies’ security controls and shortfalls in their information security programs, GAO and agency inspectors general have made hundreds of recommendations over the past several years, many of which agencies are implementing. In addition, the White House, the Office of Management and Budget, and certain federal agencies have undertaken several government-wide initiatives intended to enhance information security at federal agencies. While progress has been made on these initiatives, they all face challenges that require sustained attention, and GAO has made several recommendations for improving the implementation and effectiveness of these initiatives. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-24 DHS Efforts to Assess and Promote Resiliency Are Evolving but Program Management Could Be Strengthened http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-772 Information Security: Progress Made on Harmonizing Policies and Guidance for National Security and NonNational Security Systems http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-916 United States Faces Challenges in Addressing Global Cybersecurity and Governance http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-606 Federal Guidance Needed to Address Control Issues With Implementing Cloud Computing http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-513 Continued Attention Is Needed to Protect Federal Information Systems from Evolving Threats http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-834t CRS-39 Notes Title Information Security: Concerted Response Needed to Resolve Persistent Weaknesses Date Pages Notes March 24, 2010 21 Without proper safeguards, federal computer systems are vulnerable to intrusions by individuals who have malicious intentions and can obtain sensitive information. The need for a vigilant approach to information security has been demonstrated by the pervasive and sustained cyber attacks against the United States; these attacks continue to pose a potentially devastating impact to systems as well as the operations and critical infrastructures that they support. March 16, 2010 15 The White House, the Office of Management and Budget, and certain federal agencies have undertaken several government-wide initiatives intended to enhance information security at federal agencies. While progress has been made on these initiatives, they all face challenges that require sustained attention, and GAO has made several recommendations for improving the implementation and effectiveness of these initiatives. April 12, 2010 40 To reduce the threat to federal systems and operations posed by cyber attacks on the United States, OMB launched, in November 2007, the Trusted Internet Connections (TIC) initiative, and later, in 2008, the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) National Cybersecurity Protection System (NCPS), operationally known as Einstein, which became mandatory for federal agencies as part of TIC. In order to further ensure that federal agencies have adequate, sufficient, and timely information to successfully meet the goals and objectives of the TIC and Einstein programs, the Secretary of Homeland Security should, to better understand whether Einstein alerts are valid, develop additional performance measures that indicate how agencies respond to alerts. March 5, 2010 64 To address strategic challenges in areas that are not the subject of existing projects within CNCI but remain key to achieving the initiative’s overall goal of securing federal information systems, the Director of OMB should continue development of a strategic approach to identity management and authentication, linked to HSPD-12 implementation, as initially described in the Chief Information Officers Council's plan for implementing federal identity, credential, and access management, so as to provide greater assurance that only authorized individuals and entities can gain access to federal information systems. November 17, 2009 24 GAO has identified weaknesses in all major categories of information security controls at federal agencies. For example, in fiscal year 2008, weaknesses were reported in such controls at 23 of 24 major agencies. Specifically, agencies did not consistently authenticate users to prevent unauthorized access to systems; apply encryption to protect sensitive data; and log, audit, and monitor security-relevant events, among other actions. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-536t Cybersecurity: Continued Attention Is Needed to Protect Federal Information Systems from Evolving Threats http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-463T Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-237 Cybersecurity: Progress Made But Challenges Remain in Defining and Coordinating the Comprehensive National Initiative http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-338 Continued Efforts Are Needed to Protect Information Systems from Evolving Threats http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-230t CRS-40 Title Efforts to Improve Information sharing Need to Be Strengthened Date August 27, 2003 http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-03-760 Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the GAO reports. CRS-41 Pages Notes 59 Information on threats, methods, and techniques of terrorists is not routinely shared; and the information that is shared is not perceived as timely, accurate, or relevant. Table 21. Selected Government Reports: White House/Office of Management and Budget Title Improving Cybersecurity Date Pages March 2013 N/A March 2013 68 More government programs violated data security law standards in 2012 than in the previous year, and at the same time, computer security costs have increased by more than $1 billion. Inadequate training was a large part of the reason all-around FISMA adherence scores slipped from 75% in 2011 to 74% in 2012. Agencies reported that about 88% of personnel with system access privileges received annual security awareness instruction, down from 99% in 2011. Meanwhile, personnel expenses accounted for the vast majority—90%—of the $14.6 billion departments spent on information technology security in 2012. February 20, 2013 141 “First, we will increase our diplomatic engagement.... Second, we will support industry-led efforts to develop best practices to protect trade secrets and encourage companies to share with each other best practices that can mitigate the risk of trade secret theft.... Third, DOJ will continue to make the investigation and prosecution of trade secret theft by foreign competitors and foreign governments a top priority.... Fourth, President Obama recently signed two pieces of legislation that will improve enforcement against trade secret theft.... Lastly, we will increase public awareness of the threats and risks to the U.S. economy posed by trade secret theft.” December 2012 24 Provides guidance for effective development, integration, and implementation of policies, processes, standards, and technologies to promote secure and responsible information sharing. http://technology.performance.gov/initiative/ensurecybersecurity/home FY 2012 Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/ egov_docs/fy12_fisma.pdf Administration Strategy for Mitigating the Theft of U.S. Trade Secrets http://www.whitehouse.gov//sites/default/files/omb/IPEC/ admin_strategy_on_mitigating_the_theft_of_u.s._trade_secrets.p df National Strategy for Information Sharing and Safeguarding http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/ 2012sharingstrategy_1.pdf Can the President Deal with Cybersecurity Issues via Executive Order? Notes October 19, 2012 N/A The Administration updated all 14 cross-agency priority goals on the Performance.gov portal, giving all new targets for agencies to hit over the next two years. The Office of Management and Budget also is using the opportunity to better connect agency performance improvement officers to the Trusted Internet Connections and Homeland Security. When it comes to executive orders and emerging areas of law, the initial question that is always raised is whether the President has the authority to issue the executive order in the specified area—in this instance, cybersecurity. Not surprisingly, the answer is “it depends.” Source: CRS Legal Sidebar. CRS-42 Title Collaborative and Cross-Cutting Approaches to Cybersecurity Date August 1, 2012 Pages N/A http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2012/08/01/collaborative-andcross-cutting-approaches-cybersecurity Trustworthy Cyberspace: Strategic Plan for the Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development Program December 6, 2011 36 http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ fed_cybersecurity_rd_strategic_plan_2011.pdf Structural Reforms to Improve the Security of Classified Networks and the Responsible Sharing and Safeguarding of Classified Information October 7, 2011 September 14, 2011 29 Rather than enforcing a static, three-year reauthorization process, agencies are expected to conduct ongoing authorizations of information systems through the implementation of continuous monitoring programs. Continuous monitoring programs thus fulfill the three year security reauthorization requirement, so a separate re-authorization process is not necessary. May 16, 2011 30 The strategy marks the first time any administration has attempted to set forth in one document the U.S. government’s vision for cyberspace, including goals for defense, diplomacy, and international development. May 12, 2011 N/A The Administration’s proposal ensures the protection of individuals' privacy and civil liberties through a framework designed expressly to address the challenges of cybersecurity. The Administration's legislative proposal includes: Management, Personnel, Intrusion Prevention Systems, and Data Centers. February 13, 2011 43 The strategy outlines how the federal government can accelerate the safe, secure adoption of cloud computing, and provides agencies with a framework for migrating to the cloud. It also examines how agencies can address challenges related to the adoption of cloud computing, such as privacy, procurement, standards, and governance. http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/ international_strategy_for_cyberspace.pdf Cybersecurity Legislative Proposal (Fact Sheet) http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/05/12/factsheet-cybersecurity-legislative-proposal Federal Cloud Computing Strategy http://www.cio.gov/documents/Federal-Cloud-ComputingStrategy.pdf CRS-43 As a research and development strategy, this plan defines four strategic thrusts: Inducing Change; Developing Scientific Foundations; Maximizing Research Impact; and Accelerating Transition to Practice. President Obama signed an executive order outlining data security measures and rules for government agencies to follow to prevent further data leaks by insiders. The order included the creation of a senior steering committee that will oversee the safeguarding and sharing of information. http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/memoranda/ 2011/m11-33.pdf International Strategy for Cyberspace Michael Daniel, White House Cybersecurity Coordinator, highlights a few recent initiatives where voluntary, cooperative actions are helping to improve the nation’s overall cybersecurity. N/A http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/10/07/ executive-order-structural-reforms-improve-security-classifiednetworksFY 2012 Reporting Instructions for the Federal Information Security Management Act and Agency Privacy Managementa Notes Title 25 Point Implementation Plan to Reform Federal Information Technology Management Date Pages Notes December 9, 2010 40 The plan’s goals are to reduce the number of federally run data centers from 2,100 to approximately 1,300, rectify or cancel one-third of troubled IT projects, and require federal agencies to adopt a “cloud first” strategy in which they will move at least one system to a hosted environment within a year. July 6, 2010 39 This memorandum outlines and clarifies the respective responsibilities and activities of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the Cybersecurity Coordinator, and DHS, in particular with respect to the Federal Government’s implementation of the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 (FISMA). June 25, 2010 39 The NSTIC, which is in response to one of the near term action items in the President’s Cyberspace Policy Review, calls for the creation of an online environment, or an Identity Ecosystem, where individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with confidence, trusting the identities of each other and the identities of the infrastructure where transaction occur. March 2, 2010 5 The CNCI establishes a multi-pronged approach the federal government is to take in identifying current and emerging cyber threats, shoring up current and future telecommunications and cyber vulnerabilities, and responding to or proactively addressing entities that wish to steal or manipulate protected data on secure federal systems. May 29, 2009 76 The President directed a 60-day, comprehensive, “clean-slate” review to assess U.S. policies and structures for cybersecurity. The review team of government cybersecurity experts engaged and received input from a broad cross-section of industry, academia, the civil liberties and privacy communities, state governments, international partners, and the legislative and executive branches. This paper summarizes the review team’s conclusions and outlines the beginning of the way forward toward a reliable, resilient, trustworthy digital infrastructure for the future. http://www.cio.gov/documents/25-Point-Implementation-Plan-toReform-Federal%20IT.pdf Clarifying Cybersecurity Responsibilities http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/ memoranda_2010/m10-28.pdf The National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace: Creating Options for Enhanced Online Security and Privacy http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/ns_tic.pdf Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI) http://www.whitehouse.gov/cybersecurity/comprehensivenational-cybersecurity-initiative Cyberspace Policy Review: Assuring a Trusted and Resilient Communications Infrastructure http://www.whitehouse.gov/assets/documents/ Cyberspace_Policy_Review_final.pdf Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the White House reports. a. CRS-44 White House and Office of Management and Budget. Table 22. Selected Government Reports: Department of Defense (DOD) Title Resilient Military Systems and the Advanced Cyber Threat http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/ ResilientMilitarySystems.CyberThreat.pdf FY 2012 Annual Report http://www.dote.osd.mil/pub/reports/FY2012/pdf/other/ 2012DOTEAnnualReport.pdf Basic Safeguarding of Contractor Information Systems (Proposed Rule) Source Date Pages Department of Defense Science Board January 2013 146 The report states that, despite numerous Pentagon actions to parry sophisticated attacks by other countries, efforts are “fragmented” and the Defense Department “is not prepared to defend against this threat.” The report lays out a scenario in which cyberattacks in conjunction with conventional warfare damaged the ability of U.S. forces to respond, creating confusion on the battlefield and weakening traditional defenses. Department of Defense January 2013 372 Annual report to Congress by J. Michael Gilmore, director of Operational Test and Evaluation. Assesses the operational effectiveness of systems being developed for combat. See “Information Assurance (I/A) and Interoperability (IOP)” chapter, pages 305-312, for information on network exploitation and compromise exercises. Federal Register August 24, 2012 4 This regulation authored by the Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) “would add a contract clause to address requirements for the basic safeguarding of contractor information systems that contain or process information provided by or generated for the government (other than public information).” GAO July 9, 2012 46 DOD’s oversight of electronic warfare capabilities may be further complicated by its evolving relationship with computer network operations, which is also an information operations-related capability. Without clearly defined roles and responsibilities and updated guidance regarding oversight responsibilities, DOD does not have reasonable assurance that its management structures will provide effective department-wide leadership for electronic warfare activities and capabilities development and ensure effective and efficient use of its resources. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-24/pdf/201220881.pdf DOD Actions Needed to Strengthen Management and Oversight http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-479?source=ra CRS-45 Notes Title Cloud Computing Strategy http://www.defense.gov/news/DoDCloudComputingStrategy.pdf DOD Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Voluntary Cyber Security and Information Assurance Activities Source Date DOD, Chief Information Officer July 2012 Federal Register May 11, 2012 DOD February 16, 2012 Air War College February 7, 2012 General Accountability Office (GAO) July 29, 2011 Pages 44 84 http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/dod/5200_01v1.pdf Cyber Sentries: Preparing Defenders to Win in a Contested Domain 38 http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA561779& Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf Defense Department Cyber Efforts: Definitions, Focal Point, and Methodology Needed for DOD to Develop Full-Spectrum Cyberspace Budget Estimates http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-695R CRS-46 The DOD Cloud Computing Strategy introduces an approach to move the department from the current state of a duplicative, cumbersome, and costly set of application silos to an end state, which is an agile, secure, and cost effective service environment that can rapidly respond to changing mission needs. DOD interim final rule to establish a voluntary cyber security information sharing program between DOD and eligible DIB companies. The program enhances and supplements DIB participants’ capabilities to safeguard DOD information that resides on, or transits, DIB unclassified information. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-11/pdf/201210651.pdf DOD Information Security Program: Overview, Classification, and Declassification Notes 33 Describes the DOD Information Security Program, and provides guidance for classification and declassification of DOD information that requires protection in the interest of the national security. This paper examines the current impediments to effective cybersecurity workforce preparation and offers new concepts to create Cyber Sentries through realistic training, network authorities tied to certification, and ethical training. These actions present an opportunity to significantly enhance workforce quality and allow the Department to operate effectively in the contested cyber domain in accordance with the vision established in its Strategy for Cyberspace Operations This letter discusses DOD’s cyber and information assurance budget for fiscal year 2012 and future years defense spending. The objectives of this review were to (1) assess the extent to which DOD has prepared an overarching budget estimate for full-spectrum cyberspace operations across the department; and (2) identify the challenges DOD has faced in providing such estimates. Title Legal Reviews of Weapons and Cyber Capabilities http://www.e-publishing.af.mil/shared/media/epubs/AFI51402.pdf Department of Defense Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace Source Date Pages Secretary of the Air Force July 27, 2011 7 States the Air Force must subject cyber capabilities to legal review for compliance with the Law of Armed Conflict and other international and domestic laws. The Air Force judge advocate general must ensure that all cyber capabilities “being developed, bought, built, modified or otherwise acquired by the Air Force" must undergo legal review—except for cyber capabilities within a Special Access Program, which must undergo review by the Air Force general counsel. DOD July 14, 2011 19 This is an unclassified summary of DOD’s cyber-security strategy. DOD April, 2011 84 This report focuses on FY2009 Department of Defense Cyber Operations personnel, with duties and responsibilities as defined in Section 934 of the Fiscal Year 2010 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). Appendix A—Cyber Operations-related Military Occupations Appendix B—Commercial Certifications Supporting the DOD Information Assurance Workforce Improvement Program Appendix C—Military Services Training and Development Appendix D—Geographic Location of National Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) November 9, 2011 National Research Council, Committee for Advancing Software-Intensive Systems Producibility October 20, 2010 http://www.defense.gov/news/d20110714cyber.pdf Cyber Operations Personnel Report (DOD) http://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=488076 Anomaly Detection at Multiple Scales (ADAMS) http://info.publicintelligence.net/DARPA-ADAMS.pdf Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12979 CRS-47 Notes 74 161 The design document was produced by Allure Security and sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It describes a system for preventing leaks by seeding believable disinformation in military information systems to help identify individuals attempting to access and disseminate classified information. Assesses the nature of the national investment in software research and, in particular, considers ways to revitalize the knowledge base needed to design, produce, and employ software-intensive systems for tomorrow’s defense needs. Title Defending a New Domain Source Date Pages Notes September 2010 N/A http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/66552/william-j-lynn-iii/ defending-a-new-domain U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense, William J. Lynn (Foreign Affairs) In 2008, the U.S. Department of Defense suffered a significant compromise of its classified military computer networks. It began when an infected flash drive was inserted into a U.S. military laptop at a base in the Middle East. This previously classified incident was the most significant breach of U.S. military computers ever, and served as an important wake-up call. The QDR in Perspective: Meeting America’s National Security Needs In the 21st Century (QDR Final Report) Quadrennial Defense Review July 30, 2010 159 From the report: “The expanding cyber mission also needs to be examined. The Department of Defense should be prepared to assist civil authorities in defending cyberspace – beyond the Department’s current role." U.S. Air Force July 15, 2010 62 This Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) establishes doctrinal guidance for the employment of U.S. Air Force operations in, through, and from cyberspace. It is the keystone of Air Force operational-level doctrine for cyberspace operations. U.S. Navy June 17, 2010 14 To establish policy and assign responsibilities for the administration of the Department of the Navy (DON) Cybersecurity (CS)/Information Assurance Workforce (IAWF) Management Oversight and Compliance Program. http://www.usip.org/quadrennial-defense-review-independentpanel-/view-the-report Cyberspace Operations: Air Force Doctrine Document 3-12 http://www.e-publishing.af.mil/shared/media/epubs/afdd3-12.pdf DON (Department of the Navy) Cybersecurity/Information Assurance Workforce Management, Oversight and Compliance http://www.doncio.navy.mil/PolicyView.aspx?ID=1804 Note: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS-48 Table 23. Selected Government Reports: National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) Title Five Pilot Projects Receive Grants to Promote Online Security and Privacy Source Date Pages NIST September 20, 2012 N/A NIST announced more than $9 million in grant awards to support the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC). Five U.S. organizations will pilot identity solutions that increase confidence in online transactions, prevent identity theft, and provide individuals with more control over how they share their personal information. NIST February 17, 2012 51 NIST responds to comments received in response to the related Notice of Inquiry published in the Federal Register on June 14, 2011. Department of Commerce June 14, 2011 4 The department seeks public comment from all stakeholders, including the commercial, academic and civil society sectors, and consumer and privacy advocates on potential models, in the form of recommendations and key assumptions in the formation and structure of the steering group. White House April 15, 2011 52 Press release on a proposal to administer the processes for policy and standards adoption for the Identity Ecosystem Framework in accordance with the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC). White House April 15, 2011 52 The NSTIC aims to make online transactions more trustworthy, thereby giving businesses and consumers more confidence in conducting business online. http://www.nist.gov/itl/nstic-092012.cfm Recommendations for Establishing an Identity Ecosystem Governance Structure for the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace Notes http://www.nist.gov/nstic/2012-nstic-governance-recs.pdf Models for a Governance Structure for the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace http://www.nist.gov/nstic/nstic-frn-noi.pdf Administration Releases Strategy to Protect Online Consumers and Support Innovation and Fact Sheet on National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/04/15/ administration-releases-strategy-protect-online-consumers-andsupport-in National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2010/06/25/national-strategy-trust cyberspace Note: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS-49 Table 24. Selected Reports: Cloud Computing Title Delivering on the Promise of Big Data and the Cloud http://www.boozallen.com/media/file/BigDataInTheCloud.pdf Cloud Computing: An Overview of the Technology and the Issues facing American Innovators http://judiciary.house.gov/hearings/Hearings%202012/hear_07252012_2.html Information Technology Reform: Progress Made but Future Cloud Computing Efforts Should be Better Planned Source Date Pages Booz, Allen, Hamilton January 9, 2013 7 Reference architecture does away with conventional data and analytics silos, consolidating all information into a single medium designed to foster connections called a “data lake," which reduces complexity and creates efficiencies that improve data visualization to allow for easier insights by analysts. House Judiciary Comm., Subcom. on Intellectual Property, Competition, and the Interenet July 25, 2012 156 Overview and discussion of cloud computing issues. GAO July 11, 2012 43 To help ensure the success of agencies’ implementation of cloud-based solutions, the Secretaries of Agriculture, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, State, and the Treasury, and the Administrators of the General Services Administration and Small Business Administration should direct their respective chief information officer (CIOs) to establish estimated costs, performance goals, and plans to retire associated legacy systems for each cloudbased service discussed in this report, as applicable. DOD, Chief Information Officer July 2012 44 The DOD Cloud Computing Strategy introduces an approach to move the department from the current state of a duplicative, cumbersome, and costly set of application silos to an end state, which is an agile, secure, and cost effective service environment that can rapidly respond to changing mission needs. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-756 Cloud Computing Strategy http://www.defense.gov/news/DoDCloudComputingStrategy.pdf CRS-50 Notes Title A Global Reality: Governmental Access to Data in the Cloud - A Comparative Analysis of Ten International Jurisdictions Source Date Pages Notes Hogan Lovells May 23, 2012 13 This White Paper compares the nature and extent of governmental access to data in the cloud in many jurisdictions around the world. May 1, 2012 38 http://www.usitc.gov/journals/Policy_Challenges_of_Crossborder_Cloud_Computing_rev.pdf U.S. International Trade Commission Examine the main policy challenges associated with cross-border cloud computing—data privacy, security, and ensuring the free flow of information—and the ways that countries are addressing them through domestic policymaking, international agreements, and other cooperative arrangements. Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations NIST May 2012 81 The National Institute of Standards and Technology has unveiled a guide that explains cloud technologies in “plain terms” to federal agencies and provides recommendations for IT decision makers. Business Software Alliance February 2, 2012 24 This report notes that while many developed countries have adjusted their laws and regulations to address cloud computing, the wide differences in those rules make it difficult for companies to invest in the technology. General Services Administration (GSA) February 7, 2012 47 Implementation of FedRAMP will be in phases. This document describes all the services that will be available at initial operating capability— targeted for June 2012. The Concept of Operations will be updated as the program evolves toward sustained operations. Federal CIO Council January 4, 2012 N/A The Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program or FedRAMP has been established to provide a standard approach to Assessing and Authorizing (A&A) cloud computing services and products. http://www.hldataprotection.com/uploads/file/ Hogan%20Lovells%20White%20Paper%20Government%20Access%20to%20 Cloud%20Data%20Paper%20%281%29.pdf Policy Challenges of Cross-Border Cloud Computing http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-146/sp800-146.pdf Global Cloud Computing Scorecard a Blueprint for Economic Opportunity http://portal.bsa.org/cloudscorecard2012/ Concept of Operations: FedRAMP http://www.gsa.gov/graphics/staffoffices/FedRAMP_CONOPS.pdf Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP) http://www.gsa.gov/portal/category/102371 CRS-51 Title Security Authorization of Information Systems in Cloud Computing Environments (FedRAMP) http://www.cio.gov/fedrampmemo.pdf U.S. Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap, Volume I, Release 1.0 (Draft). High-Priority Requirements to Further USG Agency Cloud Computing Adoption Source Date Pages Notes White House/Office of Management and Budget (OMB) December 8, 2011 7 The Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP) will now be required for all agencies purchasing storage, applications and other remote services from vendors. The Obama Administration has championed cloud computing as a means to save money and accelerate the government’s adoption of new technologies. NIST December 1, 2011 32 Volume I is aimed at interested parties who wish to gain a general understanding and overview of the background, purpose, context, work, results, and next steps of the U.S. Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap initiative. NIST December 1, 2011 85 Volume II is designed to be a technical reference for those actively working on strategic and tactical cloud computing initiatives, including, but not limited to, U.S. government cloud adopters. Volume II integrates and summarizes the work completed to date, and explains how these findings support the roadmap introduced in Volume I. GAO October 5, 2011 17 Twenty-two of 24 major federal agencies reported that they were either concerned or very concerned about the potential information security risks associated with cloud computing. GAO recommended that the NIST issue guidance specific to cloud computing security. NIST has issued multiple publications which address such guidance; however, one publication remains in draft, and is not to be finalized until the first quarter of fiscal year 2012. NIST September 1, 2011 35 This “Special Publication," which is not an official U.S. government standard, is designed to provide guidance to specific communities of practitioners and researchers. Software and Information Industry Association (SAII) July 26, 2011 27 The SAII concludes “that there is no need for cloud-specific legislation or regulations to provide for the safe and rapid growth of cloud computing, and in fact, such actions could impede the great potential of cloud computing." http://www.nist.gov/itl/cloud/upload/SP_500_293_volumeI-2.pdf U.S. Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap, Release 1.0 (Draft), Volume II Useful Information for Cloud Adopters http://www.nist.gov/itl/cloud/upload/SP_500_293_volumeII.pdf Information Security: Additional Guidance Needed to Address Cloud Computing Concerns http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-130T Cloud Computing Reference Architecture http://www.nist.gov/customcf/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=909505 Guide to Cloud Computing for Policy Makers http://www.siia.net/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download& gid=3040&Itemid=318 CRS-52 Title Federal Cloud Computing Strategy http://www.cio.gov/documents/Federal-Cloud-Computing-Strategy.pdf Source White House Date February 13, 2011 Pages Notes 43 The strategy outlines how the federal government can accelerate the safe, secure adoption of cloud computing, and provides agencies with a framework for migrating to the cloud. It also examines how agencies can address challenges related to the adoption of cloud computing, such as privacy, procurement, standards, and governance Notes: These reports analyze cybersecurity issues related to the federal government’s adoption of cloud computing storage options. Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS-53 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources CRS Reports: Critical Infrastructure • CRS Report R42683, Critical Infrastructure Resilience: The Evolution of Policy and Programs and Issues for Congress, by John D. Moteff • CRS Report RL30153, Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation, by John D. Moteff • CRS Report R42660, Pipeline Cybersecurity: Federal Policy, by Paul W. Parfomak • CRS Report R41536, Keeping America’s Pipelines Safe and Secure: Key Issues for Congress, by Paul W. Parfomak • CRS Report R41886, The Smart Grid and Cybersecurity—Regulatory Policy and Issues, by Richard J. Campbell • CRS Report R42338, Smart Meter Data: Privacy and Cybersecurity, by Brandon J. Murrill, Edward C. Liu, and Richard M. Thompson II • CRS Report RL33586, The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities, by Patricia Moloney Figliola • CRS Report 97-868, Internet Domain Names: Background and Policy Issues, by Lennard G. Kruger • CRS Report R42351, Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress, by Lennard G. Kruger Congressional Research Service 54 Table 25. Selected Reports: Critical Infrastructure Title SCADA and Process Control Security Survey Source https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=728459 Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12050 New FERC Office to Focus on Cyber Security http://www.ferc.gov/media/news-releases/2012/2012-3/0920-12.asp Canvassing the Targeting of Energy Infrastructure: The Energy Infrastructure Attack Database http://www.ensec.org/index.php?option=com_content& view=article&id=379:canvassing-the-targeting-of-energyinfrastructure-the-energy-infrastructure-attack-database& catid=128:issue-content&Itemid=402 CRS-55 Pages Notes SANS Institute February 1, 2013 19 SANS Institute surveyed professionals who work with SCADA and process control systems. Of the nearly 700 respondents, 70% said they consider their SCADA systems to be at high or severe risk; one-third of them suspect that they have been already been infiltrated. U.S. Department of Energy Inspector General’s Office December 1, 2012 25 In 2008, it was reported in the Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program (DOE/IG-0787, January 2008) that the department and NNSA established and maintained a number of independent, at least partially duplicative, cyber security incident management capabilities. Although certain actions had been taken in response to the prior report, identified were several issues that limited the efficiency and effectiveness of the department's cyber security incident management program and adversely affected the ability of law enforcement to investigate incidents. In response to the finding, management concurred with the recommendations and indicated that it had initiated actions to address the issues identified. National Academies of Science November 2012 146 Focuses on measures that could make the power delivery system less vulnerable to attacks, restore power faster after an attack, and make critical services less vulnerable while the delivery of conventional electric power has been disrupted. U.S. Department of Energy September 20, 2012 N/A The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission announced the creation of the agency’s new Office of Energy Infrastructure Security, which will work to reduce threats to the electric grid and other energy facilities. The goal is for the office to help FERC, as well as other agencies and private companies, better identify potential dangers and solutions. Journal of Energy Security August 7, 2012 8 The Energy Infrastructure Attack Database (EIAD) is a noncommercial dataset that structures information on reported (criminal and political) attacks to EI (worldwide) since 1980, by non-state actors. In building this resource, the objective was to develop a product that could be broadly accessible and also connect to existing available resources https://www.sans.org/reading_room/analysts_program/ sans_survey_scada_2013.pdf Follow-up Audit of the Department’s Cyber Security Incident Management Program Date Title Source Pages Notes http://cip.gmu.edu/archive/ CIPHS_TheCIPReport_August2012_SmartGridSecurity.p df#page=2 Center for Infrastructure Protection and Homeland Security, George Mason School of Law August 1, 2012 26 Highlights the significance of and the challenges with securing the smart grid. Cybersecurity: Challenges in Securing the Electricity Grid GAO July 17, 2012 25 In a prior report, GAO has made recommendations related to electricity grid modernization efforts, including developing an approach to monitor compliance with voluntary standards. These recommendations have not yet been implemented. June 28, 2012 17 http://www.us-cert.gov/control_systems/pdf/ICSCERT_Incident_Response_Summary_Report_09_11.pdf U.S. Industrial Control System Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) The number of reported cyberattacks on U.S. critical infrastructure increased sharply—from 9 incidents in 2009 to 198 in 2011; water sector-specific incidents, when added to the incidents that affected several sectors, accounted for more than half of the incidents; in more than half of the most serious cases, implementing best practices such as login limitation or properly configured firewall, would have deterred the attack, reduced the time it would have taken to detect an attack, and minimize its impact. Energy Department Develops Tool with Industry to Help Utilities Strengthen Their Cybersecurity Capabilities U.S. Department of Energy June 28, 2012 N/A The Cybersecurity Self-Evaluation Tool utilizes best practices that were developed for the Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model Initiative, which involved a series of workshops with the private sector to draft a maturity model that can be used throughout the electric sector to better protect the grid. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability May 2012 96 The guideline describes a risk management process that is targeted to the specific needs of electricity sector organizations. The objective of the guideline is to build upon existing guidance and requirements to develop a flexible risk management process tuned to the diverse missions, equipment, and business needs of the electric power industry. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability ongoing N/A The program assists the energy sector asset owners (electric, oil, and gas) by developing cybersecurity solutions for energy delivery systems through integrated planning and a focused research and development effort. CEDS co-funds projects with industry partners to make advances in cybersecurity capabilities for energy delivery systems. Smart-Grid Security Date http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-926T ICS-CERT Incident Response Summary Report http://energy.gov/articles/energy-department-developstool-industry-help-utilities-strengthen-their-cybersecurity Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process http://energy.gov/oe/downloads/cybersecurity-riskmanagement-process-rmp-guideline-final-may-2012 Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program http://energy.gov/oe/technology-development/energydelivery-systems-cybersecurity CRS-56 Title ICT Applications for the Smart Grid: Opportunities and Policy Implications http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/workingpaper/ 5k9h2q8v9bln-en The Department’s Management of the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program http://energy.gov/ig/downloads/departments-managementsmart-grid-investment-grant-program-oas-ra-12-04 Critical Infrastructure Protection: Cybersecurity Guidance Is Available, but More Can Be Done to Promote Its Use Source Date Pages Notes Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) January 10, 2012 44 This report discusses “smart” applications of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for more sustainable energy production, management and consumption. The report outlines policy implications for government ministries dealing with telecommunications regulation, ICT sector and innovation promotion, and consumer and competition issues. Department of Energy (DOE) Inspector General January 1, 2012 21 According to the Inspector General, DOE's rush to award stimulus grants for projects under the next generation of the power grid, known as the Smart grid, resulted in some firms receiving funds without submitting complete plans for how to safeguard the grid from cyber attacks. General Accountability Office (GAO) December 9, 2011 77 Given the plethora of guidance available, individual entities within the sectors may be challenged in identifying the guidance that is most applicable and effective in improving their security posture. Improved knowledge of the available guidance could help both federal and private-sector decision makers better coordinate their efforts to protect critical cyber-reliant assets. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) December 5, 2011 39 Chapter 1 provides an overview of the status of the grid, the challenges and opportunities it will face, and major recommendations. To facilitate selective reading, detailed descriptions of the contents of each section in Chapters 2–9 are provided in each chapter’s introduction, and recommendations are collected and briefly discussed in each chapter's final section. (See: Chapter 9, Data Communications, Cybersecurity, and Information Privacy, pages 208-234). Federal Communications Commission (FCC) June 3, 2011 1 FCC Chairman Genachowski's response to letter from Rep. Anna Eshoo dated November 2, 2010, re: concerns about the implications of foreign-controlled telecommunications infrastructure companies providing equipment to the U.S. market. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-92 The Future of the Electric Grid http://web.mit.edu/mitei/research/studies/the-electric-grid2011.shtml FCC‘s Plan for Ensuring the Security of Telecommunications Networks ftp://ftp.fcc.gov/pub/Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2011/ db0610/DOC-307454A1.txt CRS-57 Title Cyber Infrastructure Protection Source Date Pages Notes U.S. Army War College May 9, 2011 324 Part 1 deals with strategy and policy issues related to cyber security and provides discussions covering the theory of cyberpower, Internet survivability, large scale data breaches, and the role of cyberpower in humanitarian assistance. Part 2 covers social and legal aspects of cyber infrastructure protection and discusses the attack dynamics of political and religiously motivated hackers. Part 3 discusses the technical aspects of cyber infrastructure protection including the resilience of data centers, intrusion detection, and a strong emphasis on Internet protocol (IP) networks. April 21, 2011 28 http://www.mcafee.com/us/resources/reports/rp-criticalinfrastructure-protection.pdf McAfee and Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) The study reveals an increase in cyber attacks on critical infrastructure such as power grids, oil, gas, and water; the study also shows that that many of the world’s critical infrastructures lacked protection of their computer networks, and reveals the cost and impact of cyberattacks Cybersecurity: Continued Attention Needed to Protect Our Nation’s Critical Infrastructure and Federal Information Systems General Accountability Office (GAO) March 16, 2011 16 According to GAO, executive branch agencies have also made progress instituting several government-wide initiatives that are aimed at bolstering aspects of federal cybersecurity, such as reducing the number of federal access points to the Internet, establishing security configurations for desktop computers, and enhancing situational awareness of cyber events. Despite these efforts, the federal government continues to face significant challenges in protecting the nation's cyber-reliant critical infrastructure and federal information systems. North American Electric Reliability Corp. (NERC) January 26, 2011 30 NERC developed Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) cyber security reliability standards which were approved by the FERC in January 2008. Although the Commission had taken steps to ensure CIP cyber security standards were developed and approved, NERC’s testing revealed that such standards did not always include controls commonly recommended for protecting critical information systems. In addition, the CIP standards implementation approach and schedule approved by the Commission were not adequate to ensure that systems-related risks to the nation's power grid were mitigated or addressed in a timely manner. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/ display.cfm?pubid=1067 In the Dark: Crucial Industries Confront Cyberattacks http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-463T Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s Monitoring of Power Grid Cyber Security http://www.wired.com/images_blogs/threatlevel/2011/02/ DoE-IG-Report-on-Grid-Security.pdf CRS-58 Title Electricity Grid Modernization: Progress Being Made on Cybersecurity Guidelines, but Key Challenges Remain to be Addressed Source Date Pages Notes General Accountability Office (GAO) January 12, 2011 50 To reduce the risk that NIST’s smart grid cybersecurity guidelines will not be as effective as intended, the Secretary of Commerce should direct the Director of NIST to finalize the agency's plan for updating and maintaining the cybersecurity guidelines, including ensuring it incorporates (1) missing key elements identified in this report, and (2) specific milestones for when efforts are to be completed. Also, as a part of finalizing the plan, the Secretary of Commerce should direct the Director of NIST should assess whether any cybersecurity challenges identified in this report should be addressed in the guidelines. White House (Office of Science & Technology Policy) December 6, 2010 4 The Obama Administration released a Memorandum of Understanding signed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the Department of Commerce, the Science and Technology Directorate of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS/S&T), and the Financial Services Sector Coordinating Council (FSSCC). The goal of the agreement is to speed the commercialization of cybersecurity research innovations that support the nation’s critical infrastructures. International Instrument Users Association (WIB) November 10, 2010 Microsoft November 2010 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) September 2, 2010 http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-117 Partnership for Cybersecurity Innovation http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2010/12/06/partnershipcybersecurity-innovation WIB Security Standard Released http://www.isssource.com/wib/ Information Security Management System for Microsoft Cloud Infrastructure The Netherlands-based International Instrument Users Association (WIB), an international organization that represents global manufacturers in the industrial automation industry, announced the second version of the Process Control Domain Security Requirements For Vendors document—the first international standard that outlines a set of specific requirements focusing on cyber security best practices for suppliers of industrial automation and control systems. 15 This study describes the standards Microsoft follows to address current and evolving cloud security threats. It also depicts the internal structures within Microsoft that handle cloud security and risk management issues. N/A NIST released a 3-volume set of recommendations on all things relevant to securing the Smart Grid. The guidelines address a variety of topics, including high-level security requirements, a risk assessment framework, an evaluation of privacy issues in residences and recommendations for protecting the evolving grid from attacks, malicious code, cascading errors, and other threats. http://cdn.globalfoundationservices.com/documents/ InformationSecurityMangSysforMSCloudInfrastructure.pdf NIST Finalizes Initial Set of Smart Grid Cyber Security Guidelines http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/releases/nist-finalizesinitial-set-of-smart-grid-cyber-security-guidelines.cfm CRS-59 Title Critical Infrastructure Protection: Key Private and Public Cyber Expectations Need to Be Consistently Addressed Source Date Pages Notes General Accountability Office (GAO) July 15, 2010 38 Private-sector stakeholders reported that they expect their federal partners to provide usable, timely, and actionable cyber threat information and alerts; access to sensitive or classified information; a secure mechanism for sharing information; security clearances; and a single centralized government cybersecurity organization to coordinate government efforts. However, according to private sector stakeholders, federal partners are not consistently meeting these expectations. June 11, 2010 26 http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/The-future-of-cloudcomputing.aspx Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project Technology experts and stakeholders say they expect they will “live mostly in the cloud” in 2020 and not on the desktop, working mostly through cyberspace-based applications accessed through networked devices. The Reliability of Global Undersea Communications Cable Infrastructure (The ROGUCCI Report) IEEE/EastWest Institute May 26, 2010 186 This study submits 12 major recommendations to the private sector, governments and other stakeholders—especially the financial sector—for the purpose of improving the reliability, robustness, resilience, and security of the world’s undersea communications cable infrastructure. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory May 1, 2010 123 Computer networks controlling the electric grid are plagued with security holes that could allow intruders to redirect power delivery and steal data. Many of the security vulnerabilities are strikingly basic and fixable problems. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) April 21, 2010 N/A The Federal Communications Commission launched an inquiry on the ability of existing broadband networks to withstand significant damage or severe overloads as a result of natural disasters, terrorist attacks, pandemics or other major public emergencies, as recommended in the National Broadband Plan. Cloud Security Alliance December 2009 76 “Through our focus on the central issues of cloud computing security, we have attempted to bring greater clarity to an otherwise complicated landscape, which is often filled with incomplete and oversimplified information. Our focus ... serves to bring context and specificity to the cloud computing security discussion: enabling us to go beyond gross generalizations to deliver more insightful and targeted recommendations.” http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-628 The future of cloud computing http://www.ieee-rogucci.org/files/ The%20ROGUCCI%20Report.pdf NSTB Assessments Summary Report: Common Industrial Control System Cyber Security Weaknesses http://www.fas.org/sgp/eprint/nstb.pdf Explore the reliability and resiliency of commercial broadband communications networks http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC305618A1.doc Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Focus in Cloud Computing V2.1 http://www.cloudsecurityalliance.org/csaguide.pdf CRS-60 Title Source Date Pages Notes 21 Steps to Improve Cyber Security of SCADA Networks U.S. Department of Energy, Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration January 1, 2007 10 The President’s Critical Infrastructure Protection Board and the Department of Energy have developed steps to help any organization improve the security of its SCADA networks. The steps are divided into two categories: specific actions to improve implementation, and actions to establish essential underlying management processes and policies. http://www.oe.netl.doe.gov/docs/prepare/ 21stepsbooklet.pdf Note: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS-61 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources CRS Reports: Cybercrime and National Security • CRS Report 97-1025, Cybercrime: An Overview of the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and Related Federal Criminal Laws, by Charles Doyle • CRS Report 94-166, Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law, by Charles Doyle • CRS Report R42403, Cybersecurity: Cyber Crime Protection Security Act (S. 2111, 112th Congress)—A Legal Analysis, by Charles Doyle • CRS Report 98-326, Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping, by Gina Stevens and Charles Doyle • CRS Report RL32706, Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress, by Patricia Moloney Figliola • CRS Report CRS Report R41975, Illegal Internet Streaming of Copyrighted Content: Legislation in the 112th Congress, by Brian T. Yeh • CRS Report R42112, Online Copyright Infringement and Counterfeiting: Legislation in the 112th Congress, by Brian T. Yeh • CRS Report R40599, Identity Theft: Trends and Issues, by Kristin M. Finklea • CRS Report R41927, The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement, by Kristin M. Finklea • CRS Report RL34651, Protection of Children Online: Federal and State Laws Addressing Cyberstalking, Cyberharassment, and Cyberbullying, by Alison M. Smith • CRS Report R42547, Cybercrime: Conceptual Issues for Congress and U.S. Law Enforcement, by Kristin M. Finklea and Catherine A. Theohary Congressional Research Service 62 Table 26. Selected Reports: Cybercrime/Cyberwar Title Source The Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare http://ccdcoe.org/249.html Cambridge University Press/ NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Center of Excellence APT1: Exposing One of China’s Cyber Espionage Units Pages Notes March 5, 2013 282 The Tallinn Manual identifies the international law applicable to cyber warfare and sets out 95 “black-letter rules” governing such conflicts. An extensive commentary accompanies each rule, which sets forth each rules’ basis in treaty and customary law, explains how the group of experts interpreted applicable norms in the cyber context, and outlines any disagreements within the group as to each rules’ application. (Note: The manual is not an official NATO publication, but an expression of opinions of a group of independent experts acting solely in their personal capacity.) Mandiant February 19, 2013 76 The details analyzed during hundreds of investigations signal that the groups conducting these activities (computer security breaches around the world) are based primarily in China and that the Chinese government is aware of them. Mandiant February 19, 2013 N/A Video of APT1 attacker sessions and intrusion activities (5-minute video). Foreign Affairs November 21, 2012 N/A A chart showing cyberattacks by initiator and victim, 2001-2011. Georgia Institute of Technology November 14, 2012 9 The year ahead will feature new and increasingly sophisticated means to capture and exploit user data, escalating battles over the control of online information and continuous threats to the U.S. supply chain from global sources. (From the annual Georgia Tech Cyber Security Summit 2012). Sandia National Labs November 1, 2012 98 The project applied rigorous predictability-based analytics to two central and complementary aspects of the network defense problem—attack strategies of the adversaries and vulnerabilities of the defenders’ systems—and used the results to develop a scientifically-grounded, practically-implementable methodology for designing proactive cyber defense systems. http://intelreport.mandiant.com/ Mandiant_APT1_Report.pdf Video demo of Chinese hacker activity http://intelreport.mandiant.com/ Cyberattacks Among Rivals: 2001-2011 (from the article, “The Fog of Cyberwar” by Brandon Variano and Ryan Maness (subscription required) Date http://www.foreignaffairs.com/cyberattacks-by-initiatorand-victim Emerging Cyber Threats Report 2013 http://www.gtsecuritysummit.com/pdf/ 2013ThreatsReport.pdf Proactive Defense for Evolving Cyber Threats http://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-control.cgi/2012/ 1210177.pdf CRS-63 Title Date Pages Notes October 22, 2012 N/A http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Editorial-Plan/Dossiers/Detail/? lng=en&id=154059&contextid782=154059 International Relations and Security Network (ISN) Looks at the Militarisation of Cyber Security as a Source of Global Tension, and makes the case that cyber-warfare is already an essential feature of many leading states’ strategic calculations, followed by its opposite—i.e., one that believes the threat posed by cyber-warfare capabilities is woefully overstated. Before We Knew It: An Empirical Study of Zero-Day Attacks In The Real World Symantec Research Labs October 16, 2012 12 The paper describes a method for automatically identifying zeroday attacks from field-gathered data that records when benign and malicious binaries are downloaded on 11 million real hosts around the world. Searching this data set for malicious files that exploit known vulnerabilities indicates which files appeared on the Internet before the corresponding vulnerabilities were disclosed. F-Secure and Google Maps October 15, 2012 N/A The idea of a network of malware-infected zombie computers rigged to do the bidding of criminals conjures up a frightening image on its own. A new visualization of the so-called ZeroAcess botnet shows how widespread such schemes can become. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence October 8, 2012 60 The committee initiated this investigation in November 2011 to inquire into the counterintelligence and security threat posed by Chinese telecommunications companies doing business in the United States. U. S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations October 3, 2012 141 A two-year bipartisan investigation found that U.S. Department of Homeland Security efforts to engage state and local intelligence “fusion centers” has not yielded significant useful information to support federal counterterrorism intelligence efforts. In Section VI, “Fusion Centers Have Been Unable to Meaningfully Contribute to Federal Counterterrorism Efforts,” Part G, “Fusion Centers May Have Hindered, Not Aided, Federal Counterterrorism Efforts,” the report discusses the Russian “Cyberattack” in Illinois. The Honeynet Project October 1, 2012 N/A The HoneyMap shows a real-time visualization of attacks against the Honeynet Project’s sensors deployed around the world. NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, Tallinn, Estonia August 2012 N/A The Tallinn Manual is a nonbinding yet authoritative restatement of the law of armed conflict as it relates to cyberwar. It offers guidance to attackers, defenders, and legal experts on how cyberattacks can be classified as actions covered under the law, such as armed attacks. Safeguarding Cyber-Security, Fighting in Cyberspace Source http://users.ece.cmu.edu/~tdumitra/public_documents/ bilge12_zero_day.pdf ZeroAccess: We’re Gonna Need a Bigger Planet http://www.f-secure.com/weblog/archives/00002428.html Investigative Report on the U.S. National Security Issues Posed by Chinese Telecommunications Companies Huawei and ZTE http://intelligence.house.gov/press-release/investigativereport-us-national-security-issues-posed-chinesetelecommunications Federal Support for and Involvement in State and Local Fusion Centers http://www.hsgac.senate.gov/download/?id=49139e811dd7-4788-a3bb-d6e7d97dde04 HoneyMap - Visualizing Worldwide Attacks in Real-Time http://www.honeynet.org/node/960 Manual on International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare (“The Tallinn Manual”) http://www.ccdcoe.org/249.html CRS-64 Title Does Cybercrime Really Cost $1 Trillion? Source Pages Notes ProPublica August 1, 2012 N/A In a news release from computer security firm McAfee to announce its 2009 report, “Unsecured Economies: Protecting Vital Information,” the company estimated a trillion dollar global cost for cybercrime. The number does not appear in the report itself. McAfee’s trillion-dollar estimate is questioned even by the three independent researchers from Purdue University whom McAfee credits with analyzing the raw data from which the estimate was derived. An examination of their origins by ProPublica has found new grounds to question the data and methods used to generate these numbers, which McAfee and Symantec say they stand behind. First Monday July 2, 2012 N/A This essay argues that current contradictory tendencies are unproductive and even potentially dangerous. It argues that the war metaphor and nuclear deterrence analogy are neither natural nor inevitable and that abandoning them would open up new possibilities for thinking more productively about the full spectrum of cyber security challenges, including the as-yet unrealized possibility of cyber war. GAO June 28, 2012 11th Annual Workshop on the Economics of Information Security June 25, 2012 US Army School of Advanced Military Studies, Command and General Staff Ponemon Institute http://www.propublica.org/article/does-cybercrime-reallycost-1-trillion Putting the “war” in cyberwar: Metaphor, analogy, and cybersecurity discourse in the United States Date http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/ article/view/3848/3270 Information Security: Cyber Threats Facilitate Ability to Commit Economic Espionage 20 This statement discusses (1) cyber threats facing the nation’s systems, (2) reported cyber incidents and their impacts, (3) security controls and other techniques available for reducing risk, and (4) the responsibilities of key federal entities in support of protecting IP. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-876T Measuring the Cost of Cybercrime http://weis2012.econinfosec.org/papers/ Anderson_WEIS2012.pdf Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA567190& Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf The Impact of Cybercrime on Businesses http://www.checkpoint.com/products/downloads/ whitepapers/ponemon-cybercrime-2012.pdf CRS-65 N/A “For each of the main categories of cybercrime we set out what is and is not known of the direct costs, indirect costs and defence costs - both to the UK and to the world as a whole.” May 17, 2012 62 Explores the reality of cyber warfare through the story of Stuxnet. Three case studies evaluate cyber policy, discourse, and procurement in the United States, Russia, and China before and after Stuxnet to illustrate their similar, yet unique, realities of cyber warfare. May 2012 21 The study found that targeted attacks on businesses cost enterprises an average of $214,000. The expenses are associated with forensic investigations, investments in technology, and brand recovery costs. Title Proactive Policy Measures by Internet Service Providers against Botnets http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/ proactive-policy-measures-by-internet-service-providersagainst-botnets_5k98tq42t18w-en Developing State Solutions to Business Identity Theft: Assistance, Prevention and Detection Efforts by Secretary of State Offices http://www.nass.org/index.php?option=com_docman& task=doc_download&gid=1257 A Cyberworm that Knows No Boundaries Source Date Pages Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development May 7, 2012 25 This report analyzes initiatives in a number of countries through which end-users are notified by ISPs when their computer is identified as being compromised by malicious software and encouraged to take action to mitigate the problem. National Association of Secretaries of State January 2012 23 This white paper is the result of efforts by the 19-member NASS Business Identity Theft Task Force to develop policy guidelines and recommendations for state leaders dealing with identity fraud cases involving public business records. RAND December 21, 2011 55 Stuxnet-like worms pose a serious threat even to infrastructure and computer systems that are not connected to the Internet. However, defending against such attacks is an increasingly complex prospect. DOD November 15, 2011 14 From the report: “When warranted, we will respond to hostile attacks in cyberspace as we would to any other threat to our country. We reserve the right to use all necessary means diplomatic, informational, military and economic - to defend our nation, our allies, our partners and our interests.” Symantec October 24, 2011 N/A On October 14, 2011, a research lab with strong international connections alerted Symantec to a sample that appeared to be very similar to Stuxnet, the malware which wreaked havoc in Iran’s nuclear centrifuge farms last summer. The lab named the threat “Duqu” because it creates files with the file name prefix “~DQ”. The research lab provided Symantec with samples recovered from computer systems located in Europe, as well as a detailed report with their initial findings, including analysis comparing the threat to Stuxnet. Journal of Strategic Studies October 5, 2011 29 The paper argues that cyber warfare has never taken place, is not currently taking place, and is unlikely to take place in the future. SANS October 3, 2011 77 The 20 measures are intended to focus agencies’ limited resources on plugging the most common attack vectors. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/ occasional_papers/2011/RAND_OP342.pdf Department of Defense Cyberspace Policy Report : A Report to Congress Pursuant to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011, Section 934 http://www.defense.gov/home/features/2011/ 0411_cyberstrategy/docs/ NDAA%20Section%20934%20Report_For%20webpage.pdf W32.Duqu: The Precursor to the Next Stuxnet http://www.symantec.com/connect/ w32_duqu_precursor_next_stuxnet Cyber War Will Not Take Place http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/ 01402390.2011.608939 Twenty Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defense: Consensus Audit Guidelines (CAG) http://www.sans.org/critical-security-controls/ CRS-66 Notes Title Revealed: Operation Shady RAT: an Investigation Of Targeted Intrusions Into 70+ Global Companies, Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations During the Last 5 Years Source Date Pages Notes McAfee August 2, 2011 14 A cyber-espionage operation lasting many years penetrated 72 government and other organizations, most of them in the United States, and has copied everything from military secrets to industrial designs, according to technology security company McAfee. See page 4 for the types of compromised parties), page 5 for the geographic distribution of victim’s country of origin, pages 7-9 for the types of victims, and pages 10-13 for the number of intrusions for 2007-2010. USCYBERCOM and Cyber Security: Is a Comprehensive Strategy Possible? Army War College May 12, 20122 32 Examine five aspects of USCYBERCOM: organization, command and control, computer network operations (CNO), synchronization, and resourcing. Identify areas that currently present significant risk to USCYBERCOM’s ability to create a strategy that can achieve success in its cyberspace operations. Recommend potential solutions that can increase the effectiveness of the USCYBERCOM strategy. A Four-Day Dive Into Stuxnet’s Heart Threat Level Blog (Wired) December 27, 2010 N/A Institute for Science and International Security December 22, 2010 10 This report indicates that commands in the Stuxnet code intended to increase the frequency of devices targeted by the malware exactly match several frequencies at which rotors in centrifuges at Iran’s Natanz enrichment plant are designed to operate optimally or are at risk of breaking down and flying apart. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) November 12, 2010 68 This working paper considers whether ISPs can be critical control points for botnet mitigation, how the number of infected machines varies across ISPs, and why. European Network and Information Security Agency October 7, 2010 N/A EU cybersecurity agency warns that the Stuxnet malware is a game changer for critical information infrastructure protection; PLC controllers of SCADA systems infected with the worm might be programmed to establish destructive over/under pressure conditions by running pumps at different frequencies. http://www.mcafee.com/us/resources/white-papers/wpoperation-shady-rat.pdf http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/12/a-four-daydive-into-stuxnets-heart/ Did Stuxnet Take Out 1,000 Centrifuges at the Natanz Enrichment Plant? Preliminary Assessment http://isis-online.org/isis-reports/detail/did-stuxnet-takeout-1000-centrifuges-at-the-natanz-enrichment-plant/ The Role of Internet Service Providers in Botnet Mitigation: an Empirical Analysis Bases on Spam Data http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= 10.1.1.165.2211&rep=rep1&type=pdf Stuxnet Analysis http://www.enisa.europa.eu/media/press-releases/stuxnetanalysis CRS-67 From the article, “It is a mark of the extreme oddity of the Stuxnet computer worm that Microsoft’s Windows vulnerability team learned of it first from an obscure Belarusian security company that even they had never heard of.” Title Source Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy Date Pages Notes National Research Council October 5, 2010 400 At the request of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the National Research Council undertook a twophase project aimed to foster a broad, multidisciplinary examination of strategies for deterring cyberattacks on the United States and of the possible utility of these strategies for the U.S. government. Council on Foreign Relations July 15, 2010 14 Robert K. Knake’s testimony before the House Committee on Science and Technology on the role of attack attribution in preventing cyber attacks and how attribution technologies can affect the anonymity and the privacy of Internet users. National Research Council January 1, 2009 368 This report explores important characteristics of cyberattack. It describes the current international and domestic legal structure as it might apply to cyberattack, and considers analogies to other domains of conflict to develop relevant insights. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id= 12997#description Untangling Attribution: Moving to Accountability in Cyberspace [Testimony] http://i.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/ Knake%20-Testimony%20071510.pdf Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12651& utm_medium=etmail&utm_source= National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign= NAP+mail+eblast+10.27.09++Cyberattack+Preorder+sp&utm_content=Downloader& utm_term=#description Note: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. Table 27. Selected Reports: International Efforts Title The Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare http://ccdcoe.org/249.html CRS-68 Source Cambridge University Press/ NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Center of Excellence Date March 5, 2013 Pages Notes 282 The Tallinn Manual identifies the international law applicable to cyber warfare and sets out ninety-five “black-letter rules” governing such conflicts. An extensive commentary accompanies each rule, which sets forth each rules’ basis in treaty and customary law, explains how the group of experts interpreted applicable norms in the cyber context, and outlines any disagreements within the group as to each rules’ application. (Note: The manual is not an official NATO publication, but an expression of opinions of a group of independent experts acting solely in their personal capacity.) Title Administration Strategy for Mitigating the Theft of U.S. Trade Secrets Source Date Pages Notes White House February 20, 2013 141 “First, we will increase our diplomatic engagement.... Second, we will support industry-led efforts to develop best practices to protect trade secrets and encourage companies to share with each other best practices that can mitigate the risk of trade secret theft.... Third, DOJ will continue to make the investigation and prosecution of trade secret theft by foreign competitors and foreign governments a top priority.... Fourth, President Obama recently signed two pieces of legislation that will improve enforcement against trade secret theft.... Lastly, we will increase public awareness of the threats and risks to the U.S. economy posed by trade secret theft.” Mandiant February 19, 2013 76 The details analyzed during hundreds of investigations signal that the groups conducting these activities (computer security breaches around the world) are based primarily in China and that the Chinese government is aware of them. Mandiant February 19, 2013 N/A Video of APT1 attacker sessions and intrusion activities (5-minute video). European Union February 7, 2013 20 The strategy articulates the EU’s vision of cyber-security in terms of five priorities: achieving cyber resilience; drastically reducing cybercrime; developing cyber defence policy and capabilities related to the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP); developing the industrial and technological resources for cyber-security; establishing a coherent international cyberspace policy for the European Union and promoting core EU values. http://www.whitehouse.gov//sites/default/files/omb/IPEC/ admin_strategy_on_mitigating_the_theft_of_u.s._trade_secrets.p df APT1: Exposing One of China’s Cyber Espionage Units http://intelreport.mandiant.com/Mandiant_APT1_Report.pdf Video demo of Chinese hacker activity http://intelreport.mandiant.com/ An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/news/eu-cybersecurity-planprotect-open-internet-and-online-freedom-and-opportunitycyber-security CRS-69 Title Linking Cybersecurity Policy and Performance http://blogs.technet.com/b/trustworthycomputing/archive/2013/02/ 06/linking-cybersecurity-policy-and-performance-microsoftreleases-special-edition-security-intelligence-report.aspx The Chinese Defense Economy Takes Off: Sector-by-Sector Assessments and the Role of Military End-Users Source Date Pages Notes Microsoft Trustworthy Computing February 6, 2013 27 Introduces a new methodology for examining how socio-economic factors in a country or region impact cybersecurity performance. Examine measures such as use of modern technology, mature processes, user education, law enforcement and public policies related to cyberspace. This methodology can build a model that will help predict the expected cybersecurity performance of a given country or region. UC Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation January 25, 2013 87 This collection of 15 policy briefs explores how China has made such impressive military technological progress over the past few years, what is in store, and what are the international security implications. The briefs are summaries of a series of longer research papers presented at the third annual Chinese defense economy conference held by the Study of Innovation and Technology in China in July 2012. House of Commons Defence Committee (UK) December 18, 2012 51 (vol. 1) Given the inevitable inadequacy of the measures available to protect against a constantly changing and evolving threat, and given the Minister for the Cabinet Office’s comment, it is not enough for the Armed Forces to do their best to prevent an effective attack. In its response to this report the Government should set out details of the contingency plans it has in place should such an attack occur. If it has none, it should say so—and urgently create some. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development November 29, 2012 http://igcc.ucsd.edu/assets/001/504355.pdf Defence and Cyber-Security, vol. 1 - Report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201213/cmselect/ cmdfence/106/106.pdf 37 (vol. 2) Defence and Cyber-Security, vol. 2 - Additional Written Evidence http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201213/cmselect/ cmdfence/106/106vw.pdf Cybersecurity: Managing risks for greater opportunities http://oecdinsights.org/2012/11/29/cybersecurity-managing-risksfor-greater-opportunities/ CRS-70 N/A The OECD launched a broad consultation of all stakeholders from member and nonmember countries to review its Security Guidelines. The review will take into account newly emerging risks, technologies and policy trends around such areas as cloud computing, digital mobility, the Internet of things, social networking, etc. Title Cybersecurity Policy Making at a Turning Point: Analysing a New Generation of National Cybersecurity Strategies for the Internet Economy Source Date Pages Notes Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development November 16, 2012 57 This report analyses the latest generation of national cybersecurity strategies in ten OECD countries and identifies commonalities and differences. U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission November 2012 509 This report responds to the mandate for the Commission ‘to monitor, investigate, and report to Congress on the national security implications of the bilateral trade and economic relationship between the United States and the People’s Republic of China. See “China's Cyber Activities," Chapter 2, section 2, pp 147-169. Parliamentary Library of Australia October 24, 2012 http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/cybersecurity-policy-making-at-aturning-point_5k8zq92vdgtl.pdf?contentType=/ns/WorkingPaper& itemId=/content/workingpaper/5k8zq92vdgtl-en&containerItemId= /content/workingpaperseries/20716826&accessItemIds=& mimeType=application/pdfhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/ cybersecurity-policy-making-at-a-turning-point_5k8zq92vdgtl.pdf? contentType=/ns/WorkingPaper&itemId=/content/workingpaper/ 5k8zq92vdgtl-en&containerItemId=/content/workingpaperseries/ 20716826&accessItemIds=&mimeType=application/pdf 2012 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, Second Session, November 2012 https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=725530 Australia: Telecommunications data retention—an overview http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/library/prspub/ 1998792/upload_binary/1998792.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf CRS-71 32 In July 2012, the Commonwealth AttorneyGeneral’s Department released a Discussion Paper, Equipping Australia against emerging and evolving threats, on the proposed national security reforms.... Of the 18 primary proposals and the 41 individual reforms that they comprise, the suggestion that carriage service providers (CSPs) be required to routinely retain certain information associated with every Australian’s use of the Internet and phone services for a period of up to two years (‘data retention’) is the issue that seems to have attracted the most attention. Title More Than Meets the Eye: Clandestine Funding, Cutting-Edge Technology and China’s Cyber Research & Development Program Source Date Pages Notes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory October 23, 2012 17 Analyzes how the Chinese leadership views information technology research and development (R&D), as well as the role cyber R&D plays in China’s various strategic development plans. Explores the organizational structure of China’s cyber R&D base. Concludes with a projection of how China might field new cyber capabilities for intelligence platforms, advanced weapons systems, and systems designed to support asymmetric warfare operations. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence October 8, 2012 60 The committee initiated this investigation in November 2011 to inquire into the counterintelligence and security threat posed by Chinese telecommunications companies doing business in the United States. NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, Tallinn, Estonia August 2012 N/A The Tallinn Manual is a nonbinding yet authoritative restatement of the law of armed conflict as it relates to cyberwar. It offers attackers, defenders, and legal experts guidance on how cyberattacks can be classified as actions covered under the law, such as armed attacks. China Institute of Contemporary International Relations and the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) June 2012 N/A (Scroll down for English). Since 2009, CSIS and CICIR have held six formal meetings on cybersecurity (accompanied by several informal discussions), called “Sino-U.S. Cybersecurity Dialogue.” The meetings have been attended by a broad range of U.S. and Chinese officials and scholars responsible for cybersecurity issues. The goals of the discussions have been to reduce misperceptions and to increase transparency of both countries’ authorities and understanding on how each country approaches cybersecurity, and to identify areas of potential cooperation. http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/1055833/ Investigative Report on the U.S. National Security Issues Posed by Chinese Telecommunications Companies Huawei and ZTE http://intelligence.house.gov/press-release/investigative-report-usnational-security-issues-posed-chinese-telecommunications Manual on International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare (“The Tallinn Manual”) http://www.ccdcoe.org/249.html Bilateral Discussions on Cooperation in Cybersecurity http://www.cicir.ac.cn/chinese/newsView.aspx?nid=3878 CRS-72 Title Five Years after Estonia’s Cyber Attacks: Lessons Learned for NATO? Source Date Pages Notes 8 In April 2007 a series of cyber attacks targeted Estonian information systems and telecommunication networks. Lasting 22 days, the attacks were directed at a range of servers (web, email, DNS) and routers. The 2007 attacks did not damage much of the Estonian information technology infrastructure. However, the attacks were a true wake-up call for NATO, offering a practical demonstration that cyber attacks could now cripple an entire nation dependent on IT networks. NATO May 2012 McAfee February 1, 2012 108 Forty-five percent of legislators and cybersecurity experts representing 27 countries think cybersecurity is just as important as border security. The authors surveyed 80 professionals from business, academia and government to gauge worldwide opinions of cybersecurity. Booz Allen Hamilton and the Economist Intelligence Unit January 15, 2012 N/A The index of developing countries’ ability to withstand cyber attacks and build strong digital economies, rates the countries on their legal and regulatory frameworks; economic and social issues; technology infrastructure; and industry. The index puts the United States in the No. 2 spot, and the UK in No. 1. Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive November 3, 2011 31 According to the report, espionage and theft through cyberspace are growing threats to the United States’ security and economic prosperity, and the world’s most persistent perpetrators happen to also be U.S. allies. http://www.ndc.nato.int/download/downloads.php?icode=334 Cyber-security: The Vexed Question of Global Rules: An Independent Report on Cyber-Preparedness Around the World http://www.mcafee.com/us/resources/reports/rp-sda-cybersecurity.pdf?cid=WBB048 Cyber Power Index http://www.cyberhub.com/CyberPowerIndex Foreign Spies Stealing US Economic Secrets in Cyberspace http://www.ncix.gov/publications/reports/fecie_all/ Foreign_Economic_Collection_2011.pdf CRS-73 Title The UK Cyber Security Strategy: Protecting and promoting the UK in a digital world Source Date Pages Notes Cabinet Office (United Kingdom) November 2011 43 Chapter 1 describes the background to the growth of the networked world and the immense social and economic benefits it is unlocking. Chapter 2 describes these threats. The impacts are already being felt and will grow as our reliance on cyberspace grows. Chapter 3 sets out where we want to end up—with the government’s vision for UK cyber security in 2015. Cyber Security Forum Initiative May 9, 2011 70 Project Cyber Dawn: Libya uses open source material to provide an in-depth view of Libyan cyberwarfare capabilities and defenses. U.S. Army War College, Strategy Research Project March 24, 2011 86 This report examines the growth of Chinese cyber power; their known and demonstrated capabilities for offensive, defensive and exploitive computer network operations; China‘s national security objectives; and the possible application of Chinese cyber power in support of those objectives. James Clapper, Director of National Intelligence February 10, 2011 34 Provides an assessment of global threats: convergence, malware, the “Chinese" connection, foreign military capabilities in cyberspace, counterfeit computer hardware and intellectual property theft, and identity theft/finding vulnerable government operatives. EastWest Institute February 3, 2011 60 [The authors] led the cyber and traditional security experts through a point-by-point analysis of the Geneva and Hague Conventions. Ultimately, the group made five immediate recommendations for Russian and U.S.-led joint assessments, each exploring how to apply a key convention principle to cyberspace. http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/sites/default/files/resources/ukcyber-security-strategy-final.pdf Cyber Dawn: Libya http://www.unveillance.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/ Project_Cyber_Dawn_Public.pdf China’s Cyber Power and America’s National Security http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a552990.pdf Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community (Testimony) http://www.dni.gov/testimonies/20110210_testimony_clapper.pdf Working Towards Rules for Governing Cyber Conflict: Rendering the Geneva and Hague Conventions in Cyberspace http://vialardi.org/nastrazzuro/pdf/US-Russia.pdf CRS-74 Title The Reliability of Global Undersea Communications Cable Infrastructure (The Rogucci Report) Source Date IEEE/EastWest Institute May 26, 2010 International Telecommunications Union February 2010 Pages 186 http://www.ieee-rogucci.org/files/ The%20ROGUCCI%20Report.pdf ITU Toolkit for Cybercrime Legislation http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/cyb/cybersecurity/docs/itu-toolkitcybercrime-legislation.pdf Note: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS-75 N/A Notes This study submits 12 major recommendations to the private sector, governments and other stakeholders— especially the financial sector—for the purpose of improving the reliability, robustness, resilience, and security of the world’s undersea communications cable infrastructure. This document aims to provide countries with sample legislative language and reference material that can assist in the establishment of harmonized cybercrime laws and procedural rules. Table 28. Selected Reports: Education/Training/Workforce Title National Initiative for Cybersecurity Careers and Studies (NICCS) Source Date Pages U.S. Department of Homeland Security February 21, 2013 N/A NICCS is an online resource for cybersecurity career, education, and training information. It is a partnership between DHS, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the Department of Defense, the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Personnel Management. Partnership between the state of Michigan, Merit Network, federal and local governments, colleges and universities, and the private sector November 12, 2012 N/A Enables individuals and organizations to develop detection and reaction skills through simulations and exercises. U.S. Department of Homeland Security October 1, 2012 41 DHS’s Task Force on CyberSkills proposes far-reaching improvements to enable DHS to recruit and retain the cybersecurity talent it needs. Institute for Homeland Security Solutions October 2012 89 The Cyber Test Bed project was a case study analysis of how a set of interventions, including threat analysis, best practices sharing, and executive and staff training events, over the course of one year, would impact a group of nine small and mid-size businesses in North Carolina. Pre- and post-Test Bed interviews were conducted with company officials to establish a baseline and evaluate the impact of the Test Bed experience. After the Cyber Test Bed experience, decision makers at these companies indicated an increase in their perceptions of the risk of cyber attacks and an increase in their knowledge of possible solution. http://niccs.us-cert.gov/ Michigan Cyber Range http://www.merit.edu/cyberrange/ CyberSkills Task Force Report https://www.hsdl.org/hslog/?q=node/7934 Cyber Security Test Bed: Summary and Evaluation Results http://sites.duke.edu/ihss/files/2011/12/Cyber-SecurityTest-Bed_Final-Report_Rowe.pdf CRS-76 Notes Title Information Assurance Scholarship Program Source Date Pages U.S Navy August 28, 2012 N/A The Information Assurance Scholarship Program is designed to increase the number of qualified personnel entering the information assurance and information technology fields within the department, Defense officials said last week. The scholarships also are an attempt to effectively retain military and civilian cybersecurity and IT personnel. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory August 1, 2012 178 This report outlines the work done to develop a smart grid cybersecurity certification. The primary purpose is to develop a measurement model that may be used to guide curriculum, assessments, and other development of technical and operational smart grid cybersecurity knowledge, skills, and abilities. National Security Agency (NSA) May 29, 2012 N/A The NSA has launched National Centers of Academic Excellence (CAE) in Cyber Operations Program; the program is intended to be a deeply technical, interdisciplinary, higher education program grounded in the computer science (CS), computer engineering (CE), or electrical engineering (EE) disciplines, with extensive opportunities for hands-on applications via labs and exercises. General Accountability Office (GAO) November 29, 2011 http://www.doncio.navy.mil/ContentView.aspx?id=535 Smart Grid Cybersecurity: Job Performance Model Report http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/ technical_reports/PNNL-21639.pdf National Centers of Academic Excellence (CAE) in Cyber Operations Program http://www.nsa.gov/academia/nat_cae_cyber_ops/ index.shtml Cybersecurity Human Capital: Initiatives Need Better Planning and Coordination http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-8 CRS-77 Notes 86 To ensure that government-wide cybersecurity workforce initiatives are better coordinated and planned, and to better assist federal agencies in defining roles, responsibilities, skills, and competencies for their workforce, the Secretary of Commerce, Director of the Office of Management and Budget, Director of the Office of Personnel Management, and Secretary of Homeland Security should collaborate through the NICE initiative to develop and finalize detailed plans allowing agency accountability, measurement of progress, and determination of resources to accomplish agreed-upon activities. Title NICE Cybersecurity Workforce Framework http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm? pub_id=909505 2011 State of Cyberethics, Cybersafety and Cybersecurity Curriculum in the U.S. Survey http://www.staysafeonline.org/sites/default/files/ resource_documents/2011%20National%20K12%20Study%20Final_0.pdf Cyber Operations Personnel Report (DOD) http://www.nsci-va.org/CyberReferenceLib/2011-04Cyber%20Ops%20Personnel.pdf Source Date Pages Notes National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) November 21, 2011 35 The adoption of cloud computing into the federal government and its implementation depend upon a variety of technical and non-technical factors. A fundamental reference point, based on the NIST definition of cloud computing, is needed to describe an overall framework that can be used government-wide. This document presents the NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture (RA) and Taxonomy (Tax) that will accurately communicate the components and offerings of cloud computing. National Cyber Security Alliance and Microsoft May 13, 2011 16 This year’s survey further explores the perceptions and practices of U.S. teachers, school administrators and technology coordinators in regards to cyberethics, cybersafety, and cybersecurity education. This year's survey finds that young people still are not receiving adequate training and that teachers are ill-prepared to teach the subjects due, in large part, to lack of professional development. Department of Defense April 2011 84 This report is focused on FY09 Department of Defense Cyber Operations personnel, with duties and responsibilities as defined in Section 934 of the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). Appendix A—Cyber Operations-related Military Occupations Appendix B—Commercial Certifications Supporting the DoD Information Assurance Workforce Improvement Program Appendix C—Military Services Training and Development Appendix D—Geographic Location of National Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance CRS-78 Title Source Design of the DETER Security Testbed http://www.isi.edu/deter/news/news.php?story=20 The Power of People: Building an Integrated National Security Professional System for the 21st Century http://www.pnsr.org/data/images/ pnsr_the_power_of_people_report.pdf Date Pages Notes University of Southern California (USC) Information Sciences Institute, University of California Berkeley (UCB), McAfee Research January 13, 2011 N/A The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) will invest $16 million over the next five years to expand a cybersecurity testbed at the University of Southern California (USC). The Deterlab testbed provides an isolated 400-node mini-Internet, in which researchers can investigate malware and other security threats without danger of infecting the real Internet. It also supports classroom exercises in computer security for nearly 400 students at 10 universities and colleges. Project on National Security Reform (PNSR) November 2010 326 This study was conducted in fulfillment of Section 1054 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which required the commissioning of a study by “an appropriate independent, nonprofit organization, of a system for career development and management of interagency national security professionals.” Note: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. Table 29. Selected Reports: Research & Development (R&D) Title The International Cyber-Security Ecosystem (video lecture) http://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/45450 CRS-79 Source Anthony M. Rutkowski, Distinguished Senior Research Fellow at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Nunn School Center for International Strategy Technology and Policy (CISTP) Date November 6, 2012 Pages N/A Notes Overview of the various forums/communities and methodologies that comprise the security assurance ecosystem—often also referred to as the Information Assurance. Title 20 Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defense: Consensus Audit Guidelines - version 4.0 Source Date Pages Notes 89 The Top 20 security controls were agreed upon by a consortium. Members of the Consortium include NSA, US CERT, DoD JTF-GNO, the Department of Energy Nuclear Laboratories, Department of State, DoD Cyber Crime Center plus commercial forensics experts in the banking and critical infrastructure communities. Center for Strategic & International Studies November 2012 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) June 29, 2012 N/A The National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence (NCCoE) is a new public-private collaboration to bring together experts from industry, government and academia to design, implement, test, and demonstrate integrated cybersecurity solutions and promote their widespread adoption. National Science Foundation (NSF) January 17, 2012 N/A The NSF is funding research on giving organizations information-security risk ratings, similar to credit ratings for individuals. November 9, 2011 http://info.publicintelligence.net/DARPA-ADAMS.pdf Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) At the Forefront of Cyber Security Research NSF August 11, 2011 N/A TRUST is a university and industry consortium that examines cyber security issues related to health care, national infrastructures, law and other issues facing the general public. White House December 16, 2010 148 The President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) has made several recommendations in a report about the state of the government’s Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program. http://www.sans.org/critical-security-controls/ National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence http://csrc.nist.gov/nccoe/ Information Security Risk Taking http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do? AwardNumber=1127185 Anomaly Detection at Multiple Scales (ADAMS) 74 The design document was produced by Allure Security and sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It describes a system for preventing leaks by seeding believable disinformation in military information systems to help identify individuals attempting to access and disseminate classified information. http://www.livescience.com/15423-forefront-cybersecurity-research-nsf-bts.html Designing A Digital Future: Federally Funded Research And Development In Networking And Information Technology http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ ostp/pcast-nitrd-report-2010.pdf CRS-80 Title Partnership for Cybersecurity Innovation http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2010/12/06/partnershipcybersecurity-innovation Science of Cyber-Security http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/dod/jason/cyber.pdf American Security Challenge http://www.americansecuritychallenge.com/ Note: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS-81 Source Date Pages Notes White House Office of Science and Technology Policy December 6, 2010 10 The Obama Administration released a Memorandum of Understanding signed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the Department of Commerce, the Science and Technology Directorate of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS/S&T), and the Financial Services Sector Coordinating Council (FSSCC). The goal of the agreement is to speed the commercialization of cybersecurity research innovations that support our nation’s critical infrastructures. Mitre Corp (JASON Program Office) November 2010 86 JASON was requested by DOD to examine the theory and practice of cyber-security, and evaluate whether there are underlying fundamental principles that would make it possible to adopt a more scientific approach, identify what is needed in creating a science of cybersecurity, and recommend specific ways in which scientific methods can be applied. National Security Initiative October 18, 2010 N/A The objective of the Challenge is to increase the visibility of innovative technology and help the commercialization process so that such technology can reach either the public or commercial marketplace faster to protect our citizens and critical assets. Related Resources: Other Websites This section contains other cybersecurity resources, including U.S. government, international, news sources, and other associations and institutions. Table 30. Related Resources: Congressional/Government Name Computer Security Resource Center http://csrc.nist.gov/ Congressional Cybersecurity Caucus http://cybercaucus.langevin.house.gov/ Cybersecurity and Trustworthiness Projects and Reports http://sites.nationalacademies.org/CSTB/CSTB_059144 Cybersecurity http://www.whitehouse.gov/cybersecurity Cybersecurity and Information System Trustworthiness http://sites.nationalacademies.org/CSTB/CSTB_045327#Cybersecurity Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C) http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/structure/gc_1185202475883.shtm U.S. Cyber Command Source National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Links to NIST resources, publications, and computer security groups. Led by Representatives Jim Langevin and Mike McCaul. Provides statistics, news on congressional cyberspace actions, and links to other informational websites. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Academy of Sciences A list of independent and informed reports on cybersecurity and public policy. White House National Security Council Links to White House policy statements, key documents, videos, and blog posts. National Academy of Sciences, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board A list of independent and informed reports on cybersecurity and public policy. U.S. Department of Homeland Security As the sector-specific agency for the communications and information technology (IT) sectors, CS&C coordinates national level reporting that is consistent with the National Response Framework (NRF). U.S. Department of Defense Links to press releases, fact sheets, speeches, announcements, and videos. U.S. Cyber-Consequences Unit (USCCU) U.S.-CCU, a nonprofit 501c(3) research institute, provides assessments of the strategic and economic consequences of possible cyber-attacks and cyber-assisted physical attacks. It also investigates the likelihood of such attacks and examines the cost-effectiveness of possible counter-measures. http://www.defense.gov/home/features/2010/0410_cybersec/ U.S. Cyber-Consequences Unit http://www.usccu.us/ Note: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS-82 Notes Table 31. Related Resources: International Organizations Name Australian Internet Security Initiative http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_310317 Cybercrime Source Notes Australian Communications and Media Authority The Australian Internet Security Initiative (AISI) is an antibotnet initiative that collects data on botnets in collaboration with Internet Service Providers (ISPs), and two industry codes of practice. Council of Europe Links to the Convention on Cybercrime treaty, standards, news, and related information. International Telecommunications Union (ITU) ITU’s Global Cybersecurity Agenda (GCA) is the framework for international cooperation with the objective of building synergies and engaging all relevant stakeholders in our collective efforts to build a more secure and safer information society for all. Council of Europe These profiles have been prepared within the framework of the Council of Europe’s Project on Cybercrime in view of sharing information on cybercrime legislation and assessing the current state of implementation of the Convention on Cybercrime under national legislation. European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) ENISA inform businesses and citizens in the European Union on cybersecurity threats, vulnerabilities, and attacks. (Requires free registration to access.) Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (English-language summary) This is a private industry initiative which aims to ensure that customers whose personal computers have become part of a botnet without them being aware of it are informed by their Internet Service Providers about this situation and at the same time are given competent support in removing the malware. International Cyber Security Protection Alliance (ICSPA) A global not-for-profit organization that aims to channel funding, expertise, and help directly to law enforcement cyber crime units around the world. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) The Center is an international effort that currently includes Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Spain as sponsoring nations, to enhance NATO’s cyber defence capability. http://www.coe.int/t/DGHL/cooperation/economiccrime/ cybercrime/default_en.asp Cybersecurity Gateway http://groups.itu.int/Default.aspx?alias=groups.itu.int/ cybersecurity-gateway Cybercrime Legislation - Country Profiles http://www.coe.int/t/dg1/legalcooperation/economiccrime/ cybercrime/Documents/CountryProfiles/default_en.asp ENISA: Securing Europe’s Information Society http://www.enisa.europa.eu/ German Anti-Botnet Initiative http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/42/50/45509383.pdf International Cyber Security Protection Alliance (ICSPA) https://www.icspa.org/about-us/ NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCD COE) http://www.ccdcoe.org/ Note: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports. CRS-83 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Table 32. Related Resources: News Name Computer Security (Cybersecurity) Source New York Times http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/c/ computer_security/index.html Cybersecurity NextGov.com http://www.nextgov.com/cybersecurity/?oref=ng-nav Cyberwarfare and Cybersecurity Benton Foundation http://benton.org/taxonomy/term/1193 Homeland Security Congressional Quarterly (CQ) http://homeland.cq.com/hs/news.do Cybersecurity Homeland Security News Wire http://www.homelandsecuritynewswire.com/topics/cybersecurity Congressional Research Service 84 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Table 33. Related Resources: Other Associations and Institutions Name Cybersecurity from the Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS) http://csis.org/category/topics/technology/ cybersecurity Cyberconflict and Cybersecurity Initiative from the Council on Foreign Relations http://www.cfr.org/projects/world/cyberconflict-andcybersecurity-initiative/pr1497 Federal Cyber Service from the Scholarship For Service (SFS) https://www.sfs.opm.gov/ Institute for Information Infrastructure Protection (I3P) http://www.thei3p.org/ Internet Security Alliance (ISA) http://www.isalliance.org/ National Association of State Chief Information Offices (NASCIO) http://www.nascio.org/advocacy/cybersecurity National Board of Information Security Examiners (NBISE) http://www.nbise.org/certifications.php National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) http://csrc.nist.gov/nice/ National Security Cyberspace Institute (NSCI) http://www.nsci-va.org/whitepapers.htm U.S. Cyber Challenge (USCC) http://www.uscyberchallenge.org/ Notes Links to experts, programs, publications, and multimedia. CSIS is a bipartisan, nonprofit organization whose affiliated scholars conduct research and analysis and develop policy initiatives that look to the future and anticipate change. Focuses on the relationship between cyberwar and the existing laws of war and conflict; how the United States should engage other states and international actors in pursuit of its interests in cyberspace; how the promotion of the free flow of information interacts with the pursuit of cybersecurity; and the private sector’s role in defense, deterrence, and resilience. Scholarship For Service (SFS) is designed to increase and strengthen the cadre of federal information assurance professionals that protect the government’s critical information infrastructure. This program provides scholarships that fully fund the typical costs that students pay for books, tuition, and room and board while attending an approved institution of higher learning. I3P is a consortium of leading universities, national laboratories and nonprofit institutions dedicated to strengthening the cyber infrastructure of the United States. ISAalliance is a nonprofit collaboration between the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA), a federation of trade associations, and Carnegie Mellon University’s CyLab. NASCIO’s cybersecurity awareness website. The Resource Guide provides examples of state awareness programs and initiatives. The National Board of Information Security Examiners (NBISE) mission is to increase the security of information networks, computing systems, and industrial and military technology by improving the potential and performance of the cyber security workforce. NICE Attempts to forge a common set of definitions for the cybersecurity workforce. NSCI provides education, research and analysis services to government, industry, and academic clients aiming to increase cyberspace awareness, interest, knowledge, and/or capabilities. USCC’s goal is to find 10,000 of America's best and brightest to fill the ranks of cybersecurity professionals where their skills can be of the greatest value to the nation. Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports of related associations and institutions. Congressional Research Service 85 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Author Contact Information Rita Tehan Information Research Specialist rtehan@crs.loc.gov, 7-6739 Key Policy Staff The following table provides names and contact information for CRS experts on policy issues related to cybersecurity bills currently being debated in the 112th Congress. Legislative Issues Name/Title Phone E-mail Legislation in the 112th Congress Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Critical infrastructure protection John D. Moteff 7-1435 jmoteff@crs.loc.gov Chemical industry Dana Shea 7-6844 dshea@crs.loc.gov Defense industrial base Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Electricity grid Richard J. Campbell 7-7905 rcampbell@crs.loc.gov Financial institutions N. Eric Weiss 7-6209 eweiss@crs.loc.gov Industrial control systems Dana Shea 7-6844 dshea@crs.loc.gov Federal laws Charles Doyle 7-6968 cdoyle@crs.loc.gov Law enforcement Kristin M. Finklea 7-6259 kfinklea@crs.loc.gov Cybersecurity workforce Wendy Ginsberg 7-3933 wginsberg@crs.loc.gov, Cyberterrorism Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Cyberwar Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Data breach notification Gina Stevens 7-2581 gstevens@crs.loc.gov Economic issues N. Eric Weiss 7-6209 eweiss@crs.loc.gov Advanced persistent threat Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Economic and industrial Kristin M. Finklea 7-6259 kfinklea@crs.loc.gov Legal issues Brian T. Yeh 7-5182 byeh@crs.loc.gov State-sponsored Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Chief Information Officers (CIOs) Patricia Maloney Figliola 7-2508 pfigliola@crs.loc.gov Commerce John F. Sargent, Jr. 7-9147 jsargent@crs.loc.gov Defense (DOD) Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Executive Office of the President (EOP) John D. Moteff 7-1435 jmoteff@crs.loc.gov Homeland Security (DHS) John D. Moteff 7-1435 jmoteff@crs.loc.gov Cybercrime Espionage Federal agency roles Congressional Research Service 86 Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources Legislative Issues Name/Title Phone E-mail Intelligence Community (IC) John Rollins 7-5529 jrollins@crs.loc.gov Justice (DOJ) Kristin M. Finklea 7-6259 kfinklea@crs.loc.gov National Security Agency (NSA) Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Science agencies (NIST, NSF, OSTP) Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Treasury and financial agencies Rena S. Miller 7-0826 rsmiller@crs.loc.gov Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) John D. Moteff 7-1435 jmoteff@crs.loc.gov Federal Internet monitoring Richard M. Thompson II 7-8449 rthompson@crs.loc.gov Hacktivism Kristin M. Finklea 7-6259 kfinklea@crs.loc.gov Information sharing Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Antitrust laws Kathleen Ann Ruane 7-9135 kruane@crs.loc.gov Civil liability Edward C. Liu 7-9166 eliu@crs.loc.gov Classified information John Rollins 7-5529 jrollins@crs.loc.gov Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Gina Stevens 7-2581 gstevens@crs.loc.gov Privacy and civil liberties Gina Stevens 7-2581 gstevens@crs.loc.gov Defense and diplomatic Catherine A. Theohary 7-0844 ctheohary@crs.loc.gov Law enforcement Kristin M. Finklea 7-6259 kfinklea@crs.loc.gov Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov John Rollins 7-5529 jrollins@crs.loc.gov Public/private partnerships Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Supply chain Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Technological issues Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Botnets Eric A. Fischer 7-7071 efischer@crs.loc.gov Cloud computing Patricia Maloney Figliola 7-2508 pfigliola@crs.loc.gov Mobile devices Patricia Maloney Figliola 7-2508 pfigliola@crs.loc.gov Research and development (R&D) Patricia Maloney Figliola 7-2508 pfigliola@crs.loc.gov International cooperation National strategy and policy National security Congressional Research Service 87