Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues

This report discusses the issue of U.S. economic assistance to sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the importance of continued assistance in light of U.S. national security and also various U.S.-led efforts to promote reform amongst African citizens themselves. U.S. assistance finds its way to Africa through a variety of channels, including the USAID-administered DA program, food aid programs, and indirect aid provided through international financial institutions and the United Nations.

Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues Ted Dagne Specialist in African Affairs September 15, 2011 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL33591 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues Summary U.S. aid to Africa initially reached a peak in 1985, when global competition with the Soviet Union was at a high point. After the cold war ended, security assistance levels for Africa began to decline. In 1995, at the outset of the 104th Congress, substantial reductions in aid to Africa had been anticipated, as many questioned the importance of Africa to U.S. national security interests in the post-cold war era. As the debate went forward, however, congressional reports and bills emphasized U.S. humanitarian, economic, and other interests in Africa. Aid levels did fall, but gradually began to increase again in FY1997. U.S. assistance to Africa is reaching new highs due to a significant increase in health care sectors under the Global Health and Child Survival (GHCS) program. U.S. aid to Africa nearly quadrupled from $1.2 billion in FY2006 to $6.9 billion in FY2011. Moreover, the United States is the leading donor of humanitarian assistance to Africa. Between FY1999 and FY2009, the United States provided over $10.1 billion to East and Central African countries and an estimated $2.2 billion to Southern Africa countries. U.S. assistance reaches Africa through a variety of channels, including USAID-administered Development Assistance (DA) and GHCS programs, food aid programs, and refugee assistance. As of February 2010, the Peace Corps had an estimated 2,620 volunteers and trainers in 29 African countries. The U.S. African Development Foundation (ADF) makes small grants to cooperatives, youth groups, and self-help organizations and operates in 20 countries. The Obama Administration has requested $30 million for ADF for FY2011. U.S. security assistance, though still far below levels seen in the 1980s, has increased in recent years, primarily because of U.S. support for African peacekeeping and counter-terrorism initiatives. The World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) is the principal multilateral channel for U.S. aid, but the United States also contributes to the African Development Bank and Fund and to United Nations activities in Africa. Total U.S. foreign assistance to Africa for FY2009 was $8.2 billion. More than half of the FY2009 funding went to health-related programs. Sub-Saharan Africa received an estimated $8.09 billion in FY2010 and $6.9 billion in FY2011. The Obama Administration has requested an estimated $7.7 billion for FY2012. Congressional Research Service Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues Contents U.S. Aid to Africa: An Overview..................................................................................................... 1 Background...................................................................................................................................... 1 U.S. Assistance Programs ................................................................................................................ 2 DFA and Child Survival assistance ........................................................................................... 2 Peace Corps ............................................................................................................................... 3 Security Assistance and Economic Support Funds.................................................................... 3 Regional Programs........................................................................................................................... 4 African Development Foundation ............................................................................................. 4 Millennium Challenge Account................................................................................................. 5 The African Development Fund ................................................................................................ 5 Refugee and Disaster Assistance ..................................................................................................... 6 Multilateral Assistance..................................................................................................................... 6 Security Assistance Program: Section 1206 .............................................................................. 8 Sudan: U.S. Humanitarian Funding......................................................................................... 10 Tables Table 1. U.S. Bilateral Assistance to Africa..................................................................................... 7 Table 2. Leading U.S. Assistance Recipients in Africa.................................................................... 7 Table 3. U.S. Contributions for International Peacekeeping Activities in Africa ............................ 8 Table 4. Security Assistance Program: Section 1206....................................................................... 9 Table 5. U.S. Bilateral Assistance to Sudan................................................................................... 10 Appendixes Appendix. Selected Africa Assistance Acronyms.......................................................................... 11 Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 12 Congressional Research Service Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues U.S. Aid to Africa: An Overview The United States provides assistance to 47 African countries, and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has 23 missions in Africa. In recent years, U.S. assistance to Africa saw a major increase, especially in health-related programs. Aid to Africa quadrupled from $1.1 billion in FY2006 to nearly $8.2 billion in FY2009. In FY2010, Africa received an estimated $8.09 billion and $6.9 billion in FY2011. The Obama Administration has requested an estimated $7.7 billion for FY2012. In FY2009, the United States provided more than $1 billion in humanitarian assistance to Africa. Africa is also a major recipient of the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) funding, with 15 African countries currently participating in the program. The United States has identified a number of strategic objectives that shape U.S. aid to Africa. These priorities are to enhance strategic partnerships; consolidate democratic transitions; bolster fragile states; strengthen regional and sub-regional organizations; enhance regional security capacity; strengthen African counter-terrorism cooperation and capacity; stimulate Africa’s economic development and growth; implement presidential initiatives; and amplify humanitarian and development assistance programs.1 A number of new presidential initiatives were launched over the past several years, such as the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), and programs outlined below. The Women’s Justice and Empowerment Initiative aims to strengthen African governments’ capacity to effectively deal with gender-based violence and provide support to the victims. The Africa Education Initiative (AEI) is a $600 million multi-year initiative to help increase access to quality basic education in 39 countries. Under the AEI initiative, more than 15 million textbooks have been provided, and the initiative aims to provide 550,000 scholarships to African girls in primary and secondary levels. Another major initiative, launched in 2002, is the Congo Basin Forest Partnership (CBFP). More than 40 governments, non-governmental organizations, and international groups participate in the program. The CBFP initiative is funded through the Central Africa Regional Program for the Environment (CAPRE). In FY2008, CAPRE funding was $15 million and in FY2009 $17.5 million. The $200 million five-year African Global Competitiveness Initiative promotes “export competitiveness” in Africa. The Initiative to End Hunger in Africa (IEHA), launched in 2002, aims to cut hunger in half by 2015. The Obama Administration has identified a number of areas of key interest in the FY2011 foreign aid request. These priorities include good governance, economic development, health care, food security, and global climate change. Background U.S. bilateral aid to Africa rose sharply in the early 1960s as most African countries achieved independence. This was also a time of intense cold war competition with the Soviet Union. Aid reached another peak in 1985, when famine struck wide areas of sub-Saharan Africa. The peak may also have resulted in part from heightened cold war competition with the Soviet Union. 1 USAID: Africa, at http://www.usaid.gov/location/sub-saharan_africa. Congressional Research Service 1 Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues Toward the end of the 1980s, as the cold war ended, efforts to reduce the U.S. budget deficit began to intensify, contributing to an overall reduction in assistance to Africa. At the same time, policymakers placed increased emphasis on human rights and commitment to economic reform programs in making their decisions on aid allocations. Consequently, aid to some African countries that had been major cold war aid recipients, such as Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and Liberia, was sharply reduced. Nonetheless, there was another spike in aid in 1992, when famine struck the Horn of Africa and the southern part of the continent. Aid then dropped again, with the reductions coming almost entirely in the security-oriented programs: military assistance and especially the Economic Support Fund (ESF). In 1995, at the beginning of the 104th Congress, proposals to restructure and reduce the U.S. foreign assistance program raised questions about the future of U.S. aid to sub-Saharan Africa. Many questioned the strategic rationale for assisting Africa in the post-cold war era, and asserted that 30 years of U.S. assistance had accomplished little—whether in terms of promoting economic growth and democratization, or achieving other objectives. The critics generally favored humanitarian assistance, but sought sharp cuts in other programs. As the aid debate proceeded, however, it became apparent that cuts for Africa would be less than initially anticipated. The view that the United States has important humanitarian, economic, and other objectives in Africa was vigorously asserted by supporters of the Africa aid program, and came to be reflected in report language on the major foreign assistance bills, as well as in the bills themselves. Aid did drop back to the FY1990 level in FY1996, but slow growth began again in FY1997 and continued to the present. A major increase in aid took place in FY2003 because of large quantities of food aid provided to Ethiopia and southern Sudan, as well as a boost in spending through the Child Survival and Health Programs Fund in response to the African HIV/AIDS pandemic. The Global HIV/AIDS Initiative (GHAI), administered by the Department of State, was the principal component of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and began operations in FY2004. GHAI assistance included the provision of antiretroviral therapy, safe injections, safe blood supplies, and abstinence/faithfulness education. GHAI and Child Survival accounts were merged into what is currently known as the Global Health and Child Survival program. In FY2010, funding for Global Health and Child Survival was $4.7 billion and $4.8 billion for FY2011. The Obama Administration has requested $5.3 billion for FY2012. U.S. Assistance Programs U.S. assistance is provided to Africa through a variety of channels. Bilateral or country-to-country aid, also known as direct assistance, is given through non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or private and voluntary organizations (PVOs), contractors, and African government ministries and agencies. Multilateral aid, or indirect assistance, is given first to international financial institutions (IFIs) and United Nations agencies, which in turn channel it to Africa through their own programs. DFA and Child Survival assistance Falling ESF levels threatened the overall scale of the sub-Saharan aid program after 1985, and this threat led to the creation of the Development Fund for Africa (DFA), which specifically earmarked a minimum level of the worldwide Development Assistance (DA) program for the Congressional Research Service 2 Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues region. Obligations for sub-Saharan Africa projects under the DFA reached $846 million in FY1992, but dropped well below $800 million in subsequent years despite efforts by some members to increase the DFA appropriation to $1 billion or more. The DFA was last earmarked by Congress in the FY1995 appropriations legislation, when $802 million was appropriated, and DA for Africa has since been provided through the worldwide Development Assistance (DA) account. In FY2009, Africa received $876.6 million, and is expected to receive $1.07 billion in FY2010 in Development Assistance $1.01 billion for FY2011. The Obama Administration has requested $1.16 billion for FY2012. In FY1996, Congress created a new account, the Child Survival and Disease Programs Fund, renamed the Child Survival and Health Programs Fund (CSH) in FY2002, which has channeled substantial amounts of aid to Africa. Annual USAID presentations to Congress on the budget request for aid to Africa have varied both with respect to using the term DFA and with respect to including CSH aid in an overall DA amount or in breaking out CSH assistance and DA separately. In recent years, the CSH has been replaced by the Global Health and Child Survival (GHCS) account. Humanitarian Aid Emergency food aid to Africa fluctuates in response to the continent’s needs, and the amount provided by the end of a fiscal year often exceeds the initial request. The additional amount is taken from a food aid reserve fund. Emergency food aid is provided under Title II of the P.L. 480 program (named for P.L. 83-480, enacted in 1954), which is implemented by USAID in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture.2 The United States is the leading humanitarian donor in the world. Between FY1999 and FY2009, the United States provided over $10.1 billion to East and Central African countries and an estimated $2.2 billion to Southern Africa countries. In FY2010, the United States provided $437.9 million to Sudan and $148 million to Kenya. Peace Corps The Peace Corps has an estimated 2,620 volunteers and trainers serving in 29 sub-Saharan countries in February 2010, up from an estimated 1,900 in 2002.3 Under the Peace Corps Act (P.L. 87-293), volunteers are to help the poorest people meet their basic needs, to promote a better understanding of the American people, and to promote a better understanding of other peoples on the part of Americans. The Obama Administration has requested $439.6 million for FY2012. Security Assistance and Economic Support Funds U.S. security assistance for Africa, which had declined with the end of the cold war, has expanded in recent years, primarily in response to widening conflict and political instability in Africa.4 Economic Support Fund aid has been used to support a wide range of programs, including economic reform, a “safe skies” program to improve African air traffic safety, human rights and 2 For further information on food assistance programs, see CRS Report R41072, International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues, by Melissa D. Ho and Charles E. Hanrahan. 3 For further information, see CRS Report RS21168, The Peace Corps: Current Issues, by Curt Tarnoff. 4 For more on U.S. security assistance to Africa, see CRS Report RL34003, Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa, by Lauren Ploch. Congressional Research Service 3 Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues democracy education, and other objectives. ESF aid is also helping strategic partners in combating terrorism through cooperation on border control, freezing terrorist assets, implementation of the peace agreement in southern Sudan, and other activities. In addition, the Defense Department conducts AIDS prevention education programs, primarily with African militaries. In FY2009, Africa received $712.9 million under the ESF program and received $633.1 million in FY2010 and $503 million in FY2011. The Obama Administration has requested $618.5 million for FY2012. Through the regional Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) program, the United States supported the Africa Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), which trained small units of African armies for possible peacekeeping duties, as well as for other regional peacekeeping initiatives. In FY2004, ACRI was succeeded by the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program, which trains trainers and implements programs tailored to individual country needs. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) to Africa resumed in FY1999. International Military Education and Training (IMET) programs in Africa promote professionalism and respect for democracy and human rights among foreign military officials, while enhancing capabilities for participation in peacekeeping operations. These programs typically run well under $1 million per country. In FY2011, Africa received $15.4 million. The Obama Administration has requested $15.5 million for FY2012. The United States also contributes to United Nations peacekeeping operations in Africa and elsewhere through a program entitled Contributions to International Peacekeeping Activities (CIPA). In FY2009, the United States contributed $382 million, and an estimated $187 million in FY2010. The Obama Administration has requested $138 million for FY2011 and $154 million for FY2012. Regional Programs Both DA and ESF funds are used to support USAID’s Africa Regional Programs, which are designed to confront challenges that span beyond the borders of individual African countries. These include regional programs in health, conflict prevention, democracy, education, and agriculture. According to USAID, “the primary goal of the Africa Regional program is to provide overall direction, guidance, intellectual leadership, and strengthened African regional capacity to address these challenges.”5 USAID has a number of regional programs in Africa, including the Central Africa Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE), and East Africa Regional, Southern Africa Regional, and West Africa Regional programs. African Development Foundation The African Development Foundation (ADF) has a unique mandate to make small grants directly to African cooperatives, youth groups, and other self-help organizations. These grants usually range from less than $20,000 to a maximum of $250,000, although appropriations language permits a waiver of the $250,000 ceiling. In addition, the ADF supports grassroots development research by African scholars and promotes the dissemination of development information at the community level. The ADF is limited to 75 employees, according to the ADF Act (U.S. Code Title 22, Chapter 7, Section 290h). Its seven-member board of directors must include five privatesector representatives. ADF does not station U.S. employees in overseas posts, but instead works through local hires and periodic field visits. For FY2006, the ADF received $22.7 million in the 5 Congressional Budget Justification, FY2010. Congressional Research Service 4 Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues Foreign Operations Appropriations Act (P.L. 109-102). In FY2008, ADF received $29.7 million, and in FY2009 $32.5 million. ADF received $30 million in FY2010. The Obama Administration has requested $30 million for FY2011 and $24 million for FY2012. The ADF is seen by some observers as an effective tool in reaching out to communities faster and more directly. The ADF program targets for assistance the most marginalized and poor communities. Currently the ADF operates in 20 African countries. According to ADF, “the majority of the ADF portfolio is in income generating projects that have an additive value of Social benefits. Social benefits include skill training, nutritional and hygiene training, and basic vocational training.”6 Millennium Challenge Account7 In a March 14, 2002, speech, President Bush announced the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), the goal of which was to increase foreign aid worldwide by $5 billion per year over three years, starting in FY2004. The account would provide additional aid to countries whose governments promote good governance, invest in people through education and health care, and promote open markets. Although the promise of increased aid won praise from many observers, some worried that most countries in sub-Saharan Africa will not be able to meet the fund’s eligibility criteria. As of late 2009, however, 16 African countries have signed Compact or Threshold Program agreements. Agreements have been reached with Madagascar ($110 million), Cape Verde ($110 million), Ghana ($547 million), Mali ($460.8 million), Benin ($307 million), Mozambique ($506.9 million), Lesotho ($362.6 million), Liberia ($15 million), Burkina Faso ($480.9 million), Kenya ($12.7 million), Namibia ($304.5 million), Niger ($23 million), Rwanda ($24.7 million), Sao Tome and Principe ($8.6 million), Senegal ($540 million), Tanzania ($698 million), Uganda ($10.4 million), and Zambia ($22.7 million) for MCA programs. In FY2008, the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) received $1.5 billion, $875 million in FY2009, and $1.1 billion (estimate) in FY2010. The Obama Administration has requested $1.2 billion for FY2011. The African Development Fund The African Development Fund (AfDF) is another major channel for indirect U.S. aid to Africa. The fund, an affiliate of the Africa-based African Development Bank (AfDB), makes loans on highly concessional terms to the poorest African countries. The AfDB lends on roughly commercial terms to creditworthy African borrowers, and at the same time, it holds 50% of the voting power in the AfDF. The United States provided $134.5 million in FY2008, and $150 million in FY2009. The AfDF received $155 million in FY2010, and the Obama Administration has requested $155.9 million for FY2011 and $195 million for FY2012. 6 Interview with senior ADF official in June 2009. For further information, see CRS Report RL32427, Millennium Challenge Corporation, by Curt Tarnoff, and U.S. Government Accountability Office Report GAO-05-625T, Millennium Challenge Corporation: Progress Made on Key Challenges in First Year of Operations (April 27, 2005). 7 Congressional Research Service 5 Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues Refugee and Disaster Assistance The United States responds to African humanitarian crises in part with Title II food aid, discussed above, and in part through its refugee and disaster assistance programs. Most refugee assistance comes from the Migration and Refugee Assistance (MRA) account and goes to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and international organizations, as well as to private and voluntary organizations assisting African refugees. In addition, the Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance (ERMA) account, created in 1962 to respond to unexpected refugee situations, has been drawn upon for African emergencies several times in recent years. USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) also plays a major role in responding to African crises. “Situation Reports” published by USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance monitor the U.S. response to African humanitarian crises through food aid and other emergency assistance.8 The Obama Administration has requested $320 million for FY2011 for the Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund. Multilateral Assistance The United States also provides aid to Africa through international financial institutions (IFIs) and United Nations agencies. World Bank lending through its “soft loan” affiliate, the International Development Association (IDA), is the largest single source of development capital in Africa. IDA loans, which are considered a form of aid since they are virtually interest-free and carry extended repayment periods, focus on strengthening public sector management, transportation, agriculture, and various social problems. IDA has been particularly active in assisting efforts by the recipient countries to carry out free-market economic reforms. 8 To find these reports, visit http://www.usaid.gov/ and click on “Our Work” and “Humanitarian Assistance.” Congressional Research Service 6 Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues Table 1. U.S. Bilateral Assistance to Africa ($ in thousands) FY2008 Actual FY2009 Actual FY2010 Actual FY2011 Actual FY2012 Request 7,037,409 6,506,359 8,096,776 6,928,734 7,797,264 Development Assistance 678,352 912,793 1,075,632 1,016,337 1,166,336 Economic Support Fund 283,249 559,910 633,104 503,540 618,549 6,757 8,255 17,950 18,911 18,793 3,295,550 3,254,706 3,516,103 3,549,323 3,774,390 746,073 848,509 1,145,205 1,265,573 1,605,581 International Military Education and Training 13,779 13,795 15,130 15,432 15,500 Int. Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 31,642 26,600 35,538 61,368 91,715 Nonproliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining and Related Programs 27,512 31,498 47,894 62,600 43,250 Total Foreign Military Financing Global Health and Child Survival—State Global Health and Child Survival—USAID Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund Peacekeeping Operations Food for Peace Title II 320,000 130,222 249,250 187,600 1,823,273 601,043 1,422,620 159,650 154,150 Source: Congressional Budget Justification and USAID Table 2. Leading U.S. Assistance Recipients in Africa ($ in millions) Country FY 2012 Request FY2011 Actual FY2010 Actual FY2009 Actual FY2008 Actual Ugandaa 527.7 456.1 456.8 404.1 389.7 Kenyaa 751.4 661.8 687.6 829.4 634.4 561.9 571.1 577.5 544.8 574.2 Nigeriaa 660.4 632.3 614.1 594.2 496.4 Zambiaa 400.7 385.0 392.9 308.1 293.5 Ethiopiaa 608.3 519.0 533.2 864.8 659.1 Tanzaniaa 571.8 501.7 462.5 464.9 361 Sudan 518.2 400.2 427.7 924.1 666.3 Mozambiquea 424.5 386.6 386.9 317.9 284.3 Somalia 82.3 98.4 133.8 403.8 Liberia 211.4 203.1 226.1 224.0 161.1 Rwandaa 241.3 220.7 208.1 195.8 157.8 Namibiaa 99.6 103.2 102.8 112.0 108 Botswanaa 71.8 75.4 77.3 81.4 79.5 171.7 137.7 117.8 102.6 59.6 South Mali Africaa Congressional Research Service 7 Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues Country FY 2012 Request FY2011 Actual FY2010 Actual FY2009 Actual FY2008 Actual Dem. Rep. Congo 261.8 215.9 183.0 296.5 Ghana 204.5 165.8 138.8 147.5 80.8 Malawi 201.6 169.7 145.7 115.6 105.9 Senegal 119.8 98.7 106.3 93.7 57.8 142.4 108.0 133.6 113.7 100.8 Madagascar 78.8 71.6 86.4 71.0 57.6 Angola 72.8 60.9 84.2 55.9 42.2 Guinea 13.6 25.0 22.0 13.3 14.2 Benin 29.1 31.0 36.4 30.9 29 109.9 97.3 89.0 292.3 82.6 7.3 8.5 9.4 5.8 5.1 Sierra Leone 22.7 19.4 31.1 20.0 22.8 Burundi 37.6 35.6 40.4 39.4 21.1 Côte d’Ivoirea Zimbabwe Djibouti 161 Source: Congressional Budget Justification, FY2010-12 and USAID. a. Global AIDS Initiative “focus” country. Estimated allocations included. Table 3. U.S. Contributions for International Peacekeeping Activities in Africa ($ in millions) Operation War Crimes Tribunal - Rwanda (UNICTR) FY2008 (Actual) 17.6 Chad/CAR (MINURCAT) FY2009 (Actual) 14 39.4 FY2010 (Actual) 20.9 150.0 16.5 FY2012 Request 16.5 1,768 0 586,3 408.0 Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) 270.7 210.0 U.N. Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) 154.2 123.4 263.8 151.7 135.4 Sudan (UNAMID) 550.4 414.0 763.3 536.5 512.3 Sudan (UNMIS) 293.5 208.9 361.1 289.1 298.6 83.0 81.0 139.6 139.7 135.0 73.9 91.8 U.N. Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) U.S. Support to African Union Mission in Somalia (UNSOA) 387,7 FY2011 Request Source: Congressional Budget Justification, FY2012. Security Assistance Program: Section 1206 Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) mandates the Secretary of Defense, with the concurrence of the Secretary of State, to provide assistance to foreign security Congressional Research Service 8 Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues forces to build and strengthen the capacity of these forces in counterterrorism operations. The three-year, $350 million program is set to expire in September 2011.9 Table 4. Security Assistance Program: Section 1206 Recipient Countries FY2011 Purpose Djibouti $17.7 million Fixed-wing aircraft Kenya $12.1million Helicopter rebuild & upgrade Mali $1 million Mine detector equipment Mauritania $22.6 million Fixed-wing aircraft modernization Mauritania $8.1 million Airfield control systems communications and mobility equipment Uganda & Burundi $44.8 million Counterterrorism support for deployment to Somalia Uganda $4.4 million Counter Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) Source: Department of Defense. 9 For more on Section 1206, see CRS Report RS22855, Security Assistance Reform: “Section 1206” Background and Issues for Congress, by Nina M. Serafino. Congressional Research Service 9 Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues Sudan: U.S. Humanitarian Funding The United States continues to provide significant humanitarian assistance to Darfur and to Darfuree refugees in Chad. The United States has provided more than $6 billion in humanitarian and development assistance to Sudan since 2005. In FY2009, the United States provided $936.9 million in humanitarian assistance to Sudan and eastern Chad.10 In FY2011, the United States provided $493.6 million in humanitarian assistance to Sudan. and South Sudan.. Table 5. U.S. Bilateral Assistance to Sudan ($ in thousands) FY2008 Actual FY2009 Actual FY2010 Actual Total 906,396 924,140 705,021 Development Assistance 127,721 25,550 1,300 Economic Support Fund 145,876 26,550 Global Health and Child Survival (State) 3,245 Global Health & Child Survival (USAID) International Military Education and Training Int. Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Non-proliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining and Related Programs Peacekeeping Operations P.L. 480 FY2011 Actual FY2012 Request 400, 278 518,257 296,034 249,824 335,650 6,327 7,036 12,036 12,397 17,488 23,185 30,010 34,848 38,510 349 681 793 800 800 16,000 27,000 37,000 23,578 15.40 4,400 4,000 3,900 3,900 3,900 70,822 38,000 44,000 41,870 60,000 305,948 30,000 30,000 512,917 547.4 Source: State Department FY2010-2011 International Affairs Budget Request. U.S. bilateral assistance to Sudan is primarily going to South Sudan. For more on Sudan, see CRS Report RL33574, Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement, by Ted Dagne. 10 http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/countries/sudan/template/fs_sr/ sudan_ce_sr02_12-20-2007.pdf Congressional Research Service 10 Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues Appendix. Selected Africa Assistance Acronyms ACOTA Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance, successor to ACRI ACRI Africa Crisis Response Initiative, which trained military units for peacekeeping. ADF African Development Foundation, U.S.-funded public corporation. AfDB African Development Bank, an Africa-based IFI. AfDF African Development Fund, affiliate of the African Development Bank. ATRIP Africa Trade and Investment Program, a USAID initiative. CIPA Contributions to International Peacekeeping Activities CSH Child Survival and Health Programs Fund. DA Development Assistance. DFA Development Fund for Africa, part of DA, not earmarked in recent years. ERMA Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance, administered by State Department. ESF Economic Support Fund, a State Department program for promoting U.S. interests. FMF Foreign Military Financing, funds equipment purchases. GHAI State Department’s Global AIDS Initiative, part of PEPFAR. IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank. IDA International Development Association, concessional loan affiliate of IBRD. IFIs International financial institutions. IGAD Inter-governmental Authority on Development, a Djibouti-based organization of Horn of Africa states. IMET International Military Education and Training, a form of military assistance. MRA Migration and Refugee Assistance, a State Department program. NEPAD New Partnership for Africa’s Development, an African initiative. NGOs Non-governmental organizations. OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, an organization of developed countries. ODA Official Development Assistance, the OECD’s concept of DA. OFDA Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, a part of USAID. PCVs Peace Corps Volunteers PEPFAR President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, a Bush Administration initiative. PKO Peacekeeping Operations account authorized by Part II, Chapter 6 of the Foreign Assistance Act. PVOs Private and voluntary organizations SAEDF Southern Africa Enterprise Development Fund, a USAID program. SMMEs Small, medium, and micro-enterprises. UNECA United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, headquartered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. UNDP United Nations Development Program USAID U.S. Agency for International Development Congressional Research Service 11 Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues Author Contact Information Ted Dagne Specialist in African Affairs tdagne@crs.loc.gov, 7-7646 Congressional Research Service 12