Appropriations for FY2001: An Overview

Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a broad overview of all appropriations activity and a guide to the CRS Appropriation Product Series that provides analytical perspectives on the 13 annual FY2001 appropriations bills.

Order Code RL30500 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Appropriations for FY2001: An Overview Updated February 23, 2001 Mary Frances Bley Information Research Specialist Information Research Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Appropriations are one part of a complex congressional budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations measures (regular bills, supplemental measures, and continuing resolutions), rescission, and budget reconciliation bills. Fiscal year (FY) 2001 covers October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001. The process begins with the President’s budget request and is bound by the rules of the House and Senate, the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 (as amended), the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990, and current program authorizations. This report is a broad overview of all appropriations activity and a guide to the CRS Appropriation Product Series that provides analytical perspectives on the 13 annual FY2001 appropriations bills. This report will be updated weekly as legislation occurs. For the most current information, congressional staff may access an Internet version of the CRS Appropriations Product Series, with active links to appropriations analysis, committee reports and other legislation, and votes for each of the 13 appropriation bills at: [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apppage.shtml]. For a detailed explanation or description of the budget and appropriations process, please see the suggested reading list within this report. Also available to congressional staff via the Internet are CRS fact sheets on budget and appropriation topics available at: [http://www.crs.gov/products/guides/guidehome.shtml]. Members of the public may be referred to THOMAS, the public version of the Library’s legislative Web site: [http://thomas.loc.gov/], and the THOMAS Status of FY2001 Appropriations Internet site: [http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/legislative/appover.html] Appropriations for FY2001: An Overview Summary This report provides an overview of the Congressional Research Service FY2001 Appropriations Product Series, and summarizes selected action on regular bills, supplemental measures, and continuing resolutions. This report will be updated weekly as legislation occurs. Appropriations Vote Status Page: Internet [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Appropriations for FY2001 CRS Report Series CRS Report RS20756: FY2001 Consolidated Appropriations Act: Reference Guide CRS Report RS20758: The 0.22 Percent Across-the-Board Cut in FY2001 Appropriations CRS Report RL30501: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies CRS Report RL30502: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, Government CRS Report RL30503: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education CRS Report RL30504: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies CRS Report RL30505: Defense CRS Report RL30506: Interior and Related Agencies CRS Report RL30507: Energy and Water Development CRS Report RL30509: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies CRS Report RL30508: Department of Transportation and Related Agencies CRS Report RL30510: Military Construction CRS Report RL30511: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs CRS Report RL30512: Legislative Branch CRS Report RL30513: District of Columbia CRS Report RL30457: Supplemental Appropriations for FY2000: Plan Colombia, Kosovo, Foreign Debt Relief, Home Energy Assistance, and Other Initiatives Contents Most Recent Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Votes: CRS Appropriations Status Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Appropriation Public Law Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Number of Continuing Resolutions (CR): 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Number of Vetoes: 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Analysis: CRS Appropriation Product Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Appropriation Coordinators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Agriculture, Rural Development, FDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Commerce, Justice, State, Judiciary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 District of Columbia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Energy and Water Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Foreign Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Interior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Labor/HHS/Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Legislative Branch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Military Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Treasury/Postal Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Veterans Affairs/Housing and Urban Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Supplemental for FY2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Locating Agencies, Departments, and Programs in Appropriation Bills . . . . . . 24 Guide to Selected Federal Programs in Appropriation Bills . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Budget Surplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Budget Resolution: Votes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 CRS Appropriation/Budget Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appropriations and Budget Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Budget (FY2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consolidated Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuing Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fact Sheets on Budget and Appropriation Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social Security Surplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 Internet Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Appropriations Analysis/Vote Status Table (CRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Appropriation Bills, Reports, Laws, and Veto Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appropriation Web Sites, Publications, Membership, and Jurisdiction . . . Budget Process Institutes (CRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Budget Timetable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CBO Budget/Appropriation Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost Estimates of Legislation (CBO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Status of Discretionary Appropriations (CBO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fact Sheets on Budget and Appropriation Topics (CRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legislative Alert (CRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monthly Budget Review (CBO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules Committee—House (Special Rules on Appropriation Bills) . . . . . . Supplemental Requests and Budget Amendments (OMB) . . . . . . . . . . . . 302(b) Spending Allocations for Appropriation Subcommittees . . . . . . . . Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations (CBO) . . . . . . Veto Indications (OMB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 Appropriations Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appropriations Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appropriations and Budget Process Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . President’s Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Budget Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of the Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discretionary Spending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Direct (or Mandatory) Spending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reconciliation Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Budget Resolution Enforcement and Sequestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 34 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 List of Tables Table 1. Votes: Appropriations - Continuing Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Table 2. Administration Requests/Amounts Enacted: FY1981-FY2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Table 3. Discretionary/Mandatory Outlays: FY1981-FY2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Appropriations for FY2001: An Overview Most Recent Developments 1) New Surplus Projections The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) released new surplus projections in the Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2001-2012, released 1/31/01. HTML: [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=2727&sequence=0&from=7] PDF: [http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdoc.cfm?index=2727&type=1] “In the absence of significant legislative changes and assuming that the economy follows the path described in this report, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projects that the total surplus will reach $281 billion in 2001. Such surpluses are projected to rise in the future, approaching $889 billion in 2011 and accumulating to $5.6 trillion over the 2002-2011 period. That total is about $1 trillion higher than the cumulative surplus projected for 2001 through 2010 in CBO’s July 2000 report. About $600 billion of the $1 trillion increase is due simply to shifting the 10-year horizon out one year, to 2011, and dropping 2001 from the total. The remaining $441 billion results mostly from changes in the economic forecast, which are offset in part by the cost of legislation enacted since CBO’s previous report.” 2) Consolidated Appropriations The Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY2001 (P.L. 106-554, H.R. 4577) covers three appropriation bills (Labor/HHS, Legislative Branch, and Treasury/Postal). The Commerce/Justice/State appropriation was enacted separately (P.L.106-553, H.R. 4942). There is an Internet guide and two detailed CRS reports covering the Consolidated Appropriations: Congress [http://www.congress.gov/omni2000/] Constituents [http://thomas.loc.gov/home/omni2000/omni2000.html] CRS Report RS20756, FY2001 Consolidated Appropriations Act: Reference Guide CRS Report RS20758, The 0.22 Percent Across-the-Board Cut in FY2001 Appropriations 3) Continuing Resolutions There were a record 21 continuing resolutions in FY2001, ending with H.J.Res. 133. CRS Report RL30343: Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices 4) Vetoes of Appropriation Bills There were two presidential vetoes (the first Energy/Water appropriation, and the combined Legislative Branch/Treasury appropriation). CRS Report RS20719: Vetoed Annual Appropriations Acts CRS-2 Votes: CRS Appropriations Status Table Table 1. Votes: Appropriations - Continuing Resolutions For the most current appropriation votes: Internet-Linked: [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready: [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Constituents (THOMAS): [http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/legislative/appover.html] Bill No. Subcommittee Date/Vote Committee Date/Vote House Senate House Senate Agriculture 5/4/00 H.R. 4461 (vv) S. 2536 CRS Report RL30501 5/4/00 5/10/00 5/9/00 (vv) (vv) (vv) 6/6/00 (vv) 6/19/00 7/18/00 (28-0) Commerce Justice State H.R. 4942 (H.R. 4690) CRS Report RL30509 House/Senate Committee Report Floor Vote/Date House Senate H.Rept. 106-619 S.Rept. 106-288 H.Rept. 106-680 S.Rept. 106-404 Senate H.Rept. 106-948 (86-8) Vote #277 10/18/00 H.Rept. 106-1005 (214-195) Vote #326 6/26/00 Public Law P.L. 106-387 10/28/00 P.L. 106-553 (H.R. 4942) 12/21/00 48-43 206-198 Vote Vote #289 #562 10/26/00 10/27/00 S.Rept. 5/11/00 5/17/00 5/25/00 5/18/00 H.Rept. Defense (vv) (vv) (vv) (28-0) 106-644 106-298 H.R. 4576 S. 2593 (95-3) (367-58) CRS Report Vote Vote #241 RL30505 #127 6/7/00 6/13/00 SECOND District of Columbia H.R. 5633 CRS Report RL30513 A House (79-13) (340-75) (339-82) Vote #385 Vote#225 Vote #525 7/20/00 10/11/00 7/11/00 A 7/13/00 FIRST District of Columbia H.R. 4942 S. 3041 CRS Report RL30513 A House/Senate Conference Report Floor Vote/Date 7/20/00 9/13/00 (vv) (27-1) H.Rept. 106-786 S.Rept. 106-409 (217-207) 9/14/00 (uc) 9/27/00 11/14/00 (uc) 11/14/00 (uc) H.Rept. 106-754 7/19/00 (367-58) Vote #413 7/27/00 (91-9) Vote #230 H.Rept. 106-1005 P.L. 106-259 8/9/00 Veto Indicated 206-198 48-43 Vote Vote #562 #289 10/26/00 10/27/00 P.L. 106-522 11/22/00 CRS-3 Bill No. Subcommittee Date/Vote Committee Date/Vote House Senate House Senate House/Senate Committee Report Floor Vote/Date House Senate 6/12/00 7/13/00 6/20/00 7/18/00 H.Rept. S.Rept. Energy/ (vv) (vv) (28-0) 106-693 106-395 Water H.R. 4733 CRS Report (407-19) (91-3) RL30507 Vote #342 Vote 6/28/00 #237 B 9/7/00 House/Senate Conference Report Floor Vote/Date House Senate H.Rept. 106-907 H.Rept. 106-720 S.Rept. 106-291 (239-185) Vote #400 7/13/00 (uc) 7/18/00 H.Rept. 106-997 Combined with VA/HUD Earlier version, Vetoed 10/7/00 P.L. 106-429 11/6/00 65-27 307-101 10/25/00 10/25/00 Vote Vote #280 # 546 H.Rept. S.Rept. 5/17/00 6/20/00 5/25/00 6/22/00 H.Rept. Interior 106-914 (vv) (31-22) (28-0) 106-646 106-312 H.R. 4578 CRS Report (97-2) (204-172) RL30506 Vote Vote #291 (348-69) (83-13) #211 6/16/00 7/18/00 Vote #507 Vote 10/3/00 #266 10/5/00 S.Rept. 5/10/00 5/10/00 5/24/00 5/11/00 H.Rept. Labor/ (8-6) (vv) (29-22) (28-0) 106-645 106-293 HHS/ Education (217-214) (52-43) H.R. 5656 Vote Vote #273 H.R. 4577 #171 6/14/00 S. 2553 6/30/00 CRS Reports RL30503 RS20756 RS20758 P.L. 106-377 10/27/00 (301-118) (57-37) Vote #501 Vote #261 9/28/00 10/2/00 6/20/00 5/8/00 6/27/00 5/9/00 Foreign (polled) (vv) (vv) Operations H.R. 4811 S. 2522 CRS Report RL30511 Public Law P.L. 106-291 10/11/00 P.L. 106-554 (H.R. 5656) 12/21/00 (Part of the FY2001 Consolidate d Appropriations Act.) CRS-4 Bill No. House/Senate Committee Report Floor Vote/Date Subcommittee Date/Vote Committee Date/Vote House Senate House Senate House Senate 5/9/00 5/18/00 (31-23) (28-0) H.Rept. 106-635 S.Rept. 106-304 (373-50) Vote #313 6/22/00 7/17/00 (uc) Legislative 5/3/00 (6-3) Branch H.R. 5656 H.R. 4516 S. 2603 CRS Reports RL30512 RS20756 RS20758 House/Senate Conference Report Floor Vote/Date House Senate H.Rept. 106-796 Public Law P.L. 106-554 (H.R. 5656) 12/21/00 (Part of the FY2001 Consolidate d Appropriations Act.) C Vetoed H.R. 4516 10/30/00 Military Construction/Supplemental H.R. 4425 S. 2521 CRS Report RL30510 5/2/00 5/8/00 5/9/00 (uc) (polled) (vv) 5/9/00 (vv) H.Rept. 106-614 (386-22) Vote #184 5/16/00 S.Rept. 106-290 H.Rept.58-37 212-209 (96-4) Vote #106 (306-110) 5/18/00 P.L. 106-246 7/13/00 (uc) D Transportation H.R. 4475 S. 2720 CRS Report RL30508 C, E 5/8/00 6/13/00 5/16/00 6/13/00 (vv) (vv) H.Rept. 106-622 S.Rept. 106-309 P.L. 106-346 10/23/00 (395-13) Vote #210 5/19/00 (99-0) Vote (344-50) (78-10) #132 Vote #516 Vote #267 6/15/00 10/6/00 10/6/00 S.Rept. Treasury 7/11/00 7/19/00 7/18/00 7/20/00 H.Rept. H.R. 4871 (vv) (vv) (vv) 106-756 106-500 S. 2900 (filed H.R. 4985 (216-202) 10/12/00) CRS Reports Vote #428 RL30502 7/20/00 RS20756 RS20758 C, E H.Rept. 106-940 H.Rept. 106-796 P.L. 106-554 (H.R. 5656) (Part of the FY2001 Consolidate d Appropri(212-209) (58-37) ations Act.) Vote #476 Vote #273 9/14/00 10/12/00 12/21/00 Vetoed H.R. 4871 10/30/00 CRS-5 Bill No. Subcommittee Date/Vote Committee Date/Vote House Senate House Senate House/Senate Committee Report Floor Vote/Date House Senate House/Senate Conference Report Floor Vote/Date House Senate Public Law S.Rept. H.Rept. P.L. VA/HUD 5/23/00 9/13/00 6/7/00 9/13/00 H.Rept. H.R. 4635 (vv) (vv) (vv) (27-1) 106-674 106-410 106-988 106-377 CRS Report RL30504 (256-169) (87-8) 10/27/00 Vote #309 Vote (386-24) (85-8) 6/21/00 #272 Combined Vote 10/12/00 Vote #536 with 10/19/00 #278 Energy/ 10/19/00 Water Supplement al H.R. 3908 CRS Report RL30457 3/9/00 (33-13) H.Rept. 106-521 (263-146) Vote #95 3/30/00 D CR#21 H.J.Res. 133 (through 12/21/00) CRS Report RL30343 12/15/00 (uc) 12/15/00 (uc) P.L. 106-543 CR #20 H.J.Res. 129 (through 12/15/00) 12/11/00 (vv) CR #19 H.J.Res. 128 (through 12/11/00) 12/8/00 (284-37) Vote #602 12/8/00 (vv) P.L. 106-540 12/8/00 CR #18 H.J.Res. 127 (through 12/8/00) 12/7/00 (359-11) Vote #601 12/7/00 (96-1) Vote #298 P.L. 106-539 12/7/00 CR #17 H.J.Res. 126 (through 12/7/00) 12/5/00 (378-6) Vote #600 12/5/00 (99-0) Vote #295 P.L. 106-537 12/5/00 CR #16 H.J.Res. 125 (through 12/5/00) 11/13/00 (uc) 11/13/00 (uc) P.L. 106-520 CR #15 H.J.Res. 84 (through 11/14/00) F 11/3/00 (uc) CR #14 H.J.Res. 124 (through 11/4/00) 11/3/00 (uc) 12/15/00 12/11/00 (uc) P.L. 106-543 12/11/00 11/15/00 11/1/00 (uc) P.L. 106-428 11/4/00 11/3/00 (uc) P.L. 106-427 11/4/00 CRS-6 Bill No. Subcommittee Date/Vote Committee Date/Vote House Senate House Senate House/Senate Committee Report Floor Vote/Date House Senate House/Senate Conference Report Floor Vote/Date House Senate Public Law CR #13 H.J.Res. 123 (through 11/3/00) 11/2/00 310-7 Vote #592 CR #12 H.J.Res. 122 (through 11/2/00) 11/1/00 371-13 Vote #587 CR #11 H.J.Res. 121 (through 11/1/00) 10/31/00 10/31/00 361-13 (uc) Vote #585 CR #10 H.J.Res. 120 (through 10/31/00) 10/30/00 339-9 Vote #578 10/30/00 70-1 Vote #293 CR #9 H.J.Res. 119 (through 10/30/00) 10/29/00 342-7 Vote #575 10/29/00 67-1 Vote #292 CR #8 H.J.Res. 118 (through 10/29/00) 10/28/00 339-7 Vote #571 10/28/00 67-2 Vote #291 CR #7 H.J.Res. 117 (funding for 10/28/00) (366-13) 10/27/00 Vote #563 (86-3) 10/27/00 Vote #290 10/27/00 CR #6 H.J.Res. 116 (funding for 10/27/00) (392-10) 10/26/00 Vote #561 (94-1) 10/26/00 P.L. 106-359 CR #5 H.J.Res. 115 (funding for 10/26/00) (395-9) (87-2) 10/25/00 10/25/00 Vote #552 CR #4 H.J.Res. 114 (funding through 10/25) (262-136) (uc) Vote 10/19/00 #539 10/19/00 CR #3 H.J.Res. 111 (funding through 10/20/00) (407-2) Vote #527 10/12/00 (90-1) Vote #276 10/12/00 CR #2 H.J.Res. 110 (funding through 10/14/00) (415-1) Vote #509 10/3/00 (95-1) Vote # 264 10/5/00 11/2/00 (uc) P.L. 106-426 11/2/00 11/1/00 (uc) P.L. 106-416 11/1/00 P.L. 106-403 10/31/00 P.L. 106-401 10/30/00 P.L. 106-389 10/29/00 P.L. 106-388 10/28/00 P..L. 106-381 10/26/00 P.L. 106-358 10/25/00 P.L. 106-344 10/20/00 P.L. 106-306 10/13/00 P.L. 106-282 10/6/00 CRS-7 Bill No. CR #1 H.J.Res. 109 (funding though 10/6/00) Subcommittee Date/Vote Committee Date/Vote House Senate House Senate House/Senate Committee Report Floor Vote/Date House Senate (415-2) Vote #493 9/26/00 (96-0) Vote #259 9/28/00 House/Senate Conference Report Floor Vote/Date House Senate Public Law P.L. 106-275 9/29/00 Votes in parentheses. vv = voice vote; uc= unanimous consent. A. Commerce/Justice/State and District of Columbia: The President had threatened to veto the original combined Commerce and D.C. appropriations (Conference Report 106-1005). On 11/22/00, a separate D.C. appropriations bill, P.L. 106-522 (H.R. 5633), was signed by the President. On 12/21/00, the President signed a separately enacted Commerce/Justice/State bill, P.L. 106-553 (H.R. 4942). B. Energy/Water and VA/HUD: The first version, H.R. 4733, was vetoed by the President on 10/7/00. The House voted to override the President’s veto on 10/11/00, by a vote of 315-98. The second version, Conference Report 106-988, contains appropriations for VA/HUD (H.R. 5482) and Energy/Water (H.R. 5483), and provides these new bill numbers. See the 10/18/00 Congressional Record, p. H10083-224. On 10/19/00, the conference report passed the House by a vote of 386-24 (vote #536) and passed the Senate by a vote of 85-8 (vote #278). It was signed by the President on 10/27/00 (P.L. 106-377). C. Legislative Branch and Treasury, (and HUD): The combined conference report, H.Rept. 106-796 (H.R. 4516/H.R. 4985), also covers FY2000 emergency supplementals. Division A (H.R. 4516) contains legislative branch appropriations and emergency FY2000 supplemental appropriations for the legislative branch and for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, Federal Housing Administration. Division B contains provisions of the FY2001 Treasury and Postal Service appropriations bill (H.R. 4985), and would also repeal the excise tax on telephone and other communications services. The text of the conference report was published in the 7/27/00 Congressional Record, p. H7095-126. The conference report passed the House on 9/14/00, by a vote of 212-209, vote #476. Initially, it failed to pass the Senate on 9/20/00, by a vote of 2869, vote #253. On reconsideration, it passed the Senate on 10/12/00, by a vote of 58-37, vote #273, and was vetoed by the President on 10/30/00. The Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY2001 (P.L. 106-554), combined Labor/HHS/ Education, Legislative Branch, and Treasury/Postal. D. Military Construction: Supplemental spending was also included in the Military Construction conference report (H.Rept. 106-710). See CRS Report RL30457, Supplemental Appropriations for FY2000: Plan Colombia, Kosovo, Foreign Debt Relief, Home Energy Assistance, and Other Initiatives. E. Treasury and Transportation. The Transportation conference report (H.Rept. 106-940/H.R. 4475) also contained an extra $348 million for the IRS, counter-terrorism, and other programs. The Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY2001 (P.L. 106-554), combined Labor/HHS/ Education, Legislative Branch, and Treasury/Postal. F. H.J.Res. 84, as amended by Lott S.Amdt. 4357, provides funding through 11/14/00. CRS-8 Appropriation Public Law Numbers (1) Agriculture, P.L. 106-387 (10/28/00). (2) Commerce/Justice/State, P.L. 106-553 (12/21/00) (3) District of Columbia, P.L. 106-522 (11/22/00) (4) Defense, P.L. 106-259 (8/9/00). (5-6) Combined Energy-Water and VA-HUD, P.L. 106-377 (10/19/00). (7) Foreign Operations, P.L. 106-429 (11/6/00). (8) Interior, P.L. 106-291(10/11/00). (9-11) Consolidated Appropriations Act, P.L. 106-554 (12/21/00) covering Labor/HHS/Education, Legislative Branch, and Treasury/Postal. (12) Military Construction, P.L. 106-246 (7/13/00). (13) Transportation, P.L. 106-346 (10/23/00). For the most current information, use the CRS Appropriations Vote Status: Internet-Linked: [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready Version [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Number of Continuing Resolutions (CR): 21 See CRS Report RL30343, Continuing Appropriations Acts. Number of Vetoes: 2 The first Energy-Water Development appropriations bill (H.R. 4733) was vetoed by the President on 10/7/00. On 10/11/00, the House passed an override by the required twothirds majority, 315- 98, vote #523. (The second Energy-Water appropriations were combined with the VA-HUD appropriations, passed in conference report H.Rept. 106988, H.R. 4635, and signed by the President on 10/27/00, P.L. 106-377). On 10/30/00, the President vetoed H.Rept. 106-796, the combined Legislative Branch/Treasury appropriations. (See CRS Report RS20719, Vetoed Annual Appropriations Acts: Presidents Carter through Clinton.) Analysis: CRS Appropriation Product Series The CRS Appropriations/Budget Products Page provides direct access to a CRS product series providing analysis for each of the 13 appropriation bills. Also included is an Appropriations Status Chart providing access to appropriation votes, bills, reports, and public laws. Other access points include information on supplemental proposals, a budget chronology and overview with active Internet links, a list of key CRS policy staff, and a guide to locating federal agencies, departments, and programs in appropriation bills: [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apppage.shtml]. CRS-9 Appropriation Coordinators Area of Expertise Agriculture Commerce, Justice, State, Judiciary Defense District of Columbia Energy/Water (Co-Coordinator) Energy/Water (Co-Coordinator) Foreign Operations Interior Labor, Health, Human Services, Education Legislative Branch Military Construction Transportation Treasury, Postal Service Veterans, Housing and Urban Development (Co-Coordinator) Veterans, Housing and Urban Development (Co-Coordinator) Name CRS Division Tel. Ralph Chite Ed Knight Stephen Daggett Eugene P. Boyd Carl Behrens Marc Humphries Larry Nowels Alfred R. Greenwood Paul M. Irwin RSI G&F FDT G&F RSI RSI FDT RSI DSP 7-7296 7-7785 7-7642 7-8689 7-8303 7-7264 7-7645 7-7236 7-7573 Paul E. Dwyer Mary T. Tyszkiewicz Robert Kirk Sharon Gressle Dennis W. Snook G&F FDT RSI G&F RSI 7-8668 7-3144 7-7769 7-8677 7-7314 Richard Bourdon DSP 7-7806 Division abbreviations: DSP = Domestic Social Policy; FDT = Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade; G&F = Government and Finance; RSI = Resources, Science, and Industry. Agriculture, Rural Development, FDA P.L. 106-387, H.R. 4461 (10/28/00) – Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Summary from CRS Report RL30501, Appropriations for FY2001: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies, coordinated by Ralph M. Chite: (11/9/00) On October 28, 2000, the President signed into law the FY2001 appropriations act (P.L. 106-387/H.R. 4461) for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and related agencies. The full House and Senate had approved the conference agreement on H.R. 4461 on October 12th and 19th, respectively. The act contains $74.8 billion in regular appropriations for programs funded by the annual appropriations bill and $3.65 billion in FY2001 emergency supplemental spending, primarily to compensate farmers for the financial effects of low farm commodity price and natural disasters. Of the $74.8 billion in regular appropriations contained in P.L. 106-387, $15.0 billion is for discretionary programs, which is above both the House and Senate-passed levels of $14.5 billion and $14.85 billion, respectively, but below the Administration request for $15.5 billion. Regular FY2001 funding for USDA mandatory programs CRS-10 (such as food stamps and certain farm commodity support programs) is $59.8 billion in the FY2001 act, about $1 billion below the House- and Senate-passed levels, mainly because of a recent re-estimation of food stamp spending. Much of the CBO-estimated $3.65 billion in emergency supplemental assistance provided in P.L. 106-387 is for direct payments to farmers. This includes an estimated $1.6 billion in disaster payments for year 2000 crop losses; $490 million in emergency livestock assistance; and direct payments to dairy farmers in compensation for low farm milk prices, among many other provisions. Actual emergency spending under the act could be higher than $3.65 billion since the crop disaster payments and the market loss payments for dairy farmers authorized by the act are based on a payment formula rather than a fixed appropriation. Conference committee action on H.R. 4461 was delayed for several weeks because of controversy over three provisions - the exemption of food and medicine exports from current U.S. sanctions against Cuba; the relaxation of restrictions on the reimportation of prescription drugs from Canada and Mexico; and the amount of emergency assistance to be provided to farmers and rural areas. Conferees adopted language to allow food and medical sales to Cuba, but prohibit any private or public financing of such exports by U.S. banks or federal, state or local governments. Conferees also adopted a provision to allow the importation of prescription drugs, but with several restrictions. The Administration had expressed its displeasure with the sanctions and drug reimportation provisions saying that they are both too restrictive, but did not issue a veto threat. Among the many other provisions in P.L. 106-387 are an increase in the payment limit for recipients of loan deficiency payments; continued prohibitions or limitations on mandatory spending on certain agricultural research, conservation and rural programs; an earmark of duties collected on certain unfair trade practices to assist those industries affected by the trade practice; increased funding for food safety activities; an easing of restrictions on food stamp recipients with respect to housing and automobile allowances; and emergency funding of $200 million for rural economic assistance and improvements to infrastructures in rural areas. Commerce, Justice, State, Judiciary P.L. 106-553, H.R. 4942 (12/21/00) Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Summary from CRS Report RL30509, Appropriations for FY2001: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies, coordinated by Edward Knight: (1/26/01) This report tracks action by the 106th Congress on FY2001 appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and other related agencies (often referred to as CJS appropriations). P.L. 106-113 appropriated $39.6 billion for these agencies for FY2000. President Clinton’s FY2001 budget requested $39.6 billion for these agencies. On June 14, 2000, the House Appropriations Committee approved its version of the CJS appropriations bill (H.R. 4690). It recommended funding totaling $37.4 billion – $2.2 billion below the CRS-11 President’s request and $2.2 billion below the FY2000 appropriation. The House-passed bill on June 26, approved the same overall funding total recommended by the Committee. On July 18, 2000, the Senate Appropriations Committee approved total funding of $36.7 billion – about $700 million below the House version and $2.9 billion below both the President’s request and the actual FY2000 appropriation. On October 27, 2000, Congress approved total funding of $40.0 billion – about $400 million above both President’s request and the total enacted for FY2000 (H.R. 5548). The measure was signed into law by the President on December 21, 2000 (P.L. 106-553). The major CJS appropriations issues and concerns that received attention in both the Senate and the House include the following. Department of Justice: building more prisons; extending the 1994 Crime Act funding authorization beyond September 30, 2000; increasing funding for drug-related efforts among the Department of Justice (DOJ) agencies; increasing funding for community law enforcement; combating cybercrime; changing the focus and levels of appropriations for DOJ’s Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; providing funding for programs that would reduce gun and youth violence; funding of DOJ’s legal action against the tobacco industry; reducing pending caseloads in immigration-related claims, particularly green card and naturalization applications; meeting the statutory mandate that the Border Patrol be increased by 1,000 agents in FY2001, and accounting for the shortfall in hiring in FY1999; determining the level of detention capacity necessary to comply with the statutory mandate that certain criminal aliens be detained until deported; and restructuring INS internally as proposed by the Administration or dismantling or restructuring the agency by legislation. Department of Commerce: the progress made in streamlining and downsizing Department programs; implementation of the decennial census including followup operations; federal financial support of industrial technology development programs; monitoring foreign compliance with trade agreements and U.S. trade laws; and implementing new White House environmental initiatives at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Department of State: improving embassy security through a doubling of funding as well as a request for an advance appropriation to cover the period FY2002 to FY2005. The Judiciary: whether the salaries of judges and justices should receive a cost-of-living increase and whether a statutory ban on judges receiving honoraria should be lifted. Other Related Agencies: adequacy of funding levels for the Legal Services Corporation, Small Business Administration, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Defense P.L. 106-259, H.R. 4576 (8/9/00) – Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Summary from CRS Report RL30505, Appropriations for FY2001: Defense, by Stephen Daggett: (1/12/01) House and the Senate action on annual FY2001 defense funding was completed in December when Congress approved the FY2001 omnibus appropriations bill. In all, Congress provided about $310.0 billion for national defense, including CRS-12 $287.8 billion in the Department of Defense Appropriations bill. The national defense total is about $4.7 billion above the Administration’s request. The conference agreement on the FY2001 Labor-HHS-Education Appropriations/Omnibus appropriations bill, H.R. 4577, approved in the House and Senate on December 15, provides some additional FY2001 funds for the Department of Defense, including $150 million to repair the USS Cole, $100 million for classified programs related to operations overseas, and $43.5 million for military construction. Section 1403 of the bill also makes an across-the-board cut of 0.22% in all FY2001 discretionary funds, including defense, though military personnel funding is exempted from the reduction. In all, this will reduce FY2001 defense funding by $520 million. On October 11, the House approved a conference agreement on the FY2001 defense authorization bill, H.R. 4205, by a vote of 382-31. The Senate approved the agreement on October 12 by a vote of 90-3. The President signed the bill into law on October 30 (P.L. 106-398). A conference agreement on the defense appropriations bill, H.R. 4576, was approved in the House on July 19 and in the Senate on July 27, and the President signed the bill on August 9 (P.L. 106-259). Earlier the House and the Senate approved a conference agreement on the FY2001 military construction appropriations bill, H.R. 4425, and the President signed the measure into law on July 13 (P.L. 106-246). This bill includes supplemental appropriations for FY2000 military operations in Kosovo and Colombia, for increased fuel and medical care costs, and for some other defense programs. In action on key issues, authorization conferees agreed to (1) provide a permanent guarantee of health care for Medicare-eligible military retirees that was included in the Senate bill, but that expired after two years; (2) provide compensation for workers made ill by exposure to toxic materials in the nation’s nuclear weapons program; (3) drop a House-passed provision mandating troop withdrawals from Kosovo if allies do not meet burdensharing commitments (though the bill includes extensive reporting requirements); and (4) drop anti-hate crimes legislation that was attached to the Senate-passed bill. The retiree health care measure will make all military retirees eligible for health care through the military health care system. Conferees also agreed to a comprehensive retail and mail-order pharmacy benefit. According to preliminary CBO estimates, the bill’s retiree health care provisions will cost $40 billion more over the next 10 years than benefits DOD currently provides. Several major weapons programs also received attention in this year’s defense debate. The authorization and appropriations conference agreements reduced funding for the Joint Strike Fighter because of program delays. The authorization and appropriations bills also approved additional funding for the Army’s “transformation” plan, including funds to equip a second medium-weight brigade in FY2001. The authorization conference, however, included a requirement that the Army carry out additional comparative testing of armored vehicles before outfitting a third brigade. District of Columbia P.L. 106-522, H.R. 5633 (11/22/00) – Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] CRS-13 Summary from CRS Report RL30513, Appropriations for FY2001: District of Columbia, by Eugene Boyd: (11/27/00) On November 22, 2000, President Clinton signed P.L. 106-522 (formerly H.R. 5633), an act appropriating funds for the District of Columbia for FY2001. In one of the actions it took between election day on November 7, 2000, and the Thanksgiving holiday, the House and the Senate approved H.R. 5633 by unanimous consent. An earlier version of the act, H.R. 4942, was approved by the Senate on October 27, 2000, and by the House on October 26, 2000. However, the conference version of H.R. 4942 included funding for Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State. The President in a letter dated October 26, 2000, indicated that he would veto an otherwise acceptable District of Columbia Appropriations Act because of objections surrounding the inclusion of Commerce, Justice, and State appropriations to the act. These include issues relating to immigration, tobacco litigation, hate crimes, the sale and display of social security numbers, Violent Crime Reduction Trust Fund, and number of riders characterized by the Administration as anti-environmental and anti-competitive. On September 27, 2000, the Senate passed its version of H.R. 4942, the District of Columbia Appropriations Act forFY2001, two-weeks after the House approved its version of the bill on September 14, 2000. The House bill includes $414 million in special federal payments to the District of Columbia. The Senate bill includes $448 million in special federal payments to the District. A significant percentage of these payments is for court operations and criminal justice activities. The city’s general fund budget, as passed by the council and approved by the control board, includes increased funding for public education and economic development. On June 7, 2000, the District of Columbia Financial Responsibility and Management Assistance Authority approved a city council-passed budget for the 2001 fiscal year. The $5.5 billion operating budget, which must be approved by Congress, includes $445.4 million in special federal payments to the District of Columbia. Energy and Water Development P.L. 106-377 (Conference Report H.Rept. 106-988) Combined Energy/Water and VA/HUD Appropriations Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Summary from CRS Report RL30507, Appropriations for FY2001: Energy and Water Development, coordinated by Marc Humphries and Carl Behrens: (11/20/00) The Energy and Water Development appropriations bill includes funding for civil projects of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation (BuRec), most of the Department of Energy (DOE), and a number of independent agencies. The Administration requested $22.7 billion for these programs for FY2001 compared with $21.2 billion appropriated in FY2000. The House bill, H.R. 4733, passed on June 28, 2000, allocated $21.74 billion. The Senate passed its version of H.R. 4733 September 7, appropriating $22.5 billion. The conference bill, reported September 27, appropriated a total of $23.3 billion. That bill was vetoed, largely for non-fiscal reasons, and the Senate October 12 added a new version of the conference bill, with essentially the same funding but without the CRS-14 veto-drawing measure, to the VA/HUD appropriations measure, H.R. 4635. On October 18, H.R. 5483 was introduced in the House, containing the Energy and Water appropriations provisions included in the Senate-passed version. On the same day the conference report to H.R. 4635 was filed, including the provisions of H.R. 5483. The House and the Senate agreed to the conference report on October 19, and the President signed the bill October 27 (P.L. 106-377). Key issues involving Energy and Water Development appropriations programs include: authorization of appropriations for major water/ecosystem restoration initiatives for the Florida Everglades and California “Bay-Delta”; reform or review of Corps study procedures and agency management practices; spending for solar and renewable energy to address global climate change issues; a pending decision by DOE on the electrometallurgical treatment of nuclear spent fuel for storage and disposal, a process that opponents contend raises nuclear proliferation concerns; implementation of the new National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); an expanded Threat Reduction Initiative aimed at ending Russia’s production of plutonium that can be used to make nuclear weapons; and DOE management of its Spallation Neutron Source Project (SNS). Foreign Operations P.L. 106-429, H.R. 4811 (11/6/00) – Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Summary from CRS Report RL30511: Appropriations for FY2001: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs, by Larry Nowels: (2/8/01) The annual Foreign Operations appropriations bill is the primary legislative vehicle through which Congress reviews the U.S. foreign aid budget and influences executive branch foreign policy making generally. It contains the largest share — over two-thirds – of total U.S. international affairs spending. President Clinton asked Congress initially to appropriate $15.1 billion for FY2001 Foreign Operations, plus $1.25 billion in FY2000 supplemental funds. Congress approved some of the supplemental spending in P.L. 106-246, but in October 2000 reconsidered and approved as FY2001 emergency appropriations portions of the FY2000 supplemental rejected earlier. Consequently, the combined FY2000 supplemental/FY2001 regular Foreign Operations request, as it stood when Congress debated the FY2001 Foreign Operations conference report in October, totaled $15.45 billion. The largest program increases for FY2001 were those for the Export-Import Bank (+26%), USAID development aid (+18%), nonproliferation, terrorism, and demining (+44%), voluntary contributions to international organizations (+45%), and multilateral development bank contributions (+24%). S. 2522, as approved by the Senate on June 22, provided $13.4 billion for FY2001 Foreign Operations Appropriations. The measure was about $65 million less than FY2000 enacted and about $1.7 billion, or 11%, below the President’s initial FY2001 request. A major new initiative in S. 2522 was the creation of a Global Health account ($691 million). Population aid would have increased by $110 million and a new set of CRS-15 conditions on family planning programs would have effectively eliminated the FY2000 abortion-related restrictions. H.R. 4811, as approved by the House on July 13, provided $13.3 billion, about $200 million less than the FY2000 enacted, and 13% less than the President’s original request. The bill maintained the FY2000 funding level and abortion-related restrictions for family planning programs. At $238 million, the bill provided most of the Administration’s FY2001 request for debt relief, but still fell well short of the combined FY2000/2001 debt reduction request of $472 million. On October 25, Congress approved the conference report on H.R. 4811 (H.Rept. 106-997), increasing FY2001 Foreign Operations spending to $14.9 billion, well above levels passed earlier by either the House or Senate. The enacted legislation (P.L. 106-429) falls about $550 million, or 3.5% below the President’s combined FY2000 supplemental/FY2001 requests, but fully funds several top Administration priorities, including international debt relief and global health programs. For international family planning, Congress increased spending to $425 million, but restricted the obligation of funds until after February 15, 2001. Prior to the release of these funds, President Bush reimposed the so-called “Mexico City” abortion restrictions that will apply to FY2001 and future U.S. family planning appropriations. Interior P.L. 106-291, H.R. 4578 (10/11/00) – Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Summary from CRS Report RL30506, Appropriations for FY2001: Interior and Related Agencies, coordinated by Alfred R. Greenwood: (10/17/00) The Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations bill includes funding for agencies and programs in four separate federal departments as well as numerous smaller agencies and diverse programs. The bill includes funding for the Interior Department except the Bureau of Reclamation, but only segments of the funding of the other three departments, Agriculture, Energy, and Health and Human Services. On February 7, 2000, President Clinton submitted his FY2001 budget to Congress. The FY2001 request for Interior and Related Agencies totals $16.32 billion compared to the $14.91 billion enacted for FY2000 (P.L. 106-113), an increase of $1.41 billion. (With scorekeeping adjustments, including an across-the-board cut of 0.38% for FY2000, the figures are $16.49 billion requested for FY2001 compared with $14.90 billion enacted for FY2000.) The Interior Subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee and the full House Appropriations Committee marked up the FY2001 Interior Appropriations bill on May 17, 2000 and May 25, 2000, respectively. On June 16, 2000, the House passed H.R. 4578 (H.Rept. 106-646) by a vote of 204-172. The FY2001 recommended level of $14.6 billion is $1.7 billion below the President’s request and $302 million below the FY2000 enacted level. CRS-16 The Interior Subcommittee of the Senate Appropriations Committee and the full Senate Appropriations Committee marked up the Interior bill on June 20, 2000 and June 22, 2000, respectively. On July 18, 2000, the Senate passed H.R. 4578 (S.Rept. 106-312) by a vote of 97-2. The FY2001 recommended level of $15.8 billion in total budget authority is some $1.16 billion above the House-passed mark. A House-Senate conference met on September 20 and September 21 and after further discussions between the conferees and the Administration agreed to a funding level of $18.8 billion, some $3.8 billion above the FY2000 enacted level. The conference agreement included $1.8 billion in emergency and supplemental funding ($300 million above the President’s request) for expenditures already incurred in firefighting and to restore areas damaged by Western wildfires. The conference also included a new Title VIII that would implement a modified version of the President’s Lands Legacy Initiative over 6 years. Funding would start at a total of $1.6 billion in FY2001 ($1.2 billion for Interior Appropriations programs) and rise to $2.4 billion in FY2006. In addition, the conference provided significant increases for the Indian Health Service (+ $214 million), Bureau of Indian Affairs programs (+ $272 million), Energy Conservation programs (+ $94.7 million), and Bureau of Land Management Operations (+ $66 million). (See Table 5 for the House, Senate, and Conference approved funding levels.) The conference report (H.Rept. 106-914) was passed by the House on October 3, 2000 by a vote of 348-69 and was passed by the Senate on October 5, 2000, by a vote of 83-13. President Clinton signed H.R. 4578 into law (P.L. 106-291) on October 11, 2000. Labor/HHS/Education P.L. 106-554 (H.R. 5656) – Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Also see CRS Report RS20756, FY2001 Consolidated Appropriations Act: Reference Guide. Summary from CRS Report RL30503, Appropriations for FY2001: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, by Paul M. Irwin: (1/18/01) This report tracks the enactment by the 106th Congress of the FY2001 appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies (L-HHS-ED). This Act provides discretionary funds for three federal departments and related agencies. The report summarizes L-HHS-ED discretionary funding issues, but not authorization or entitlement issues. On February 7, 2000, the President submitted the FY2001 budget request to the Congress. Following a series of 21 continuing resolutions, the President signed H.R. 4577 into law, as P.L. 106-554, on December 21, 2001. The L-HHS-ED “program level” funding was $97.2 billion in FY2000; for FY2001, $107.1 billion was requested, and $109.3 billion is enacted. “Program level” means discretionary funds from the current Act for any year. Comparable “current year” amounts are $85.5 billion, $106.1 billion, and $108.9 billion, respectively. “Current year” means discretionary funds for CRS-17 this year from any Act. The FY2000 funding for L-HHS-ED programs was enacted primarily through P.L. 106-113. U.S. Department of Labor (DOL): DOL program level funding was $11.3 billion in FY2000, and $11.9 billion is enacted for FY2001; respective current year amounts are $8.8 billion and $11.9 billion. Increases of at least $100 million are provided for the Workforce Investment Act, State Unemployment Insurance and Employment Service Operations, and Departmental Management. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS): DHHS program level funding was $41.7 billion in FY2000, and $46.5 billion is enacted; respective current year amounts are $40.3 billion and $48.8 billion. Increases of at least $100 million are provided for Community Health Centers, Health Professions, Ryan White AIDS programs, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, Head Start, and the Administration on Aging. Funding is reduced for the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program, and the Child Care and Development Block Grant. U.S. Department of Education (ED): ED program level funding was $35.6 billion in FY2000, and $42.1 billion is enacted; respective current year amounts are $29.4 billion and $40.0 billion. Increases of at least $100 million are provided for Education Technology, 21st Century Community Learning Centers, Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies, Eisenhower Professional Development, Class Size Reduction, School Repair, Special Education, Pell Grants, and Aid for Institutional Development. Funding is reduced for Goals 2000: Educate America Act. Related Agencies: Program level funding for related agencies was $8.2 billion in FY2000, and $8.8 billion is enacted; respective current year amounts are $8.1 billion and $8.7 billion. Increases of at least $100 million are provided for the Supplemental Security Income program and for Administrative Expenses at the Social Security Administration. Legislative Branch P.L. 106-554, H.R. 5657 (12/21/00). Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Also see CRS Report RS20756, FY2001 Consolidated Appropriations Act: Reference Guide. Summary from CRS Report RL30512, Appropriations for FY2001: Legislative Branch, by Paul Dwyer: (2/19/01) Congress appropriated $2.623 billion for legislative branch operations in FY2001, a 5.5% increase over the FY2000 appropriation of $2.486 billion. The FY2001 funding level includes: an appropriation of $2.527 billion in the regular annual legislative branch appropriations bill; an additional appropriation of $101.5 million in a miscellaneous appropriations bill; and, a rescission of $5.9 million, or 0.22%. Regular FY2001 Appropriations. The first regular FY2001 legislative branch appropriations bill (H.R. 4516) approved by Congress was vetoed by President Clinton CRS-18 in late October 2000. Seven weeks later, on December 14, a new legislative branch appropriations bill (H.R. 5657), which contained the same funding levels as the original bill, was introduced and incorporated by reference in the FY2001 Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 4577). The latter act was signed into law (P.L. 106-554) on December 21, 2000. During initial consideration of the regular legislative branch bill, the House Appropriations Committee, in compliance with budget allocation restrictions, established funding for FY2001 at 5.5% less than the level appropriated for FY2000. When the Senate took up the bill it approved an overall 3.7 % increase. The House later restored most of the funds cut at the committee level when it adopted a manager’s amendment containing an additional $95.7 million in funding during floor consideration of the House bill. The compromise bill approved by the conference committee provided for a 2.1% increase over FY2000. Among the major funding issues considered and resolved were actions to: increase funds for the Capitol Police to employ 100-115 additional officers to implement the Capitol Police Board’s security plan; temporarily transfer administration of the Capitol Police to a chief administrative office under jurisdiction of the General Accounting Office; merge Library of Congress and Government Printing Office police with the Capitol Police; provide adequate funds for electronic document printing, the digital online program of the Library of Congress, and enhancements to the legislative information system; fund the support agency staff succession programs to replace employees eligible for retirement in the immediate future; and authorize GAO (1) greater flexibility in a reduction-in-force, and (2) authority for voluntary early retirements and separation payments. Additional Regular Appropriations and Rescission. A second bill (H.R. 5666), which contained an additional $101.5 million in regular FY2001 legislative branch appropriations funds, and a 0.22% across-the-broad cut in FY2001 appropriations (which resulted in a $5.9 million reduction in legislative funding), was also incorporated by reference into P.L. 106-554. Military Construction P.L. 106-246, H.R. 4425 (7/13/00) – Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Summary from CRS Report RL30510, Appropriations for FY2001: Military Construction, by Mary T. Tyszkiewicz: (11/7/00) The military construction (MilCon) appropriations bill finances (1) military construction projects in the United States and overseas; (2) military family housing operations and construction; (3) U.S. contributions to the NATO Security Investment Program; and (4) most base realignment and closure costs. This report reviews the appropriations and authorization process for military construction. The congressional debate perennially centers on the adequacy of the President’s budget for military construction needs and the necessity for congressional CRS-19 add-ons, especially for Guard and Reserve projects. In recent years, Congress has frequently complained that the Pentagon has not adequately funded military construction. The Administration’s FY2001 budget request for military construction is $8.0 billion, which is 5.5% below the level provided in FY2000. This continues a downward trend from the peak FY1996 level of $11.2 billion, the FY1997 level of $9.8 billion, the FY1998 level of $9.3 billion, the FY1999 level of $9.0 billion and the FY2000 level of $8.4 billion. On May 16, 2000, the House passed the Military Construction Appropriations Act FY2001 (H.R. 4425), by a 386-22 roll call vote. The House followed the House Appropriations Committee’s lead and passed the $8.634 billion bill with only one amendment. On May 18, 2000, the Senate passed S. 2521, their version of the FY2001 Military Construction Appropriations bill, on a 95-4 vote. Because emergency supplemental appropriations for FY2000 was added onto this bill, the conference debate has focused on domestic and defense issues outside of military construction. For background and comprehensive information on the FY2000 supplemental funding, see CRS Report RL30457, Supplemental Appropriations for FY2000: Plan Colombia, Kosovo, Foreign Debt Relief, Home Energy Assistance and Other Initiatives, by Larry Nowels, et al. The Military Construction Appropriations conference report, recommending $8.834 billion, was approved by the House on June 29, 2000, and the Senate on June 30, 2000. It became P.L. 106-246 on July 13, 2000. In authorization action, on May 18, 2000, the House approved its defense authorization bill (H.R. 4205, H.Rept. 106-616). The Senate substituted their version of the defense authorization bill - S. 2549, S.Rept. 106-292 - in H.R. 4205 and passed that bill on July 13, 2000. The conference report (H.Rept. 106-945) was passed by the House on October 11, 2000 and by the Senate on October 12, 2000. The conference authorized $8.8 billion, $787 million more than the President’s request. The FY2001 defense authorization bill became P.L. 106-398 on October 30, 2000. Transportation P.L. 106-346, H.R. 4475 (10/23/00) – Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Summary from CRS Report RL30508, Appropriations for FY2001: Department of Transportation and Related Agencies, coordinated by Robert S. Kirk: (2/12/01) President Clinton signed the FY2001 Department of Transportation (DOT) Appropriations Act (P.L. 106-346; H.Rept. 106-940) on October 23, 2000. The agreement provides $57.978 billion for DOT. This is an increase of more than 14% over the enacted FY2000 level. The Act provides increases for all major DOT agencies except the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). On December 21, 2000, President Clinton signed the FY2001 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 106-554). The Act CRS-20 provided for a government-wide rescission of 0.22%. This cut $125 million from the DOT budget for FY2001. Both houses of Congress had passed somewhat different versions of the FY2001 appropriations bill (H.R. 4475). The House of Representatives version would have provided total budgetary resources of $55.2 billion; the Senate version $54.7 billion. The roughly $500 million difference was partly an outgrowth of the lower budget cap that Senators had to work with. For the overall DOT budget, the Senate bill would have represented a 9.5% increase over the FY2000 budget; the House bill a nearly 10.5% increase. The FY2001 Act reflects the ongoing impact of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21). It raises highway funding by 16% and mass transit funding by almost 8.5%. These spending levels meet or exceed TEA21's requirements. The Administration had proposed increases of 5% for highways and roughly 9% for transit. The enacted version of H.R. 4475 appropriates additional funds not included in either the House or Senate-passed versions, such as: $1.37 billion for miscellaneous highway projects, $600 million for the Woodrow Wilson Memorial Bridge, roughly $55 million for the Appalachian development highway system; and $720 million for the Emergency Relief Federal Aid Highway Program. The Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (FAIR21) (P.L. 106-181)has also had a major impact on the FAA’s funding for FY2001. H.R. 4475, in conformance with FAIR21, provides for an increase in the FAA’s total budget of roughly 25%. The FY2001 Act includes language to strengthen state drunk driver blood alcohol standards to 0.08% but phases in the highway funds reduction penalties more gradually than in the Senate passed bill-at a rate of 2% annually beginning in FY2004 up to a maximum of 8%. It also permits the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to collect and analyze public comments and data on its proposed hours of service rules but prohibits FMCSA from taking final action during FY2001. Treasury/Postal Service P.L. 106-554, H.R. 5658 (12/21/00). Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] Also see CRS Report RS20756, FY2001 Consolidated Appropriations Act: Reference Guide. Summary from CRS Report RL30502, Appropriations for FY2001: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government, coordinated by Sharon S. Gressle: (11/22/00) With the veto of the Legislative Branch appropriation for FY2001, October 30, most of the accounts usually contained in the Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government (also known as the Treasury and General Government) appropriations acts are being funded, at FY2000 levels through a continuing funding resolution which expires November 14. Partial CRS-21 funding for a select few of the accounts and some general provisions of the Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government FY2001 Appropriations are included in the Department of Transportation FY2001 Appropriation (P.L. 106-346, Title V, October 23, 2000) and the continuing funding resolution (P.L. 106-275, as amended). In addition to the continuing resolutions, there are four appropriations bills which would fund all or some of the accounts usually funded through the Treasury, Postal Service and General Government FY2001 appropriations acts. The House had passed, on July 20, H.R. 4871. The Senate had reported, on July 20, S. 2900 and, on July 26, had voted to invoke cloture to proceed with debate on H.R. 4871. The third version, H.R. 4985, was introduced on July 26 as a new bill and reported from the Legislative Branch (H.R. 4516) appropriations conference committee as section 1001, Division B of that conference. The House agreed to the conference report on H.R. 4516 September 14. The Senate rejected the conference agreement on a 28-69 vote September 20, subsequently agreeing to it October 12. On October 6, the House and Senate approved and sent to the President, a conference agreement for Department of Transportation appropriations (H.R. 4475). Title V partially funds ($348.4 million) several of the accounts. The disposition of the primary funding for the Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government accounts remains uncertain. The FY2001 budget, submitted to Congress on February 7, 2000, requests $31.2 billion to fund the accounts covered through the Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government appropriations. The FY2000 funding totals $28.257 billion, including mandatory funding (reflecting scorekeeping by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO)). Incorporating the CBO scorekeeping for FY2001, the budget would have mandatory accounts funded at $14.68 billion and discretionary funding set at $16.5 billion. The House and Senate Appropriations Committees approved allocations to the various appropriations: House--discretionary budget authority at $14.402 billion with outlays at $14.751 billion; and Senate--$14.3 billion for budget authority and $14.566 billion for outlays. While the congressional allocations are in disagreement with one another, they are consistently lower than the requested funding. The vetoed measure (H.R. 4516/H.R. 4985) would have funded the discretionary accounts at $15.630 billion. P.L. 106-346 (H.R. 4475) adds $348 million. Under H.R. 4871, the total funding (using CBO scorekeeping tallies) would be $29.1 billion, of which $14.4 billion would be for discretionary accounts. On July 20, the Senate Appropriations Committee reported out S. 2900 which would total $29.2 billion, with $14.5 billion in discretionary funding. Veterans Affairs/Housing and Urban Development P.L. 106-377, Conference Report H.Rept. 106-988, H.R. 4635, (10/23/00). See Combined Energy/Water and VA/HUD Appropriations. Vote Status Table: Internet-Linked [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml] Printer-Ready [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apprint.shtml] CRS-22 Summary from CRS Report RL30504, Appropriations for FY2001: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies, coordinated by Dennis W. Snook and E. Richard Bourdon: (11/17/00) Congress completes action on FY2001 VA-HUD Bill. Congress has passed, and the President signed (P.L. 106-377) an FY2001 appropriations bill (H.R. 4635) for the Departments of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and several independent agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Science Foundation (NSF), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNS). The bill provides a total of $107.3 billion in appropriations for programs covered by the bill, including $82.6 billion in discretionary spending. Mandatory spending, mostly for VA cash benefit programs, is projected to require $24.6 billion. Rescissions of $1.8 billion in unobligated HUD housing assistance funds were included in the bill. After all scorekeeping factors are considered, the total mandatory and discretionary funds provided by the bill is $107.1 billion. The President’s FY2001 Request. According to congressional estimates, the Administration’s request for VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies FY2001 appropriations totals $109.4 billion. The request assumes $24.6 billion in mandatory spending for VA entitlements, and $84.8 billion (including $4.2 billion in advance FY2002 HUD funds) for discretionary programs funded through the VA-HUD bill. The request assumes major increases in VA medical care spending, adding $1.3 billion in new funds to FY2000 levels. HUD spending would increase by $6.6 billion over FY2000, including the Administration’s proposed advance FY2002 appropriations of $4.2 billion, a move also enacted for FY2001 in the FY2000 appropriations bill. FY2001 Congressional Budget Resolution (H.Con.Res. 290). The budget resolution for FY2001 called for an allocation for VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies of about $400 million below the total provided for FY2000. VA would receive a $1.5 billion increase in discretionary spending, most of which would increase VA health care funding. Discretionary appropriations targets for the VA, HUD, and Independent Agency appropriations subcommittees, known as “302(b) allocations,” have been placed at $76.2 billion for the House, and $77.8 billion for the Senate. P.L. 106-74 (H.R. 2684). The FY2000 bill provided $99.7 billion in FY2000 appropriations (current estimates revise the effect of the bill to $99.1 billion) for programs covered under the Act, compared to $99.6 billion requested. As requested, the bill incorporated $4.2 billion in advance FY2001 funding, and $2.9 billion in rescissions of funds appropriated in previous years. P.L. 106-113 subsequently required 0.38% in across-the-board reductions, and these reductions lowered appropriations of P.L. 106-74 by $285 million. Among agencies with funding increases under P.L. 106-74 were VA medical care, up by $1.7 billion over FY1999 (the Administration requested a freeze), and HUD, up $2 billion above FY1999, or about $2 billion less than the Administration request. CRS-23 Supplemental for FY2000 Summary from CRS Report RL30457, Supplemental Appropriations for FY2000: Plan Colombia, Kosovo, Foreign Debt Relief, Home Energy Assistance, and Other Initiatives, by Larry Q. Nowels, Stephen Daggett, Curt Tarnoff, Nina Maria Serafino, and Melinda T. Gish: (7/5/00) On June 30, the Senate passed and cleared for the White House H.R. 4425, the FY2001 Military Construction Appropriation bill that includes $11.2 billion for FY2000 supplemental spending needs. As enacted, H.R. 4425 provides $1.3 billion for the Colombian counternarcotics initiative (about the same as requested by the President for FY2000/FY2001 combined), $2 billion, as proposed, for DOD peacekeeping costs in Kosovo, about $4.5 billion for other defense requirements, $1.5 billion for Hurricane Floyd, Cerro Grande fire, and other natural disaster relief, and $600 million for the Low Income Heating and Energy Assistance Program. H.R. 4425, however, rejects funding for poor country debt relief and most Balkan assistance. The legislation further includes a change in the payment dates for Social Security and Veterans benefits that will result in $4.2 billion higher spending in FY2000 rather than FY2001. Some Senators oppose this switch in payment schedules, and reportedly obtained Senate leadership agreement to attempt to rescind these provisions legislation considered in July. Earlier, the House and Senate took different legislative paths in considering the President’s $5.7 billion supplemental request. The House took up a single FY2000 supplemental bill – H.R. 3908 – passing a $12.8 billion measure on March 30. The Senate, however, decided to attach supplemental money to regular FY2001 appropriation bills: S. 2521 (Military Construction, passed by the Senate on May 18); S. 2522 (Foreign Operations, passed by the Senate on June 22); and S. 2536 (Agriculture, reported by the Committee on May 10). Combined, the three Senate measures recommended $8.6 billion in FY2000 supplemental spending. Ultimately, congressional leaders decided to use H.R. 4425 — the House-passed Military Construction Appropriation — as the vehicle for all supplemental issues. Early in each new session of Congress, the Administration routinely submits requests for supplemental appropriations for the current fiscal year. By late April 2000, through several submissions to Congress, President Clinton had requested $5 billion in FY2000 supplemental appropriations, including $955 million for a counternarcotics initiative in Colombia and the Andean region, about $2 billion for DOD peacekeeping operations in Kosovo, $600 million for diplomatic support and economic aid related to Kosovo and the Balkans, $210 million for poor country debt relief, $600 million for home energy assistance to low income American families affected by high home heating oil prices and weather emergencies, and $426 million for domestic disaster relief that mostly involves ongoing post-1999 hurricane cleanup efforts. The Administration designated nearly all as emergency requirements for FY2000, thereby eliminating the need to reduce existing appropriations to offset the costs of additional spending. The White House proposed a limited number of offsets, rescissions, transfers, and delays in funding obligations totaling about $750 million. The FY2000 supplemental request continues a pattern of the past few years in which the President has asked, and Congress has approved large supplementals CRS-24 generally focusing on defense, foreign policy, and domestic natural disasters and farm relief initiatives. In most cases, Congress has increased the President’s proposed supplementals, adding funds especially for domestic programs and defense. A continuing controversy, however, has been the extent to which new appropriations should be offset by cuts in existing funds. Since FY1997, Congress has agreed to declare most supplementals as emergencies, adding a small amount of offsets. Locating Agencies, Departments, and Programs in Appropriation Bills “I’m looking for a particular program, but I don’t know which appropriation bill it’s in.” Federal agencies may receive funds from more than one appropriations act. Consult the “Guide to Federal Programs” on the CRS FY2000 Appropriations Products Page, or the Senate Appropriations Committee jurisdiction site; both identify the major source of appropriated funds for federal agencies and programs. [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/appprogs.html] [http://www.senate.gov/~appropriations/jurisd.htm] Guide to Selected Federal Programs in Appropriation Bills For a more detailed list, please use the Web sites listed above. The major source of appropriated funds for each of the following federal agencies is identified below. -AAeronautics and Space Administration, National (NASA)—Veterans, HUD Agency for International Development (AID)—Foreign Operations Aging Programs—Labor, HHS, Education Agriculture Department—Agriculture AIDS, National Commission on—Labor, HHS, Education Air Force—Defense Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF)—Treasury, Postal Alternative Fuels Production— Interior AmeriCorps—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development Amtrak—Transportation Anti-terrorism Organizations and Programs—Foreign Operations Appalachian Regional Commission—Energy and Water Architect of the Capitol—Legislative Branch Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance—Transportation Arms Control and Disarmament Agency—Commerce, Justice, State Army—Defense Army Corps of Engineers (Civil)—Energy and Water Asian Development Fund and Bank—Foreign Operations -BBlack Lung Disability Insurance—Labor, HHS, Education Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF)—Treasury, Postal Bureau of Indian Affairs—Interior Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)—Labor, HHS, Education Bureau of the Census—Commerce, Justice, State -CCensus—Commerce, Justice, State Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)—Labor, HHS, Education CRS-25 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)—Defense Child Care Assistance—Labor, HHS, Education Child Nutrition—Agriculture Child Support Enforcement—Labor, HHS, Education Civil Corps of Engineers—Energy and Water Clean Coal Technology—Interior Civil Rights Commission—Commerce, Justice, State Coast Guard—Transportation Commerce Department—Commerce, Justice, State Commission on Civil Rights—Commerce, Justice, State Commission of Fine Arts—Interior Commission on Immigration Reform—Commerce, Justice, State Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe—Commerce, Justice, State Commodity Credit Corporation—Agriculture Community Services Block Grant—Labor, HHS, Ed Congressional Budget Office (CBO)—Legislative Branch Congressional Expenses—Legislative Branch Congressional Research Service (CRS)—Legislative Branch Consumer Information Center—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development Consumer Product Safety Commission—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPC)—Labor, HHS, Education Customs Service—Treasury, Postal -DDefense Agencies—Defense Democracy, National Endowment for—Commerce, Justice, State Department of Agriculture—Agriculture Department of the Army Corps of Engineer (Civil)—Energy and Water Department of Commerce—Commerce, Justice, State Department of Defense (DOD)—Defense Department of Defense (Civil)—Energy and Water Department of Education— Labor, HHS, Education Department of Energy—Energy and Water, Interior, Defense Department of Health and Human Services—Labor, HHS, Education Department of Housing and Urban Development—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development Department of the Interior—Interior Department of Justice—Commerce, Justice, State Department of Labor—Labor, HHS, Education Department of State—Commerce, Justice, State Department of Transportation—Transportation Department of the Treasury—Treasury, Postal Department of Veterans Affairs—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development DOD Base Closure Account—Military Construction Drug Control Policy Office—Treasury, Postal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)—Commerce, Justice, State -EEconomic Development Administration—Commerce, Justice, State Economic Regional Administration—Interior Education Department—Labor, HHS, Education Emergency Preparedness—Interior Employment and Training Administration—Labor, HHS, Education Energy Department—Energy and Water (also, see Interior and Defense appropriations) Energy Information Administration—Interior Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)—Commerce, Justice, State Ethics Office, Government—Treasury, Postal Executive Office of the President—Treasury, Postal Export-Import Bank—Foreign Operations CRS-26 -FFamily Housing (Military)—Military Construction Farm Credit Systems Financial Assistance Corporation—Agriculture Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)—Transportation Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)—Commerce, Justice, State Federal Communications Commission (FCC)—Commerce, Justice, State Federal Deposit Insurance Fund—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development Federal Drug Control Program—Treasury, Postal Federal Election Commission (FEC)—Treasury, Postal Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development Federal Highway Administration—Transportation Federal Labor Relations Authority—Treasury, Postal Federal Mine Safety and Health Review—Labor, HHS, Education Federal Procurement Policy Office—Treasury, Postal Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corp. (FSLIC)—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development Federal Trade Commission (FTC)—Commerce, Justice, State Fine Arts Commission—Interior Fish and Wildlife Service—Interior Food and Drug Administration (FDA)—Agriculture Food Stamp Program—Agriculture Foreign Military Program—Foreign Operations Forest Service—Interior Fossil Energy Research and Development—Interior -GGeneral Accounting Office (GAO)—Legislative Branch General Services Administration (GSA)—Treasury, Postal Government Ethics Office—Treasury, Postal Government Printing Office (GPO)—Legislative Branch -HHealth and Human Services Department—Labor, HHS, Education Health, National Institutes of (NIH)—Labor, HHS, Education Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA)—Labor, HHS, Education Historic Preservation—Interior Highways—Transportation Housing and Urban Development Department (HUD)—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development House of Representatives—Legislative Branch Humanities, National Endowment for the—Interior -IImmigration and Naturalization Service (INS)—Commerce, Justice, State Immigration Reform Commission—Commerce, Justice, State Indian Affairs Bureau—Interior Indian Education—Interior Indian Gaming Commission, National—Interior Indian Health Services and Facilities—Interior Institute of Museum Services—Interior Inter-American Development Bank—Foreign Operations Inter-American Foundation—Foreign Operations Interior Department—Interior Internal Revenue Service (IRS)—Treasury, Postal International Bank for Reconstruction and Development—Foreign Operations International Monetary Fund (IMF)—Foreign Operations International Narcotics Control—Foreign Operations International Trade Administration (ITA)—Commerce, Justice, State International Trade Commission (ITC)—Commerce, Justice, State Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)—Transportation CRS-27 -JJobs Corps—Labor, HHS, Education Judiciary—Commerce, Justice, State Justice Department—Commerce, Justice, State -LLabor Department—Labor, HHS, Education Labor Relations Board, National (NLRB)—Labor, HHS, Education Labor Statistics Bureau—Labor, HHS, Education Legal Services Corporation—Commerce, Justice, State Library of Congress—Legislative Branch Library Services Office—Labor, HHS, Education -MManagement and Budget, Office (OMB)—Treasury, Postal Marine Corps—Defense Marine Mammal Commission—Commerce, Justice, State Maritime Administration—Commerce, Justice, State Market Promotion Program—Agriculture Migration and Refugee Assistance—Foreign Operations Mine Safety and Health Administration—Labor, HHS, Education Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency—Foreign Operations Museum Services, Institute—Interior -NNarcotics Control, Domestic (See Drug Enforcement Administration)—Commerce, Justice, State Narcotics Control, International—Foreign Operations National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)—Veterans, HUD National Endowment for the Humanities—Interior National Endowment for Democracy—Commerce, Justice, State National Forest—Interior National Highway Traffic Safety Administration—Transportation National Institutes of Health (NIH)—Labor, HHS, Education National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)—Labor, HHS, Education National Park Service—Interior National Science Foundation—Veterans National Security Council—Treasury, Postal National Transportation Safety Board—Transportation NATO Infrastructure—Military Construction Navajo and Hopi Indian Relocation Commission—Interior Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves—Interior Navy—Defense Nonproliferation and Disarmament Fund—Foreign Operations Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)—Energy and Water -OOccupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)—Labor, HHS, Education Office of Management and Budget (OMB)—Treasury, Postal Office of Personnel Management (OPM)—Treasury, Postal Office of the U.S. Trade Representative—Commerce, Justice, State Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)—Foreign Operations -PPark Service, National—Interior Peace Corps—Foreign Operations Peace Keeping Operations—Foreign Operations Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) —Labor, HHS, Education Personnel Management, Office (OPM)—Treasury, Postal Physicians Payment Review Commission—Labor, HHS, Education CRS-28 Points of Light Foundation—Veterans Postal Service—Treasury, Postal President—Treasury, Postal Procurement Policy, Office of Federal—Treasury, Postal Prospective Payment Assessment Commission—Labor, HHS, Education Public Health Service—Labor, HHS, Education -RRailroad Administration, Federal—Transportation Railroad Retirement Board—Labor, HHS, Education Refugee Assistance—Foreign Operations Resolution Trust Corporation—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development Rural—Agriculture -SSavings and Loan Insurance Corp., Federal (FSLIC)—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development Science Foundation, National—Veterans Security and Cooperation in Europe Commission—Commerce, Justice, State Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)—Commerce, Justice, State Secret Service—Treasury, Postal Selective Service—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development Senate—Legislative Branch Small Business Administration (SBA)—Commerce, Justice, State Smithsonian Institution—Interior Social Security Administration (SSA)—Labor, HHS, Education State Department—Commerce, Justice, State Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR)—Interior -TTax Court—Treasury, Postal Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)—Energy and Water Trade and Development Agency—Foreign Operations Trade Administration, International (ITA)—Commerce, Justice, State Trade Commission, International (ITC)—Commerce, Justice, State Trade Representative—Commerce, Justice, State Transportation Department (DOT)—Transportation Treasury Department—Treasury, Postal -UU.S. Information Agency (USIA)—Commerce, Justice, State U.S. Trade Representatives Office—Commerce, Justice, State -VVeterans Department (VA)—Veterans, Housing and Urban Development Violent Crime Reduction Programs—Treasury, Postal VISTA—Labor, HHS, Education -WWashington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority—Transportation White House—Treasury, Postal Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC)—Agriculture World Bank—Foreign Operations CRS-29 Budget Surplus (For information on the FY2001 budget, see CRS Issue Brief IB10052, The Budget for Fiscal Year 2001.) On 1/31/01, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) released their Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2002-2011. HTML: [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=2727&sequence=1] PDF: [http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdoc.cfm?index=2727&type=1] On 9/27/00, President Clinton announced an FY2000 budget surplus projection of more than $230 billion. This was the third consecutive surplus and the largest in U.S. history. (The surplus was $124 billion in FY1999 and $69 billion in FY1998.) President Clinton also announced that the government paid down an additional $223 billion in debt held by the public in FY2000. The total amount of debt reduction was $360 billion over the last three years. The two major sources for federal budget information are the Congressional Budget Office [http://www.cbo.gov/] and the Office of Management and Budget [http://www.whitehouse.gov/OMB/]. Budget Resolution: Votes On 4/13/00, the budget resolution conference report for FY2001 (H.Rept. 106-577, H.Con.Res. 290) was adopted by both the House and Senate. The House agreed by a vote of 220-208, vote #125, Congressional Record, 4/13/00, p. H2258. The Senate vote was 50-48, vote #85, Congressional Record, 4/13/00, p. S2696. The President does not sign budget resolutions. Previously, on 4/7/00, the Senate had passed its FY2001 budget resolution by incorporating S.Con.Res. 101 into H.Con.Res. 290 as a substitute, and passing H.Con.Res. 290 by a vote of 51-45, vote #79, Congressional Record, 4/7/00, p. S2384-2432. In the early morning of 3/24/00, the House passed its FY2001 budget resolution by a vote of 211-207, and rejected five other budget proposals. Congressional Record, 3/23/00, p. H1335-H1401, vote #75. ! Rejected the Owens (Congressional Black Caucus) amendment in the nature of a substitute by a vote of 70 to 348, vote #70, Congressional Record, 3/23/00, p. H1341-55. ! Rejected the DeFazio (Progressive Caucus) amendment in the nature of a substitute, by a vote of 61-351, vote #71, Congressional Record, 3/23/00, p. H1355-63. CRS-30 ! Rejected the Stenholm (Blue Dog Democrats) amendment in the nature of a substitute, by a vote of 171-243, vote #72, Congressional Record, 3/23/00, p. H1363-74. ! Rejected the Sununu (Republican Conservative Action Team — CATS) amendment in the nature of a substitute by a vote of 78-339, vote #73, Congressional Record, 3/23/00, p. H1375-86. ! Rejected the Spratt (Democratic Alternative) amendment in the nature of a substitute by a vote of 184-233, vote #74, Congressional Record, 3/23/00, p. H1386-H1400. For historical information on budget resolutions from FY1975-FY2000, see CRS Report RL30297, Congressional Budget Resolutions: Selected Statistics and Information Guide. CRS Appropriation/Budget Products Appropriations and Budget Process CRS Report 97-684, The Congressional Appropriations Process: an Introduction, by Sandy Streeter. CRS Report 98-721, Introduction to the Federal Budget Process, by Robert Keith. Budget (FY2001) CRS Issue Brief IB10052, Budget for Fiscal Year 2001, by Philip D. Winters. CRS Report RL30499, Budget FY2001: A Chronology with Internet Access, by Pearl Thomas. CRS Report RL30583, The Economics of the Federal Budget Surplus, by Brian Cashell. Consolidated Appropriations CRS Report RS20756, FY2001 Consolidated Appropriations Act: Reference Guide, by Robert Keith. CRS Report RS20758, The 0.22 Percent Across-the-Board Cut in FY2001 Appropriations, by Robert Keith. Continuing Resolutions CRS Report RL30343, Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices, by Sandy Streeter. CRS-31 Debt CRS Report RS20455, The Effect of Surpluses on Federal Debt, by Philip D. Winters. CRS Report RL30520, The National Debt: Who Bears its Burden?, by Gail E. Makinen. (Contains statistical appendixes showing gross federal debt, debt held by the public, net interest outlays, deficits, and surpluses from FY1980-FY2000, and projections through FY2004.) CRS Report RS20302, Paying Down the Federal Debt: A Discussion of Methods, by James M. Bickley. CRS Report RL30614, What if the National Debt Were Eliminated? Some Economic Consequences, by Marc Labonte. Economy CRS Report RL30329, Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts, by Gail E. Makinen. Fact Sheets on Budget and Appropriation Topics CRS Fact Sheets provide short explanations of budget concepts, terminology, the congressional and executive budget process, budget resolutions and reconciliation measures, the authorization and appropriations process, entitlements and discretionary spending, the Budget Enforcement Act and sequestration, surplus/deficits, and the debt limit. [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/CRSFactSheets/BudgetTopics.html] Research and Development CRS Issue Brief IB10051, Research and Development Funding: Fiscal Year 2001, Michael E. Davey. Social Security Surplus CRS Report RL30353, Discretionary Spending Limits and Social Security Surplus, by Robert Keith. CRS Report 98-422, Social Security and the Federal Budget: What Does Social Security’s Being “Off-Budget” Mean?, by David Stuart Koitz. CRS Report 94-593, Social Security Taxes: Where Do Surplus Taxes Go and How Are They Used?, David Stuart Koitz. CRS-32 Internet Access Appropriations Analysis/Vote Status Table (CRS) [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/apppage.html] Appropriation Bills, Reports, Laws, and Veto Messages (Full-text covers FY1997-FY2001.) [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/legislation/appro.html] Appropriation Web Sites, Publications, Membership, and Jurisdiction House: [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/house/house02.html] Senate: [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/senate/senate03.html] Budget Process Institutes (CRS) CRS offers introductory and advanced seminars designed to provide a foundation for understanding the federal budget process. Overview of the Federal Budget Process: 12/4/00; The President and the Budget (Advanced): 12/6/00. [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/briefing.html] Budget Timetable [http://www.house.gov/rules/budget_time.htm] CBO Budget/Appropriation Reports The following selected reports may be accessed through [http://www.cbo.gov]: An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal Year 2001 [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1908&sequence=0&from=7] Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2001-2010 [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1820&sequence=0&from=7] Budget Options (Discusses major proposals and policy options to increase spending or cut taxes.) [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1845&sequence=0&from=7] Cost Estimates of Legislation (CBO) “CBO prepares cost estimates and mandates statements for all bills ordered reported by a full committee of the Congress.” Search by bill number, word or phrase, committee, or budget function. [http://www.cbo.gov/costextend.shtml] Current Status of Discretionary Appropriations (CBO) CBO estimates of the 13 appropriation subcommittees emergency and non-emergency discretionary appropriations showing budget authority and outlays for 302(b) allocations, current status, and current status less allocation. (Located at the bottom of the CBO Home Page under “Data Highlights.”) [http://www.cbo.gov/] Debt Bureau of the Public Debt: [http://www.publicdebt.treas.gov/opd/opd.htm] CRS-33 Fact Sheets on Budget and Appropriation Topics (CRS) CRS Fact Sheets provide short explanations of budget concepts, terminology, the congressional and executive budget process, budget resolutions and reconciliation measures, the authorization and appropriations process, entitlements and discretionary spending, the Budget Enforcement Act and sequestration, surplus/deficits, and the debt limit. [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/CRSFactSheets/BudgetTopics.html] Glossaries CRS: [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/Glossary/CQDictionaryNF.html] CBO: [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1059&sequence=14] OMB: [http://www.whitehouse.gov/OMB/circulars/a11/99toc.html] (See “Part I, Chapter 1, General Information about the Budget: Terms and Concepts”) Senate: [http://www.senate.gov/~budget/republican/reference/cliff_notes/cliffapi.htm] Legislative Alert (CRS) Provides a list of this week’s projected floor votes and CRS analysis. [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/legalert.html] Monthly Budget Review (CBO) Includes budget surplus projections. [http://www.cbo.gov/byclasscat.cfm?class=0&cat=35] Rules Committee—House (Special Rules on Appropriation Bills) (At this Web site, scroll down the page for a listing of special rules reported.) [http://www.house.gov/rules/special_rules.htm] Supplemental Requests and Budget Amendments (OMB) [http://w3.access.gpo.gov/usbudget/fy2001/amndsup.html] 302(b) Spending Allocations for Appropriation Subcommittees House: [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/legislation/01appro.html#housesub] H.Rept. 106-761 (revised 7/19/00) H.Rept. 106-729 (revised 7/12/00) H.Rept. 106-686 (revised 6/21/00) H.Rept. 106-683 (revised 6/20/00) H.Rept. 106-660 (revised 6/8/00) H.Rept. 106-656 (revised 6/7/00) H.Rept. 106-623 (revised 5/17/00) H.Rept. 106-617 (5/15/00) Senate: [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/legislation/01appro.html#senate01] S.Rept. 106-507 (revised 10/19/00) S.Rept. 106-499 (revised 10/12/00) S.Rept. 106-483 (revised 10/4/00) S.Rept. 106-465 (revised 10/2/00) S.Rept. 106-414 (revised 9/20/00) S.Rept. 106–350 (revised 7/20/00) S.Rept. 106-346 (revised 7/1800) CRS-34 S.Rept. 106-311 (revised 6/22/00) S.Rept. 106-308 (revised 6/8/00) S.Rept. 106-303 (revised 5/23/00) S.Rept. 106-296 (5/17/00) Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations (CBO) The purpose of this three-volume CBO report is to “help the Congress adopt authorizing legislation that should be in place before it considers the 13 regular appropriation bills for the fiscal year.” Provides tables and lists by House and Senate authorizing committees and by appropriation subcommittees, and includes programs, public laws, and dollar amounts. (Only the House authorizing committees volume is available on the CBO Web page): [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1812&sequence=0&from=7] To obtain paper copies of the other two volumes (Senate authorizing committees and Appropriations subcommittees), call the CBO publications office at 6-2809. Veto Indications (OMB) The Administration’s viewpoint on appropriation bills can be found in the Statements of Administration Policy (SAPs). [http://www.whitehouse.gov/OMB/legislative/sap/2000/appropriations.html] Appropriations Process Appropriations Sequence The congressional budget and appropriations sequence ideally flows as shown below. However, in practice, the process is rarely so simple. The following links from GPO provide comprehensive access to the House and Senate Budget and Appropriation Committee Web sites, publications, hearings, prints, legislation, membership, jurisdiction, and rules. [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/house/hclinks.html] [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/senate/sclinks.html] ! President presents his budget proposals to Congress by the first Monday in February. [http://w3.access.gpo.gov/usbudget/] ! House and Senate Budget Committees hold hearings on the President’s budget, with testimony from the Administration, CBO, Federal Reserve, and others. [http://www.house.gov/budget/], [http://www.senate.gov/~budget/] ! CBO, which is an independent support agency for Congress, assists the Budget committees through the process with reports on economic forecasts, budgetary analysis, and deficit/surplus options, including The Economic and Budget Outlook (and Update issued in July), An Analysis of the President’s Budget Proposals, and Budget Options. [http://www.cbo.gov] CRS-35 ! House and Senate Budget Committees receive Views and Estimates on spending and revenues from all full committees 6 weeks after the President’s budget is received. ! House and Senate Budget Committees report budget resolutions to the House and Senate, respectively. ! Each Chamber debates and considers amendments to the original resolution. ! Each Chamber adopts a budget resolution, with differences between the two versions resolved in a conference committee. ! Each Chamber adopts the final version. The budget resolution is not signed by the President and does not become public law. ! House and Senate Appropriations committees and subcommittees hold hearings to review budget justifications from each federal agency. Each Appropriations subcommittee holds markups, in which they consider amendments and formulate the regular bill under their jurisdiction. Each subsequently reports its version to their respective Appropriations Committee. ! Full House and Senate Appropriations Committees hold markups on their subcommittees’ versions and report the committees’ versions to their respective Chambers. ! House and Senate debate, consider amendments, and pass each regular bill; differences between the House- and Senate-passed bills are resolved in conference committee. The final version is adopted by both Chambers and sent to the President. If the bill is approved, it becomes law. Generally, either all 13 regular bills are enacted separately, or some are enacted together in an omnibus measure. ! White House indications of opposition or support to appropriation and non-appropriation legislation scheduled for floor action in the second session 106th Congress, called Statements of Administration Policy (SAPs) are located at: [http://www.whitehouse.gov/OMB/legislative/sap/2000/appropriatio ns.html] ! House and Senate adopt continuing resolutions to provide short-term funding if the regular bills are not enacted by the October 1 deadline. Appropriations and Budget Process Overview (Most of the following is excerpted from CRS Report RL30001, 106th Congress: Key Issues and Early Agenda, p. 7-10.) CRS-36 Many of the key issues that Congress faces each year are addressed through budgetary legislation or legislation that has important budgetary components. As a consequence, the legislative agenda is closely tied to the requirements and constraints of the federal budget process. President’s Budget. Following many months of development by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the executive agencies, the President’s budget is submitted to Congress. Under current law, the deadline for the budget submission is the first Monday in February. Congress considers the President’s budget recommendations through a decentralized committee system that involves multiple budget processes. (See Table 2. Administration Requests/Amounts Enacted: FY1981FY2000.) Budget Resolution. Before Congress acts on individual spending and revenue legislation to implement budget policies, it is required (by the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended) to fashion its own budget plan in the form of a concurrent resolution. The budget resolution, under the jurisdiction of House and Senate Budget Committees, is not sent to the President for approval or veto. Instead, it is enforced through the rules and procedures of each Chamber. The budget resolution sets overall fiscal and budgetary policy; specific programmatic decisions are left to the revenue and spending committees. Final House and Senate action on the budget resolution is scheduled for completion by April 15. While the House and Senate often complete initial action by this date, final action is sometimes not completed until weeks, or even months, later. Implementation of the Budget. Revenue and borrowing decisions fall within the jurisdiction of the House Ways and Means Committee and the Senate Finance Committee. Spending decisions are decided along two tracks: discretionary and direct (or mandatory) funding. (See Table 3. Discretionary/Mandatory Outlays: FY19811999.) Discretionary Spending. Roughly one-third of all federal spending is discretionary spending, which is under the jurisdiction of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees, is provided annually in regular, supplemental, and continuing appropriations acts. (Discretionary funding, accounted for 33.8%, or $575 billion of total federal spending, $1,703 billion, in FY1999.) Direct (or Mandatory) Spending. Direct spending largely involves entitlement and other mandatory programs (such as Social Security, Medicare, federal retirement, and unemployment insurance), and is under the jurisdiction of the Ways and Means and Finance Committees, as well as other House and Senate legislative committees, and is provided in substantive legislation. (Direct spending accounted for 66.2% or $1,128.1 billion of all spending, $1,703 billion, in FY1999. Of that amount, entitlement programs accounted for 55.1%, or $938.8 billion, interest on the national debt accounted for approximately 13.5%, or $229.7 billion, and undistributed offsetting receipts accounted for -2.4%, or -$40.4 billion.) CRS-37 Reconciliation Legislation. For the most part, revenues and direct spending flow automatically each year without any legislative action. Congress, however, usually decides each year to make some changes in revenue and direct spending laws. Since 1980, Congress has used an optional reconciliation process in conjunction with the budget resolution. The process allows the House and Senate to instruct committees, in the budget resolution, to develop legislation by a particular deadline that conforms existing revenue and direct spending law to budget resolution policies. The legislative recommendations of the instructed committees usually are consolidated into an omnibus bill in each Chamber, which is considered under expedited procedures. Reconciliation has been used 11 times since 1980, resulting in the enactment of 14 separate reconciliation bills. For many years, the reconciliation process was used primarily to reduce the deficit (often through a combination of spending cuts and revenue increases) and, in some instances, to increase the debt limit. Recently, reconciliation also has been used to reduce revenues and to increase spending for some programs. Two reconciliation bills, one dealing principally with revenue matters and the other with direct spending, were enacted in 1997 to implement the 1997 budget summit agreement. In view of the many changes in budget and tax policy expected to be considered in 2000, the House and Senate may well use the reconciliation process again. Budget Resolution Enforcement and Sequestration. Budget resolution policies are enforced under the 1974 Congressional Budget Act by the reconciliation process and by point-of-order provisions that operate as House and Senate rules. Although enforcement procedures under the 1974 Act are extensive, reconciliation potentially is the most important enforcement tool for revenue and direct spending legislation; annual appropriations measures are controlled principally by allocations of spending made to the Appropriations Committees and their subcommittees under Section 302 of the Act (the so-called 302(b) allocations and subdivisions). Congressional action on budgetary legislation also is influenced by enforcement procedures under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, as amended by the Budget Enforcement Act (BEA) of 1990 and other laws. Under a sequestration process in the Act, automatic spending reductions are made toward the end of the congressional session if, in the judgment of the director of the Office of Management and Budget, certain budgetary goals specified in the law are not met. Discretionary spending is controlled by adjustable discretionary spending limits, while legislation affecting revenues or direct spending is subject to a deficit-neutral, “pay-as-you-go” (PAYGO) requirement. In 1997, these procedures were extended to bills considered through FY2002. The congressional budget process is linked in various ways to the statutory discretionary spending limits and PAYGO requirement. The President gives Congress a preliminary assessment of the likelihood of a sequester in his sequestration preview report, included in his February budget submission. These figures are updated in the Mid-Session Review, usually issued in July by OMB. At first, sequestration was viewed as giving the President and Congress a strong incentive to reach agreement on budgetary goals, thereby avoiding the legislative deadlock that characterized the early 1980s. With the emergence of a surplus, however, CRS-38 some Members have questioned the need for continuing the BEA procedures. They argue that the BEA procedures should be eliminated, or at least substantially modified, so that Congress and the President can “use” the surplus for tax cuts and other actions otherwise prohibited. For more detailed information, see CRS Report 98-721, Introduction to the Federal Budget Process; CRS Report 98-720, Manual on the Federal Budget Process (184 p.); and CRS Report 97-684, The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction. Table 2. Administration Requests/Amounts Enacted: FY1981-FY2000 (amounts in thousands) Calendar Year Amount Requested by President Amount Enacted Difference (under -) (over +) 1981 541,827,828 554,457,424 +2,629,596 1982 507,740,133 514,832,375 +7,092,242 1983 542,956,052 551,620,505 +8,664,453 1984 576,343,259 559,151,836 -17,191,423 1985 588,698,504 583,446,885 -5,251,619 1986 590,345,199 577,279,102 -13,066,097 1987 618,268,049 614,526,518 -3,741,531 1988 621,250,664 625,967,373 +4,716,709 1989 652,138,432 666,211,681 +14,073,249 1990 704,510,962 697,257,740 -7,253,222 1991 756,428,167 748,448,990 -7,979,177 1992 776,072,233 764,493,308 -11,578,925 1993 818,126,396 788,612,998 -29,513,398 1994 786,217,794 783,750,779 -2,467,015 1995 804,207,430 761,097,096 -43,110,334 1996 801,214,439 793,403,352 -7,811,087 1997 799,196,397 787,614,002 -11,582,395 1998 859,790,825 864,003,763 +4,212,938 1999 916,704,274 920,554,725 +3,850,451 2000 992,530,515 1,007,263,577 $14,733,062 Source: House Committee on Appropriations, 1/31/01. CRS-39 Table 3. Discretionary/Mandatory Outlays: FY1981-FY2000 (in billions of dollars) Fiscal Year Entitlement/ Discretionary Other Mandatory Spending Spending Net Interest Offsetting Receipts Total 1981 307.9 339.4 68.8 -37.9 678.2 1982 325.9 370.8 85.0 -36.0 745.8 1983 353.3 410.6 89.8 -45.3 808.4 1984 379.4 405.6 111.1 -44.2 851.9 1985 415.7 448.3 129.5 -47.1 946.4 1986 438.5 461.8 136.0 -45.9 990.5 1987 444.2 474.2 138.7 -52.9 1,004.1 1988 464.4 505.1 151.8 -56.8 1,064.5 1989 488.8 549.7 169.0 -63.8 1,143.7 1990 500.5 626.9 184.4 -58.7 1,253.2 1991 533.3 702.4 194.5 -105.7 1,324.4 1992 534.6 716.1 199.4 -68.4 1,381.7 1993 541.0 736.4 198.7 -66.6 1,409.5 1994 543.9 783.6 203.0 -68.5 1,461.9 1995 545.7 817.7 232.2 -79.7 1,515.8 1996 534.5 856.9 241.1 -71.9 1,560.6 1997 548.9 896.3 244.0 -88.0 1,601.3 1998 554.7 938.6 241.2 -81.9 1,652.6 1999 575.0 976.8 229.7 -78.4 1,703.0 2000 617.0 1,029.8 223.2 -81.1 1,789.0 Source: Congressional Budget Office. The Economic and Budget Outlook: Fiscal Years 2002-2011. January 2001. Washington, GPO, 2001. Table F-8, p. 146.