Congressional Staff: Duties, Qualifications, and Skills Identified by Members of Congress for Selected Positions

The roles, duties, and activities of congressional staff are matters of ongoing interest to Members of Congress, congressional staff, and observers of Congress. Members of the House and Senate establish their own employment policies and practices for their personal offices. It is arguably the case that within Member offices, a common group of activities is executed for which staff are necessary. Accordingly, a group of job advertisements for those positions from a number of different offices can shed light on the expectations Members have for position duties, as well as staff skills, characteristics, experience, and other expectations. This report provides a set of 39 widely expected job duties, applicant skills, characteristics, prior experiences, and other expectations based on a sample of ads placed by Members of Congress between approximately December 2014 and September 2019 seeking staff in their offices for 33 position titles: Caseworker Executive Assistant Press Assistant

Communications Director Executive Assistant/Scheduler Press Secretary

Constituent Services Representative Field Representative/Caseworker Regional Coordinator

Correspondence Manager Legislative Aide Scheduler

Deputy Press Secretary Legislative Assistant Scheduler/Office Manager

Deputy Scheduler Legislative Correspondent Senior Legislative Assistant

Deputy Scheduler/Assistant to Chief of Staff Legislative Correspondent/Press Assistant Speechwriter

Digital Director/Press Assistant Legislative Correspondent/Staff Assistant Staff Assistant

Digital Media Director Legislative Counsel Staff Assistant/Driver

District Director Legislative Director Staff Assistant/Press Assistant

District, Field, or Regional Representative Military Legislative Assistant Systems Administrator

Sample position expectations might assist Congress from multiple perspectives, including assessment of staffing needs in Member offices; guidance in setting position expectations, qualifications, and experience when offices need to hire staff; and informing current and potential congressional employees of position expectations. At the same time, categorizing congressional staff positions by position title relies on an assumption that similarly titled positions in House and Senate personal offices carry out the same tasks under essentially similar circumstances. Although personal offices may carry out similar activities, the assumption might be questionable given the differences in staff resources in House and Senate offices, as well as potential differences among offices of each chamber, particularly the Senate. Generalizations about staff roles and duties may also be limited in some ways due to the broad discretion Members have with regard to running their office activities. Variations from office to office, which might include differences in job duties, work schedules, office emphases, and other factors, may limit the extent to which sample position expectations might match operational practices in all congressional offices. This is one of several CRS products on congressional staff. To access those products, see CRS Report R44688, Congressional Staff: CRS Products on Size, Pay, and Job Tenure.

Congressional Staff: Duties, Qualifications, and Skills Identified by Members of Congress for Selected Positions

March 10, 2020 (R46262)
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Contents

Summary

The roles, duties, and activities of congressional staff are matters of ongoing interest to Members of Congress, congressional staff, and observers of Congress. Members of the House and Senate establish their own employment policies and practices for their personal offices. It is arguably the case that within Member offices, a common group of activities is executed for which staff are necessary. Accordingly, a group of job advertisements for those positions from a number of different offices can shed light on the expectations Members have for position duties, as well as staff skills, characteristics, experience, and other expectations. This report provides a set of 39 widely expected job duties, applicant skills, characteristics, prior experiences, and other expectations based on a sample of ads placed by Members of Congress between approximately December 2014 and September 2019 seeking staff in their offices for 33 position titles:

Caseworker

Executive Assistant

Press Assistant

Communications Director

Executive Assistant/Scheduler

Press Secretary

Constituent Services Representative

Field Representative/Caseworker

Regional Coordinator

Correspondence Manager

Legislative Aide

Scheduler

Deputy Press Secretary

Legislative Assistant

Scheduler/Office Manager

Deputy Scheduler

Legislative Correspondent

Senior Legislative Assistant

Deputy Scheduler/Assistant to Chief of Staff

Legislative Correspondent/Press Assistant

Speechwriter

Digital Director/Press Assistant

Legislative Correspondent/Staff Assistant

Staff Assistant

Digital Media Director

Legislative Counsel

Staff Assistant/Driver

District Director

Legislative Director

Staff Assistant/Press Assistant

District, Field, or Regional Representative

Military Legislative Assistant

Systems Administrator

Sample position expectations might assist Congress from multiple perspectives, including assessment of staffing needs in Member offices; guidance in setting position expectations, qualifications, and experience when offices need to hire staff; and informing current and potential congressional employees of position expectations. At the same time, categorizing congressional staff positions by position title relies on an assumption that similarly titled positions in House and Senate personal offices carry out the same tasks under essentially similar circumstances. Although personal offices may carry out similar activities, the assumption might be questionable given the differences in staff resources in House and Senate offices, as well as potential differences among offices of each chamber, particularly the Senate. Generalizations about staff roles and duties may also be limited in some ways due to the broad discretion Members have with regard to running their office activities. Variations from office to office, which might include differences in job duties, work schedules, office emphases, and other factors, may limit the extent to which sample position expectations might match operational practices in all congressional offices.

This is one of several CRS products on congressional staff. To access those products, see CRS Report R44688, Congressional Staff: CRS Products on Size, Pay, and Job Tenure.


Congressional employees are retained to perform public duties that include assisting Members in official responsibilities in personal, committee, leadership, or administrative office settings. The roles, duties, and activities of congressional staff are matters of ongoing interest to Members of Congress, congressional staff,1 groups,2 and individuals,3 including those who raise concerns about congressional operations. Most observers recognize that Congress does not function without staff,4 but there is little5 systematic attention to what staff do, or what Members expect of them.

In congressional offices, there may be interest in identifying Member expectations of congressional staff duties by position from multiple perspectives, including assessment of staffing needs in Member offices; guidance in setting position expectations, qualifications, and experience when offices choose to hire staff; and informing current and potential congressional employees of position expectations. Members of the House and Senate generally establish their own employment policies and practices for their personal offices.6 It is arguably the case that within Member offices, a common group of activities is executed for which staff with relevant skillsets and other qualifications are necessary. A body of publicly available job advertisements for staff positions from a number of different offices can shed light on the expectations Members have for position duties, as well as staff skills, characteristics, experience, and other expectations.

For 33 commonly used congressional staff position titles, this report describes the most frequently listed job duties, applicant skills, characteristics, prior experiences, and other expectations found in a sample of job advertisements placed by Members of Congress between approximately December 2014 and September 2019 seeking staff in their offices. Table 1 lists the position titles and the frequency with which advertisements for them appeared in the sample.

Identifying Job Advertisements for Congressional Staff Positions

Data used in developing sample position expectations were taken from several publicly available sources, including the following, over the periods specified:

  • The House Employment Bulletin, published weekly by the House Vacancy Announcement and Placement Service (HVAPS) in the Human Resources Office of the House Chief Administrative Officer (CAO).7 Data were collected from ads published between approximately January 2015 and September 2019.
  • The Employment Bulletin, published online by the Senate "as a service to Senate offices choosing to advertise staff vacancies."8 Data were collected from ads, which were not dated, appearing from approximately July 2016 to July 2019.
  • The House GOP Job and Resume Bank, which posts ads on behalf of the House Republican Conference on Facebook.9 Ads were collected between approximately January and June 2017. Other ads were collected from the period between approximately December 2014 and January 2017 from the House GOP Job Bank web page on the website of Representative Virginia Foxx during part of her tenure as the House Republican Conference Secretary.
  • The Job Announcements Board hosted by Representative Steny Hoyer during part of his tenure as House Minority Whip.10 Data were collected from ads posted between approximately January 2016 and December 2017.

Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements

More than 1,800 ads were collected from all sources. Duplicate ads resulting from posts to more than one source, and ads that appear to have been frequently reposted,11 were removed, as were ads for positions in congressional settings other than personal offices,12 yielding 880 ads for positions in Member personal offices. Substantially similar position titles (e.g., deputy scheduler and state deputy scheduler) for which there were five or more ads were identified and grouped together, as were related job titles (e.g., positions designated as district, field, or regional representative that had essentially similar job duties and expectations) for which there were five or more substantially similar ads, yielding a total of 704 ads. Ads for the 33 identified position titles were further categorized if there were five13 or more ads that specified the advertised position as "not entry level" or other signifier of presumptive advanced status. The 704 ads were coded against a variety of variables within eight categories, including ad tracking information; ad details; position responsibilities and responsibility areas; expected job skills, qualifications, and credentials; application materials; and office type.14 The distribution of ads by job title and level is provided in Table 1.

Solicitations of applicants for congressional staff appear to originate in a highly decentralized manner. Means of identifying appropriate candidates might potentially include reassigning staff within offices, placing ads in services that make them available by subscription,15 word of mouth, and other nonpublic means of identifying potential applicants for congressional staff positions. Consequently, it cannot be determined whether the dataset of ads analyzed in this report is representative of all congressional employment solicitations. In addition, the process by which candidates for some Member office senior staff positions16 are identified may not be public-facing.

Based on information specified within the ads, most position titles were identified by one of the following four primary responsibility areas (some positions were identified by up to three responsibility areas):

  • Legislative, Policy, and Oversight,
  • Media, Messaging, and Speeches,
  • Constituent Communications, Outreach, and Service, and
  • Office Administration and Support.

For each position, at least one sample position description was created based on the coded data. Information includes the most frequently occurring of the following:

  • primary responsibility areas;
  • widely expected duties, typically up to six of the most frequently occurring duties specified in all ads for that position;
  • other potential duties, typically up to six other duties mentioned in more than one ad;
  • applicant information, including
  • characteristics,
  • skills, and
  • knowledge and prior experience; and
  • other expectations.

Concluding Observations

Categorizing congressional staff positions by position title17 relies on an assumption that similarly titled positions in House and Senate personal offices carry out the same tasks under essentially similar circumstances. While personal offices may carry out similar activities, the assumption might be questionable given the differences in staff resources in House and Senate offices, as well as potential differences within offices of each chamber.

Generalizations about staff roles and duties may also be limited in some ways due to the broad discretion Members have with regard to running their office activities. Variations from office to office, which might include differences in job duties, work schedules, office emphases, and other factors, may limit the extent to which sample position expectations provided here match operational practices in all congressional offices.

Table 1. Distribution of Job Advertisements Analyzed, by Category and Chamber

Legislative, Policy, and Oversight

Media, Mass Communications,
Messaging, and Speeches

 

Ads

H

S

 

Ads

H

S

Legislative Aide

9

3

6

Communications Director

54

50

4

Legislative Assistant (LA)

107

77

30

Communications Director
"Senior Level," "Not Entry Level"

18

18

0

LA, "Not Entry Level"

26

20

6

Deputy Press Secretary

6

0

6

Legislative Counsel

5

3

2

Digital Director/Press Assistant

5

3

2

Legislative Director (LD), House

24

24

0

Digital Media Director

5

0

5

LD, Senate

4

0

4

Press Assistant

16

10

6

LD, "Senior Level," "Not Entry Level"

6

6

0

Press Secretary

39

33

6

Military Legislative Assistant (MLA)

10

8

2

Speechwriter

17

3

14

Senior Legislative Assistant (SLA)

11

10

1

LC/Press Assistant

7

7

0

Legislative Correspondent (LC)

54

34

20

Staff Assistant/Press Assistant

5

5

0

LC/Press Assistant

7

7

0

 

 

 

 

LC/Staff Assistant

15

14

1

 

 

 

 

Constituent Communications,
Outreach, and Service

Office Administration and Support

 

Ads

H

S

 

Ads

H

S

Caseworker

11

9

2

Deputy Scheduler

6

0

6

Constituent Services Representative

7

5

2

Deputy Scheduler/
Assistant to Chief of Staff

6

0

6

Correspondence Manager

8

0

8

Executive Assistant

7

5

2

District Director

7

7

0

Executive Assistant/Scheduler

15

14

1

Field, District, or Regional Representative

13

10

3

Executive Assistant/Scheduler
"Not Entry Level"

9

9

0

Field Representative/Caseworker

7

7

0

Scheduler

49

43

6

Regional Coordinator

6

0

6

Scheduler, "Not Entry Level"

8

7

1

LC

54

34

20

Scheduler/Office Manager

10

10

0

LC/Staff Assistant

15

14

1

Staff Assistant/Driver

5

2

3

Staff Assistant

77

62

15

Systems Administrator

10

0

10

Staff Assistant/Press Assistant

5

5

0

LC/Staff Assistant

15

14

1

 

 

 

 

Staff Assistant

77

62

15

 

 

 

 

Staff Assistant/Press Assistant

5

5

0

Source: CRS analysis of selected ads seeking congressional staff, various sources, December 2014-September 2019. Positions with more than one area of responsibility are shown in italics.

Table 2. Acronyms Used in This Report

Acronym

Term

CAO

Chief Administrative Officer of the House of Representatives

CMS

Correspondence Management System (e.g., ComputerWorks, Fireside21, Housecall, iConstituent, Leidos)

HTML

HyperText Markup Language

HVAPS

House Vacancy Announcement and Placement Service

IT

Information technology

LA

Legislative Assistant

LC

Legislative Correspondent

LD

Legislative Director

MLA

Military Legislative Assistant

MRA

Members' Representational Allowance

MS

Microsoft, typically office productivity software and apps

SLA

Senior Legislative Assistant

Source: CRS.

Sample Position Expectations

Caseworker18

Constituent Communications, Outreach,
and Service

Ads

 

11 (9 House, 2 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Assist constituents to resolve issues with public agencies

Handle constituent casework involving 1-4 agencies

Answer casework correspondence

Communicate with constituents, government agencies

Act as community representative for Member

Assess casework, community activities for legislative action

Update Member and district director on local issues

Learn federal agency casework procedures

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Patience

Motivation

Sense of humor

Manage multiple tasks

Interpersonal skills, friendly, personable, pleasant

Work independently

Think broadly about potential case resolutions

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Casework

Experience related to casework type (immigration, tax,
financial sector, healthcare, military, veterans' issues, etc.)

Federal, state, or local government

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Bilingual, typically Spanish

Access to car, driving

Ties to state or district

Long hours, nights, weekends

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Communications Director19

Media, Mass Communications
Messaging, and Speeches

Ads

 

54 (50 House, 4 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Craft and implement overall communications strategy

Write in numerous formats including press releases, op-eds, talking points, newsletters, speeches, social media

Act as spokesperson, local and national media contact

Prepare/brief Member for interviews

Manage office website, social media, other digital content

Organize media events

Outreach to media organizations, reporters

Pitch stories

Provide messaging guidance to staff

Monitor news of interest to the office

Handle portfolio of 1-4 issues

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Strong political instincts

Creativity

Sense of humor

Energetic, enthusiastic

Hard worker

Organized

Strategic thinking

Balance multiple tasks

Attention to detail, accuracy

Work well with others

Digital media skills

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Communications, journalism, public relations

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Knowledge of legislative process

Media contacts

Familiarity with computer software, e.g., MS applications, social media platforms

State or district ties

May supervise Press Secretary, Press Assistant

Submission of various writing samples

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Communications Director, "Senior Level" or "Not Entry Level"20

Media, Mass Communications
Messaging, and Speeches

Ads

 

18 (18 House, 0 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Craft and implement overall communications strategy

Write in numerous formats including press releases, op-eds, talking points, newsletters, speeches, social media

Act as spokesperson, local and national media contact

Prepare/brief Member for interviews

Manage office website, social media, other digital content

Organize media events

Pitch stories

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Creativity

Energetic, enthusiastic

Strong political instincts

Sense of humor

Attention to detail, accuracy

Organized

Balance multiple tasks

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

On-the-record experience, 1-2 years

Hill experience, 2-5 years

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Media contacts

May supervise Communications Staff, Press Assistant, Press Secretary, Social Media Assistant

Submission of various writing samples

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Constituent Services Representative21

Constituent Communications,
Outreach, and Service

Ads

 

7 (5 House, 2 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Handle casework and related calls, correspondence

Work with federal or state entities to resolve casework

Provide office support, sort mail, order supplies

Plan and execute outreach events

Represent Member

Support Member events

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Good political instincts, judgement

Energetic

Self-starter

Adaptable

Hard worker

Motivated

Sense of humor

Discretion

Organized

Work well with others

Able to balance multiple tasks

Attention to detail

Reliability

Work independently

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Casework, public service, customer service, 0-5 years

Bachelor's degree

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Work flexible schedule, long days, weekends

Ties to state or district

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Correspondence Manager22

Constituent Communications,
Outreach, and Service

Ads

 

8 (0 House, 8 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Coordinate with office leadership, LCs to produce, deliver substantive, timely written responses to constituent inquiries

Draft, edit outgoing correspondence

Oversee drafting and approval of condolence and congratulatory letters

Provide CMS reports, system maintenance

Train interns, LCs, and Staff Assistants in correspondence processes

Manage constituent contact lists

Maintain correspondence records

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Proactive, takes initiative

Time management skills

Highly organized

Ability to work independently

Handle multiple tasks, projects

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Experience with constituent management software (CMS) systems, e.g., IQ, InterTrac, VOICE, etc.

Hill correspondence experience, up to 3 years

Computer skills

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Demonstrated ability to use technology to streamline administrative processes

Generally a position for experienced staff

"Self-described perfectionists are strongly encouraged to apply."

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Deputy Press Secretary23

Media, Mass Communications,
Messaging, and Speeches

Ads

 

6 (0 House, 6 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Writing in numerous formats including press releases,
op-eds, talking points, newsletters, speeches, social media

Maintain social media content

Schedule media interviews with Senator

Maintain office website

Staff Senator at events

Compile press clips and media mentions

Compile, maintain media contact lists

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Motivated

Ambitious

Hard worker

Willing to learn, add responsibilities

Accuracy, attention to detail

Manage multiple tasks

Resourceful

Operate quickly, efficiently

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Work with office productivity software, social media
platforms

Communications, media, 2-5 years

Campaign media experience

Strong written and verbal communications skills

State or regional ties

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Deputy Scheduler24

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

6 (0 House, 6 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Sort, track, and respond to Senator's state invitations

Assist other staff to execute Senator's daily schedule

Maintain Senator's contact data

Arrange, book travel for Senator

Greet Senator's meeting attendees

Maintain historical record of Senator's schedule

Schedule rooms, facilities

Organize constituent events

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Energetic

Motivated

Adaptable

Sound judgement

Attention to detail

Highly organized

Exercise discretion

Personable, courteous

Trustworthy

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Hill experience preferred

Knowledge of Senate operations, schedules

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Flexible hours

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Deputy Scheduler/Assistant to Chief of Staff25

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

6 (0 House, 6 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Provide administrative and staffing support to Scheduler

Plan, maintain Chief of Staff's calendar

Drive Senator on occasion

Organize, vet, respond to invitations

Facilitate projects of the Senator or office

Handle Chief of Staff correspondence

Prepare correspondence for signature

Provide executive secretarial support

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Adaptable

Proactive

Energetic

Sound judgement, instincts

Detail oriented, thorough

Highly organized

Strong sense of discretion

Personable, pleasant, courteous

Balance multiple tasks, projects

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Scheduling, 1-2 years

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Maintain confidentiality

Ability to exercise discretion at all times

Own an American-made car

State ties

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Digital Director/Press Assistant26

Media, Mass Communications,
Messaging, and Speeches

Ads

 

5 (3 House, 2 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Create audio, graphic, and video content

Draft newsletters, social media, press releases, op-eds,
talking points, speeches

Manage social media strategy, office accounts, website

Compile daily news clips

Monitor social media data, analytics

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Creative

Poise

Sound judgement

Works well with others

Attention to details

Design skills

Digital media skills

Research skills

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Experience with various social media platforms, HTML

Knowledge of chamber operations, procedures

Experience designing audio, graphic, video content

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Communications background

Experience with online organizing

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Digital Media Director27

Media, Mass Communications,
Messaging, and Speeches

Ads

 

5 (0 House, 5 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Manage office social media accounts

Create social media content, written, graphic, and video

Maintain office websites

Plan and execute media events

Track and analyze various media platform metrics

Grow office social media audience

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Energetic, outgoing

Sound judgement

Digital media skills

Well organized

Quick thinking

Resourceful

Problem solving abilities

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Broadcast communications, journalism, public relations

Knowledge of Senate rules, procedures

Experience with photography; creating audio, graphic, and
video content; and related software

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Position is generally not entry level, up to 3 years' experience expected

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

District Director28

Media, Mass Communications,
Messaging, and Speeches

Ads

 

7 (7 House, 0 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Oversee district office operations

Develop outreach and constituent service strategies

Represent Member in meetings and events

Supervise district staff, plan and assign work

Oversee district office budget

Manage Member schedule with district scheduler

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Strong work ethic

Political instincts

Enthusiastic, outgoing

Management, leadership skills

Manage multiple tasks

Attention to detail

Interpersonal skills

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Management, supervisory experience

Strategic planning

Strong written and verbal communications skills

May supervise district staff

Connections to the district

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Executive Assistant29

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

7 (5 House, 2 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Develop, manage Member's schedule

Track meeting and event invitations

Oversee office budget with Chief of Staff

Compose correspondence for Member

Staff or drive Member

Assist Scheduler with meeting, event invitations

Coordinate meetings travel, training, events

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Assertive

Good work ethic

Energetic, outgoing

Adaptable

Patience

Poise

Discretion

Detail oriented

Excellent organizational skills

Personable, friendly, professional manner

Flexibility

Able to prioritize

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Scheduling

Administrative, executive support

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Knowledge of MS software, CMS packages

Knowledge of legislative process, calendar

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Executive Assistant/Scheduler30

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

15 (14 House, 1 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Coordinate and maintain Member's daily schedule

Greet constituents and other visitors

Maintain Member's calendar

Monitor daily and longer-term office schedules

Perform office management duties

Recommend invitations to accept or decline

Assist in managing office budget

Compile briefing materials

Drive the Member—have access to a car

Make travel arrangements for Member, other staff

Staff the Member during the work day

Write recommendations and other correspondence

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Energetic, enthusiastic

Poise

Sound political instincts, judgement

Patience

Assertive

Self-starter, proactive, take initiative

Adaptable, flexible

Hard Worker

Interpersonal skills, friendly, personable, pleasant

Organized

Professional manner

Work independently

Work well with others, collaboratively, cooperatively

Time management skills

Attention to detail

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

None stated

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Executive Assistant/Scheduler, "Not Entry Level"31

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

9 (9 House, 0 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Coordinate and maintain Member's daily schedule

Make travel arrangements for Member

Maintain Member's calendar

Evaluate invitations to accept or decline

Maintain office records

Manage Member's correspondence

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Professional manner

Interpersonal Skills, friendly, personable, pleasant

Sound political instincts, judgement

Sense of humor

Organized

Discretion

Detail oriented

Manage multiple tasks

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Hill experience

At least 1 year of scheduling experience

Full-time executive assistant experience

Strong written and verbal communications skills

State or district ties

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Field, District, or Regional Representative32

Constituent Communications,
Outreach, and Service

Ads

 

13 (10 House, 3 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Represent Member before constituents, local groups,
businesses, civic organizations, and agencies

Attend meetings and events throughout assigned areas

Act as liaison to local and state government

Monitor issues, opinions, and concerns in assigned areas

Brief Member about events and issues

Draft casework, other correspondence

Plan and execute community outreach projects, events

Provide logistical support for district events, meetings

Staff Member for events, appearances in assigned area

Provide casework intake, support, resolution

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Flexibility

Motivation

Strong work ethic

Friendly, outgoing

Patience

Sense of humor

Manage multiple tasks, projects

Good organizational skills

Work independently

Problem-solving abilities

Discreet, tactful

Learn quickly

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Knowledge of jurisdiction (state, region, district)

Knowledge of congressional practices, operations

Advocacy, community development, nonprofit, or
government work

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Long, irregular hours, nights, weekends, holidays

May supervise interns

Awareness of issues of interest to the Member

Ties to the state or district

Driving the Member

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Field Representative/Caseworker33

Constituent Communications,
Outreach, and Service

Ads

 

7 (7 House, 0 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Assist constituents with problems, concerns

Work with staff on casework and outreach efforts

Represent Member at meetings, events, appearances

Monitor activities, concerns, issues in district

Drive, travel throughout district

Staff Member at events, appearances

Provide administrative assistance

Answer phones

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Energetic

Outgoing

Assertive

Mature

Motivated

Sense of humor

Work well with others

Thorough

Organized

Exercise discretion, tact

Work independently

Handle stress

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

State, local, and national government, agencies

Event planning

Social work

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Have car and driver's license

Bilingual

Flexible hours including nights and weekends

Ties to/broad knowledge of district

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Legislative Aide34

Legislative, Policy, and Oversight

Ads

 

9 (3 House, 6 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Draft constituent correspondence legislation, memos

Meet with constituents, agency staff, other stakeholders

Assist with preparations for hearings and meetings

Oversee office mail program

Maintain policy portfolio of 1-3 issues

Conduct research and analysis

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Energetic

Enthusiastic

Ability to prioritize

Attention to detail, accuracy

Balance multiple projects, tasks

Organizational skills

Research skills

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Hill experience, up to 3 years

Issue area-specific experience as noted

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Legislative Assistant35

Legislative, Policy, and Oversight

Ads

 

107 (77 House, 30 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Handle portfolio of 1-9 issues

Draft bills and amendments

Write memos, floor statements, talking points

Write constituent mail

Meet with constituency and advocacy groups

Represent Member in congressional and public settings

Monitor legislation in issue area(s)

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Proactive, takes initiative

Sense of humor

Enthusiastic

Motivated

Sound judgement

Strong work ethic

Creative

Appropriate attitude

Adaptable

Work well with others

Fast, strategic thinking

Organized

Balance multiple tasks

Attention to detail

Operate quickly, efficiently

Interpersonal skills

Research skills

Problem-solving abilities

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Knowledge or experience with legislative process

Relevant Hill experience, 0-2 years

Knowledge of assigned issue area(s)

Experience as an LA or LC

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Bachelor's, graduate, or law degree may be required

Familiarity with computer software, e.g., MS applications, CMS

Translate policy into accessible terms

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Legislative Assistant, "Not Entry Level"36

Legislative, Policy, and Oversight

Ads

 

26 (20 House, 6 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Draft bills and amendments

Write memos, floor statements, talking points, speeches

Handle portfolio of 1-7 issues

Meet with constituency and advocacy groups

Identify and advance policy proposals

Represent Member in congressional and public settings

Monitor legislation in issue area(s)

Draft constituent correspondence, hearing questions

Advocate for legislation, policy priorities of Member

Legislative research

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Self-starter, proactive

Sense of humor

Motivated

Energetic

Political instincts

Hard worker

Strong ideas

Appropriate attitude

Flexible, nimble

Work well with others

Analytic thinking

Organizational skills

Interpersonal skills

Research skills

Problem-solving abilities

Time management

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Prior experience in a congressional office

Detailed knowledge of assigned issue area(s)

1-2 years of congressional staff work in legislative areas

Prior work as an LA or LC

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Demonstrate substantial legislative experience

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Legislative Correspondent37

Constituent Communications,
Outreach, and Service

Legislative, Policy, and Oversight

Ads

 

54 (34 House, 20 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Draft constituent correspondence

Manage Member's constituent mail program

Support legislative and front-office activities

Research to formulate written replies

Meet with constituents and interest groups

Track legislation

CMS management, coding, analysis

Oversee a portfolio of 1-8 policy issues (Senate only)

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Self-starter

Motivated

Strong work ethic

Desire to grow in position

Adaptability

Research

Attention to detail, accuracy

Organized

Operate quickly

Balance multiple tasks, assignments

Work well with others

Interpersonal skills

Fast thinking

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Knowledge of House, Senate operations

Knowledge of CMS

Hill or other experience, up to 1 year

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Generally an entry-level position

State or district ties

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative

Legislative Correspondent/Press Assistant38

Legislative, Policy, and Oversight

Media, Mass Communications,
Messaging, and Speeches

Ads

 

7 (7 House, 0 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Assist with crafting of constituent correspondence

Draft op-eds, press releases, talking points, mass mail

Sort and prioritize incoming correspondence

Assist Communications Director with social media,
graphic design, video production

Compile daily news clips, track media

None stated

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Creative

Motivated

Interested in added responsibilities, skill development

Sense of humor

Proactive, takes initiative

Accuracy

Attention to detail

Organization skills

Research skills

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Knowledge of House rules, processes

Experience with social media platforms, CMS packages

Hill experience

Design of audio, graphic, video content

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Ties to state or district

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Legislative Correspondent/Staff Assistant39

Legislative, Policy, and Oversight

Constituent Communications,
Outreach,
and Service

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

15 (14 House, 1 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Provide office support; greet visitors; answer phones;
process flag, tour requests

Coordinate and conduct Capitol tours

Support Member and Chief of Staff

Manage constituent correspondence program

Monitor, track mail, respond in a timely manner

Train and supervise interns

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Energetic, enthusiastic

Proactive, self-starter

Sense of humor

Patience

Accuracy, attention to detail

Organizational skills

Work well with others

Balance multiple tasks, competing priorities

Research

Time management

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Computer software, MS, CMS

Congressional operations, legislative process

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Submission of writing samples, references

State or district ties

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Legislative Counsel40

Legislative, Policy, and Oversight

Ads

 

5 (3 House, 2 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Handle policy portfolio of 2-11 issues

Plan, execute legislative strategy

Support, staff Member's committee activities, preparation

Write memos, speeches, and talking points

Monitor legislative activity

Support communications team, district office

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

None stated

Conceptual, analytic thinking

Balance multiple tasks, projects

Strong interpersonal skills

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

House, Senate operations, committee functions

Law, legal research

Congressional investigations

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Law degree generally required

Work well under pressure

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Legislative Director, House41

Legislative, Policy, & Oversight

Ads

 

24 (24 House, 0 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Lead legislative team in support of Member legislative goals

Supervise and mentor legislative staff

Advance Member policy proposals in committees, on floor

Brief Member on all policy matters

Meet interest groups, constituents

Handle policy portfolio of 1-7 issues

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Sound political judgement

Takes initiative

Strong organizational skills

Detail oriented

Work cooperatively and collaboratively with others

Leadership skills

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Work as LD or LA

Management or supervisor experiences

Work in public policy, various fields, issues

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Thorough knowledge of House legislative procedure

Knowledge of committee activities, processes

Demonstrated success at advancing policy initiatives

State or district ties, connection

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Legislative Director "Senior Level," or "Not Entry Level"42

Legislative, Policy, and Oversight

Ads

 

6 (6 House, 0 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Manage legislative team activity

Supervise legislative staff

Work with Member, Chief of Staff to develop
legislative program

Support Member's committee activities

Legislative portfolio of 1-5 issues

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Proactive

Good judgement

Attention to detail

Leadership

Ability to delegate

Creativity

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Hill or legislative experience, "strong," "substantial"
"at least 5 years"

[policy area designated in ad] experience

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Thorough knowledge of House legislative procedure

Demonstrated success at advancing policy initiatives

Advanced degree

State or district ties, connection

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Legislative Director, Senate43

Legislative, Policy, and Oversight

Ads

 

4 (0 House, 4 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Develop and implement Senator's legislative program

Manage legislative staff of 12-18

Monitor floor activity

Oversee development of vote recommendations

Support office outreach activities to various constituencies

Mentor staff

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Sound political judgement

Ability to delegate

Strong interpersonal skills

Highly organized

Work well with others

Attention to detail

Analytic skills

Management skills

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

3-8 years of Hill experience (Senate preferred)

Senate LD, Senior LA, Senior Policy Advisor, or Counsel

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Military Legislative Assistant44

Legislative, Policy, and Oversight

Ads

 

10 (8 House, 2 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Handle Member's work on Armed Services, Veterans',
Homeland Security, Foreign Affairs, or Intelligence Comm-
ittees, or Defense Appropriations Subcommittees

Handle a portfolio of 1-6 related issues

Advise member on related bills, hearings, and issues

Meet, interact with relevant agency staff

Represent Member in committee and agency settings

Track military acquisition programs

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Self-directed

Strong ideas

Appropriate attitude

Work independently

Operate quickly, efficiently

Work well with others

Problem-solving abilities

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Legislative procedures and committee processes

Military service

Relevant committee work

Military legislative assistant, professional staff member

0-5 years related experience

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Active TOP SECRET clearance

Knowledge of defense authorizations, appropriations

Coalition building

Military reserve service

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Press Assistant45

Media, Mass Communications,
Messaging, and Speeches

Ads

 

16 (10 House, 6 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Write social media, website content, emails, newsletters

Assist with media inquiries, press releases, interviews

Manage social media accounts

Compile daily clips and media mentions

Maintain media lists

Organize or support media events

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Motivated

Creative

Takes initiative

Attention to detail

Balance multiple tasks

Cooperative, collaborative

Operate quickly

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Content design, audio, graphic, video

Public relations, journalism

Knowledge of chamber procedures, activities

Software, MS, graphic, and video production

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Generally an entry-level position

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Press Secretary46

Media, Mass Communications,
Messaging, and Speeches

Ads

 

39 (33 House, 6 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Write and edit press releases, op-eds, talking points,
newsletters, and franked communications

Develop and maintain effective relationships with
district, state, and national media

Work with office staff to identify news hooks and
story pitches

Book, coordinate interviews with reporters

Plan, organize, and staff media events

Oversee day-to-day press operations in DC, state, or district

Manage office website, social media

Prepare Member for media interactions

Write speeches

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Sound political instincts

Takes initiative

Hard worker

Sense of humor

Motivated

Balance multiple assignments, tasks

Attention to detail, accuracy

Handle stress

Work well with others

Efficient

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Media, journalism, public relations roles, experience

Hill experience

Content design, audio, graphics, video

Strong writing and speaking skills

Submission of writing samples, including press releases, talking points, tweets

On and off the record briefing experience

Media contacts

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Regional Coordinator47

Constituent Communications,
Outreach, and Service

Ads

 

6 (0 House, 6 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Monitor, update office on regional and local issues

Represent Senator at events, civic, community meetings

Act as liaison with federal, state, and local officials,
agencies, community organizations

Process constituent casework requests

Travel throughout region, state

Oversee work of junior regional staff

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Enthusiastic

Outgoing

Motivated

Adaptable

Creative ideas

Self-starter

Able to balance multiple tasks and projects

Attention to detail

Highly organized

Work well with others

Reliable

Able to work independently

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

State and local government

Public policy issues

Outreach

MS applications, CMS

Strong written and verbal communications skills

State or community ties

Team player

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Scheduler48

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

49 (43 House, 6 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Oversee Member's schedule in DC and state/district

Schedule, coordinate Member and staff travel, lodging

Organize and track invitations

Drive Member to and from events

Provide administrative support to Member

Hire and manage interns

Provide administrative support to Chief of Staff

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Energetic

Sound political judgement

Appropriate attitude

Takes initiative

Adaptability

Accuracy, attention to details

Highly organized

Able to balance multiple tasks

Friendly, outgoing

Problem-solving abilities

Work well with others

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Work as Scheduler or Executive Assistant

House or Senate operations, procedures

Strong written and verbal communications skills

On-call availability after working hours

May supervise junior operations staff (Senate)

Travel between Washington, DC, and state or district

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Scheduler, "Not Entry Level"49

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

8 (7 House, 1 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Collaboratively develop Member's schedule

Make Member travel arrangements

Handle Member's correspondence

Provide Member administrative support

Coordinate DC schedule with district

Ensure Member has briefing materials

Maintain contacts database

Maintain office records

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Excellent political instincts

Proactive

Discretion, maintain confidentiality

Close attention to detail

Organizational skills

Work well with others

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Work as congressional scheduler, 1-2 years

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Flexible schedule

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Scheduler/Office Manager50

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

10 (10 House, 0 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Manage Member's district and DC schedule

Facilitate Member's personal correspondence

Oversee front-office management

Collaborate with the Chief of Staff to manage the MRA and payroll

Administer office finances, benefits, and procurement

Work closely with the Chief of Staff and District Director to
ensure effective office operations

Keep Member on schedule during the day

Supervise staff assistants, interns

Drive the Member to events

Arrange travel and meetings

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Appropriate attitude

Flexibility

Sound political instincts

Balance competing demands

Strong organizational skills

Attention to detail

Problem-solving abilities

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Hill experience

Executive assistant

Congressional scheduling

Knowledge of House schedules, activities

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Assist the Member after regular business hours

Typically not an entry-level position

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Senior Legislative Assistant51

Legislative, Policy, and Oversight

Ads

 

11 (10 House, 1 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Support Member in committee activities

Manage Member work in assigned issue area(s)

Research bills and other issues

Advise Member

Build or expand Member policy priorities

Represent Member in congressional and public settings

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Self-starter, self-directed

Good political judgement, instincts

Sense of humor

Work well with others

Work independently

Able to balance multiple tasks, assignments

Organized

Attention to detail/thorough

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Substantial congressional experience

Substantial issue(s) experience

2-5 years of relevant experience

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Extensive knowledge of legislative, committee process

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Speechwriter52

Media, Mass Communications,
Messaging, and Speeches

Ads

 

17 (3 House, 14 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Draft and revise speeches, floor and committee statements,
talking points, and scripts

Conduct supporting historical and policy research

Assist in drafting op-eds, press statements, web content

Manage social media accounts

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Creative

Hard worker

Strong writing and editing skills

Ability to explain complex policy issues in an accessible, relatable manner

Attention to detail, accuracy

Balance multiple tasks and projects

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Hill or campaign experience

Speechwriting

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Staff Assistant53

Constituent Communications,
Outreach, and Service

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

77 (62 House, 15 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Assist with office management duties; sort mail, greet
constituents, answer phones, monitor supplies

Coordinate office internship program, supervise interns

Handle flag, tour, and recognition requests

Provide tours

Drive Member to events, activities

Draft grant or commemorative letters

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Motivated

Outgoing, enthusiastic

Appropriate attitude

Hard worker

Sense of humor

Self-starter

Flexibility

High degree of organization

Attention to detail

Balance multiple tasks

Interpersonal skills

Professional manner

Reliable, trustworthy

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Knowledge of congressional schedules, operations

Computer skills, experiences

Hill internship

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Typically an entry-level position

Some college or a bachelor's degree

May supervise interns

District or state ties

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Staff Assistant/Driver54

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

5 (2 House, 3 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Drive Member to and from meetings and events

Provide office support, answer phones, give tours,
greet visitors, process flag requests

Assist with press operation

Compile press clippings

Draft correspondence

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Motivated

Sense of humor

Energetic

Adaptable

Attention to detail

Balance multiple tasks, activities

Dependable

Good organizational skills

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

None stated

Strong written and verbal communications skills

May be based in Washington, DC, state, or district

"A spotless driving record"

Long, irregular, unscheduled hours

Appears to be an entry-level position

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Staff Assistant/Press Assistant55

Media, Mass Communications,
Messaging, and Speeches

Constituent Communications,
Outreach, and Service

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

5 (5 House, 0 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Manage office website, social media posting

Support office: greet guests, answer phones, handle mail,
conduct tours, process flag requests

Compile press clips

Assist Communications Director with press releases, inquiries

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Enthusiastic

Motivated

Sense of humor

Take initiative

Willing to learn, add responsibilities

Balance multiple assignments

Detail oriented

Digital media

Handle stress

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Audio, graphic, or video experience

MS applications, social media platform use

Communications, public relations, experience, education

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Systems Administrator56

Office Administration and Support

Ads

 

10 (0 House, 10 Senate)

Widely Expected Duties

Other Potential Duties

Update, maintain DC and state office computer systems

Ensure network and email availability

Recommend purchases of IT hardware, software

Install service packs, virus definition updates

Develop, maintain information management system

Provide user training and support

Update office IT policies and procedures

Applicant Characteristics

Applicant Skills

Motivated

Takes initiative

Patience

Highly organized

Good interpersonal skills

Attention to detail

Able to balance multiple tasks, projects

Analytic thinking

Applicant Knowledge and Prior Experience

Other Expectations

Work with office productivity software, CMS

Understanding of Senate IT assets, processes, policies

Systems administrator, 0-5 years

Strong written and verbal communications skills

Work environment typically described as high pressure, team-based, collaborative


Author Contact Information

R. Eric Petersen, Specialist in American National Government ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Acknowledgments

Casey Burgat, formerly a Research Assistant, assisted in the development of variable categorization and provided extensive coding support.

Footnotes

1.

U.S. House of Representatives, Chief Administrative Officer, 2019 House of Representatives Compensation and Diversity Study Report: House Overall Results, 2019, at https://www.house.gov/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/2019_house_compdiversitystudy_executivesummary.pdf.

2.

See Democracy Fund, "Principled Leadership & Effective Governance," https://www.democracyfund.org/priorities; and William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, "Madison Initiative," https://hewlett.org/strategy/madison-initiative/.

3.

Alexander C. Furnas, "Legislative staff are spending an increasing amount of time on constituent services," LegBranch, April 11, 2018, https://www.legbranch.org/2018-4-11-legislative-staff-are-spending-an-increasing-amount-of-time-on-constituent-services/; Jacob M. Montgomery and Brendan Nyhan, "The Effects of Congressional Staff Networks," Journal of Politics, vol. 79, no. 3 (July 2017), pp. 745-761; Brian Alexander, "A framework for congressional staffing: a few thoughts from management consulting," LegBranch, June 28, 2016, https://www.legbranch.org/2016-6-28-a-framework-for-congressional-staffing-a-few-thoughts-from-management-consulting/; and Anthony J. Madonna and Ian Ostrander, "Getting the Congress You Pay For: Legislative Staffing and Organizational Capacity," Paper prepared for presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC, August 28-September 1, 2014.

4.

See, e.g., Josh McCrain, "Convincing evidence that congressional staff do, in fact, matter," LegBranch, January 23, 2018, https://www.legbranch.org/2018-1-16-convincing-evidence-that-congressional-staff-do-in-fact-matter/; David E. Price, The Congressional Experience, 3rd ed. (Cambridge, MA: Westview Press, 2004), pp. 66-69; and Michael J. Malbin, Unelected Representatives: Congressional Staff and the Future of Representative Government (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1980), pp. 3-7.

5.

See Jesse M. Crosson, Alexander Furnas, and Timothy LaPira, Congress and Its Experts, Dataset Codebook, electronic dataset, University of Michigan, https://jessemcrossoncom.files.wordpress.com/2018/02/staff_data_codebook.pdf.

6.

Members who hire staff in committee or leadership settings also have broad discretion regarding establishing and overseeing staff roles and duties. These are beyond the scope of this report.

7.

See U.S. House of Representatives, "Employment Information," at https://www.house.gov/employment.

8.

See U.S. Senate, "Employment Bulletin," at https://www.senate.gov/employment/po/positions.htm.

9.

See "House GOP Job and Resume Bank" at https://www.facebook.com/GopJobBank/.

10.

Rep. Hoyer continues to host a job announcements board at https://www.majorityleader.gov/jobs.

11.

Frequently reposted ads include those that appeared in sequential editions of the House Employment Bulletin, and ads for the same position posted by identifiable offices more than once over a period of six months.

12.

Other congressional settings for which ads were collected include committee, leadership, officer, official, shared Member and committee, and caucus.

13.

An exception is Legislative Director in the Senate, for which four ads were identified, and which was included due to significant differences in position expectations from the descriptions developed for Legislative Director in the House and Legislative Director, "Senior Level" or "Not Entry Level."

14.

A codebook and detailed explanation of the coding process are available to congressional offices upon request.

15.

See, for example, Daybook, https://www.daybook.com/listings, or Indeed.com, https://www.indeed.com/q-Congressional-Assistant-l-Washington,-DC-jobs.html, among others.

16.

For example, the ad sources used did not contain analyzable numbers of ads for Chief of Staff in either chamber, or Administrative Director or State Director positions in the Senate.

17.

A Senator may establish position titles in his or her office by written notification to the disbursing office of the Senate, 2 U.S.C. 4575(d)(1)(C)(2). No similar explicit authority for a Member of the House was identified.

18.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

19.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

20.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

21.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

22.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

23.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

24.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

25.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

26.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

27.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

28.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

29.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

30.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

31.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

32.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

33.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

34.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

35.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

36.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

37.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

38.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

39.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

40.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

41.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

42.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

43.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

44.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

45.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

46.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

47.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

48.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

49.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

50.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

51.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

52.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

53.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

54.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

55.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."

56.

Based on CRS analysis of selected advertisements seeking congressional staff, as described in "Categorizing and Coding Job Advertisements."