Major Votes on Free Trade Agreements and Trade Promotion Authority

On November 30, 2018, the Trump Administration signed a revised free trade agreement (FTA) with Canada and Mexico, the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA). In order for USMCA to go into effect and replace the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Congress will have to pass implementing legislation. The House passed H.R. 5430 on December 19, 2019. On January 7, the Senate Committee on Finance ordered the bill to be reported favorably without amendment. (For more information, see CRS In Focus IF10997, Proposed U.S.-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) Trade Agreement, by Ian F. Fergusson and M. Angeles Villarreal.)

Since 1979, Congress has passed 16 implementation measures for FTAs and multilateral trade agreements. The majority of these trade agreements were considered in Congress under Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), which provides for expedited consideration of FTAs in Congress. Since 1979, Congress has passed six measures extending TPA for limited time periods. As with many international trade issues, TPA has been politically contentious over time, resulting in vigorous debate and two multi-year lapses in authority.

Major Votes on Free Trade Agreements and Trade Promotion Authority

Updated January 10, 2020 (R45846)
Jump to Main Text of Report

Summary

On November 30, 2018, the Trump Administration signed a revised free trade agreement (FTA) with Canada and Mexico, the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA). In order for USMCA to go into effect and replace the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Congress will have to pass implementing legislation. The House passed H.R. 5430 on December 19, 2019. On January 7, the Senate Committee on Finance ordered the bill to be reported favorably without amendment. (For more information, see CRS In Focus IF10997, Proposed U.S.-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) Trade Agreement, by Ian F. Fergusson and M. Angeles Villarreal.)

Since 1979, Congress has passed 16 implementation measures for FTAs and multilateral trade agreements. The majority of these trade agreements were considered in Congress under Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), which provides for expedited consideration of FTAs in Congress. Since 1979, Congress has passed six measures extending TPA for limited time periods. As with many international trade issues, TPA has been politically contentious over time, resulting in vigorous debate and two multi-year lapses in authority.


Congress and Free Trade Agreements

This report compiles the final congressional votes on free trade agreements (FTAs), trade promotion authority (TPA), and U.S membership to the World Trade Organization (WTO).

In the past 30 years, the United States has pursued bilateral, regional, and multilateral trade agreements in an attempt to liberalize markets and reduce trade and investment barriers. Congress has played a central role in shaping this trade policy. Congress—through debate and legislation—defines trade negotiation priorities, approves free trade agreements (FTAs), and oversees agreements' implementation and enforcement.

While the President has the authority to negotiate treaties with foreign countries, Congress has sole constitutional authority to regulate international trade.1 Since 1934, Congress has periodically delegated some authority to negotiate trade agreements to the President. In the Trade Act of 1974, Congress outlined many of the congressional and executive roles regarding trade agreements; Congress delegated negotiation authority to the President, but required congressional approval (through implementation legislation) of any free trade agreement. Congress also created a process to allow for expedient consideration in Congress of FTAs, provided the President observe certain statutory requirements.2 This expedient consideration is known as TPA or, formerly, "fast-track" consideration.3

Free Trade Agreements: Bilateral, Regional, and Multilateral

The United States is currently party to 12 bilateral FTAs (with Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Israel, Jordan, South Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, and Singapore) and to 2 regional trade agreements (the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)).4 For a list and timeline of trade agreements where negotiations were concluded, see Table 1. For a compilation of final congressional votes on FTAs considered in Congress, see Table 2.

In addition to regional and bilateral agreements, the United States is also party to multilateral agreements that outline membership in the WTO, a 164-member international organization. The WTO was created in 1995 to oversee and administer multilateral trade rules, serve as a forum for trade liberalization negotiations, and resolve trade disputes.5 When Congress approved the WTO Uruguay Round Agreement, it included a set of procedures to allow Congress to reconsider U.S. membership in the WTO by passing a joint resolution calling for withdrawal from the organization.6 Congress may vote every five years on withdrawal from the WTO. Resolutions were introduced in the 106th and 109th Congress; neither passed. See Table 3 for a compilation of major legislation and votes concerning U.S. membership to the WTO.

Trade Promotion Authority

All U.S. FTAs, except the agreement with Jordan, were considered in Congress under Trade Promotion Authority (TPA). TPA is the process by which Congress enables FTA legislation to be considered under expedited legislative procedures, provided the President observes certain statutory obligations. Because TPA is extended only for limited periods, Congress periodically reconsiders legislation to extend it and to outline future negotiation objectives. Since 1974, Congress has passed seven measures extending TPA. TPA, like many issues related to international trade, has been politically contentious in Congress over time, resulting in vigorous debate and two multi-year lapses in authority.7 For a list of major votes on TPA, see Table 4.

Congressional Votes on Select Trade Legislation

Congressional consideration of bills can be a complex process, sometimes requiring multiple votes. For clarity's sake, this report only provides the final vote for each measure. More complete bill information can be found on Congress.gov—including roll call votes for all legislation back to 1993. The bill numbers listed in the following tables link to Congress.gov, and the vote tallies link to the House and Senate roll call votes, for all votes back to 1993.

Table 1 provides a timeline of trade agreements including the date the agreement was signed, the date implementing legislation was enacted, and the date the agreement went into force. The table also notes the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) legislation under which the trade agreement was considered in Congress. The table includes fully implemented trade agreements, as well as two recent FTAs—the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the U.S. Mexico Canada Agreement (USMCA)—where the United States completed negotiations and signed the agreement, but the agreement has not been implemented.

Table 2 provides major votes on FTAs, including the final House and Senate votes on FTA implementing legislation.

Table 3 provides major votes on U.S. membership to the WTO, including implementing legislation for multilateral agreements and resolutions calling for the United States to withdraw from the WTO.

Table 4 provides major votes on TPA legislation. It includes the final House and Senate votes on TPA-related provisions. Votes are grouped by the trade agreement authority granted to the President.

For a selected list of CRS products on FTAs and TPA, see the Appendix.

Table 1. U.S. Trade Agreements and Trade Promotion Authority: A Timeline

1985-2019 descending order by entry into force date

U.S. Trade Agreement

Agreement Signed

Implementing Legislation Signed by President

Agreement Entered into Force

TPAa

USMCAb

11/30/2018

n/a

n/a

Bipartisan Congressional Trade Priorities and Accountability Act of 2015

Trans-Pacific Partnershipc

2/4/2016

n/a

n/a

Bipartisan Congressional Trade Priorities and Accountability Act of 2015

Colombia

11/22/2006

10/21/2011

5/15/2012

Trade Act of 2002 

South Korea

6/30/2007

10/21/2011

3/15/2012

Trade Act of 2002 

Panama

6/28/2007

10/21/2011

10/31/2012

Trade Act of 2002 

Peru

4/12/2006

12/14/2007

2/1/2009

Trade Act of 2002 

Oman

1/19/2006

9/26/2006

1/1/2009

Trade Act of 2002 

Bahrain

9/14/2004

1/11/2006

1/11/2006

Trade Act of 2002 

CAFTA-DRd

5/28/2004 (CAFTA); 8/5/2004 (DR)

8/2/2005

entered into force on a rolling basis, 2006-2009e

Trade Act of 2002 

Morocco

6/15/2004

8/17/2004

1/1/2006

Trade Act of 2002 

Australia

5/18/2004

8/3/2004

1/1/2005

Trade Act of 2002 

Chile

6/6/2003

9/3/2003

1/1/2004

Trade Act of 2002 

Singapore

5/6/2003

9/3/2003

1/1/2004

Trade Act of 2002 

Jordan

10/24/2000

9/28/2001

12/17/2001

Not considered under TPA

WTOf

(Uruguay Round)

4/15/1994

12/8/1994

1/1/1995

Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988

NAFTAg

12/17/1992

12/8/1993

1/1/1994

Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988

Canadah

1/2/1988

9/28/1988

1/1/1989

Trade and Tariff Act of 1984

Israel

4/22/1985

6/11/1985

8/19/1985

Trade and Tariff Act of 1984

Source: Compiled from the U.S. Trade Representative's website, Congress.gov, Treaties in Force, Congressional Quarterly Almanac, and CRS Report RL33743, Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and the Role of Congress in Trade Policy, by Ian F. Fergusson

Notes: Also see CRS Infographic IG10001, Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and U.S. Trade Agreements, by Brock R. Williams.

a. Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) is the legislation that grants the President authority to negotiate trade agreements for which implementing legislation may receive expedited treatment in Congress.

b. USMCA includes Canada and Mexico, and is a proposed FTA that would, if implemented, supersede the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

c. The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) was a proposed FTA, signed by the United States and 11 other Asia-Pacific countries on Feb. 4, 2016. In Jan. 2017, the United States notified the other TPP signatories that it would not ratify the agreement, effectively ending TPP's potential entry into force as written. In March 2018, the remaining 11 TPP partners signed a slightly revised agreement, without the United Stated, called the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement on Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP).

d. CAFTA-DR (Dominican Republic-Central America-United States FTA) includes Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic.

e. CAFTA-DR entered into force on a rolling basis as the President certified each country's compliance with the agreement: El Salvador (March 1, 2006); Honduras and Nicaragua (April 1, 2006); Guatemala (July 1, 2006); the Dominican Republic (March 1, 2007); and Costa Rica (January 1, 2009).

f. The Uruguay Round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) included a series of multilateral agreements that established the WTO and outlined trade rules and membership to the international organization.

g. NAFTA (the North American Free Trade Agreement) includes Mexico and Canada.

h. The U.S.-Canada FTA was superseded by NAFTA.

Table 2. Major Votes on Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Implementing Legislation

(Agreements listed by date of FTA enactment)

Congress (Year)

U.S. FTA

Bill

Description of Bill

Final Votes

 

 

 

 

House

Senate

116th (2020)

USMCAa

H.R. 5430

FTA implementation act

385-41 (Passed) 12/19/2019

 

112th (2011)

Colombia

H.R. 3078

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 112-42.

262-167 (Passed)

10/12/2011

66-33 (Passed)

10/12/2011

110th (2008)

 

H.Res. 1092

Resolution to suspend TPA consideration of Colombia FTA in the 110th Congress. (The Administration did not resubmit the Colombia FTA to Congress until the 112th Congress.)

224-195 (Passed)

04/10/2008

n/a

112th (2011)

South Korea

H.R. 3080

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 112-41.

278-151 (Passed)

10/12/2011

83-15 (Passed)

10/12/2011

112th (2011)

Panama

H.R. 3079

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 112-43.

300-129 (Passed)

10/12/2011

77-22 (Passed)

10/12/2011

110th (2007)

Peru

H.R. 3688

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 110-138.

285-132 (Passed) 11/08/2007

77-18 (Passed)

12/04/2007

109th (2006)

Oman

H.R. 5684

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 109-283.

221-205 (Passed) 07/20/2006

62-32 (Passed)

09/19/2006

109th (2006)

 

S. 3569

FTA implementation act.

60-34 (Passed)

06/29/2006

109th (2006)

Bahrain

H.R. 4340

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 109-169.

327-95 (Passed)

12/07/2005

By Unanimous Consent.

12/13/2005

109th (2005)

CAFTA-DRb

H.R. 3045

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 109-53.

217-215 (Passed) 07/28/2005

55-45 (Passed)

07/28/2005

109th (2005)

 

S. 1307

FTA implementation act.

54-45 (Passed)

06/30/2005

108th (2004)

Morocco

H.R. 4842

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 108-302.

323-99 (Passed)

07/22/2004

By Unanimous Consent

07/22/2004

108th (2004)

 

S. 2677

FTA implementation act.

85-13 (Passed)

07/21/2004

108th (2004)

Australia

H.R. 4759

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 108-286.

 314-109 (Passed) 07/14/2004

80-16 (Passed)

07/15/2004

108th (2004)

Chile

H.R. 2738

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 108-77.

270-156 (Passed) 07/24/2003

65-32 (Passed)

07/31/2003

108th (2003)

 

S.Res. 211

A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate regarding provisions in the Chile and Singapore FTAs and immigration.

n/a

By Unanimous Consent

07/31/2003

108th (2003)

Singapore

H.R. 2739

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 108-78.

272-155 (Passed) 07/24/2003

66-32 (Passed)

07/31/2003

108th (2003)

 

S.Res. 211

A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate regarding provisions in the Chile and Singapore FTAs on trade agreements and immigration.

n/a

By Unanimous Consent

07/31/2003

107th (2001)

Jordan

H.R. 2603

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 107-43.

Voice vote (Agreed)

07/31/2001

Voice vote (Agreed)

09/24/2001

103rd (1993)

NAFTAc

H.R. 3450

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 103-182.

234-200 (Passed) 11/17/1993

61-38 (Passed)

11/20/1993

100th (1988)

Canadad

H.R. 5090

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 100-449.

366-40 (Passed) 08/09/1988

83-9 (Passed)

09/19/1988

104th (1996)

Israel

H.R. 3074

Amendments to the Israel FTA, enacted, P.L. 104-234.

Voice vote (Agreed) 04/16/1996

By Unanimous Consent

09/27/1996

99th (1985)

 

H.R. 2268

FTA implementation act; enacted, P.L. 99-47.

422-0 (Passed) 05/07/1985

Voice Vote (Agreed) 05/23/1985

Source: Compiled from Congress.gov and CQ Almanac.

Notes: TPA=Trade promotion authority. For more detailed bill information, the bill numbers above link to Congress.gov, and the vote tallies link to the House and Senate roll call votes, where available. In a few examples (Oman, CAFTA-DR, Morocco), the Senate passed an implementing bill before the House version. The Senate later considered and passed the House version of the bill, as revenue-generating bills must originate in the House. The Senate bills that received a vote are included in the above table.

a. USMCA is the U.S.-Canada-Mexico Agreement. If implemented, it would supersede NAFTA.

b. CAFTA-DR is the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States FTA, and includes Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic.

c. NAFTA is the North American Free Trade Agreement, and includes Mexico and Canada.

d. U.S.-Canada FTA was superseded by NAFTA.

Table 3. Major Legislation and Votes on U.S. Membership to the World Trade Organization (WTO)

1994-2019

Congress

P.L./Bill

Type

Description of Bill

Final Votes

 

 

 

 

House

Senate

103rd

P.L. 103-465 (H.R. 5110)

Implementation act

Uruguay Round Agreements Act (Implementation act for WTO agreements).

288-146 (Passed)

11/29/1994

76-24 (Passed)

12/01/1994

109th

H.J.Res. 27

Proposed Withdrawal from WTO

Withdrawing the approval of the United States from the Agreement establishing the WTO.

86-338 (Failed)

06/09/2005

109th

H.Res. 304

Consideration of Proposed Withdrawal from WTO

Providing for consideration of the joint resolution (H.J.Res. 27) withdrawing the approval of the United States from the Agreement establishing the WTO.

Voice vote (Passed) 06/08/2005

n/a

106th

H.J.Res. 90

Proposed Withdrawal from WTO

Withdrawing the approval of the United States from the Agreement establishing the WTO.

56-363 (Failed)

06/21/2000

106th

H.Res. 528

Consideration of Proposed Withdrawal from WTO

Providing for consideration of the joint resolution (H.J.Res. 90) withdrawing the approval of the United States from the Agreement establishing the WTO.

343-61(Passed)

06/21/2000

n/a

106th

H.J.Res. 89

Proposed Withdrawal from WTO

Withdrawing the approval of the United States from the Agreement establishing the WTO.

[no votes taken]

Source: Compiled from Congress.gov.

Notes: WTO and its predecessor the GATT are multilateral trade agreements. GATT (the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) was a multilateral agreement that aimed to lower tariffs and established the nondiscriminatory principles of trade that were later carried over into the WTO. GATT was provisionally applied in 1948, with subsequent rounds of negotiations. The last round of negotiations, the Uruguay Round, established the WTO, which incorporated GATT.

Section 125(b) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (P.L. 103-465) sets procedures for congressional disapproval of WTO participation. It specifies that Congress's approval of the WTO agreement shall cease to be effective "if and only if" Congress enacts a joint resolution calling for withdrawal. Congress may vote every five years on withdrawal.

Table 4. Major Votes on Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) Provisions

Final votes on TPA provisions, 1974-2019 Legislation listed by date of vote.

Congress

Bill

Name of Act or Description

Final Votes on TPA provisions

Notes

 

 

 

House Vote

Senate Vote

 

Votes related to the 2015 TPA grant

 

 

 

114th

H.R. 2146

Bipartisan Congressional Trade Priorities and Accountability Act of 2015

218-208, (Passed) 6/18/2015

60-38, (Passed) 6/24/2015

Enacted, P.L. 114-26, 06/29/2015. Extends TPA to include the Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement, USMCA, and other prospective FTAs.

114th

H.R. 1314

Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015

Measure considered under "division of the question." Measure failed because while Title 1 (TPA) passed, Title II failed.

Title 1 vote (on TPA):

219-211, 6/12/2015;

Title II vote (on other issues): 126-302, 6/12/2015a

Vote concerning TPA: 62-37, (Passed) 5/22/2015b

The TPA provisions in H.R. 1314 passed in the Senate, but failed in the House. An amendment identical to the Senate version of H.R. 1314 was then inserted into an unrelated bill, H.R. 2146 (see above).

Votes related to the 2002 TPA grant

 

 

 

110th

H.Res. 1092

Resolution to remove TPA consideration from the U.S.-Colombia FTA bill (H.R. 5724) in the 110th Congress

224-195, (Agreed) 04/10/2008

n/a

This measure removed TPA consideration (granted through the TPA provisions in the Trade Act of 2002) from the U.S.-Colombia FTA (H.R. 5724) in the 110th Congress. No further legislative action occurred in the 110th Congress on H.R. 5724. The U.S.-Colombia FTA was not resubmitted to Congress until the 112th Congress.

107th

H.R. 3009

The Trade Act of 2002

215-212, (Passed) 7/27/2002

64-34, (Passed)

8/1/2002

Enacted, P.L. 107-210, 8/6/2002. Eleven FTAs were negotiated and considered in Congress under the TPA provisions in the Trade Act of 2002. See Table 1.

107th

H.Res. 450

H. Res. 450 Relating to consideration of H.R. 3009

216-215, (Agreed) 6/26/2002

n/a

A rule to expand the scope of H.R. 3009 (the Trade Act of 2002)

107th

H.R. 3005

Bipartisan Trade Promotion Authority Act of 2002

215-214, (Passed) 12/6/2001

n/a

 

TPA Lapse, 1994-2002

 

 

 

 

105th

H.R. 2621

Reciprocal Trade Agreement Authorities Act of 1997

180-243, (Failed) 9/25/1998

n/a

Measure attempted to renew TPA. Measure failed. TPA lapsed between 1994 and 2002.

Votes related to the 1988 TPA grant

 

 

 

103rd

H.R. 1876

To extend fast-track procedures for Uruguay Round trade agreements

295-126, (Passed) 6/22/1993

76-16, (Passed) 6/30/1993

Enacted, P.L. 103-49, 7/2/1993. Amended the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (see below) to extend TPA for the WTO Uruguay Round agreements.

102nd

S.Res. 78

Resolution disapproving a two-year extension of fast-track procedures under the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988.

n/a

36-59, (Failed) 5/24/1991

A failed attempt to deny a two-year extension of the TPA provisions in the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988. Also see identical bill H.Res. 101.

102nd

H.Res. 101

Resolution disapproving the extension of fast-track procedures to implement trade agreements entered into after May 31, 1991, and by May 31, 1993.

192-231, (Failed) 5/23/1991

n/a

Also see identical bill S. Res. 78 (above).

102nd

H.Res. 146

Resolution concerning U.S. objectives of future trade agreements

329-85, (Passed) 5/23/1991

n/a

Bill attempted to emphasize that Congress could suspend fast track consideration if the Administration did not negotiate adequate protections for workers, industries, and the environment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

100th

H.R. 4848

Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988

376-45, (Passed) 7/13/1988

85-11, (Passed) 8/3/1988

Enacted, P.L. 100-418, 8/23/1988. Provided TPA consideration for NAFTA and the WTO Uruguay Round Agreements.

100th

H.R. 3

Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1987

312-107, (Passed) 04/21/1987;

(Vetoed by the President, 5/24/1988);

Motion to override Presidential veto: 308-113, (Passed) 5/24/1988

63-36, (Passed) 4/27/1988;

(Vetoed by the President, 5/24/1988)

Motion to override veto: 61-37, (Failed) 6/8/1988

Measure failed over presidential veto. Provisions from H.R.3, concerning TPA, were reintroduced into H.R. 4848, which was enacted as P.L. 100-418 (see above).

100th

S. 1420

Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1987

n/a

Senate passed H.R. 3 in lieu of this measure, by Yea-Nay Vote of 71-27, 07/21/1987

See related bill H.R. 3, above.

Votes related to the 1984 TPA grant

 

 

 

98th

H.R. 3398

The Trade and Tariff Act of 1984

386–1, (Passed) 10/9/1984

96-0, (Passed) 9/20/1984

Enacted, P.L. 98-573, 10/30/1984. Provided TPA consideration to the Canada and Israel FTAs.

98th

H.R. 5377

U.S. Israel Free Trade Area

416-6, (Passed) 10/3/1984

n/a

Text of bill was inserted into H.R.3398, the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 (see above). Outlined authority and negotiating priorities for the U.S.-Israel FTA.

Votes related to the 1974 TPA grant

 

 

 

96th

H.R. 4537

Trade Agreements Act of 1979

395-7, (Passed) 07/11/1979

90-4, (Passed) 07/23/1979

Enacted, P.L. 96-39, 07/26/1979.

Votes related to the 1974 TPA grant

 

 

 

93rd

H.R. 10710

Trade Act of 1974

323-36, (Passed) 12/20/1974

72-4, (Passed) 12/20/1974

Enacted, P.L. 93-618, 01/03/1975.

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Notes: Bolded titles were enacted into law. For more detailed bill information, the bill numbers above link to Congress.gov. There were two notable lapses in TPA: between 1994 and 2002 and between 2007 and 2015. For more on TPA, see CRS Report R43491, Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions, by Ian F. Fergusson and Christopher M. Davis.

a. The measure was voted on in the House under a procedure known as "division of the question," which requires separate votes on each component, but approval of both to pass. Title 1 concerning TPA passed the House; however, Title II, concerning trade adjustment assistance, failed. Thus, the measure failed, under "division of the question." (House roll call votes on H.R. 1314: Title I (TPA): Roll no. 362, 6/12/2015; Title II: Roll no. 361, 6/12/2015.)

b. Roll call vote 193, 5/22/2015.

Appendix. Selected CRS Reports and Resources
On Trade Promotion Authority

CRS In Focus IF10297, TPP-Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) Timeline, by Ian F. Fergusson

CRS Report R43491, Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions, by Ian F. Fergusson and Christopher M. Davis

CRS Report RL33743, Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and the Role of Congress in Trade Policy, by Ian F. Fergusson

CRS Infographic IG10001, Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and U.S. Trade Agreements, by Brock R. Williams

On Select Free Trade Agreements

CRS Report R45198, U.S. and Global Trade Agreements: Issues for Congress, by Brock R. Williams

CRS In Focus IF10733, U.S.-South Korea (KORUS) FTA, coordinated by Brock R. Williams

CRS Report RL34470, The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues, by M. Angeles Villarreal and Edward Y. Gracia

CRS Report RS22164, DR-CAFTA: Regional Issues, by Clare Ribando Seelke

CRS In Focus IF10394, Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), by M. Angeles Villarreal

CRS Insight IN10903, CRS Products on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), by M. Angeles Villarreal

CRS In Focus IF10997, Proposed U.S.-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) Trade Agreement, by Ian F. Fergusson and M. Angeles Villarreal

CRS In Focus IF10000, TPP: Overview and Current Status, by Brock R. Williams and Ian F. Fergusson

On Multilateral Trade Agreements

CRS Report R45417, World Trade Organization: Overview and Future Direction, coordinated by Cathleen D. Cimino-Isaacs

Acknowledgements

This report benefited greatly from the work of retired CRS Research Librarian, Carolyn Smith.

Author Contact Information

Keigh E. Hammond, Research Librarian ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Footnotes

1.

Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution gives Congress the power "To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations ..." and "To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts, and Excises.... "

2.

Section 102 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended.

3.

For more on Trade Promotion Authority see CRS Report RL33743, Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and the Role of Congress in Trade Policy, by Ian F. Fergusson and CRS Report R43491, Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions, by Ian F. Fergusson and Christopher M. Davis.

4.

For more, see CRS Report R45198, U.S. and Global Trade Agreements: Issues for Congress, by Brock R. Williams.

5.

See CRS Report R45417, World Trade Organization: Overview and Future Direction, coordinated by Cathleen D. Cimino-Isaacs.

6.

Section 125(b) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (P.L. 103-465) sets procedures for congressional disapproval of WTO participation. It specifies that Congress's approval of the WTO agreement shall cease to be effective "if and only if" Congress enacts a joint resolution calling for withdrawal. Congress may vote every five years on withdrawal.

7.

Since 1974, there were two notable lapses in TPA: between 1994 and 2002 and between 2007 and 2015. For more on TPA, see CRS Report R43491, Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions, by Ian F. Fergusson and Christopher M. Davis.