Juvenile Justice Funding Tends

Juvenile Justice Funding Tends
January 5, 2021
Although juvenile justice has always been administered by the states, the federal government has
played a role in this area through the administration of grant programs. Congress has influenced
Emily J. Hanson
juvenile justice by authorizing and funding grant programs administered by the Department of
Analyst in Social Policy
Justice’s (DOJ’s) Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP).

Kristin Finklea
The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA ; P.L. 93-415), enacted in 1974,
Specialist in Domestic
was the first comprehensive juvenile justice legislation passed by Congress. The JJDPA
Security
authorized a series of grant programs designed to support state juvenile justice systems and

prevent juvenile delinquency. Since its enactment, the JJDPA has undergone several key
amendments, including a significant reorganization in 2002 (by the 21st Century Department of

Justice Appropriations Authorization Act; P.L. 107-273). Its grant programs were most recently
amended and reauthorized by the Juvenile Justice Reform Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-385).
Funding for programs authorized by the JJDPA, as well as for other non -JJDPA grant programs that are administered by
OJJDP, is provided through the Juvenile Justice Programs account in the annual Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related
Agencies appropriations act. After the restructuring of juvenile justice grant programs in 2002, total funding for these
programs began to decline. This decline generally continued through FY2007, after which funding for these programs started
to increase. For FY2010, Congress provided $424 million for juvenile justice programs—the largest appropriation since
FY2003. Juvenile justice funding then generally declined again from FY2010 through FY2017. After appropriating a low of
$247 million for juvenile justice programs in FY2017, Congress increased juvenile justice funding annually from FY2018
through FY2021. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021(P.L. 116-260), provided $346 million for juvenile justice
programs for FY2021—the largest appropriation since the $424 million in FY2010.
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Contents
Juvenile Justice Legislation and Grant Programs .................................................................. 1
State Formula Grant Program ...................................................................................... 1
Title V Incentive Youth Promise Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention ......................... 2
Victims of Child Abuse Act Grants ............................................................................... 2
Juvenile Mentoring Program ....................................................................................... 2
Juvenile Accountability Block Grants ........................................................................... 3
Juvenile Justice Appropriations ......................................................................................... 3
Historical Appropriations by Program ........................................................................... 4

Figures
Figure 1. Total Juvenile Justice Programs Appropriations, FY2002-FY2021............................. 3

Tables
Table 1. Juvenile Justice Appropriations by Program, FY2012-FY2021 ................................... 6

Contacts
Author Information ......................................................................................................... 9

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he federal government has no juvenile justice system of its own. Rather, juvenile justice is
administered by the states. The federal government, though, seeks to influence states’
T juvenile justice systems through the administration of grant programs and the provision of
funds.1
This report provides a brief overview of funding for the juvenile justice-related grant programs
administered by the Department of Justice’s (DOJ’s) Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention (OJJDP).
Juvenile Justice Legislation and Grant Programs
A number of federal y funded juvenile justice grant programs are authorized by the Juvenile
Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 (JJDPA, P.L. 93-415). Since its enactment, the
JJDPA has been revised by several key amendments, including a significant reorganization in
2002 (by the 21st Century Department of Justice Appropriations Authorization Act; P.L. 107-273).
Its grant programs were most recently amended and reauthorized by the Juvenile Justice Reform
Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-385).
The JJDPA as original y enacted had three main components: (1) it established OJJDP to
coordinate and administer federal juvenile justice efforts; (2) it created grant programs to assist
states with their juvenile justice systems; and (3) it promulgated core mandates to which states
must adhere in order to be eligible for certain grant funding. Although the JJDPA has been
amended several times over the past 40 years, it continues to feature these three components.
The JJDPA has been the primary channel through which the federal government has provided
juvenile justice funding to states. However, other programs also administered by OJJDP have
contributed to overal federal juvenile justice funding.
The following section outlines various juvenile justice grant programs, including those authorized
by the JJDPA. Grants noted in this section have been congressional y authorized at some point in
time and have received an appropriation at least once since FY2012. Congress has also provided
appropriations for programs that it has not authorized; these programs are not discussed in this
section, but they are included in Table 1, which outlines funding for juvenile justice programs
since FY2012.
State Formula Grant Program
The JJDPA authorizes OJJDP to make formula grants to states for the planning, establishment,
operation, coordination, and evaluation of projects that develop more effective juvenile
delinquency programs and improve juvenile justice systems.2 Funds are al ocated annual y based
on each state’s proportion of people under the age of 18. States must adhere to certain core
mandates to receive their funding.3 The Juvenile Justice Reform Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-385)
amended and reauthorized this program through FY2023.

1 For more information on the legislative history of juvenile justice and details on the grant programs outlined in this
report, refer to CRS Report RL33947, Juvenile Justice: Legislative History and Current Legislative Issues.
2 34 U.S.C. §11131.
3 T here are four core mandates with which—unless for specified exceptions—states must generally comply: states must
keep status offenders (such as truants) out of secure detention or correctional facilities; states cannot detain or confine
juveniles in facilities in which they would have contact with adult inmates; juveniles cannot be detained or confined in
any jail or lockup for adults; and states must show that they are working to address racial and ethnic disparities within
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Juvenile Justice Funding Tends

Title V Incentive Youth Promise Grants for Local Delinquency
Prevention
The JJDPA authorizes OJJDP to make grants to states, which are then transmitted through
subgrants to units of local government (or nonprofits in partnership with units of local
government) for delinquency prevention programs for juveniles who have come into contact with,
or are at risk to come into contact with, the juvenile justice system.4 The Juvenile Justice Reform
Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-385) amended and reauthorized this program through FY2023. The JJDPA
also authorizes OJJDP to make grants to eligible Indian tribes to support delinquency prevention
programs for at-risk youth or those who have come into contact with the juvenile justice system.
Traditional y, Congress dedicates amounts from the total appropriation for the Title V program for
specific programs and purposes areas (e.g., the Tribal Youth program or preventing gang
violence).
Victims of Child Abuse Act Grants
Subtitle A of the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 authorizes support for regional and local
Children’s Advocacy Centers (CACs), including state chapters, and for related training and
technical assistance. Subtitle C of that act authorizes training of judicial personnel to improve
handling of child abuse and neglect proceedings (Title II of the Crime Control Act of 1990, P.L.
101-647). OJJDP is authorized to fund various grants related to each of these activities.5 The
CAC program was most recently reauthorized (through FY2023) via the Victims of Child Abuse
Act Reauthorization Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-424). The training for judicial personnel program was
most recently reauthorized in the Violence Against Women Act Reauthorization Act of 2013 (P.L.
113-4). Its authorization of appropriations expired in FY2018, but it has continued to receive
funding.
Juvenile Mentoring Program
The Juvenile Mentoring Program was authorized by the Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency
Prevention Programs Act (P.L. 102-586). Grants under this program are awarded to local
educational agencies (in partnership with public or private agencies) to establish and support
mentoring programs to reduce delinquent behavior, improve scholastic performance, and reduce
school dropouts.6 The program has continued to receive appropriations even though its
authorization was repealed (P.L. 107-273).

their juvenile justice systems.
4 34 U.S.C. §11313.
5 For Subtitle A, see 34 U.S.C. §§20301-20307; for Subtitle C, see 34 U.S.C. §§20331-20334; Subtitle B of the Victims
of Child Abuse Act (34 U.S.C §§ 20321-20324) authorizes funding related to Court Appointed Special Advocates
(CASAs), including technical assistance. T his funding is appropriated under the State and Local Law Enforcement
account but is nonetheless administered by OJJDP. For more information on Victims of Child Abuse Act programs, see
CRS Report R43458, Child Welfare: An Overview of Federal Program s and Their Current Funding .
6 For more information on the Juvenile Mentoring Program and youth mentoring, see CRS Report RL34306,
Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Program s and Issues.
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Juvenile Justice Funding Tends

Juvenile Accountability Block Grants
Congress initial y established the Juvenile Accountability Block Grant (JABG) program by
appropriating funding for it in the FY1998 Department of Justice Appropriations Act (P.L. 105-
119). Congress subsequently authorized the JABG program through P.L. 107-273.7 Although the
authorization for the JABG program is not a part of the JJDPA, it nevertheless is administered by
OJJDP. The JABG program authorizes the Attorney General to make grants to states and units of
local government to strengthen their juvenile justice systems, including holding juveniles
accountable for their actions.8 Authorization for this program expired in FY2009, but Congress
continued to provide appropriations through FY2013.
Juvenile Justice Appropriations
Congress appropriates funding for programs authorized by the JJDPA as wel as for other non-
JJDPA grant programs through the Juvenile Justice Programs account in the annual Commerce,
Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act. Figure 1 shows total appropriations
for juvenile justice programs from FY2002 through FY2021.
Figure 1. Total Juvenile Justice Programs Appropriations, FY2002-FY2021
(dol ars in mil ions)

Sources: FY2002 enacted taken from H.Rept. 107-278. FY2003 enacted taken from H.Rept. 108-10. FY2004
enacted taken from H.Rept. 108-401. FY2005 enacted taken from H.Rept. 108-792. FY2006 enacted taken from
H.Rept. 109-272. FY2007 appropriation is based on FY2006 enacted minus a 1.28% rescission, as per P.L. 110-5.
FY2008 enacted taken from P.L. 110-161. FY2009 enacted taken from P.L. 111-8. FY2010 enacted taken from
P.L. 111-117. FY2011 enacted based on a CRS analysis of the text of P.L. 112-10. FY2012 enacted taken from P.L.
112-55. FY2013 amount provided by the U.S. Department of Justice. FY2014 enacted taken from P.L. 113-76.
FY2015 enacted taken from P.L. 113-235. FY2016 enacted taken from P.L. 114-113. FY2017 enacted taken from

7 T he Juvenile Accountability Block Grant (JABG) program was codified within the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe
Streets Act of 1968 (34 U.S.C. §10401).
8 T he one core mandate of the JABG program is that states must begin to implement a system of graduated sanctions to
be eligible for funding.
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P.L. 115-31. FY2018 enacted taken from P.L. 115-141. FY2019 enacted taken from P.L. 116-6. FY2020 enacted
taken from P.L. 116-93. FY2021 enacted taken from P.L. 116-260.
Notes: Numbers are rounded. Amounts are in nominal dol ars. The amounts include al rescissions of current
year budget authority. The FY2013 funding level also reflects sequestration pursuant to the Budget Control Act
of 2011 (P.L. 112-25). JJDPA = Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (P.L. 93-415).
Overal funding for juvenile justice programs, which had typical y been above $500 mil ion,
peaked at $565 mil ion in FY2002. From FY2002 to FY2007, however, overal funding fel by
38% to $348 mil ion. The majority of this reduction came from cuts to the JABG program.
Appropriations for JABG fel from a high of $250 mil ion in FY2002 to $49 mil ion in FY2007.
From FY2007 to FY2010, total funding for juvenile justice programs increased by almost 22% to
$424 mil ion, with funding for JJDPA programs increasing by 27% to $331 mil ion over this same
period. This was the largest juvenile justice appropriation since FY2003.
Funding for juvenile justice programs again began to decline in FY2011, and that decline
general y continued through FY2017. From FY2010 to FY2017, total funding for juvenile justice
programs decreased by nearly 42%, from $424 mil ion to $247 mil ion. Contributing to this drop,
Congress eliminated funding for the Chal enge Grants9 in FY2011 and for the JABG program in
FY2014. During this time period, however, Congress also started appropriating funding for
programs that had not previously been funded under the Juvenile Justice Programs account
(including funding for missing and exploited children programs, child abuse training programs
for judicial personnel and practitioners, and grants and technical assistance in support of a
National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention).
After appropriating a low of $247 mil ion for juvenile justice programs in FY2017, Congress
increased juvenile funding annual y from FY2018 through FY2021. Congress increased funding
for juvenile justice programs to nearly $283 mil ion for FY2018, and it included funds for a new
Opioid Affected Youth Initiative. Congress again increased juvenile justice program funding to
$287 mil ion in FY2019, and it set aside money for an initiative serving children exposed to
violence.10 Congress then increased funding for juvenile justice programs to $320 mil ion for
FY2020 and included a new set-aside from the Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency
Prevention for grants to prevent trafficking of girls. Congress most recently appropriated $346
mil ion for juvenile justice programs for FY2021—the largest appropriation since the $424
mil ion in FY2010.
Historical Appropriations by Program
Table 1
provides a breakdown of funding for the Juvenile Justice Programs account by program
for the 10-year period from FY2012 to FY2021.
Appropriations for specific programs in the Juvenile Justice Programs account can vary from year
to year. For example, starting in FY2012, Congress moved funding for missing and exploited
children programs from the Justice Assistance account to the Juvenile Justice Programs account.
In addition, Congress sometimes provides funding for programs as a specific line item in the
Juvenile Justice Programs account, but in other years funding for those programs is provided as a
set-aside from another program in the account. For example, the Community Based Violence
Prevention Initiative and the Competitive Grants Focusing on Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

9 T he Challenge Grants program authorized OJJDP to make discretionary grants to state, local, and tribal governments
and private entities to carry out programs to develop, test, or demonstrate promising new initiatives that may prevent,
control, or reduce juvenile delinquency. T he program last received appropriations in FY2010.
10 Funding for this purpose was previously provided under the State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Account
from FY2012–FY2016.
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Juvenile Justice Funding Tends

Program have received line item appropriations in some fiscal years and have been funded by set-
asides from the Title V Incentive Grants Program in other years. By contrast, some programs,
when funded, have consistently been funded through set-asides from the Title V program (e.g.,
the tribal youth program and grants focused on girls in the juvenile justice system).

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Table 1. Juvenile Justice Appropriations by Program, FY2012-FY2021
(dol ars in mil ions)
Program
FY2012
FY2013a
FY2014
FY2015
FY2016 FY2017 FY2018
FY2019 FY2020
FY2021
State Formula Grants
40
41
56
55
58
55
60
60
63
67
Emergency Planning—


(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
Juvenile Detention Facilities
Juvenile Mentoring Program Grant
78
84
89
90
90
80
94
95
97
100
Title V Incentive Grants for Local
20
19
15
15
18
15
28
25
42
49
Delinquency Prevention
Community Gang Prevention
(5)
(5)
(3)
(3)
(5)
(4)
(4)



Tribal Youth Program
(10)
(9)
(5)
(5)
(10)

(5)
(5)
(5)
(10)
Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws
(5)
(5)
(3)







Juvenile Justice and Education


(5)







Col aboration Assistance
Community-Based Violence



(6)

(8)
(8)



Prevention Initiative
National Forum on Youth Violence



(1)






Prevention
Children of Incarcerated Parents




(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
Web Portal
Competitive Grants Focusing on




(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
Girls in the Juvenile Justice System
Opioid Affected Youth Initiative






(8)
(9)
(10)
(10)
Children Exposed to Violence







(8)
(8)
(8)
Initiative
Prevention of Trafficking of Girls








(2)
(2)
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Program
FY2012
FY2013a
FY2014
FY2015
FY2016 FY2017 FY2018
FY2019 FY2020
FY2021
Juvenile Accountability Block Grant
30
23








Victims of Child Abuse Act
18
18
19
19
20
21
21
23
27
30
Community-Based Violence
8
10
6
—b
8
—b
—b



Prevention Initiative
Missing and Exploited Children
65c
63
67
68
72
73
76
82
88
94
Child Abuse Training
2d
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
4
National Forum on Youth Violence
2
2
1
—e






Prevention
Competitive Grants Focusing on


1
2
—f
—f
—f
—f
—f
—f
Girls in the Juvenile Justice System
Children of Incarcerated Parents


1
1
—f
—f
—f
—f
—f
—f
Web Portal
Improving Indigent Defense




3
2
2


3
Total Juvenile Justice
263
261
255
252
270
247
283
287
320
346
Appropriation
Sources: FY2011 enacted based on a CRS analysis of the text of P.L. 112-10. FY2012 enacted taken from P.L. 112-55. FY2013 amount provided by the U.S. Department
of Justice (DOJ). FY2014 enacted taken from P.L. 113-76. FY2015 enacted taken from P.L. 113-235. FY2016 enacted taken from P.L. 114-113. FY2017 enacted taken from
P.L. 115-31. FY2018 enacted taken from P.L. 115-141. FY2019 enacted taken from P.L. 116-6. FY2020 enacted taken from P.L. 116-93. FY2021 enacted taken from P.L.
116-260.
Notes: Numbers in parentheses are nonadds that have been set aside from other grant programs. Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. Amounts are in
nominal dol ars.
a. The FY2013 amounts reflect rescissions of discretionary budget authority provided in P.L. 113-6 as specified in §3001 of the act. Per §3001, a rescission of 1.877%
was applied to appropriations for discretionary nonsecurity (as defined at 2 U.S.C. §900(c)(4)(A)) accounts, including juvenile justice. The post-rescission amounts
also include an additional rescission, as calculated by the Office of Management and Budget per §3004 of the act, of 0.2% for discretionary nonsecurity accounts. In
addition, the FY2013 funding levels reflect reductions that resulted from the sequestration ordered by President Obama on March 1, 2013, pursuant to the Budget
Control Act of 2011 (P.L. 112-25).
b. For FY2015, FY2017, and FY2018, funding for the Community-Based Violence Prevention Initiative was appropriated as set-aside funding from the Title V Incentive
Grants.
c. Funding for missing and exploited children programs previously was provided under the Justice Assistance account (now the Research, Evaluation, and Statistics
account).
CRS-7


d. Funding for child abuse training programs for judicial personnel and practitioners previously was provided under the State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance
account.
e. For FY2015, funding for the National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention was appropriated as set-aside funding from the Title V Incentive Grants.
f.
For FY2016-FY2021 funding for the Competitive Grants Focusing on Girls in the Juvenile Justice System and the Children of Incarcerated Parents Web Portal was
appropriated as set-aside funding from the Title V Incentive Grants.

CRS-8

Juvenile Justice Funding Tends



Author Information

Emily J. Hanson
Kristin Finklea
Analyst in Social Policy
Specialist in Domestic Security




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