Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Current Funding Trends

Order Code RL32085 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Current Funding Trends Updated April 11, 2008 Ann Lordeman Specialist in Social Legislation Domestic Social Policy Division Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Current Funding Trends Summary The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the major federal statute that supports special education and related services for children with disabilities. This report traces recent funding trends for this program and tracks the status of actions to “fully fund” the grants-to-states program under Part B of IDEA. FY2008 total funding for IDEA is nearly $12.0 billion. FY2008 funding for the Part B grants-to-states program is $10.9 billion. Since FY1995, funding for the Part B grants to states program has nearly quintupled, although in recent years funding growth has slowed. Full funding of IDEA is generally considered to be 40% of the excess cost (i.e., the additional cost) of educating children with disabilities. The FY2008 amount for the grants-to-states program represents 17.17% of the estimated excess cost of serving children with disabilities, which is virtually the same percent as the 17.13% of excess cost that the FY2007 appropriation represented. The President’s FY2009 budget would increase overall funding for IDEA to $12.3 billion, with funding for the grants-to-states program increasing to $11.3 billion, an increase of $337 million above the FY2008 appropriation. Because of projected increases in the estimated cost of special education and in the number of children with disabilities served, this amount would represent a slight decrease in the estimated FY2007 excess cost to 17.09%. This report will be updated as warranted to reflect congressional action on IDEA appropriations and to incorporate updated data for excess cost calculations. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Recent Funding Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 FY2009 Budget Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Estimated FY2008 and FY2009 State Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 “Full Funding” of IDEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 “Excess” Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Part B Grants-to-States Authorizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Maximum State Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 List of Tables Table 1. IDEA Appropriations for FY2007 and FY2008 and the IDEA FY2009 Budget Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Table 2. Final FY2007, Estimated FY2008, and FY2009 Request IDEA Part B Grants-to-States Allocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Table 3. Estimated Percentage of Average Per-Pupil Expenditure (APPE) for FY1995-FY2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table 4. Authorizations for the IDEA Part B Grants-to-States Program (P.L. 108-446, §611(i)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 5. Estimated FY2008 and FY2009 IDEA Part B Grants-to-States Allocations Based on Appropriated and Proposed Amounts, and FY2008 and FY2009 Authorization Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Current Funding Trends Introduction The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the major federal statute that supports special education and related services for children with disabilities. As a condition of accepting IDEA funding, the act requires that states and local educational agencies (LEAs) provide a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to each eligible child with a disability. The IDEA is divided into four parts. Part A contains the general provisions, including the purposes of the act and definitions. Part B, the most often discussed part of the act, contains provisions relating to the education of school aged (the grants-to-states program) and state grants program for preschool children with disabilities (Section 619).1 Part C authorizes state grants for programs serving infants and toddlers with disabilities, while Part D contains the requirements for various national activities designed to improve the education of children with disabilities. Part B is permanently authorized. Parts C and D are authorized through FY2011.2 P. L. 108-446 made significant changes to IDEA, most of which went into effect on July 1, 2005.3 Recent Funding Trends4 In FY2008, IDEA funding for grants to states is nearly five times more than it was in FY1995 — increasing from $2.3 billion to $10.9 billion — although in recent years, funding growth has slowed. FY2008 funding for the Part B grants to states contained in the Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY2008 (P.L.110-161) increased by $165 million, or 1.5% over the FY2007 level. (See Table 1.) 1 Part B includes the funding formulas, provisions relating to evaluations, eligibility determinations, individual educational programs (IEPs), and educational placements. It also contains detailed requirements for procedural safeguards as well as withholding of funds and judicial review. 2 IDEA authorizes appropriations for Parts C and D programs and activities through FY2010. These authorities were automatically extended for an additional fiscal year by the General Education Provisions Act (GEPA — 20 U.S.C. §1226a). 3 For further information, see CRS Report RL32716, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Analysis of Changes Made by P.L. 108-446, by Richard N. Apling and Nancy Lee Jones. (Hereafter cited as CRS Report RL32716.) 4 All dollar figures are in current dollars; no price-level adjustments have been applied. CRS-2 Under P. L. 110-161, funding for the preschool program is decreased by nearly $7 million or is 1.75% less than the FY2007 level. The Part C infant and toddlers program is decreased by approximately $0.7 million or is 0.2% less than the FY2007 level. Funding for the Part D national programs is increased by about $21.9 million or 11%. This increase is a result of restoring some of the FY2006 funding for state personnel development, which was not funded in FY2007. State personnel development was funded at $50.5 million in FY2006 and $22.6 million in FY2008.5 FY2009 Budget Request Table 1 compares the FY2008 appropriations for IDEA with the President’s FY2009 budget request. Overall funding for IDEA would increase by 3% under the President’s budget, from $11.98 billion to $12.34 billion. Almost all of this increase would fund the 3% increase in the Part B grants-to-states program, which would increase by $337 million over the FY2008 amount. Part B preschool state grants and Part C infants and toddlers grants would be level funded. Total funding for Part D (national programs and activities) would increase by $17.1 million, or 7.6%. The increase would be directed to state personnel development. According to the Department of Education, the FY2008 appropriation does not include sufficient funds “to cover the 2008 continuation awards or provide new funding for the 6 States with projects expiring on September 30, 2008.”6 The FY2009 request of $48.0 million for state personnel development would pay for these costs. In addition to state grants, funding for the Part B grants-to-states program contains set-asides for the outlying areas,7 for the freely associated states,8 and for children with disabilities served in Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools. The Secretary is also authorized to reserve up to $25 million9 of Part B appropriations for technical assistance for the states (P.L. 108-446, §611(c)) related to state requirements for data collection and analysis under §616(i). For FY2007 and FY2008, the Secretary reserved $15 million from the Part B grants to states appropriation for this purpose. The President proposes reserving $15 million for FY2009. 5 Both the House Appropriations Committee report (H.Rept. 109-515) and the Senate Appropriations Committee report (S.Rept. 109-287) indicated that no funding was recommended for FY2007 for state personnel development because funding from FY2006 was still available for this purpose (p. 199). The FY2006 funding level was$50.5 million. 6 U.S. Department of Education, Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Summary. p. 41. 7 The outlying areas are defined as “the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands” (P.L. 108-446, §602(22)). 8 The freely associated states are: the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau (P.L. 108-446, §611(b)(1)(C)). 9 This maximum is to be adjusted each year by the rate of inflation. CRS-3 Table 1. IDEA Appropriations for FY2007 and FY2008 and the IDEA FY2009 Budget Request (in thousands of dollars) IDEA Program/Activity Part B grants to states Part B preschool grants (Section 619) Subtotal, Part B Part C infants and toddlers grants Subtotal, state grants Part D (total) Total, IDEAa FY2007 FY2008 % Change (FY2007FY2008) FY2009 Request % Change (FY2008FY2009) 10,782,961 10,947,511 1.53% 11,284,511 3.08% 380,751 374,099 -1.75% 374,099 0.00% 11,163,712 11,321,611 1.41% 11,658,610 2.98% 436,400 435,654 -0.17% 435,654 0.00% 11,600,112 11,757,264 1.35% 12,094,264 2.87% 202,755 11,802,867 224,629 11,981,893 10.79% 1.52% 241,679 12,335,943 7.59% 2.95% Source: U.S. Department of Education (ED) Budget Service spreadsheets and P.L. 110-161. Note: Totals may differ slightly due to rounding. All dollar figures are in current dollars; no pricelevel adjustments have been applied. a. The total amount appropriated for FY2008 does not include approximately $11.8 million for the Special Olympics education program appropriated under the authority of the Special Olympics Sport and Empowerment Act (P.L. 108-406). Estimated FY2008 and FY2009 State Grants Table 2 shows estimated Part B grants-to-states allocations based on the FY2007 and FY2008 appropriations and on the FY2009 request. The FY2008 estimates are compared to states’ FY2007 grants. The FY2009 estimates are compared to the FY2008 estimates. Increases in FY2008 estimated grants range from 1.37% to 3.03%. The interaction of IDEA formula provisions accounts for the smallest states receiving percentage increases that are nearly twice the percentage increases of most other states. The formula requires (at the proposed level of the FY2007 increase) that no state receive less than a% of the overall increase in funding since FY1999 or 90% of the percentage increase of total IDEA Part B grantsto-states appropriations over the previous year, whichever amount is greater. In addition, no state may receive a grant that is more than the overall annual growth rate in appropriations plus 1.5 percentage points. The minimum grant for the eight smallest states is the a% of appropriations growth since FY1999; however, for six of these states, this would be more than the overall annual growth plus 1.5 percentage points. So these six states receive the latter percentage increase (1.53% + 1.5% = 3.03%). Most other states receive the other minimum growth rate of 90% of the annual growth in total appropriations (0.1.53 times 90% = 1.37%). FY2009 estimated increased range from 277% to 4.58%. For both FY2008 and FY2009, the total amount for set-asides represents inflationary increases for Bureau of Indian CRS-4 Affairs (BIA) schools, outlying areas, and the freely associated states,10 and level funding for technical assistance to the states. Table 2. Final FY2007, Estimated FY2008, and FY2009 Request IDEA Part B Grants-to-States Allocations (dollars rounded to nearest $000) State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri 10 Final FY2007 Estimated Grants FY2008 Grants 170,486,000 172,827,000 33,552,000 34,370,000 167,830,000 172,909,000 105,159,000 106,603,000 1,150,176,000 1,165,973,000 142,142,000 144,726,000 124,652,000 126,364,000 30,750,000 31,680,000 15,461,000 593,036,000 295,043,000 37,427,000 50,887,000 474,790,000 239,750,000 114,456,000 100,185,000 147,980,000 177,474,000 51,300,000 187,713,000 266,132,000 375,542,000 177,961,000 111,568,000 212,961,000 15,929,000 598,437,000 303,971,000 37,941,000 51,586,000 481,311,000 243,042,000 116,028,000 101,561,000 150,013,000 179,912,000 52,005,000 190,291,000 269,787,000 380,700,000 180,405,000 113,101,000 215,886,000 Estimated Estimated FY2009 Grants % Change (Based on from FY2009 FY2007 to Request) FY2008 177,615,000 1.37% 35,493,000 2.44% 180,825,000 3.03% 109,557,000 1.37% 1,198,276,000 1.37% 151,248,000 1.92% 129,865,000 1.37% 33,131,000 3.03% 16,658,000 615,017,000 317,888,000 38,992,000 53,016,000 494,646,000 249,776,000 119,242,000 104,375,000 154,169,000 184,896,000 53,445,000 195,563,000 277,261,000 391,247,000 185,404,000 116,234,000 221,867,000 3.03% 1.37% 3.03% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% Estimated % Change from FY2008 to FY2009 Request 2.77% 3.27% 4.58% 2.77% 2.77% 4.51% 2.77% 4.58% 4.58% 2.77% 4.58% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% The recent practice of the U.S. Department of Education (ED) has been to increase funding for outlying areas and the freely associated states by the rate of inflation. Recent appropriations language (including language in the act making appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education and Related Agencies for FY2006, P.L. 109-149) limits increases in BIA funding under IDEA to the rate of inflation, unless that amount would be greater than an amount based on the percentage increase in funds provided under §611(i). CRS-5 Estimated Estimated FY2009 Grants % Change (Based on from Estimated FY2009 FY2007 to FY2008 Grants Request) FY2008 35,120,000 36,244,000 1.59% 70,966,000 72,932,000 1.37% 65,026,000 68,003,000 3.03% Final FY2007 State Grants Montana 34,572,000 Nebraska 70,005,000 Nevada 63,116,000 New Hampshire 44,492,000 45,103,000 New Jersey 338,874,000 343,582,000 New Mexico 85,445,000 86,618,000 New York 711,692,000 721,466,000 North Carolina 294,557,000 304,552,000 North Dakota 24,969,000 25,724,000 Ohio 410,348,000 415,983,000 Oklahoma 138,669,000 140,574,000 Oregon 120,909,000 122,570,000 Pennsylvania 400,450,000 405,950,000 Puerto Rico 102,591,000 105,695,000 Rhode Island 40,998,000 41,561,000 South Carolina 164,211,000 166,466,000 South Dakota 29,744,000 30,644,000 Tennessee 218,639,000 221,642,000 Texas 904,579,000 916,138,000 Utah 99,999,000 101,664,000 Vermont 24,075,000 24,803,000 Virginia 264,057,000 267,684,000 Washington 207,507,000 210,357,000 West Virginia 71,200,000 72,178,000 Wisconsin 195,173,000 197,854,000 Wyoming 25,257,000 26,021,000 Subtotals to 10,640,540,000 10,803,246,000 states Total setasides 142,421,000 144,265,500 10,782,961,000 10,947,512,000 Totals Estimated % Change from FY2008 to FY2009 Request 3.20% 2.77% 4.58% 46,352,000 353,045,000 89,018,000 741,454,000 317,915,000 26,902,000 427,508,000 144,469,000 125,966,000 417,197,000 110,534,000 42,712,000 171,078,000 32,047,000 227,782,000 952,229,000 106,147,000 25,939,000 275,100,000 216,185,000 74,177,000 203,335,000 27,212,000 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 2.13% 3.03% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 3.03% 1.37% 1.37% 3.03% 1.37% 1.37% 1.61% 3.03% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 1.37% 3.03% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 4.39% 4.58% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 4.58% 2.77% 2.77% 4.58% 2.77% 3.94% 4.41% 4.58% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 2.77% 4.58% 11,137,190,000 1.55% 3.09% 147,321,000 11,284,511,000 1.29% 1.53% 2.12% 3.08% Source: CRS calculations based on data obtained from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) Budget Service. Note: Totals may differ slightly due to rounding. FY2008 and FY2009 grants are estimates only and do not necessarily represent amounts states and other entities will eventually receive. These amounts are provided for the purpose of policy discussion only. CRS-6 “Full Funding” of IDEA Actual and proposed Part B grants-to-states funding and state grant amounts are often discussed in terms of: (1)”excess “costs, (2) authorization levels of funding, and (3) maximum state grants. Each of these measures, discussed below, can be an indicator of the “full funding” of IDEA. “Excess” Costs When Congress enacted the predecessor legislation to IDEA11 in 1975, the available estimate of the cost of educating children with disabilities was, on average, twice the cost of educating other children. A determination was made that the federal government would pay some proportion of this additional or “excess” cost. The metric for determining this excess cost was the national average per-pupil expenditure (APPE). The final determination was that the federal government would pay up to 40% of this excess cost.12 Although appropriations for IDEA Part B grants to states have increased significantly over the last decade, funding still falls short of the amount that would be necessary to provide 40% of APPE (i.e., 40% of excess cost), one measure of IDEA “full funding.” Table 3 shows estimated percentages of excess cost since FY1995. This percentage, shown in column six, is obtained by dividing the dollars available per child with a disability (column 4) by the APPE (column five). The amount available per child with a disability was obtained by dividing the appropriation for the Part B grants-to-states-program (column 2) by the number of children with disabilities (column 3).13 The FY2008 appropriated amount accounts for 17.2% of the estimated excess cost, and the FY2009 budget request would account for 17.1% of estimated excess cost. For FY2008, the estimated amount needed to reach 40% of Average Per-Pupil Expenditure (APPE) is $25.5 billion, the product of 40% of the number of children with disabilities and the APPE. The FY2008 appropriation of $10.9 billion is well below this amount. 11 Federal special education legislation existed prior to 1975 — most notably the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA). P.L. 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975) substantially amended the EHA, creating the essential structure and principles of federal assistance to special education that are still reflected in current law. In 1990, the name of the act was changed to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act by P.L. 101476. Congress made extensive amendments to IDEA in 1997 (P.L. 105-17) and again in 2004 (P.L. 108-446); however the basic characteristics of the act resemble those first enacted in 1975. 12 “In 1975, when the Act was originally enacted, Congress established the goal of providing up to 40 percent of the national average per pupil expenditure to assist States and local educational agencies with the excess costs of educating students with disabilities.” H.Rept. 108-77, p. 93. 13 Beginning in FY1999, certain amounts have been excluded from appropriations for the purposes of calculating percentages of APPE. From FY1999 to FY2004, these amounts were designated for evaluations and studies. For FY2005 and succeeding fiscal years, these amounts are designated for technical assistance to the states. CRS-7 Note that any increase in appropriations does not necessarily mean an increase in the percentage of APPE. For example, the FY2007 appropriation increase by $200 million over the FY2006 amount, yet the percentage of APPE declined from 17.7% to 17.1%. This resulted because the growth rates of the number of children with disabilities and of APPE were greater than the growth rate in appropriations. Table 3. Estimated Percentage of Average Per-Pupil Expenditure (APPE) for FY1995-FY2009 Dollars per Child as Percentage of Appropriations APPE Average Number of for IDEA (estimated per-Pupil Part B grants Children with Dollars per percentage of Disabilities Child with a Expenditure to states excess cost) (APPE) (in 000) Disability FY (in $000) (column 1) (column 2) (column 3) (column 4) (column 5) (column 6) 1995 2,322,915 5,467 425 5,429 7.8% 1996 2,323,837 5,629 413 5,640 7.3% 1997 3,107,522 5,806 535 5,796 9.2% 1998 3,801,000 5,978 636 6,046 10.5% 1999 4,301,000 6,133 701 6,296 11.1% 2000 4,976,685 6,274 793 6,631 12.0% 2001 6,323,685 6,381 991 7,006 14.1% 2002 7,512,533 6,483 1,159 7,499 15.5% 2003 8,858,398 6,611 1,340 7,839 17.1% 2004 10,052,106 6,723 1,495 8,148 18.4% 2005 10,579,746 6,820 1,551 8,400 18.5% 2006 10,567,961 6,814 1,551 8,786 17.7% 2007 2008 Est. 10,767,961 10,932,511 6,796 6,796 1,584 1,609 9,249 9,370 17.1% 17.2% 2009 Req. 11,269,511 6,796 1,658 9,701 17.1% Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service (CRS) from U.S. Department of Education (ED) data. Note: FY1999-FY2004 funds exclude amounts for studies and evaluations; FY2005 through FY2009 funds exclude amounts for technical assistance. Estimates of “full funding” percentages of APPE will change for any fiscal year for which ED revises data to calculate these estimates. CRS-8 Part B Grants-to-States Authorizations Prior to the enactment of P.L. 108-446, IDEA authorized “such sums as may be necessary” for the Part B grants-to-states program. The 2004 reauthorization of IDEA added specific authorization levels for FY2005 to FY2011. The authorization levels were intended to provide a path to “full funding” by FY2011.14 Table 4 lists these authorized amounts. Table 4. Authorizations for the IDEA Part B Grants-to-States Program (P.L. 108-446, §611(i)) Fiscal Year Authorization 2005 12,358,376,571 2006 14,648,647,143 2007 16,938,917,714 2008 19,229,188,286 2009 21,519,458,857 2010 23,809,729,429 2011 26,100,000,000 2012 and subsequent years such sums as may be necessary Table 5 compares estimated FY2008 Part B grants-to-states allocations (column 2) with estimated allocations based on the FY2008 authorization level for the program (column 3) and estimated FY2009 allocations based on the President’s budget request (column 5) with those based on the FY2009 authorization (column 6). Table 5 also shows the estimated percent increase each state would receive if the authorized amounts for FY2008 and FY2009 were the amounts that were appropriated (columns 4 and 7, respectively). In general, states would receive on average approximately 77% more for FY2008 than they would based on the FY2008 appropriation, and approximately 92% more for FY2009 than they would under the FY2009 budget request. 14 The House report noted that the House bill (H.R. 1350) “has established a clear and genuine pattern to reach the 40 percent goal within the next seven years.” (H.Rept. 108-77, p. 93). The Senate bill (S. 1248) contained a similar authorization pattern. CRS-9 Table 5. Estimated FY2008 and FY2009 IDEA Part B Grants-to-States Allocations Based on Appropriated and Proposed Amounts, and FY2008 and FY2009 Authorization Levels State (column 1) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York Estimated Estimated FY2008 Grants FY2008 Grants Based on Based on Appropriation Authorization Estimated % Estimated % Change Change Between Between Grants Based Grants Based on on Estimated Appropriation FY2009 Grants Estimated Appropriation and Grants and Grants (Based on FY2009 Grants Based on Based on President’s Based on Authorization Request) Authorization Authorization (column 2) 172,827,000 34,370,000 172,909,000 106,603,000 1,165,973,000 144,726,000 126,364,000 31,680,000 (column 3) 306,583,000 60,336,000 301,808,000 188,242,000 2,068,354,000 255,347,000 220,421,000 55,298,000 (column 4) 77.4% 75.5% 74.5% 76.6% 77.4% 76.4% 74.4% 74.5% (column 5) 177,615,000 35,493,000 180,825,000 109,557,000 1,198,276,000 151,248,000 129,865,000 33,131,000 (column 6) 342,318,000 68,077,000 342,479,000 211,149,000 2,309,435,000 286,658,000 250,288,000 62,749,000 (column 7) 92.7% 91.8% 89.4% 92.7% 92.7% 89.5% 92.7% 89.4% 15,929,000 598,437,000 303,971,000 37,941,000 51,586,000 481,311,000 243,042,000 116,028,000 101,561,000 150,013,000 179,912,000 52,005,000 190,291,000 269,787,000 380,700,000 180,405,000 113,101,000 215,886,000 35,120,000 70,966,000 65,026,000 45,103,000 343,582,000 86,618,000 721,466,000 27,804,000 1,061,586,00 530,574,000 67,305,000 91,511,000 853,812,000 431,140,000 202,392,000 180,162,000 266,112,000 319,151,000 90,714,000 337,563,000 470,599,000 675,336,000 320,027,000 200,633,000 382,967,000 62,170,000 123,789,000 113,501,000 78,674,000 599,228,000 153,654,000 1,265,905,000 74.5% 77.4% 74.5% 77.4% 77.4% 77.4% 77.4% 74.4% 77.4% 77.4% 77.4% 74.4% 77.4% 74.4% 77.4% 77.4% 77.4% 77.4% 77.0% 74.4% 74.5% 74.4% 74.4% 77.4% 75.5% 16,658,000 615,017,000 317,888,000 38,992,000 53,016,000 494,646,000 249,776,000 119,242,000 104,375,000 154,169,000 184,896,000 53,445,000 195,563,000 277,261,000 391,247,000 185,404,000 116,234,000 221,867,000 36,244,000 72,932,000 68,003,000 46,352,000 353,045,000 89,018,000 741,454,000 31,551,000 1,185,321,000 602,074,000 75,150,000 102,177,000 953,330,000 481,393,000 228,042,000 201,161,000 297,129,000 356,350,000 101,445,000 376,908,000 526,272,000 754,051,000 357,328,000 224,018,000 427,604,000 69,563,000 139,919,000 128,796,000 89,335,000 670,118,000 171,564,000 1,429,004,000 89.4% 92.7% 89.4% 92.7% 92.7% 92.7% 92.7% 91.2% 92.7% 92.7% 92.7% 89.8% 92.7% 89.8% 92.7% 92.7% 92.7% 92.7% 91.9% 91.8% 89.4% 92.7% 89.8% 92.7% 92.7% CRS-10 State (column 1) North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Subtotals to states Total set-asides Totals Estimated Estimated FY2008 Grants FY2008 Grants Based on Based on Appropriation Authorization Estimated % Estimated % Change Change Between Between Grants Based Grants Based on on Estimated Appropriation FY2009 Grants Estimated Appropriation and Grants and Grants (Based on FY2009 Grants Based on Based on President’s Based on Authorization Request) Authorization Authorization (column 2) 304,552,000 25,724,000 415,983,000 140,574,000 122,570,000 405,950,000 105,695,000 41,561,000 166,466,000 30,644,000 221,642,000 916,138,000 101,664,000 (column 3) 536,266,000 44,901,000 737,925,000 249,368,000 217,431,000 720,127,000 184,489,000 72,496,000 295,300,000 53,489,000 393,177,000 1,625,166,000 179,928,000 (column 4) 76.1% 74.5% 77.4% 77.4% 77.4% 77.4% 74.5% 74.4% 77.4% 74.5% 77.4% 77.4% 77.0% (column 5) 317,915,000 26,902,000 427,508,000 144,469,000 125,966,000 417,197,000 110,534,000 42,712,000 171,078,000 32,047,000 227,782,000 952,229,000 106,147,000 (column 6) 603,224,000 50,952,000 823,936,000 278,434,000 242,774,000 804,063,000 209,350,000 81,073,000 329,719,000 60,697,000 439,005,000 1,814,590,000 201,366,000 (column 7) 89.7% 89.4% 92.7% 92.7% 92.7% 92.7% 89.4% 89.8% 92.7% 89.4% 92.7% 90.6% 89.7% 24,803,000 267,684,000 210,357,000 72,178,000 197,854,000 26,021,000 43,293,000 474,853,000 373,159,000 125,902,000 349,538,000 45,419,000 74.5% 77.4% 77.4% 74.4% 76.7% 74.5% 25,939,000 275,100,000 216,185,000 74,177,000 203,335,000 27,212,000 49,127,000 530,200,000 416,654,000 140,797,000 391,888,000 51,539,000 89.4% 92.7% 92.7% 89.8% 92.7% 89.4% 10,803,246,000 19,084,923,000 144,265,000 144,265,000 10,947,512,000 19,229,188,000 76.7% 0.0% 75.6% 11,137,190,000 21,372,138,000 147,321,000 147,321,00 11,284,511,000 21,519,459,000 91.9% 0.0% 90.7% Source: CRS calculations based on data obtained from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) Budget Service. Note: Totals may differ slightly due to rounding. State grants are estimates only and do not necessarily represent amounts states and other entities will eventually receive. These amounts are provided for the purpose of policy discussion only. CRS-11 Maximum State Grants Prior to the enactment of P.L. 108-446, the maximum amount states could receive under the Part B grants-to-states program was based on 40% of the national average per pupil expenditure (APPE) times the number of children with disabilities the state serves.15 The sum of these maximum grants is a third measure of IDEA “full funding.” P.L.108-446 maintained this maximum-grant calculation through FY2006. Thereafter, the maximum grant is 40% of APPE times the number of children with disabilities the state served in school year 2004-2005 adjusted by the annual rates of change in the state’s population in the age range comparable to ages for which the state provides education for children with disabilities16 (85% of the adjustment) and in the state’s children living in poverty in the same age range (15% of the adjustment). Since it is not clear what sources of data or the methodology the Department of Education would use to determine state maximum grants, it is not possible to estimate them for this report. 15 P.L. 105-17 §611(a)(2). 16 For most states this age range is 3 to 20 or 3 to 21.