Trends in U.S. Foreign Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002

Over the 11-year period from FY1992 to FY2002, more than 50 types of agricultural commodities have been donated to more than 100 countries through U.S. food aid programs. The Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, the Food for Progress Act of 1985, and the Agricultural Act of 1949 established three main U.S. food aid programs: Public Law 480 (P.L. 480), Food for Progress (FFP), and Section 416(b) to meet humanitarian needs, alleviate malnutrition, and establish a market presence in recipient countries. Three other food aid programs are the Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust, the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (IFEP), and the John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program. P.L. 480, also known as the Food for Peace Program, provides U.S. agricultural commodities to countries with differing economic development levels. Food For Progress provides commodities to developing countries that are emerging democracies and that have made commitments to introduce or expand free enterprise in their agricultural economies. Section 416(b) provides donations to developing countries of surplus agricultural commodities acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) through price support programs. The Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust is a commodity reserve used to meet emergency humanitarian food needs in developing countries. The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (IFEP) provides food to improve nutrition for mothers, infants, preschoolers, and schoolchildren in developing countries. The John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program finances the transfer of technical skills of the U.S. agricultural community to farmers in participating countries. This report provides tables and graphs on the composition of U.S. food aid. Data is restricted to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) data that includes commodity tonnage and value. The data does not include ocean freight, internal handling, shipping, transportation, and administration expenses. Among other things, this report indicates that funding for food aid varies from year to year; that more food aid has been provided under P.L. 480 and Section 416(b) than under Food for Progress; that most food aid provided under P.L. 480 is distributed through Title II; that the food aid commodity composition now includes more high-value and blended products donated through Title II feeding programs; and that the United States is a major food aid contributor. This report will be updated as circumstances warrant.

Order Code RL31927 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Trends in U.S. Foreign Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002 May 20, 2003 (name redacted) Technical Information Specialist Resources, Science, and Industry Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Trends in U.S. Foreign Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002 Summary Over the 11-year period from FY1992 to FY2002, more than 50 types of agricultural commodities have been donated to more than 100 countries through U.S. food aid programs. The Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, the Food for Progress Act of 1985, and the Agricultural Act of 1949 established three main U.S. food aid programs: Public Law 480 (P.L. 480), Food for Progress (FFP), and Section 416(b) to meet humanitarian needs, alleviate malnutrition, and establish a market presence in recipient countries. Three other food aid programs are the Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust, the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (IFEP), and the John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program. P.L. 480, also known as the Food for Peace Program, provides U.S. agricultural commodities to countries with differing economic development levels. Food For Progress provides commodities to developing countries that are emerging democracies and that have made commitments to introduce or expand free enterprise in their agricultural economies. Section 416(b) provides donations to developing countries of surplus agricultural commodities acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) through price support programs. The Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust is a commodity reserve used to meet emergency humanitarian food needs in developing countries. The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (IFEP) provides food to improve nutrition for mothers, infants, preschoolers, and schoolchildren in developing countries. The John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program finances the transfer of technical skills of the U.S. agricultural community to farmers in participating countries. This report provides tables and graphs on the composition of U.S. food aid. Data is restricted to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) data that includes commodity tonnage and value. The data does not include ocean freight, internal handling, shipping, transportation, and administration expenses. Among other things, this report indicates that funding for food aid varies from year to year; that more food aid has been provided under P.L. 480 and Section 416(b) than under Food for Progress; that most food aid provided under P.L. 480 is distributed through Title II; that the food aid commodity composition now includes more high-value and blended products donated through Title II feeding programs; and that the United States is a major food aid contributor. This report will be updated as circumstances warrant. Contents Food Aid Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Food Aid by Program, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Commodities Provided by Programs, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Regions Receiving Commodities, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Emergency vs. Non-Emergency Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Food Aid as a Percentage of U.S. Agricultural Exports to Developing Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Food Aid by Donor Country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 List of Figures Figure 1. U.S. Food Aid by Program, Commodity Value, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . 3 Figure 2. P.L. 480 Food Aid Programs by Commodity Value, FY1992-FY2002 . 3 Figure 3. Food Aid Commodity Categories by Volume, FY1992 and FY2002 . . 5 Figure 4. Volume of Food Aid Received by Region, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . 6 Figure 5. Emergency and Non-Emergency Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . 7 Figure 6. U.S. Food Aid Exports as a Percent of U.S. Agricultural Exports to Developing Countries, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Figure 7. Major Donor Contributions of Food Aid by Volume, Marketing Years 1995-2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 List of Tables Table 1. Food Aid Programs, Value and Commodity Volume by Program, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Table 2. Non-Emergency and Emergency Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table 3. Food Aid and U.S. Agricultural Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Appendix A: U.S. Food Aid by Value, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Appendix B: U.S. Food Aid by Volume, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Appendix C: Food Aid Commodity Mix, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Appendix D: Food Aid Commodity Categories by Volume, FY1992-FY2002 . 13 Appendix E: Countries That Received Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002 . . . . . . . . . . 14 Appendix F: Food Aid Donations to Regions by Volume, FY1992-FY2002 . . . 16 Trends in U.S. Foreign Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002 Food Aid Programs The Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, the Food for Progress Act of 1985, and the Agricultural Act of 1949 established three main U.S. food aid programs to meet humanitarian needs, alleviate malnutrition, and to establish a market presence in recipient countries. The three main food aid programs that provide commodities are Public Law 480 (P.L. 480); Food for Progress (FFP); and Section 416(b). There are three other programs also used to provide food aid and agricultural technical assistance. These are the Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust, the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (IFEP), and the John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program. P.L. 480, also known as the Food for Peace Program, provides U.S. agricultural commodities to countries with differing economic development levels. It is authorized by the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 and consists of three titles: Title I, Title II, and Title III. Title I uses long term credit agreements to facilitate government to government purchases of agricultural commodities by developing countries with the potential to become commercial markets. It is administered by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Titles II and III are administered by the Agency for International Development (USAID). Title II allows the U.S. government to donate agricultural commodities to foreign countries to meet humanitarian needs arising from emergencies or for use in development projects. Title II also is used to donate agricultural commodities to the United Nations (UN) World Food Program (WFP), an intergovernmental organization that provides for humanitarian needs in foreign countries. Title II humanitarian programs are operated by private voluntary organizations, cooperatives, intergovernmental organizations, governments of developing countries and their agencies, and other organizations. Title III provides government to government grants to support long term economic development in least developed countries. Food For Progress provides commodities to developing countries that are emerging democracies and that have made commitments to introduce or expand free enterprise in their agricultural economies. It is authorized by the Food for Progress Act of 1985. Commodities for the FFP are financed by Title I appropriations or through Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) purchases or, if available, CCC inventories may be used. Section 416(b) of the Agriculture Act of 1949, as amended, provides donations of surplus agricultural commodities acquired by the CCC from price support programs to food aid programs. It is administered by USDA and operates much like Title II. It can be used for emergency and non-emergency food aid and the CRS-2 commodities are provided to the ultimate beneficiaries via private voluntary organizations, cooperatives, and the World Food Program. In marketing years 20002002, section 416(b) commodities were used for the Global Food for Education Initiative (GFEI). GFEI was replaced by the IFEP in the 2002 farm bill (see below). The Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust is primarily a commodity reserve used to meet emergency humanitarian food needs in developing countries. It is authorized under the Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust Act of 1998. Four million metric tons of grains can be held in the trust in any combination of wheat, rice, corn, or sorghum. Funds from P.L. 480 can be used to purchase grain to replace supplies released from the reserve, but the purchases are limited to $20 million per fiscal year. The Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust is also authorized to hold money as well as commodities in the reserve, but no funds have been held. The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (IFEP), authorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, encourages education and provides food to improve nutrition for mothers, infants, preschoolers, and school children in developing countries. It is administered by USDA and carried out by private voluntary organizations, cooperatives, intergovernmental organizations, governments of developing countries and their agencies, and other organizations. The John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program does not provide any commodities but receives 0.4% of P.L. 480 appropriations to improve global food production and marketing by transferring technical skills of the U.S. agricultural community to farmers in participating countries. It is authorized under Title V of P.L. 480, administered by USAID, and operated by private voluntary organizations, cooperatives, intergovernmental organizations, governments of developing countries and their agencies, and other organizations. The program was renamed to honor John Ogonowski, who participated in the program, and was one of the pilots who was killed on September 11, 2001. Food Aid by Program, FY1992-FY2002 As shown in Figure 1, levels of funding for U.S. food aid have varied from year to year. Funding peaked in FY1999 at $2.7 billion and was $1.1 billion in FY2002. Food for Progress was $86 million, Section 416(b) was $410 million, and P.L. 480 was $595 million in FY2002. In FY1992, P.L. 480 accounted for 72% of total food aid and in FY2002 it accounted for 55% of total food aid. Although Section 416(b) was not funded from FY1995 to FY1997, funding for it has increased overall between FY1992 and FY2002. In FY1999, Section 416(b) peaked at $1.1 billion due to a Food Aid Initiative announced by President Clinton in 1998. The Initiative authorized increased wheat and wheat product donations. Under the Initiative, the CCC purchased over 5 million metric tons of soybeans, wheat, and wheat products which were donated through the Section 416(b) program in FY1999. Much of the food was made available to the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (IFEP). (See also Table 1, for food aid data by value and volume from FY1992-FY2002.) CRS-3 Figure 1. U.S. Food Aid by Program, Commodity Value, FY1992-FY2002 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 P.L. 480 1996 1997 1998 1999 Section 416 (b) 2000 2001 2002 Food for Progress Source: USDA. Figure 2. P.L. 480 Food Aid Programs by Commodity Value, FY1992-FY2002 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 1992 1993 1994 Title I Title II includes Title II/WFP for 1992. 1995 1996 Title II 1997 1998 1999 Title II/WFP 2000 2001 2002 Title III Source: USDA. The $595 million of P.L. 480 in FY2002 included Title I at $102 million, Title II at $280 million, and TitleII/WFP at $213 million. Title III has not been funded since FY2000. As shown in Figure 2, Title II is the largest of the three P.L. 480 programs. Title II commodities allocated to the WFP have been increasing in recent years. In FY1992, Title I was $374 million, three times the amount it was in FY2002. The level of Title I spending in FY1999 was due to augmenting P.L. 480 appropriations with $700 million of CCC funds to provide food aid to Russia. CRS-4 Table 1. Food Aid Programs, Value and Commodity Volumea by Program, FY1992-FY2002 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 P.L. 480: Title I Dollars in Millions 374 333 218 172 219 153 164 687 157 105 102 Million Metric Tons 2.27 2.11 1.16 0.80 0.79 0.77 1.02 3.43 1.03 0.75 5.04 P.L. 480: Title II Dollars in Millions 482 509 578 458 504 413 475 581 471 439 493 Million Metric Tons 1.92 2.00 2.09 2.05 1.62 1.64 1.93 2.73 2.12 2.13 2.24 P.L. 480: Title III Dollars in Millions 240 232 175 83 39 28 21 19 0 0 0 Million Metric Tons 1.57 1.29 1.02 0.46 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 Total P.L. 480 Programs Dollars in Millions 1,096 1,074 971 712 762 594 660 1,287 627 544 595 Million Metric Tons 5.76 5.39 4.27 3.32 2.56 2.56 3.09 6.32 3.15 2.89 2.74 Food For Peace (FFP) Dollars in Millions 127 922 113 173 108 79 86 307 151 107 86 Million Metric Tons 0.47 5.79 0.48 0.64 0.37 0.29 0.45 0.42 0.41 0.44 0.29 Section 416(b) Dollars in Millions 308 365 90 7 0 0 41 1,105 632 630 410 Million Metric Tons 1.61 1.82 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.15 3.15 3.04 1.64 Total, Food Aid Programs a Dollars in Millions 1,531 2,361 1,175 892 870 673 787 2,698 1,410 1,281 1,091 Million Metric Tons 7.84 13.01 4.93 3.96 2.93 2.84 3.53 12.88 6.70 6.36 4.67 Commodity Volume is Grain Equivalent Million Metric Tons. Source: USDA. CRS-5 Commodities Provided by Programs, FY1992-FY2002 Over 50 types of commodities including grains, oilseeds, dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and blended foods have been provided through the U.S. food aid programs from FY1992 to FY2002 (See Appendix C for a list of commodities provided under the food aid programs). Commodity composition varies due to country needs and commodity availability. Figure 3. Food Aid Commodity Categories by Volume, FY1992 and FY2002 FY2002 FY1992 Rice 5.2% Corn & Sorghum 35.8% Rice 8.0% Wheat 43.6% Nonfat Dry Milk 0.5% Wheat 39.6% Other 15.1% Vegetable Oil 3.9% Vegetable Oil 7.9% Corn & Sorghum 11.7% Nonfat Dry Milk 1.1% Other 27.7% Other includes: Beans, Buckwheat, Bulgur, Butter, Corn Soy Blend, Corn Soy Masa Flour, Corn Soya Milk, Cornmeal, Cotton, Dehydrated Potatoes, Dehydrated Vegetables, Evaporated Milk, Infant Formula, Lentils, Peas, S.F. Bulgur, S.F. Cornmeal, S.F. Sorghum Grits, Soy Fortified Bulgur, Soybean Meal, Soybeans, Tallow, Textured Soy Protein, Wheat Flour, Wheat Soy Blends. Source: USDA. As shown in Figure 3, the leading food aid category in FY1992 and FY2002 is wheat. Corn and sorghum decreased from 36% of the total in FY1992 to 12% in FY2002. Rice has increased from 5% of the total in FY1992 to 8% in FY2002. Vegetable oil has doubled from FY1992 to FY2002. The "other" category has increased from 15% of the total in FY1992 to 28% in FY2002. Since the "other" category contains blended and fortified products, percentage changes might be due to the increase in Title II appropriations and the need for high value products (HVP) or blended foods in Title II feeding programs. (See Appendix D for data on the food aid categories by volume from FY1992-FY2002). Regions Receiving Commodities, FY1992-FY2002 Food aid has been donated to over 100 countries from FY1992 to FY2002. Each year the list of countries receiving food aid changes based on need and whether or not a country cannot afford to purchase food. As shown in Figure 4, USDA organizes countries that receive food aid into six regions: Africa; Asia and the Middle East; Europe; Latin America and the Carribean; Near East; and the New Independent States. (See Appendix E for a list of countries under each region that received food through the food aid programs.) In FY1992, Africa received 38% of all food aid by volume, Latin America and the Carribean received 20%, and Asia CRS-6 received 18% of total food aid by volume. In FY2002, Asia received 42% of all food aid by volume, Africa received 27%, and Latin America and the Carribean received 13% of total food aid by volume. Figure 4. Volume of Food Aid Received by Region, FY1992-FY2002 FY1992 New Independent States 14.2% FY2002 Near/Middle East 9.6% Near/Middle East 9.4% New Independent States 7.7% Latin America/Carribean 13.4% Latin America/Carribean 19.5% Africa 34.0% Africa 37.6% Europe 1.5% Asia 17.5% Asia 33.4% Europe 2.1% Source: USDA. Africa's share of food aid in FY1992 and FY2002 reflects its demand for food for development and emergencies. The increase in food aid to Asia from FY1992 to FY2002 reflects increased donations to Afghanistan and North Korea. The volume of food aid to Latin America and the Carribean countries decreased from 20% of the total in FY1992 to 13% in FY2002. The proportion of food aid to the New Independent States decreased by almost half from FY1992 to FY2002. Food aid to Europe in FY1992 reflects Title I sales to Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) that were Soviet satellite countries to assist their transition to independence from the Former Soviet Union (FSU). While food aid to the Near East has not changed much between FY1992 and FY2002, it may increase in the future due to increased food aid needs in Iraq. (See Appendix F for the volume of food aid received by each region from FY1992 to FY2002.) Emergency vs. Non-Emergency Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002 Title II provides both emergency and non-emergency food aid, and Section 416(b) is used similarly to Title II. The P.L. 480 statute requires that 1.87 million metric tons be allocated for non-emergency food aid unless waived by the President of the United States. As shown in Figure 5 and Table 2, non-emergency food aid peaked in FY2001 and emergency food aid peaked in FY1995. In FY2002, nonemergency food aid donations were 1.2 million metric tons and emergency food aid donations were 1.0 million metric tons. CRS-7 Figure 5. Emergency and Non-Emergency Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 Emergency 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Non-Emergency Source: USDA. Table 2. Non-Emergency and Emergency Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002 (thousand metric tons) Year Source: USAID. Non-Emergency Emergency Total 1992 1,243 754 1,997 1993 1,193 804 1,997 1994 1,111 981 2,092 1995 1,019 1,079 2,098 1996 852 843 1,695 1997 884 781 1,665 1998 991 921 1,912 1999 1,140 792 1,932 2000 1,154 956 2,110 2001 1,300 728 2,028 2002 1,203 1,015 2,218 CRS-8 Food Aid as a Percentage of U.S. Agricultural Exports to Developing Countries As shown in Figure 6, U.S. food aid exports as a percent of U.S. agricultural exports by value to developing countries peaked in FY1993 and FY1999 at 20% and 18% respectively. In FY2002, U.S. food aid exports accounted for 6% of total U.S. exports to developing countries. This is a one percent decrease from FY2001 when food aid exports accounted for 7% of U.S. agricultural exports to developing countries. U.S. agricultural exports to developing countries were $18 billion in FY2002. (See Table 3 for additional information on U.S. exports by category.) Figure 6. U.S. Food Aid Exports as a Percent of U.S. Agricultural Exports to Developing Countries, FY1992-FY2002 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Source: USDA. Table 3. Food Aid and U.S. Agricultural Exports ($ million) Year Total U.S. Agricultural Food Aid as Food Aid Agricultural Exports to % of Total Exports Developing Countries Food Aid as % of U.S. Agricultural Exports to Developing Countries 1992 1,531 42,651 3.20% 12,263 12.48% 1993 2,361 42,887 3.19% 11,963 19.74% 1994 1,175 43,967 2.39% 12,256 9.59% 1995 892 54,729 1.51% 15,839 5.63% 1996 870 59,867 1.33% 17,987 4.84% 1997 673 57,338 1.10% 16,764 4.01% 1998 787 53,711 1.39% 17,100 4.60% 1999 2,463 49,148 3.82% 14,950 16.47% 2000 1,280 50,798 2.24% 16,158 7.92% 2001 1,281 52,699 2.21% 17,877 7.17% 2002 1,091 Source: USDA. 53,294 1.99% 18,006 6.06% CRS-9 Food Aid by Donor Country As shown in Figure 7, the United States contributed 55% of all food aid by volume in marketing years 1995 through 2001. The European Union (EU) contributed 28% and Japan and Canada each contributed 6% of the volume of food aid donations. Figure 7. Major Donor Contributions of Food Aid by Volume, Marketing Years 1995-2001 USA 55.4% Argentina 0.1% Australia 3.7% Canada 5.6% Switzerland 0.7% Japan 5.7% Norway 0.6% EU 28.2% Source: International Grains Council Food Aid Committee, Food Aid Shipments 2001. This data for marketing year July/June does not correspond to fiscal year food aid data reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in budget documents or by the U.S. Agency for International Development in annual food aid reports. The source of the data is the annual report Food Aid Shipments, prepared by the Food Aid Committee of the International Grains Council, which administers the Food Aid Convention. For more information, see CRS Report RS21279, International Food Aid: U.S. and Other Donor Contributions. CRS-10 Appendix A: U.S. Food Aid by Value, FY1992-FY2002 ($ million) P.L. 480a Section 416(b)b Food for Progressc Total Year Title I Title II Title II/WFP Title III Total Regular WFP 1992 374 482 0 240 1,096 216 93 1993 333 382 127 232 1,074 283 1994 218 475 103 175 971 1995 172 375 83 83 1996 219 411 93 1997 153 339 1998 164 1999 WFP GFE Total Title I Section 416 CCC Purchases Total 0 0 308 77 10 40 127 1,531 82 0 0 365 597 325 0 922 2,361 74 17 0 0 90 62 0 52 113 1,175 712 4 3 0 0 7 67 0 106 173 892 39 762 0 0 0 0 0 48 0 60 108 870 74 28 594 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 64 79 673 311 164 21 660 0 0 0 41 41 2 0 84 86 787 687 467 114 19 1,287 0 626 243 236 1,105 236 0 71 307 2,463 2000 157 333 137 0 627 469 163 0 0 632 83 0 68 151 1,280 2001 105 305 134 0 544 286 232 70 41 630 51 0 56 107 1,281 2002 102 280 213 0 595 240 116 44 10 410 0 0 86 86 1,091 a Regular GFE Title I provides government to government sales of agricultural commodities to developing countries using long-term credit. Title II provides U.S. agricultural commodity donations to foreign countries for humanitarian needs. Title II/World Food Program provides U.S. agricultural commodity donations to the World Food Program (WFP), an intergovernmental organization in the United Nations that provides for humanitarian needs in foreign countries. Title III provides government to government grants to support long-term economic development in least developed countries. b All donations under 416(b) are surplus agricultural commodities acquired through the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) from price support programs. Regular donations are given to food aid organizations and WFP donations are given to the World Food Program. The Global Food for Education Initiative (GFE) provided food for pre-school and school feeding and nutrition programs in developing countries. Regular GFE operated through food aid organizations and the WFP GFE operated through the World Food Program. GFE has been replaced by the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. c Title I is the same as Title I under P.L. 480 and Section 416(b) is the same as Section 416(b) in the above footnote. CCC Purchases are agricultural commodities the United States purchases through the CCC to donate to developing countries. Source: USDA. CRS-11 Appendix B: U.S. Food Aid by Volume, FY1992-FY2002 (thousand metric tons) Public Law 480 Section 416(b) Food for Progress Total Year Title I a Title II Title II/WFP Title III Regular WFP Regular GFE WFP GFE Title I Section 416 CCC Purchases 1992 2,268.9 1,922.0 0.0 1,566.2 843.4 768.5 0.0 0.0 379.9 6.0 81.9 7,836.9 1993 2,105.6 1,417.5 578.9 1,292.4 1,176.0 643.8 0.0 0.0 4,048.9 0.0 1,742.9 13,006.0 1994 1,159.8 1,617.3 474.9 1,021.6 49.4 131.1 0.0 0.0 389.8 0.0 87.5 4,931.3 1995 803.8 1,635.0 417.5 463.0 1.8 1.6 0.0 0.0 379.2 0.0 262.0 3,963.8 1996 789.8 1,283.2 338.6 146.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 227.5 0.0 145.4 2,930.9 1997 767.8 1,299.1 339.3 150.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 106.0 0.0 179.1 2,841.8 1998 1,015.8 1,192.4 737.7 139.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 250.8 0.8 197.7 3,535.0 1999 3,435.0 2,364.3 365.7 152.0 4,556.2 1,592.1 0.0 0.0 252.0 0.0 164.1 12,881.4 2000 1,028.6 1,480.2 638.0 0.0 2,086.1 1,059.0 0.0 0.0 267.6 0.0 145.5 6,704.9 2001 753.2 1,515.8 618.3 0.0 1,136.4 1,415.6 299.5 187.6 310.5 0.0 125.7 6,362.6 2002 504.2 1,246.4 991.9 0.0 758.2 610.0 222.6 51.3 0.0 285.4 0.0 44,669.8 Title I provides government to government sales of agricultural commodities to developing countries using long-term credit. Title II provides U.S. agricultural commodity donations to foreign countries for humanitarian needs. Title II/World Food Program provides U.S. agricultural commodity donations to the World Food Program (WFP), an intergovernmental organization in the United Nations that provides for humanitarian needs in foreign countries. Title III provides government to government grants to support long-term economic development in least developed countries. b All donations under 416(b) are surplus agricultural commodities acquired through the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) from price support programs. Regular donations are given to food aid organizations and WFP donations are given to the World Food Program. The Global Food for Education Initiative (GFE) provided food for pre-school and school feeding and nutrition programs in developing countries. Regular GFE operated through food aid organizations and the WFP GFE operated through the World Food Program. GFE has been replaced by the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. c Title I is the same as Title I under P.L. 480 and Section 416(b) is the same as Section 416(b) in the above footnote. CCC Purchases are agricultural commodities the United States purchases through the CCC to donate to developing countries. Source: USDA. CRS-12 Appendix C: Food Aid Commodity Mix, FY1992-FY2002a a Apples Farina Sugar Baby Cereal Feed Wheat Sunflowerseed Oil Baby Food High Energy Biscuits Tallow Barley Infant Formula Textured Soy Protein Beans Lentils Vegetable Oil Beans, Black Non Fat Dry Milk Veggie Burger Beans, Great Northern Nutrition Powdered Beverage Wheat Beans, Kidney Peanut Butter Wheat Flour Beans, Navy Peanuts Wheat Seed Beans, Pinto Peas Wheat Soy Blend Beans, Red Peas, Green Wheat Soy Milk Beef Peas, Yellow Whole Dry Milk Buckwheat Planting Seeds Bulgur Pork Butter Poultry Butteroil Rice Chicken Rice Soy Blend Corn S. F. Bulgur Corn Gluten Meal S. F. Cornmeal Corn Soy Masa Flour S. F. Flour Corn Soy Milk S. F. Sorghum Grits Corn Soya Blend Salmon, Canned Cornmeal Seeds Cotton Sorghum Dehydrated Potatoes Soy Fortified Bulgur Dehydrated Vegetables Soy Protein Concentrate Egg Powder Soybean Meal Evaporated Milk Soybeans These commodities were donated through the Food Aid Program during FY1992-FY2002; however, not all commodities were donated each year. Source: USDA. CRS-13 Appendix D: Food Aid Commodity Categories by Volume, FY1992-FY2002 (thousand metric tons) Commodity 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Corn & Sorghum 2,803.7 5,220.8 752.9 832.8 238.9 312.7 424.4 1,118.6 919.3 892.7 334.8 38.6 0.0 1.6 3.4 0.0 0.5 0.8 53.7 37.0 23.4 57.1 Rice 404.1 599.3 321.3 151.1 212.0 218.2 195.2 584.6 401.5 242.4 380.4 Vegetable Oil 303.8 378.7 168.4 179.4 183.7 184.2 211.5 309.4 315.4 483.9 373.8 Wheat 3,106.0 3,822.4 2,177.4 1,440.9 1,043.7 1,329.0 1,727.1 5,333.5 3,333.4 3,109.4 2,061.3 Other 1,180.7 2,984.7 1,509.8 1,319.1 1,169.4 797.1 975.9 2,183.2 1,627.5 1,610.9 1,274.5 Nonfat Dry Milk Source: USDA. CRS-14 Appendix E: Countries That Received Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002a Africa Algeria Congo Guinea Bissau Niger Tanzania Angola Congo, Democratic Rep. Kenya Nigeria Togo Benin Cote d'Ivoire Lesotho Rwanda Tunisia Botswana Djibouti Liberia Sahel Region Uganda Burkina Faso Equatorial Guinea Madagascar Sao Tome West Africa Region Burundi Eritrea Malawi Senegal Zaire Cameroon Ethiopia Mali Sierra Leone Zambia Cape Verde Islands Gambia Mauritania Somalia Zimbabwe Central African Republic Ghana Mauritius South Africa Chad Great Lakes Region Mozambique Sudan Comoro Islands Guinea Nambia Swaziland Asia and the Middle East Afghanistan East Timor Korea, North Nepal Vietnam Bangladesh Gaza Strip Laos Pakistan Yemen Bhutan India Lebanon Philippines Cambodia Indonesia Mongolia Sri Lanka China Iraq Morocco Syria Europe Albania Croatia FYROM (Macedonia) Romania Balkan States Ex-Yugoslavia Macedonia S. Balkans/Kosovo Bosnia-Hercegovena F.Y.R. of Macedonia Montenegro Serbia Bulgaria Federal Rep of Yugoslavia Slovenia Poland Latin America and the Carribean Bolivia Costa Rica Guatemala Jamaica Paraguay Brazil Dominican Republic Guyana Mexico Peru Central American Regional Ecuador Haiti Nicaragua Suriname Colombia Honduras Panama El Salvador CRS-15 Near East Egypt Jordan West Bank New Independent States Armenia Estonia Latvia Tajikistan Azerbaijan Georgia Lithuania Turkmenistan Belarus Kazakhstan Moldova Ukraine Caucasus Region Kyrgyzstan Russia Uzbekistan a These countries received donations through the Food Aid Program during FY1992-FY2002; however, not all countries received donations each year. Source: USDA. CRS-16 Appendix F: Food Aid Donations to Regions by Volume, FY1992-FY2002 (thousand metric tons) Region/Country 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Africa 2,947.6 1,593.0 1,526.2 1,312.4 878.5 795.7 1,266.7 1,177.2 1,900.2 1,966.8 1,553.9 Asia and the Middle East 1,370.6 1,392.0 2,034.6 2,505.9 1,529.8 Europe Latin America and Caribbean Near East NIS Countries Source: USDA. 957.2 777.2 518.0 880.3 986.0 3,602.6 307.4 140.9 210.5 114.7 154.8 244.4 259.7 348.5 94.7 1,529.8 1,698.4 1,009.8 613.7 513.1 412.6 608.2 1,066.2 605.9 794.4 615.1 158.2 101.0 383.0 200.5 430.7 341.4 3,457.9 1,406.5 506.7 351.0 120.5 755.3 747.1 401.6 205.9 97.0 96.9 179.1 1,113.1 7,173.8 924.9 985.6 630.7 459.4 EveryCRSReport.com The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is a federal legislative branch agency, housed inside the Library of Congress, charged with providing the United States Congress non-partisan advice on issues that may come before Congress. 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