Order Code RL31465
Report for Congress
Received through the CRS Web
Protecting Critical Infrastructure from
Terrorist Attack: A Catalog of
Selected Federal Assistance Programs
June 25, 2002
John Moteff, Coordinator
Specialist in Science and Technology Policy
Resources, Science, and Industry Division
Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress
Critical Infrastructure Protection: Catalog of Selected
Federal Assistance Programs
This report lists selected federal assistance programs that are available to state,
local, and other public authorities to help protect critical infrastructures. Critical
infrastructures include such facilities as seaports, airports, energy production and
transmission, assets used by the telecommunications and banking and finance
industries, and those assets used by emergency services. Much of what is considered
critical infrastructure is owned and operated by the private sector, and the private
sector is primarily responsible for ensuring its protection. However, for those
facilities owned and/or operated by state or local governments, or other types of
public authorities (in particular water supply, ports, airports, mass transit), a number
of programs provide support for improving security.
This report focuses on those programs that specifically mention protecting
critical infrastructure as their objective, or for which protecting critical infrastructure
is clearly an eligible activity. The programs selected for this report are:
Security Planning Grants for Large Drinking Water Utilities
Implementing Security Measures at Public Water Systems
Training to Protect the Nation’s Water Infrastructure
Plant and Animal Disease, Pest Control, and Animal Care
Airport Improvement Program
Federal Transit Capital Investment Grants
Port Security Grants Program
State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training
Byrne Formula Purpose Areas
Local Law Enforcement Block Grants
Emergency Management Performance Grants
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Relevant Federal Assistance Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Water Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Security Planning Grants for Large Drinking Water Utilities . . . . 3
Implementing Security Measures at Public Water Systems . . . . . . 3
Training to Protect the Nation’s Water Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . 4
Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Plant and Animal Disease, Pest Control, and Animal Care . . . . . . 4
Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Airport Improvement Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Federal Transit Capital Investment Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Seaports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Port Security Grants Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Law Enforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Byrne Formula Purpose Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Local Law Enforcement Block Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
State Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Emergency Management Performance Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Critical Infrastructure Protection: Catalog of
Selected Federal Assistance Programs
This report lists and describes selected federal programs that are available to
states, localities, and other authorities to help protect critical infrastructure assets
from terrorist attack. Critical infrastructure assets include the facilities, equipment,
personnel, etc. used by certain sectors of the economy that are considered vital to the
socio-economic well being of the country. They include: major transportation
systems (e.g. seaports, airports, railroads, mass transit systems), major energy
production and transmission (e.g. electrical power plants, including nuclear plants,
pipelines, and transmission lines), communications systems, information networks,
banking and finance systems (data networks, trading facilities and sites, etc), facilities
and equipment needed for emergency medical and fire services, essential government
functions, and law enforcement services.
For the purposes of this report “protecting” is defined as preventing, deterring,
or interdicting a terrorist attack on critical infrastructure assets and makes a
distinction between these goals and those of responding to or recovering from a
terrorist attack. The latter is more the focus of CRS Report RL31227, Terrorism
Preparedness: A Catalog of Selected Federal Assistance Programs.1 For an
overview of what the federal government is doing to protect its critical infrastructure
and how it is working with the private sector, see CRS Report RL30153, Critical
Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation. For more information on
homeland security, see the CRS Terrorism Briefing Book, Homeland Security
Organization. For more information on security issues related to specific
infrastructures, see the CRS Terrorism Briefing Book, Prevention: Security
Enhancements,. The CRS Terrorism Briefing Book is located on the CRS webpage.2
To be selected for this report, the federal program must provide support (either
in the form of grants, loans, or training) for the following types of activities:
vulnerability assessments and security planning; employing or installing surveillance
assets (e.g. guards, cameras, detection equipment); installing and operating access
controls (e.g. guards, fences, barricades, metal detectors); hardening (blast protecting
Preparedness typically refers to planning for the response to and recovery from an incident,
either a terrorist act, natural disaster, or other emergency situation. However, planning may
involve risk assessments and mitigation efforts, which also may be relevant to preventing,
deterring, or interdicting such a situation. The program listed in CRS Report RL31227
which seems most appropriate to include in this report is the Emergency Management
Performance Grants, administered by Federal Emergency Management Agency.
buildings); acquiring computer security products or services; and training personnel
in the above activities. This report focuses primarily on those programs that
specifically have the protection of critical infrastructure assets from terrorist attacks
as a primary objective, or for which protecting against terrorist attack is clearly an
eligible activity. It should be noted, that much of what is considered critical
infrastructure is owned and operated by the private sector and it is, normally, the
private sector’s responsibility to provide basic protection. Therefore, the programs
identified in this report address those assets owned and operated by public
authorities. No programs were identified that support securing private sector assets
such as power plants3, pipelines, railroads, information networks, banking and
finance assets, etc.
This report is organized primarily by sector (e.g. water resources,
transportation). For each selected program, the program title, brief description, the
administering agency, contact phone number, web site, and CRS contact are
provided. For those programs registered in the Catalog of Federal Domestic
Assistance (CFDA)4, the program number is provided after the title. This catalog
provides only basic descriptive and contact information about the selected programs,
and does not provide details about course offerings or application requirements.
The increased protection of nuclear power plants is an example of how the private sector
is generally responsible for its own infrastructure. Following September 11, the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission ordered nuclear plant operators to increase security at their plants.
In some cases, state and local law enforcement officers or the national guard were called in
to augment the private security measures, although they were stationed off of plant property.
The additional expense associated with deploying these officers or guardsmen were assumed
either by the plant operators or the states.
The Catalog of Federal Assistance Programs is a database maintained by the General
Services Administration that contains all federal assistance programs available to state,
local, and other authorities. It can be searched at the following website: [http://cfda.gov/].
Relevant Federal Assistance Programs
Security Planning Grants for Large Drinking Water Utilities.
Description: Grants can be made to publicly-owned drinking water utilities that
regularly serve populations over 100,000 to develop vulnerability assessments,
emergency response/operation plans, security enhancement plans and designs, or a
combination of these efforts. Utilities may use grant funds for in-house or contract
support. A vulnerability assessment is a systematic analysis used to develop a
security protection plan for water supply, treatment, and distribution systems. It
identifies a system's vulnerabilities and provides a prioritized plan for security
upgrades, modifications of operational procedures, and/or policy changes to mitigate
identified risks to critical assets. Funds cannot be used for physical improvements.
Environmental Protection Agency
(name redacted), 7-....
Implementing Security Measures at Public Water Systems.
Description: The Environmental Protection Agency’s Drinking Water State
Revolving Fund (DWSRF) program provides grant funding to states to allow them
to assist public water systems (PWS) to make infrastructure improvements needed
to protect public health and ensure compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act.
Among other types of projects eligible for assistance, states may provide DWSRF
assistance to PWSs to allow them to complete vulnerability assessments,
contingency and emergency response plans, and other eligible security measures. It
is ultimately the state’s decision as to whether assistance will be provided for any one
activity, but the following may be eligible for assistance: fencing or security to
protect sources of drinking water; structural improvements at drinking water
treatment facilities such as fencing, lighting, motion detectors, secure chemical and
fuel storage, enhanced filtration/disinfection for biological agents, and enhanced
treatment for chemical agents; and protective measures for portions of a distribution
system. Funds cannot be used to finance increased human security presence at a
facility or to purchase chemicals needed to increase disinfection.
Environmental Protection Agency
Contacts for state DWSRF representatives
(name redacted), 7-....
Training to Protect the Nation’s Water Infrastructure.
Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is assisting activities to
provide training on a number of security issues for publicly owned drinking water
and wastewater utilities. Sandia National Laboratory, under an Interagency
Agreement between EPA and the Department of Energy, will provide training to
selected firms in the performance of a vulnerability assessment methodology –
known as Risk Assessment Methodology for Water Utilities (RAM-WSM). For
general security overview, EPA is partnering with the American Water Works
Association for training to assess vulnerabilities and develop emergency response
plans and risk communication for drinking water utilities. EPA is partnering with the
Water Environment Federation and the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage
Agencies for wastewater security training, including workshops on conducting
vulnerability assessments. EPA also is supporting coordination and training
activities for first responders (law enforcement, public health, utilities, and all levels
Environmental Protection Agency
Contacts for partnering organizations:
American Water Works Association [http://www.awwa.org]
Water Environment Federation
Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies
(name redacted), 7-....
Plant and Animal Disease, Pest Control, and Animal Care.
Description: Among the objectives of this program is the protection of U.S.
agriculture from economically injurious plant and animal diseases. The activities that
the program supports relevant to this report include inspections, surveillance and
eradication of animal and plant diseases and pests. Applicants can be state, local, and
territorial government agencies, nonprofit institutions of higher learning, and
nonprofit associations or organizations.
Agency: Animal and Plant Health and Inspection Service
CRS Contact: Alejandro Segarra 7-....
Airport Improvement Program.
Description: Grants can be made for integrated airport system planning or airport
master planning, construction, or rehabilitation at a public-use airport or portion
thereof. Master planning and rehabilitation could include designing with new
security measures in mind; in addition, grants may be used to purchase security
equipment required of the sponsor by the Secretary of Transportation by rule or
regulation for the safety and security of persons and property at the airport. Formula
grants are made to primary commercial airports (which handle 10,000 or more
boarding passengers annually) and to cargo service airports (which, in addition to
passenger service, handle 100 million pounds of cargo each year). Discretionary
funds are available for any eligible facility, including general aviation airports.
States, counties, municipalities, other public agencies including Indian tribe or
pueblo are eligible if the airport is listed in the National Plan of Integrated Airport
Systems (NPIAS). Private owners of public-use reliever airports (airports designated
by FAA to relieve congestion) or airports having at least 2500 passengers boarding
annually and receiving scheduled passenger aircraft service are also eligible.
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration
Web site: [http://www.faa.gov/arp/510home.htm]
CRS Contact: Robert Kirk, 7-....
Federal Transit Capital Investment Grants.
Description: This program is to assist in financing acquisition, reconstruction, and
improvement of facilities, rolling stock and equipment used in mass public
transportation service. While this grant program is primarily meant to expand and
upgrade mass transit services, grants could be used to purchase safety equipment or
to construct more secure facilities. States, municipalities, public agencies and
instrumentalities of one or more states, public corporations, boards, and commissions
established by state laws are eligible applicants. Grants are made by statutory
formula for fixed guideway systems in seven geographical areas, or in other areas
with fixed guideway systems over seven years old. Discretionary grants are used for
buses and bus facilities.
Agency: Federal Transit Administration
CRS Contact: Randy Peterman 7-....
Port Security Grants Program.
Description: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is implementing the
Port Security Grants Program based on the seaport security provisions contained in
the Department of Defense Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2002 (Public Law
107-117, H.R. Conf. Rpt. 107-350). TSA is working in coordination with the
Maritime Administration (MARAD) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) on this
program. TSA is planning to award competitive grants to critical national seaports
to finance enhanced facility and operational security. Grants will be awarded based
on the need for security assessments and enhancements as determined by the Under
Secretary of Transportation for Security, the Administrator of the Maritime
Administration, and the Commandant of the Coast Guard. Grant applications are
accepted for two categories: 1) Security Assessments and Mitigation Strategies
(award based on proposed port or terminal security assessments that ascertain
vulnerabilities and identify mitigation strategies); and 2) Enhanced Facility and
Operational Security (including but not limited to facility access control, physical
security, cargo security and passenger security). Interested parties applying for grants
under the second category must provide a copy of the port or terminal security
assessments with their application. Consideration will also be given to
proof-of-concept demonstration projects which can demonstrate how port security
would be improved/enhanced by their implementation.
Agency: Transportation Security Administration
Phone: None listed
CFDA: None listed
CRS Contact: John Fritelli, 7-....
State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training.
Description: This program is funded by a grant to the Institute for
Intergovernmental Research by the Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice
Assistance. The program focuses on pre-incident awareness, pre-incident
preparation, prevention, and interdiction training. Workshops are offered each month
at sites around the country. Sites are selected on the basis of expressed need, level
of activity, and geographical coverage. Area law enforcement officials are invited
to the workshops. Workshops are free, but participants must cover their own travel,
Agency: Institute for Intergovernmental Research
CRS Contact: John Moteff, 7-....
Byrne Formula Purpose Areas.
Description: The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, 42 U.S.C.
3711 et seq., Section 501, provides a general statement of the overall purposes of the
Byrne Formula Grant Program. Originally the program focused on countering drugrelated crimes and abuse. But this has expanded. Currently, the program covers 29
purpose areas, of which two are: to develop and implement antiterrorism plans for
deep-draft ports, international airports, and other important facilities; and, to develop
and implement antiterrorism training and procure equipment for local law
enforcement authorities. Grants are made at the state level. Local authorities must
apply for subgrants from their state’s State Administering Agency (SAA).
Agency: Bureau of Justice Assistance
CRS Contact: JoAnne O’Bryant, 7-....
Local Law Enforcement Block Grants.
Description: The objective of this program is to provide funds to units of local law
enforcement for the purposes of reducing crime and improving public safety. Funds
can be used to hire and train additional law enforcement personnel, to purchase
equipment directly related to basic law enforcement functions, and to enhance
security measure in and around any facility or location considered to be a special risk
for criminal activity. The program is primarily focused on reducing violent crimes
such a murder, assault, etc., as defined in the annual Uniform Crime Report issued
by the FBI, in high crime areas. The amount of funds local authorities are eligible
to receive depends on the locality’s level of crime as reported to the FBI. While the
program focuses more on domestic crime, funds also can be used for anti-terrorism
Agency: Bureau of Justice Assistance
CRS Contact: Bill Ellis, 7-....
Emergency Management Performance Grants.
Description: Grants to states to develop comprehensive emergency management
plans. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one of the 13 emergency
management functions identified for which states are encouraged, but not required,
to use grant funds. While this function is generally associated with response and
recovery planning, it could also be used to identify assets in need of better security.
Grants are made to states based on previous levels of grants. There is a cost-sharing
Agency: Federal Emergency Management Agency
Web Site: [http://www.usfa.fema.gov/fedguide/chi-92.htm]
CRS Contact: (name redacted), 7-.....
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