Order Code RL31465 Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Protecting Critical Infrastructure from Terrorist Attack: A Catalog of Selected Federal Assistance Programs June 25, 2002 John Moteff, Coordinator Specialist in Science and Technology Policy Resources, Science, and Industry Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Critical Infrastructure Protection: Catalog of Selected Federal Assistance Programs Summary This report lists selected federal assistance programs that are available to state, local, and other public authorities to help protect critical infrastructures. Critical infrastructures include such facilities as seaports, airports, energy production and transmission, assets used by the telecommunications and banking and finance industries, and those assets used by emergency services. Much of what is considered critical infrastructure is owned and operated by the private sector, and the private sector is primarily responsible for ensuring its protection. However, for those facilities owned and/or operated by state or local governments, or other types of public authorities (in particular water supply, ports, airports, mass transit), a number of programs provide support for improving security. This report focuses on those programs that specifically mention protecting critical infrastructure as their objective, or for which protecting critical infrastructure is clearly an eligible activity. The programs selected for this report are: Security Planning Grants for Large Drinking Water Utilities Implementing Security Measures at Public Water Systems Training to Protect the Nation’s Water Infrastructure Plant and Animal Disease, Pest Control, and Animal Care Airport Improvement Program Federal Transit Capital Investment Grants Port Security Grants Program State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training Byrne Formula Purpose Areas Local Law Enforcement Block Grants Emergency Management Performance Grants Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Relevant Federal Assistance Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Water Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Security Planning Grants for Large Drinking Water Utilities . . . . 3 Implementing Security Measures at Public Water Systems . . . . . . 3 Training to Protect the Nation’s Water Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . 4 Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Plant and Animal Disease, Pest Control, and Animal Care . . . . . . 4 Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Airport Improvement Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Federal Transit Capital Investment Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Seaports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Port Security Grants Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Law Enforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Byrne Formula Purpose Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Local Law Enforcement Block Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 State Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Emergency Management Performance Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Critical Infrastructure Protection: Catalog of Selected Federal Assistance Programs Introduction This report lists and describes selected federal programs that are available to states, localities, and other authorities to help protect critical infrastructure assets from terrorist attack. Critical infrastructure assets include the facilities, equipment, personnel, etc. used by certain sectors of the economy that are considered vital to the socio-economic well being of the country. They include: major transportation systems (e.g. seaports, airports, railroads, mass transit systems), major energy production and transmission (e.g. electrical power plants, including nuclear plants, pipelines, and transmission lines), communications systems, information networks, banking and finance systems (data networks, trading facilities and sites, etc), facilities and equipment needed for emergency medical and fire services, essential government functions, and law enforcement services. For the purposes of this report “protecting” is defined as preventing, deterring, or interdicting a terrorist attack on critical infrastructure assets and makes a distinction between these goals and those of responding to or recovering from a terrorist attack. The latter is more the focus of CRS Report RL31227, Terrorism Preparedness: A Catalog of Selected Federal Assistance Programs.1 For an overview of what the federal government is doing to protect its critical infrastructure and how it is working with the private sector, see CRS Report RL30153, Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation. For more information on homeland security, see the CRS Terrorism Briefing Book, Homeland Security Organization. For more information on security issues related to specific infrastructures, see the CRS Terrorism Briefing Book, Prevention: Security Enhancements,. The CRS Terrorism Briefing Book is located on the CRS webpage.2 To be selected for this report, the federal program must provide support (either in the form of grants, loans, or training) for the following types of activities: vulnerability assessments and security planning; employing or installing surveillance assets (e.g. guards, cameras, detection equipment); installing and operating access controls (e.g. guards, fences, barricades, metal detectors); hardening (blast protecting 1 Preparedness typically refers to planning for the response to and recovery from an incident, either a terrorist act, natural disaster, or other emergency situation. However, planning may involve risk assessments and mitigation efforts, which also may be relevant to preventing, deterring, or interdicting such a situation. The program listed in CRS Report RL31227 which seems most appropriate to include in this report is the Emergency Management Performance Grants, administered by Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2 [http://www.congress.gov/brbk/html/ebter1.shtml/] CRS-2 buildings); acquiring computer security products or services; and training personnel in the above activities. This report focuses primarily on those programs that specifically have the protection of critical infrastructure assets from terrorist attacks as a primary objective, or for which protecting against terrorist attack is clearly an eligible activity. It should be noted, that much of what is considered critical infrastructure is owned and operated by the private sector and it is, normally, the private sector’s responsibility to provide basic protection. Therefore, the programs identified in this report address those assets owned and operated by public authorities. No programs were identified that support securing private sector assets such as power plants3, pipelines, railroads, information networks, banking and finance assets, etc. This report is organized primarily by sector (e.g. water resources, transportation). For each selected program, the program title, brief description, the administering agency, contact phone number, web site, and CRS contact are provided. For those programs registered in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA)4, the program number is provided after the title. This catalog provides only basic descriptive and contact information about the selected programs, and does not provide details about course offerings or application requirements. 3 The increased protection of nuclear power plants is an example of how the private sector is generally responsible for its own infrastructure. Following September 11, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered nuclear plant operators to increase security at their plants. In some cases, state and local law enforcement officers or the national guard were called in to augment the private security measures, although they were stationed off of plant property. The additional expense associated with deploying these officers or guardsmen were assumed either by the plant operators or the states. 4 The Catalog of Federal Assistance Programs is a database maintained by the General Services Administration that contains all federal assistance programs available to state, local, and other authorities. It can be searched at the following website: [http://cfda.gov/]. CRS-3 Relevant Federal Assistance Programs Water Infrastructure. Security Planning Grants for Large Drinking Water Utilities. Description: Grants can be made to publicly-owned drinking water utilities that regularly serve populations over 100,000 to develop vulnerability assessments, emergency response/operation plans, security enhancement plans and designs, or a combination of these efforts. Utilities may use grant funds for in-house or contract support. A vulnerability assessment is a systematic analysis used to develop a security protection plan for water supply, treatment, and distribution systems. It identifies a system's vulnerabilities and provides a prioritized plan for security upgrades, modifications of operational procedures, and/or policy changes to mitigate identified risks to critical assets. Funds cannot be used for physical improvements. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Environmental Protection Agency 1-800-426-4791 [http://www.epa.gov/safewater/security/large_grants.html] Not listed (name redacted), 7-.... Implementing Security Measures at Public Water Systems. Description: The Environmental Protection Agency’s Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) program provides grant funding to states to allow them to assist public water systems (PWS) to make infrastructure improvements needed to protect public health and ensure compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Among other types of projects eligible for assistance, states may provide DWSRF assistance to PWSs to allow them to complete vulnerability assessments, contingency and emergency response plans, and other eligible security measures. It is ultimately the state’s decision as to whether assistance will be provided for any one activity, but the following may be eligible for assistance: fencing or security to protect sources of drinking water; structural improvements at drinking water treatment facilities such as fencing, lighting, motion detectors, secure chemical and fuel storage, enhanced filtration/disinfection for biological agents, and enhanced treatment for chemical agents; and protective measures for portions of a distribution system. Funds cannot be used to finance increased human security presence at a facility or to purchase chemicals needed to increase disinfection. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Environmental Protection Agency 1-800-426-4791 [http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwsrf/security-fs.pdf] Contacts for state DWSRF representatives [http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwsrf.html] 66.468 (name redacted), 7-.... CRS-4 Training to Protect the Nation’s Water Infrastructure. Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is assisting activities to provide training on a number of security issues for publicly owned drinking water and wastewater utilities. Sandia National Laboratory, under an Interagency Agreement between EPA and the Department of Energy, will provide training to selected firms in the performance of a vulnerability assessment methodology – known as Risk Assessment Methodology for Water Utilities (RAM-WSM). For general security overview, EPA is partnering with the American Water Works Association for training to assess vulnerabilities and develop emergency response plans and risk communication for drinking water utilities. EPA is partnering with the Water Environment Federation and the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies for wastewater security training, including workshops on conducting vulnerability assessments. EPA also is supporting coordination and training activities for first responders (law enforcement, public health, utilities, and all levels of government). Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Environmental Protection Agency Not available [http://www.epa.gov/safewater/security/index.html] Contacts for partnering organizations: American Water Works Association [http://www.awwa.org] Water Environment Federation [http://www.wef.org/publicinfo/WEFsecurity.jhtml] Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies [http://www.amsa-cleanwater.org/advocacy/sec_index.cfm] Not listed (name redacted), 7-.... Agriculture. Plant and Animal Disease, Pest Control, and Animal Care. Description: Among the objectives of this program is the protection of U.S. agriculture from economically injurious plant and animal diseases. The activities that the program supports relevant to this report include inspections, surveillance and eradication of animal and plant diseases and pests. Applicants can be state, local, and territorial government agencies, nonprofit institutions of higher learning, and nonprofit associations or organizations. Agency: Animal and Plant Health and Inspection Service Phone: 301-734-8792. Website: [http://www.aphis.usda.gov] CFDA: 10.025 CRS Contact: Alejandro Segarra 7-.... CRS-5 Transportation. Airport Improvement Program. Description: Grants can be made for integrated airport system planning or airport master planning, construction, or rehabilitation at a public-use airport or portion thereof. Master planning and rehabilitation could include designing with new security measures in mind; in addition, grants may be used to purchase security equipment required of the sponsor by the Secretary of Transportation by rule or regulation for the safety and security of persons and property at the airport. Formula grants are made to primary commercial airports (which handle 10,000 or more boarding passengers annually) and to cargo service airports (which, in addition to passenger service, handle 100 million pounds of cargo each year). Discretionary funds are available for any eligible facility, including general aviation airports. States, counties, municipalities, other public agencies including Indian tribe or pueblo are eligible if the airport is listed in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS). Private owners of public-use reliever airports (airports designated by FAA to relieve congestion) or airports having at least 2500 passengers boarding annually and receiving scheduled passenger aircraft service are also eligible. Agency: Federal Aviation Administration Phone: [redacted] Web site: [http://www.faa.gov/arp/510home.htm] CFDA: 20.106 CRS Contact: Robert Kirk, 7-.... Federal Transit Capital Investment Grants. Description: This program is to assist in financing acquisition, reconstruction, and improvement of facilities, rolling stock and equipment used in mass public transportation service. While this grant program is primarily meant to expand and upgrade mass transit services, grants could be used to purchase safety equipment or to construct more secure facilities. States, municipalities, public agencies and instrumentalities of one or more states, public corporations, boards, and commissions established by state laws are eligible applicants. Grants are made by statutory formula for fixed guideway systems in seven geographical areas, or in other areas with fixed guideway systems over seven years old. Discretionary grants are used for buses and bus facilities. Agency: Federal Transit Administration Phone: 202-366-1660 Website: [http://www.fta.dot.gove/htl/grants.htm] CFDA: 20.500 CRS Contact: Randy Peterman 7-.... CRS-6 Seaports. Port Security Grants Program. Description: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is implementing the Port Security Grants Program based on the seaport security provisions contained in the Department of Defense Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2002 (Public Law 107-117, H.R. Conf. Rpt. 107-350). TSA is working in coordination with the Maritime Administration (MARAD) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) on this program. TSA is planning to award competitive grants to critical national seaports to finance enhanced facility and operational security. Grants will be awarded based on the need for security assessments and enhancements as determined by the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security, the Administrator of the Maritime Administration, and the Commandant of the Coast Guard. Grant applications are accepted for two categories: 1) Security Assessments and Mitigation Strategies (award based on proposed port or terminal security assessments that ascertain vulnerabilities and identify mitigation strategies); and 2) Enhanced Facility and Operational Security (including but not limited to facility access control, physical security, cargo security and passenger security). Interested parties applying for grants under the second category must provide a copy of the port or terminal security assessments with their application. Consideration will also be given to proof-of-concept demonstration projects which can demonstrate how port security would be improved/enhanced by their implementation. Agency: Transportation Security Administration Phone: None listed Website: [http://www.portsecuritygrants.dottsa.net] CFDA: None listed CRS Contact: John Fritelli, 7-.... Law Enforcement. State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training. Description: This program is funded by a grant to the Institute for Intergovernmental Research by the Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance. The program focuses on pre-incident awareness, pre-incident preparation, prevention, and interdiction training. Workshops are offered each month at sites around the country. Sites are selected on the basis of expressed need, level of activity, and geographical coverage. Area law enforcement officials are invited to the workshops. Workshops are free, but participants must cover their own travel, lodging, etc. Agency: Institute for Intergovernmental Research Phone: 850-385-0600 Website: [http://www.iir.com/slatt] CFDA 16.614 CRS Contact: John Moteff, 7-.... CRS-7 Byrne Formula Purpose Areas. Description: The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, 42 U.S.C. 3711 et seq., Section 501, provides a general statement of the overall purposes of the Byrne Formula Grant Program. Originally the program focused on countering drugrelated crimes and abuse. But this has expanded. Currently, the program covers 29 purpose areas, of which two are: to develop and implement antiterrorism plans for deep-draft ports, international airports, and other important facilities; and, to develop and implement antiterrorism training and procure equipment for local law enforcement authorities. Grants are made at the state level. Local authorities must apply for subgrants from their state’s State Administering Agency (SAA). Agency: Bureau of Justice Assistance Phone: 202-305-2088 CFDA: 16.580 CRS Contact: JoAnne O’Bryant, 7-.... Local Law Enforcement Block Grants. Description: The objective of this program is to provide funds to units of local law enforcement for the purposes of reducing crime and improving public safety. Funds can be used to hire and train additional law enforcement personnel, to purchase equipment directly related to basic law enforcement functions, and to enhance security measure in and around any facility or location considered to be a special risk for criminal activity. The program is primarily focused on reducing violent crimes such a murder, assault, etc., as defined in the annual Uniform Crime Report issued by the FBI, in high crime areas. The amount of funds local authorities are eligible to receive depends on the locality’s level of crime as reported to the FBI. While the program focuses more on domestic crime, funds also can be used for anti-terrorism initiatives. Agency: Bureau of Justice Assistance Phone: 202-305-2088 Website: [http://www.usdoj.gov] CFDA: 16.592 CRS Contact: Bill Ellis, 7-.... CRS-8 State Planning. Emergency Management Performance Grants. Description: Grants to states to develop comprehensive emergency management plans. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one of the 13 emergency management functions identified for which states are encouraged, but not required, to use grant funds. While this function is generally associated with response and recovery planning, it could also be used to identify assets in need of better security. Grants are made to states based on previous levels of grants. There is a cost-sharing requirement. Agency: Federal Emergency Management Agency Phone: 202-646-4157 Web Site: [http://www.usfa.fema.gov/fedguide/chi-92.htm] CFDA: 83.552 CRS Contact: (name redacted), 7-..... EveryCRSReport.com The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is a federal legislative branch agency, housed inside the Library of Congress, charged with providing the United States Congress non-partisan advice on issues that may come before Congress. EveryCRSReport.com republishes CRS reports that are available to all Congressional staff. 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