Major Leadership Election Contests in the Senate, 94th-111th Congresses

ȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘Žȱ Ž—ŠŽǰȱşŚ‘ȱȬȱŗŗŗ‘ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ’•›Žȱ–Ž›ȱ ™ŽŒ’Š•’œȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ˜—›Žœœȱ ŽŒŽ–‹Ž›ȱŗşǰȱŘŖŖŞȱ ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŝȬśŝŖŖȱ    ǯŒ›œǯ˜Ÿȱ řŖŝŖŚȱ ȱŽ™˜›ȱ˜›ȱ˜—›Žœœ Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress ȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ‘ ž––Š›¢ȱ This report contains data on elections in the Democratic and Republican party conferences for principal congressional leaders within each party for the 94th through the 111th Congresses . It reflects actual balloting. Also identified are the six Senators who have served as President pro tempore of the Senate, the two who have served as deputy President pro tempore, and the three Senators who have served as President pro tempore emeritus. These are largely positions of honor, for which there is no formal election in either party conference. Other tables provide the names and states of the candidates for each major party office, the Congress(es) in which they were running, and the votes they received. Also noted are Senators elected with no opposition. In numerous instances, leaders were selected without opposition. In cases where published accounts did not mention contests for a particular office, it was assumed there was only one candidate. The data do not include notices of announced candidacies that were abandoned before conference voting took place. This report will be updated as necessary. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ‘ ˜—Ž—œȱ Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1 Š‹•Žœȱ Table 1. Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate ............................................................................... 2 Table 2. Presidents Pro Tempore Emeritus of the Senate ................................................................ 3 Table 3. Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate................................................................... 3 Table 4. Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairmen........................................... 3 Table 5. Senate Republican Floor Leaders ...................................................................................... 4 Table 6. Senate Democratic Whips.................................................................................................. 6 Table 7. Senate Republican Whips .................................................................................................. 7 Table 8. Senate Democratic Caucus Vice Chair .............................................................................. 8 Table 9. Senate Republican Conference Chairmen ......................................................................... 8 Table 10. Senate Democratic Conference Secretaries ..................................................................... 9 Table 11. Senate Republican Policy Committee Chairmen ............................................................. 9 Table 12. Senate Democratic Policy Committee ........................................................................... 10 Table 13. Senate Republican Conference Secretaries/Vice Chair ..................................................11 Table 14. Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee Chairmen............................................... 12 Table 15. National Republican Senatorial Committee Chairmen.................................................. 12 ˜—ŠŒœȱ Author Contact Information .......................................................................................................... 13 ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ȱ ‘ —›˜žŒ’˜—ȱ This report contains balloting data on the elections in the Democratic and Republican party conferences for principal congressional leaders for the 94th through the 111th Congresses. Table 1 identifies the seven Senators who have served as President pro tempore of the Senate. This position is generally reserved for the majority party Senator with the party’s longest continuous Senate service, but there is no formal election in either party conference for the position. Table 2 identifies the three Senators who have been designated to the honorary position of President pro tempore emeritus, and Table 3 identifies the two Senators who have been elected to the honorary position of deputy President pro tempore, positions for which there is no formal election by either party. The other tables provide the names and states of the candidates for each major party office, the Congress(es) in which they ran, and the votes they received. Also noted are Senators elected with no opposition. Although most conference balloting took place prior to the convening of a new Congress, in some cases leadership elections were held to fill vacancies during a Congress. During the course of the 107th Congress, the majority party switched, thus causing changes in the positions of majority leader and majority whip. Tables 4-13 provide data on elections for the positions of: • Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairmen • Senate Republican Floor Leaders • Senate Democratic Whips • Senate Republican Whips • Senate Democratic Conference Vice Chair • Senate Republican Conference Chairmen • Senate Democratic Conference Secretaries • Senate Republican Policy Committee Chairmen • Senate Republican Conference Secretaries • Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee Chairmen • National Republican Senatorial Committee Chairmen In numerous instances, leaders were selected without opposition. Where races were contested, most were decided after one ballot. However, in the 99th Congress, it took four ballots to elect the Republican floor leader and two ballots to elect the Republican whip. In the 102nd and 104th Congresses, two ballots were needed to elect the chairman of the Senate Republican Policy Committee. When published accounts did not mention a contest for a particular office, it was assumed there was only one candidate. The data do not include notices of announced candidacies that were abandoned before conference voting took place. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ‘ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ‘ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ȱ Congress Table 1. Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate President Pro Tempore State Date Electeda James O. Eastland James O. Eastland Warren G. Magnuson Milton R. Youngb Strom Thurmond Strom Thurmond Strom Thurmond John C. Stennis Robert C. Byrd Robert C. Byrd Robert C. Byrd Strom Thurmond Strom Thurmond Strom Thurmond Strom Thurmond Robert C. Byrd Ted Stevens Ted Stevens Robert C. Byrd Robert C. Byrdd D-MS D-MS D-WA R-ND R-SC R-SC R-SC D-MS D-WV D-WV D-WV R-SC R-SC R-SC R-SC D-WV R-AK R-AK D-WV D-WV no election no election Jan. 15, 1979 Dec. 4, 1980 Jan. 5, 1981 no election no election Jan. 6, 1987 Jan. 3, 1989 no election no election Jan. 4, 1995 no election no election no election June 6, 2001c Jan. 7, 2003 no election Jan. 4, 2007 no election 94th 95 96th 96th 97th 98th 99th 100th 101st 102nd 103rd 104th 105th 106th 107th 107th 108th 109th 110th 111th th Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff and press accounts. a. The President pro tempore of the Senate is one of only three legislative officers established by the U.S. Constitution. The other two are the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Vice President of the United States, who also serves as President of the Senate. The Constitution designates the President pro tempore to serve in the Vice President’s absence. The Senate generally elects by resolution a specified Senator president pro tempore. These resolutions are usually agreed to by voice vote. On rare occasions, the minority has offered an amendment naming its candidate. Such an amendment is normally defeated by voice vote. The President pro tempore is not reelected at the beginning of a Congress unless party control changes, or the Senator serving as President pro tempore has been elected to a new Senate term. Prior to 1890, the Senate elected a President pro tempore whenever the Vice President was not in attendance. When the Vice President returned, the President pro tempore lost his place. When the Vice President was again absent, the Senate elected a President pro tempore, in many instances the same Senator who had previously occupied the office. By the standing order agreed to on March 12, 1890, the Senate declared that the President pro tempore shall hold the office during “the pleasure of the Senate and until another is elected, and shall execute the duties thereof during all future absences of the Vice President until the Senate does otherwise order.” Contemporary Presidents pro tempore now serve as long as their party holds a majority in the Senate. b. Senator Young was elected to serve as President pro tempore for one day prior to his Senate retirement. His party was in the minority at the time. Senator Magnuson then resumed the presidency pro tempore for the balance of the 96th Congress. Sources: Directories ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Řȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ȱ ‘ c. Senator Byrd was elected President pro tempore for the 107th Congress when the Democrats regained control of the Senate on June 6, 2001. See “Election of the Honorable Robert C. Byrd as President Pro Tempore,” Congressional Record, vol. 147, June 6, 2001, pp. 10013. d. Senator Byrd is expected to serve as Senate President pro tempore in the 111th Congress. . Presidents Pro Tempore Emeritus of the Senate Table 2 Congress(es) President Pro Tempore Emeritus Party—State 107th 108th-109th 110th Strom Thurmonda Robert C. Byrdb Ted Stevens R-SC D-WV R-AK Dates June 6, 2001-Jan. 3, 2003 Jan. 15, 2003-Jan. 4, 2007 Jan. 4, 2007-present Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff and press accounts. a. When the Senate party control changed in June 2001, Senator Thurmond, who had been Senate President pro tempore, was designated President pro tempore emeritus. See “Thanking and Electing Strom Thurmond President Pro Tempore Emeritus,” Congressional Record, vol. 147, June 6, 2001, pp. 10013-10014. b. The Senate designated Senator Byrd President pro tempore emeritus after the convening of the 108th Congress and the election of Senator Stevens as President pro tempore. See “Thanks to the Honorable Robert C. Byrd and His Designation as President Pro Tempore Emeritus,” Congressional Record, vol. 149, Sources: Directories January 15, 2003, p. 1075. Table 3. Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate Congress Deputy President Pro Tempore Party—State Dates 95th 100th Hubert H. Humphrey George J. Mitchella D—MN D—ME Jan. 5, 1977-Jan. 13, 1978 Jan. 28, 1987-Nov. 29, 1988b Sources: Directories Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff and press accounts. Pursuant to S.Res. 17, agreed to January 10, 1977, the Senate established (effective January 5, 1977) the post of deputy President pro tempore of the Senate to be held by “any Member of the Senate who has held the Office of President of the United States or Vice President of the United States.” Senator Hubert H. Humphrey of Minnesota held this position until his death on January 13, 1978. See “Establishment of the Office of Deputy President Pro Tempore of the Senate, and for Other Purposes,”Congressional Record, vol. 123, Jan. 10, 1977, p. 457. a. On January 28, 1987, the Senate agreed to S.Res. 90, authorizing the Senate to designate a Senator to serve as deputy President pro tempore during the 100th Congress, in addition to Senators who held such office under the authority of S.Res. 17, 95th Congress. Accordingly, on the same date the Senate agreed to S.Res. 91, designating Senator George J. Mitchell of Maine deputy President pro tempore. See “Designation of a Deputy President Pro Tempore of the Senate and Designating Senator George J. Mitchell As Deputy President Pro Tempore of the Senate,” Congressional Record, vol. 133, Jan. 28, 1987, pp. 2167-2168. b. On November 29, 1988, Senator Mitchell was elected majority leader for the 101 Congress. st . Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairmen Table 4 Congress Candidates State Votes 94tha Michael J. Mansfield MT no opposition 95thab Robert C. Byrd WV no opposition ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ řȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ȱ Congress 96tha 97 98tha 99tha 100tha 101sta tha 102nda 103rda 104th 105th 106th 107tha 108th 109th 110tha 111tha ‘ Candidates State Votes Robert C. Byrd Robert C. Byrd Robert C. Byrd Robert C. Byrd Robert C. Byrd George J. Mitchellc Daniel K. Inouye J. Bennett Johnston George J. Mitchell George J. Mitchell Thomas Daschle Christopher J. Dodd Thomas A. Daschle Thomas A. Daschle Thomas A. Daschled Thomas A. Daschle Harry Reid Harry Reid Harry Reid WV WV WV WV WV ME HI LA ME ME SD CT SD SD SD SD NV NV NV no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition 27 14 14 no opposition no opposition 24 23 no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff and press accounts.. a. Indicates Congresses in which the floor leader was also the majority leader. Until the 101st Congress, the Democratic leader was also the chairman of the Senate Democratic Policy Committee. From the 101st Congress (1989-1991) through the 106th Congress (1999-2001), the Senate Democratic leader apppointed a co-chair to serve with him on the Policy Committee. Since the 107th Congress (2001), the Democratic Leader has appointed the chair of the Senate Democratic Policy Committee. b. Senator Hubert Humphrey (D-MN) withdrew from the race the morning of the election. c. Although Senator Mitchell fell one vote short of the necessary majority on the first ballot, the other candidates immediately withdrew, and he was elected by acclamation. d. Senator Daschle became majority leader on June 6, 2001, when the Democrats regained control of the Senate. Sources: Directories Table 5. Senate Republican Floor Leaders Congress Candidates State Votes 94th 95th Hugh D. Scott Howard H. Baker Robert P. Griffin Howard H. Baker Howard H. Baker PA TN MI TN TN no opposition 19 18 no opposition no opposition 96th 97tha ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Śȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ȱ ‘ Congress Candidates State Votes 98tha Howard H. Baker TN no opposition 99 1st Ballot tha Robert J. Dole Ted Stevens Richard G. Lugar Pete V. Domenici James A. McClure KS AK IN NM ID 14 12 10 9 8 2nd Ballot Robert J. Dole Ted Stevens Richard G. Lugar Pete V. Domenici KS AK IN NM 17 14 12 10 3rd Ballot Robert J. Dole Ted Stevens Richard G. Lugar KS AK IN 20 20 13 4th Ballot 100th 101st 102nd 103rd Robert J. Dole Ted Stevens Robert J. Dole Robert J. Dole Robert J. Dole Robert J. Dole 104tha KS AK KS KS KS KS 28 25 no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition Initial Election Robert J. Doleb KS no opposition Replacement Election of June 12, 1996 Trent Lott MS 44 Thad Cochran MS 8 105tha Trent Lott MS no opposition 106tha Trent Lott MS no opposition 107tha Trent Lottc MS no opposition 108tha Trent Lottd MS no opposition 108tha 109 110th tha ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Replacement Election of December 23, 2002 William Friste William Frist Mitch McConnell TN TN KY no opposition no opposition no opposition śȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ȱ ‘ Congress Candidates State Votes 111th Mitch McConnell KY no opposition Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff and press accounts. a. Indicates Congresses in which the floor leader was also the majority leader. b. Senator Dole resigned from the Senate on June 11, 1996, to campaign for the office of President of the United States. c. Senator Lott lost the majority leader position on June 6, 2001, when the Democrats regained control of the Senate. d. Senator Lott resigned as majority leader effective January 6, 2003. e. For the first time in history, the Republican leader was elected in a conference call of Republican Senators. Senator Frist’s election as Senate majority leader was effective January 6, 2003. Sources: Directories Table 6. Senate Democratic Whips Congress Candidates State Votes 94th 95th 96th 97th 98th 99th 100th Robert C. Byrd Alan M. Cranston Alan M. Cranston Alan M. Cranston Alan M. Cranston Alan M. Cranston Alan M. Cranston Alan M. Cranston Wendell H. Forda Wendell H. Ford Wendell H. Ford Wendell H. Ford Wendell H. Ford Harry Reid Harry Reid Harry Reid Richard Durbin Richard Durbin Richard Durbin WV CA CA CA CA CA CA CA KY KY KY KY KY NV NV NV IL IL IL no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition 30 12 no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition 101st 102nd 103rd 104th 105th 106th 107th 108th 109th 110th 111th Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff and press accounts. Subsequently, Senator Ford moved to make Senator Cranston’s reelection unanimous. Sources: Directories a. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Ŝȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ȱ ‘ Table 7. Senate Republican Whips Congress Candidates State Votes 94th 95th 96th 97th 98th 99th Robert P. Griffin Ted Stevens Ted Stevens Ted Stevens Ted Stevens MI AK AK AK AK no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition lst Ballot Alan K. Simpson Slade Gorton Robert W. Kasten WY WA WI 22 16 15 2nd Ballot 100th 101st 102nd 103rd Alan K. Simpson Slade Gorton Alan K. Simpson Alan K. Simpson Alan K. Simpson Alan K. Simpson Slade Gorton 104th WY WA WY WY WY WY WA Initial Election Trent Lotta MS 27 Alan K. Simpson WY 26 Replacement Election of June 12, 1996 105th 106th 107th 108th 109th 110th 31 22 no opposition no opposition no opposition 25 14 Don Nickles Don Nickles Don Nickles Don Nickles Mitch McConnell Mitch McConnell Trent Lott Lamar Alexander OK OK OK OK KY KY MS TN a no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition 25 votes 24 votes Replacement Election of December 6, 2007 111 th Jon Kyl Jon Kyl AZ AZ no opposition no opposition Sources: Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff and press accounts. Senator Lott was elected majority leader on June 12, 1996, and Senator Nickels was chosen as his replacement. Directories a. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŝȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ȱ ‘ Table 8. Senate Democratic Caucus Vice Chair Congress 110 111 tha 1th Candidate State Votes Charles E. Schumer Charles E. Schumer NY NY No opposition No opposition Sources: Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff Directories and press accounts. a. This is a new position created in the 110th Democratic leadership. Congress. It is the third highest position in the Senate Table 9. Senate Republican Conference Chairmen Congress Candidates State Votes 94th Carl T. Curtis Jacob K. Javits Carl T. Curtis Robert W. Packwood James A. McClure James A. McClure H. John Heinz, III James A. McClure John H. Chafee Edward J. (Jake) Garn John H. Chafee John H. Chafee Frank H. Murkowski Thad Cochran John H. Chafee Thad Cochran Thad Cochran Connie Mack Connie Mack Rick Santorum Christopher Bond Rick Santorum Rick Santorum Jon Kyl NE NY NE OR ID ID PA ID RI UT RI RI AK MS RI MS MS FL FL PA MO PA PA AZ 23 14 no opposition 22 19 33 20 no opposition 28 25 no opposition 28 17 22 21 no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition 30 20 no opposition no opposition no opposition 95th 96th 97th 98th 99th 100th 101st 102nd 103rd 104th 105th 106th 107th 108th 109th 110th Replacement Election of December 6, 2007 ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Lamar Alexander TN 31 Richard Burr NC 16 Şȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ȱ ‘ Congress Candidates State Votes 111th Lamar Alexander TN no opposition Sources: Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff Directories and press accounts. Table 10. Senate Democratic Conference Secretaries Congress Candidates State Votes 94th 95th 96th 97th 98th 99th 100th Frank E. Moss Daniel K. Inouye Daniel K. Inouye Daniel K. Inouye Daniel K. Inouye Daniel K. Inouye Daniel K. Inouye David H. Pryora Patrick J. Leahy David H. Pryor David H. Pryor Barbara A. Mikulski Barbara A. Mikulski Barbara A. Mikulski Barbara A. Mikulski Barbara A. Mikulski Debbie Stabenow Patty Murray Patty Murray UT HI HI HI HI HI HI AR VT AR AR MD MD MD MD MD MI WA WA no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition 101st 102nd 103rd 104th 105th 106th 107th 108th 109th 110th 111th Sources: Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff and press accounts. After Senator Pryor received 28 votes, he was declared the winner by acclamation. No other votes were reported. Directories a. Table 11. Senate Republican Policy Committee Chairmen Congress Candidates State Votes 94th 95th 96th 97th 98th 99th John G. Tower John G. Tower John G. Tower John G. Tower John G. Tower William L. Armstrong TX TX TX TX TX CO no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition no opposition ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ şȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ȱ Congress 100th 101 st ‘ Candidates State Votes William L. Armstrong William L. Armstrong CO CO no opposition no opposition OK NM 21 21 Don Nickles OK 23 Pete V. Domenici Don Nickles NM OK 20 no opposition 1st Ballot 102nd Don Nickles Pete V. Domenici 2nd Ballot 103rd 104th Initial Election Don Nicklesa OK no opposition Replacement Election of June 12, 1996 - 1 Ballot st Larry E. Craig ID 26 Daniel R. Coats IN 18 Robert F. Bennett UT 8 Larry E. Craig ID 30 Daniel R. Coats Larry E. Craig Larry E. Craig Larry E. Craig Pete V. Domenici Jon Kyl Jon Kyl Kay Bailey Hutchison John Ensign IN ID ID ID NM AZ AZ TX NV 22 no opposition no opposition 26 24 no opposition no opposition no oppostion no opposition 2nd Ballot 105th 106th 107th 108th 109th 110th 111th Sources: Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff Directories and press accounts. a. Senator Craig was elected Republican whip on June 12, 1996, to fill the vacancy caused by the election of Senator Nickels as Republican Whip. Table 12. Senate Democratic Policy Committee Congress Candidates State Votesa 101sta 102nd 103rd 104th Thomas A. Daschle Thomas A. Daschle Thomas A. Daschle SD SD SD - Harry Reid NV - ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗŖȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ȱ ‘ Congress Candidates State Votesa 105th Harry Reid NV - 106th Byron Dorgan ND - 107th Byron Dorgan ND - 108th Byron Dorgan ND - 109th Byron Dorgan ND - 110th Byron Dorgan ND - 111th Byron Dorgan ND - Sources: Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff Directories and press accounts. a. Until the 101st Congress, the Democratic leader was also the chairman of the Senate Democratic Policy Committee. From the 101st Congress (1989-1991) through the 106th Congress (1999-2001), the Senate Democratic leader apppointed a co-chair to serve with him on the Policy Committee. Since the 107th Congress (2001), the Democratic Leader has appointed the chair of the Senate Democratic Policy Committee. Table 13. Senate Republican Conference Secretaries/Vice Chair Congress Candidates State Votes 94thb 95th Robert T. Stafford Clifford P. Hansen Robert T. Stafford Edward J. (Jake) Garn John H. Chafee Edward J. (Jake) Garn Edward J. (Jake) Garn Thad Cochran Rudy E. Boschwitz Thad Cochran Thad Cochran Robert W. Kasten Christopher S. Bond Trent Lott Christopher S. Bond Frank H. Murkowski Connie Mack Paul D. Coverdell Conrad R. Burns Paul D. Coverdella Kay Bailey Hutchison Kay Bailey Hutchison VT WY VT UT RI UT UT MS MN MS MS WI MO MS MO AK FL GA MT GA TX TX no opposition 20 17 21 19 no opposition no opposition 32 21 no opposition no opposition 26 17 20 14 5 no opposition 41 14 no opposition no opposition no opposition 96th 97th 98th 99th 100th 101st 102nd 103rd 104th 105th 106th 107th 108th ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗŗȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ȱ ‘ Congress Candidates State Votes 109th Kay Bailey Hutchison TX no opposition 110th John Cornyn TX no opposition 111th John Thune SD no opposition Sources: Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff and press accounts. Died on July 18, 2000; position left vacant for the remainder of the 106th Congress. Directories a. b. Since the 108th Congress (2003-2005), the caucus secretary position has been known as vice chair of the Senate Republican Conference. Table 14. Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee Chairmen Congress Candidates State Votesa 94th J. Bennett Johnston Wendell H. Ford Wendell H. Ford Wendell H. Ford Lloyd M. Bentsen John F. Kerry George J. Mitchell John B. Breaux Charles S. Robb Bob Graham J. Robert Kerrey J. Robert Kerrey Robert G. Torricelli Patty Murray Jon Corzine Charles E. Schumer Charles E. Schumer Robert Menendez LA KY KY KY TX MA ME LA VA FL NE NE NJ WA NJ NY NY NJ - 95 96th 97th 98th 99th 100th 101st 102nd 103rd 104th 105th 106th 107th 108th 109th 110th 111th th Sources: Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff and press accounts. The chairmen of the Senate Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee have always been appointed by the Senate Democratic leader. Directories a. Table 15. National Republican Senatorial Committee Chairmen Congress Candidates State Votes 94th 95th Ted Stevens Robert W. Packwood AK OR no opposition no opposition ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗŘȱ Š“˜›ȱŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜—Žœœȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ŠŽǰȱşŚ ȱȬȱŗŗŗ ȱ˜—›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘ ȱ ‘ Congress Candidates State Votes 96th H. John Heinz III Orrin G. Hatch Robert W. Packwood Richard G. Lugar Robert W. Packwood H. John Heinz III Malcolm Wallop Rudy E. Boschwitz Don Nickles John S. McCain Phil Gramm Mitch McConnell Phil Gramm Mitch McConnell Mitch McConnell Mitch McConnell Mitch McConnell Chuck Hagel William Frist George Allen Elizabeth Dole Norm Coleman John Ensign John Cornyn PA UT OR IN OR PA WY MN OK AZ TX KY TX KY KY KY KY NE TN VA NC MN NV TX 21 20 no opposition 29 25 27 26 no opposition 28 17 26 17 20 19 no opposition no opposition 39 13 no opposition no opposition 28 27 no opposition no opposition 97th 98th 99th 100th 101st 102nd 103rd 104th 105th 106th 107th 108th 109th 110th 111th Sources: Compiled by CRS from various Congressional Quarterly, Inc., publications as well as Congressional Staff Directories and press accounts. ž‘˜›ȱ˜—ŠŒȱ —˜›–Š’˜—ȱ Mildred Amer Specialist on the Congress mamer@crs.loc.gov, 7-8304 ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗřȱ