Presidential Appointments to Full-time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 106th Congress, 1999 -- 2000

This report provides information on 120 full-time positions requiring Senate confirmation in 25 independent executive agencies, six units in the Executive Office of the President, six multilateral banking agencies, and four legislative branch agencies. It does not cover appointments to cabinet departments or independent regulatory and other collegial boards and commissions. During the 106th Congress, President Clinton submitted 37 nominations to full-time positions requiring Senate confirmation. The Senate confirmed 28 of the nominations and returned seven at the end of the Congress. The President withdrew two of his nominations and made eight recess appointments. On average, the Senate took 121 days to confirm a nomination from the time it was received. (1) Overall, 16 nominations were confirmed under the 121 day average and 12 were confirmed over the 121 day average. The length of time for confirmation of individual nominations varied considerably, with eight taking under 60 days and seven taking over 150 days. The shortest confirmation took eight days, while the longest took 288 days. Information provided in this report was compiled from the LEGIS nominations database in the Senate Computer Center, the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents , telephone discussions with agency officials, and two federal agency directories. (2) 1. Senate August recesses and the recess between sessions were not included in this calculation. The Senate was in recess from Aug. 6 through Sept. 7, 1999 (33 days), from Nov. 20, 1999 through Jan. 23, 2000 (65 days), and from July 28 through Sept. 4, 2000 (39 days). 2. Carroll Publishing, Carroll's Federal Directory: January/February 2001 (Bethesda, MD: Carroll Publishing, 2000); CQ Press, 2000/Fall Federal Staff Directory , 34th ed. (Washington: CQ Press, 2000).

Order Code RL30564 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Presidential Appointments to Full-time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 106th Congress, 1999–2000 Updated June 4, 2001 -name redactedSpecialist in American National Government Government and Finance Division -name redactedAnalyst, American National Government Government and Finance Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 106th Congress, 1999–2000 Summary This report provides information on 120 full-time positions requiring Senate confirmation in 25 independent executive agencies, six units in the Executive Office of the President, six multilateral banking agencies, and four legislative branch agencies. It does not cover appointments to cabinet departments or independent regulatory and other collegial boards and commissions. During the 106th Congress, President Clinton submitted 37 nominations to fulltime positions requiring Senate confirmation. The Senate confirmed 28 of the nominations and returned seven at the end of the Congress. The President withdrew two of his nominations and made eight recess appointments. On average, the Senate took 121 days to confirm a nomination from the time it was received.1 Overall, 16 nominations were confirmed under the 121 day average and 12 were confirmed over the 121 day average. The length of time for confirmation of individual nominations varied considerably, with eight taking under 60 days and seven taking over 150 days. The shortest confirmation took eight days, while the longest took 288 days. Information provided in this report was compiled from the LEGIS nominations database in the Senate Computer Center, the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, telephone discussions with agency officials, and two federal agency directories.2 1 Senate August recesses and the recess between sessions were not included in this calculation. The Senate was in recess from Aug. 6 through Sept. 7, 1999 (33 days), from Nov. 20, 1999 through Jan. 23, 2000 (65 days), and from July 28 through Sept. 4, 2000 (39 days). 2 Carroll Publishing, Carroll’s Federal Directory: January/February 2001 (Bethesda, MD: Carroll Publishing, 2000); CQ Press, 2000/Fall Federal Staff Directory, 34th ed. (Washington: CQ Press, 2000). Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Appointments Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recess Appointments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temporary Appointments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alphabetical Listing of Nominees and Appointees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nominees and Appointees to Individual Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Appointments Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recess Appointments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temporary Appointments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alphabetical Listing of Nominees and Appointees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nominees and Appointees to Individual Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 4 4 7 1 2 3 4 4 7 List of Tables Table 1. Nomination and Appointment Action, 106th Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Table 2. Nominations Confirmed and Average Days to Confirm, By Agency Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Table 3. Alphabetical Listing of Nominees and Appointees During the 106th Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 4. Number of Positions, Nominations, and Appointments During the 106th Congress, by Agency Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 6. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in the Executive Office of the President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Table 7. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Multilateral Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Table 8. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Legislative Branch Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Agency Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 106th Congress, 1999-2000 Introduction This report lists 120 full-time positions requiring Senate confirmation in 37 organizations in the executive branch (25 independent agencies, six agencies in the Executive Office of the President (EOP), and six multilateral banking organizations), and four agencies in the legislative branch.3 The report also covers all nominations submitted by the President to the Senate for confirmation to positions in these agencies, and the action taken on the nominations. During the 106th Congress, President Clinton submitted 37 nominations. Of these nominations, the Senate confirmed 28 (75.7%) and returned seven (18.9%). The President withdrew two nominations and made eight recess appointments. Table 1. Nomination and Appointment Action, 106th Congress 3 Nominations submitted 37 Nominations confirmed 28 Nominations returned 7 Nominations withdrawn 2 Recess appointments 8 For information and data on appointments during the 106th Congress to positions in the executive departments, regulatory bodies, and federal judiciary, see the following reports: U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, Presidential Appointments to FullTime Positions in Executive Departments During the 106th Congress, 1999-2000, by (n ame r edacted),CRS Report RL30524 (Washington: Mar. 26, 2001); U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions on Regulatory and other Collegial Boards and Commissions, 106th Congress, by (name r edacted),CRS Report RL30476 (Washington: Mar. 21, 2001); U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, Judicial nominations by President Clinton during the 103rd-106th Congresses, by (name redacted) CRS Report 98-510 GOV (Washington: Feb. 21, 2001). CRS-2 On average, the Senate took 121 days to confirm a nomination from the time it was received.4 Overall, 16 nominations were confirmed under and 12 over the 121 day average. The length of time for confirmation of individual nominations varied considerably, with eight taking under 60 days, and seven taking over 150 days. The shortest confirmation took eight days, while the longest took 288 days. Table 2. Nominations Confirmed and Average Days to Confirm, By Agency Type Nominations Confirmed Average number of days to confirm Independent agencies 18 129.4 Agencies in EOP 6 88 Multilateral agencies 4 132.5 Agencies in legislative branch 0 n. a. 28 121 Total The Appointments Process The President and the Senate share the power to appoint the principal officers of the United States.5 The Constitution (Article II, Section 2) empowers the President to nominate and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoint the principal officers of the United States. Three distinct stages mark the appointments process – nomination, confirmation, and appointment. In the nomination or first stage, the President selects the nominee and sends the nomination to the Senate. For positions located within a state (U.S. attorney, U.S. marshal, and U.S. district judge), the President, by custom, normally nominates an individual recommended by the Senator or Senators from that state, if they are from the same party as the President. If neither Senator is from the same party, the President normally defers to the recommendations of party leaders from the state. Occasionally, the President solicits recommendations from Senators from the opposition party when they hold key Senate positions. Before making a nomination, whether at the state or national level, the President must consider how it will fare in the confirmation process. 4 Senate August recesses and the recess between sessions were not included in this calculation. The Senate was in recess from Aug. 6 through Sept. 7, 1999 (33 days), from Nov. 20, 1999 through Jan. 23, 2000 (65 days), and from July 28 through Sept. 4, 2000 (39 days). 5 A succinct historical and contemporary overview of the appointment power is found in (name redacted), “Appointment Powers,” in his Constitutional Conflicts between Congress and the President, 4th ed. (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 1997), pp. 22-48. CRS-3 A nomination to a position does not give the nominee legal authority to assume the duties and responsibilities of the position. That authority comes only after the nominee is confirmed and appointed. While awaiting confirmation, a nominee often is hired as a consultant and may act only in an advisory capacity. In the confirmation or second stage, the Senate alone determines whether to approve or disapprove a nomination. How the Senate acts on a nomination depends largely on the importance of the position involved, the nominee’s views, and existing political circumstances. Generally, the Senate is particularly concerned with the nominee's views and how he or she is likely to affect public policy.6 How closely the nominee's personal and professional qualities are examined will normally depend on the importance of the position, the nominee’s possible or likely influence on public policy, and the possible or likely effect on constituent interests. Although the Senate confirms most nominations, no President can safely assume that all of his nominees will be approved routinely. Rarely, however, does a rejection occur on the Senate floor. Nearly all rejections occur in committee, either by committee vote or committee inaction. Rejections in committee occur for a variety of reasons, including: opposition to the nomination; an inadequate amount of time for consideration of the nomination; or factors that may have nothing to do with the merits of the nomination. The first two stages of the appointment process may be summarized by the observation that, while the President proposes, the Senate disposes. In the third or final stage, the confirmed nominee is given a commission signed by the President, with the seal of the United States affixed thereto, and is sworn into office. At that point, he or she has full authority to carry out the responsibilities of the office. Recess Appointments The appointment process also enables the President to make an appointment without the need for it to be confirmed by the Senate when that body is in recess, either during a session (intrasession recess appointment) or between sessions (intersession recess appointment). Recess appointments expire at the end of the next session of Congress.7 The President generally submits a nomination for a regular appointment following a recess appointment. Presidents have occasionally used the recess appointment power to circumvent the confirmation process. In response, Congress has placed certain restrictions on the President's authority to make a recess appointment. Under 5 U.S.C. 5503(a), if the position to which the President makes a recess appointment fell vacant while the Senate was in session, the appointee may not be paid from the Treasury until he or she is confirmed by the Senate. The salary prohibition does not apply: (1) if the vacancy arose within 30 days before the end of the session; (2) if a nomination for the office (other than the nomination of someone given a recess appointment during the 6 G. Calvin Mackenzie, The Politics of Presidential Appointments (New York: The Free Press, 1981), pp. 97-189. 7 U.S. Constitution, Article II, Section 2, clause 3. CRS-4 preceding recess) was pending when the Senate recessed; or (3) if a nomination was rejected within 30 days before the end of the session and another individual is given the recess appointment. A recess appointee falling under any one of these three exceptions must be nominated not later than 40 days after the beginning of the next session of the Senate. For this reason, when a recess appointment is made, the President generally submits a new nomination for the nominee even when an old nomination is pending. Temporary Appointments Congress has also provided limited statutory authority for the temporary filling of vacant positions requiring Senate confirmation. Under the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998,8 an advice and consent position in an executive agency that becomes vacant may be filled temporarily in one of three ways: (1) the first assistant to such a position automatically assumes the functions and duties of the office; (2) the President directs an officer in any agency who has been confirmed by the Senate to perform those tasks; or (3) the President selects any officer or employee of the subject agency who is at least at the GS-15 level and who has been with the agency for at least 90 of the preceding 365 days. The temporary appointment is for 210 days, but the time restriction is suspended if a first or second nomination for the position is pending. In addition, during a presidential transition, the 210-day restriction period does not begin to run until either 90 days after the President assumes office, or 90 days after the vacancy occurs, whichever is later. The act does not apply to positions on multi-headed regulatory boards and commissions and to certain other specific positions which may be filled temporarily under other statutory provisions. Alphabetical Listing of Nominees and Appointees Table 3 lists, in alphabetical order, all nominees/appointees to positions in the 25 independent executive agencies, six units in the Executive Office of the President, six multilateral banking organizations, and four agencies in the legislative branch, with nomination and confirmation information. The “confirmed” column notes whether the nomination was confirmed, withdrawn, returned, or rejected. The “Days to confirm” column indicates the number of days the Senate took to confirm the nominee from the time the nomination was received in the Senate. On average, the Senate took 121 days to confirm a nomination after receiving it. Senate August recesses and the recess between sessions were not included in this calculation. The Senate was in recess from August 6 through September 7, 1999 (33 days), from November 20, 1999 through January 23, 2000 (65 days), and from July 28 through September 4, 2000 (39 days). Table 4 summarizes, by agency grouping, the number of positions, the number of nominations submitted by the President, and the disposition of those nominations during the 106th Congress. 8 P.L. 105-277, Division C, sec. 151; 112 Stat. 2681-611; 5 U.S.C. 3354-3359d. CRS-5 Table 3. Alphabetical Listing of Nominees and Appointees During the 106th Congress Days to confirm Nominee/Appointee Position Agencya Nominated Confirmed James V. Aidalab Assistant Administrator EPA 03/07/00 Returned 12/15/00 J. Brady Anderson Administrator USAID 05/27/99 07/30/99 64 Martin N. Baily Member EOP/CEA 07/28/99 08/05/99 8 Charles R. Barnes Director FMCS 01/14/99 11/10/99 267 Joseph Bordogna Deputy Director NSF 02/08/99 05/06/99 87 Barry E. Carter Assistant Administrator USAID 05/11/00 12/15/00 179 Amy L. Comstock Director OGE 10/08/99 10/26/00 280 Joseph R. Crapa Assistant Administrator USAID 10/01/99 11/19/99 49 G. Edward DeSeve Deputy Director EOP/OMB 02/12/99 Withdrawn 07/01/99 N. Cinnamon Dornsife U.S. Director AsDB 10/29/99 05/24/00 143 Susan G. Esserman Deputy Trade Rep. EOP/OUSTR 01/06/99 04/21/99 105 Timothy Fields, Jr. Assistant Administrator EPA 01/06/99 07/01/99 176 Phyllis K. Fong Inspector General SBA 01/06/99 03/17/99 70 George T. Frampton, Jr.c Member EOP/CEQ 02/23/99 Returned 12/15/00 Gregory M. Frazierc Chief Agricultural Negotiator EOP/OUSTR 10/19/00 Returned 12/15/00 Joshua Gotbaum Controller EOP/OMB 09/14/99 11/10/99 57 Gary S. Guzy General Counsel EPA 01/14/99 07/01/99 168 William A. Halter Deputy Commissioner SSA 10/01/99 11/10/99 40 Lawrence Harrington U.S. Executive Director IADB 03/02/99 11/10/99 220 James G. Huse, Jr. Inspector General SSA 07/28/99 11/10/99 72 Willene A. Johnson U.S. Director AfDB 09/08/99 11/10/99 63 Sally Katzenc Deputy Director EOP/OMB 07/01/99 Returned 12/15/00 Robert Z. Lawrence Member EOP/CEA 06/07/99 08/05/99 Edwin A. Levineb Assistant Administrator EPA 12/15/00 Returned 12/15/00 Margrethe Lundsager U.S. Alternate Executive Director IMF 07/25/00 12/15/00 W. Michael McCabeb Deputy Administrator EPA 11/16/99 Returned 12/15/00 John E. McLaughlin Deputy Director CIA 07/13/00 10/18/00 58 Everett L. Mosley Inspector General USAID 06/30/00 12/15/00 129 Anthony Musick Chief Financial Officer CNCS 07/01/99 11/19/99 108 Donald L. Pressley Assistant Administrator USAID 05/10/99 07/01/99 52 59 104 CRS-6 Days to confirm Nominee/Appointee Position Agencya Nominated Confirmed Myrta K. Sale Controller EOP/OMB 01/07/99 Withdrawn 05/26/99 Mark L. Schneiderb Director PC 11/09/99 10/26/00 248 Kathryn Shaw Member EOP/CEA 11/17/99 05/24/00 124 James M. Simon, Jr. Assistant Director CIA 01/06/99 03/02/99 55 John T. Spotila Administrator (OIRA) EOP/OMB 01/07/99 07/01/99 175 Donald R. Vereen, Jr. Deputy Director EOP/ONDCP 11/10/99 Returned 12/15/00 Ella Wong-Rusinkob Alternate Federal Cochairman ARC 03/23/00 12/15/00 Average number of days to confirm nomination 228 121.0 a Agency abbreviations are found in Table 9, on page 31. Recess appointment also made. See Table 5, under agency name. c Recess appointment also made. See Table 6, under agency name. b Table 4. Number of Positions, Nominations, and Appointments During the 106th Congress, by Agency Grouping Positions Nominated Confirmed Returned Withdrawn Recess appointees Independent agencies 81 21 18 3 0 5 Executive Office of the President 25 12 6 4 2 3 Multilateral units 9 4 4 0 0 0 Legislative agencies 5 0 0 0 0 0 120 37 28 7 2 8 Total CRS-7 Nominees and Appointees to Individual Agencies The following pages present data on the full-time positions requiring Senate confirmation in each of the 25 independent executive agencies, six units within the Executive Office of the President, six multilateral banking organizations, and four legislative branch agencies. The data include the names of incumbents in those positions as of the end of 2000, as well as the nominees and appointees to those positions for the years 1999-2000. The tables also include the level of the executive schedule at which the position holder is compensated.9 This report focuses on the nomination and confirmation process. Information concerning position incumbents, which is also included, is drawn from nomination and confirmation data supplemented by information from two federal agency directories.10 Where information from the two directories was in conflict, the information from Carroll’s Federal Directory, which was more consistent with data from the Senate nominations database, was used. Under the Vacancies Act, vacant positions can be filled either by the first assistant of the previous occupant of the office or through appointment by the President. Tables 5 - 8 present the best information available about the final incumbent for each of these positions at the close of the 106th Congress. 9 As of December, 2000, executive schedule positions were compensated as follows: level I, $157,000; level II, $141,300; level III, $130,200; level IV, $122,400; level V $114,500. For salaries as of January, 2001, please see U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, Salaries of Federal Officials: A Fact Sheet, by (name redacted), CRS Report 9853 GOV (Washington: Jan. 18, 2001). 10 Carroll Publishing, Carroll’s Federal Directory: January/February 2001 (Bethesda, MD: Carroll Publishing, 2000); CQ Press, 2000/Fall Federal Staff Directory, 34th ed. (Washington: CQ Press, 2000). CRS-8 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies APPALACHIAN REGIONAL COMMISSION Appointment Action Nominee Position Ella Wong-Rusinko Alternate Federal Co-Chairman Ella Wong-Rusinko Alternate Federal Co-Chairman Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm 03/23/00 12/15/00 228 Recess Appointment 8/3/00 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level Federal Co-Chairman Jesse L. White, Jr. III Alternate Federal Co-Chairman Ella Wong-Rusinko IV CRS-9 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Appointment Action Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm Assistant Director 01/06/99 03/02/99 55 Deputy Director 07/13/00 10/18/00 58 Nominee Position James M. Simon, Jr. John E. McLaughlin Average number of days to confirm a nomination 56.5 Positions and Incumbents in Agency a Position Incumbent Level Directora George J. Tenet II Deputy Directora John E. McLaughlin III Deputy Directora - Community Management Joan A. Dempsey III Assistant Director - Administration James M. Simon, Jr. IV Assistant Director - Analysis and Production Acting official IV Assistant Director - Collections Acting official IV General Counsel Robert M. McNamara, Jr. IV Inspector General L. Britt Snider IV Not more than one of the individuals serving in the positions of Director or Deputy Director may be a commissioned officer of the Armed Forces, whether in active or retired status (50 U.S.C. 403(c)(1)(A)). CRS-10 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Appointment Action Nominee Position Anthony Musick Chief Financial Officer Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm 07/01/99 11/19/99 108 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level President and Chief Executive Officer Harris Wofford III Chief Financial Officer Anthony Musick IV Inspector General Luise S. Jordan IV Managing Director Acting official IV Managing Director - Domestic Volunteer Programs Acting official IV ____________________________________________________________________________________________ COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency a Position Incumbent Directora Jasper Ormond (A) Level IV Six-year term; incumbent may be removed from office prior to the expiration of term only for neglect of duty, malfeasance in office, or other good cause shown. (District of Columbia Code 24-1233(b)(1). The agency became operational on August 5, 2000. CRS-11 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated 03/07/00 Confirmed Days to confirm James V. Aidala Asst. Admin. - Toxic Substances Returned 12/15/00 James V. Aidala Asst. Admin. - Toxic Substances Timothy Fields, Jr. Asst. Admin. - Office of Solid Waste 01/06/99 07/01/99 176 Gary S. Guzy General Counsel 01/14/99 07/01/99 168 Edwin A. Levine Asst. Admin. - Environmental Info. 12/15/00 Edwin A. Levine Asst. Admin. - Environmental Info. W. Michael McCabe Deputy Administrator W. Michael McCabe Deputy Administrator Recess Appointment 12/21/00 Returned 12/15/00 Recess Appointment 12/21/00 11/16/99 Returned 12/15/00 Recess Appointment 8/3/00 Average number of days to confirm a nomination 172 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level Administrator Carol M. Browner II Deputy Administrator W. Michael McCabe III Assistant Administrator - Administration Resources Romulo L. Diaz, Jr. IV Assistant Administrator - Air and Radiation Robert W. Perciasepe IV Assistant Administrator - Enforcement and Compliance Steven A. Herman IV Assistant Administrator - Environmental Information Edwin A. Levine IV Assistant Administrator - International Activities William A. Nitze IV Assistant Administrator - Pesticides and Toxic Substances James V. Aidala IV Assistant Administrator - Research and Development Norine E. Noonan IV Assistant Administrator - Office of Solid Waste Timothy Fields, Jr. IV Assistant Administrator - Water J. Charles Fox IV Chief Financial Officer Michael W. S. Ryan (A) IV General Counsel Gary S. Guzy IV Inspector General Nikki L. Tinsley IV CRS-12 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level Director James L. Witt II Deputy Director Acting official IV Administrator - Federal Insurance Administration Jo Ann J. Howard IV Administrator - U.S. Fire Administration Carrye B. Brown IV Associate Director - Mitigation Michael J. Armstrong IV Associate Director - Preparedness/Training/Exercises Kay C. Goss IV Inspector General George J. Opfer IV FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm Charles R. Barnes Director 01/14/99 11/10/99 267 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Director Charles R. Barnes Level III CRS-13 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level Administrator David J. Barram III Inspector General William R. Barton IV NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level Administrator Daniel S. Goldin II Deputy Administrator Acting official III Chief Financial Officer Arnold G. Holz IV Inspector General Roberta L. Gross IV CRS-14 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Archivista John W. Carlin Level III a The President may remove the Archivist at any time, but must communicate the reasons for such removal to Congress (44 U.S.C. 2103). NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency a Position Incumbent Level Chair - National Endowment for the Artsa William J. Ivey III Chair - National Endowment for the Humanitiesb William R. Ferris III Director - Institute of Museum Services Beverly Sheppard (A) V Term of office is four years; when term expires, incumbent may remain in office until a successor is appointed (20 U.S.C. 954(b)). Ivey’s term expires May 20, 2002. b Term of office is four years; when term expires, incumbent may remain in office until a successor is appointed (20 U.S.C. 956(b)). Ferris’ term expires Nov. 8, 2001. CRS-15 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Appointment Action Nominee Position Joseph Bordogna Deputy Director Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm 02/08/99 05/06/99 87 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level Directora Rita R. Colwell II Deputy Director Joseph Bordogna III a Term of office is six years, but the President may remove the incumbent at any time. The incumbent must leave office when term expires (42 U.S.C. 1864(a)). Colwell’s term expires May 21, 2004. OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm Amy L. Comstock Director 10/08/99 10/26/00 280 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Directora Amy L. Comstock a Level III Term of office is five years; the incumbent must leave office when the term expires (5 U.S.C. Appendix, 401). Comstock was appointed Nov. 3, 2000. CRS-16 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level Directora Janice R. Lachance II Deputy Director John U. Sepulveda III Inspector General Patrick E. McFarland IV a Term of office is four years, but the President may remove the incumbent at any time. The incumbent must leave office when term expires (5 U.S.C. 1102(a)). Lachance’s term expires Nov. 8, 2001. OFFICE OF SPECIAL COUNSEL Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Special Counsela Elaine D. Kaplan a Level V Term of office is five years; incumbent may continue to serve for one year after his or her term expires. The President may remove incumbent from office only for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office (5 U.S.C. 1211(b)). Kaplan’s term expires Apr. 1, 2003. CRS-17 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level President George Munoz III Executive Vice President Kirk K. Robertson IV PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Administratora Alberto Aleman Zubiet a Level V Under the Panama Canal Treaty of 1979, the administrator is to be a citizen of Panama, proposed by the Panamanian Government to the United States for appointment by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. CRS-18 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) PEACE CORPS Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm Mark L. Schneider Director 11/09/99 10/26/00 248 Mark L. Schneider Director Recess Appointment 12/22/99 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level Director Mark L. Schneider II Deputy Director Charles R. Baquet III IV SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Director Gil Coronado Level IV CRS-19 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Appointment Action Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm 01/06/99 03/17/99 70 Nominee Position Phyllis K. Fong Inspector General Position Positions and Incumbents in Agency Incumbent Level Administrator Aida Alvarez III Deputy Administrator Fred P. Hochberg IV Chief Counsel for Advocacy Jere W. Glover IV Inspector General Phyllis K. Fong IV SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Appointment Action Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm Deputy Commissioner 10/01/99 11/10/99 40 Inspector General 07/28/99 11/10/99 72 Nominee Position William A. Halter James G. Huse, Jr. Average number of days to confirm a nomination 56 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Commissionera Kenneth S. Apfel I Deputy Commissionerb William A. Halter II Inspector General James G. Huse IV a Level Term of office is six years, but the term of the initial appointment (Apfel) ended Jan. 19, 2001. When a term expires, the incumbent may continue in office until a successor is appointed. The President may remove an incumbent only for neglect of duty or malfeasance in office (42 U.S.C. 902(a)). b Term of office is six years, but the term of the initial appointment (Halter) ended Jan 19, 2001 (42 U.S.C. 902(b)). There is no provision regarding removal or continuing in office after a term expires. CRS-20 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT AGENCY Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Director J. Joseph Grandmaison Level III CRS-21 Table 5. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Independent Agencies (cont.) UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTa Appointment Action Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm Administrator 05/27/99 07/30/99 64 Barry E. Carter Asst. Admin. - Global/Program/Field Support/Research 05/11/00 12/15/00 179 Joseph R. Crapa Asst. Admin. - Legislative and Public Affairs 10/01/99 11/19/99 49 Everett L. Mosley Inspector General 06/30/00 12/15/00 129 Donald L. Pressley Asst. Admin. - Europe and Eurasia 05/10/99 07/01/99 52 Nominee Position J. Brady Anderson Average number of days to confirm a nomination 94.6 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Administrator J. Brady Anderson II Deputy Administrator Harriet C. Babbitt III Assistant Administrator - Africa Vivian Lowery Derryck IV Assistant Administrator - Asia and Near East Robert C. Randolph IV Assistant Administrator - Europe and Eurasia Donald L. Pressley IV Assistant Administrator - Global/Program/Field Support/Research Barry E. Carter IV Assistant Administrator - Humanitarian Response Hugh Q. Parmer IV Assistant Administrator - Latin American and Caribbean Carl H. Leonard (A) IV Assistant Administrator - Legislative and Public Affairs Joseph R. Crapa IV Assistant Administrator - Management Richard C. Nygard (A) IV Assistant Administrator - Program and Policy Coordination Thomas H. Fox IV Inspector General Everett L. Mosley IV a Level The Foreign Affairs Restructuring Act of 1998, Division G of the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-277), abolished the United States International Development Cooperation Agency. The United States Agency for International Development remains an independent agency, but the USAID director is to report directly to the Secretary of State. CRS-22 Table 6. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in the Executive Office of the President COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm Martin N. Baily Member 07/28/99 08/05/99 8 Robert Z. Lawrence Member 06/07/99 08/05/99 59 Kathryn Shaw Member 11/17/99 05/24/00 124 Average number of days to confirm a nomination 63.7 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level Chairperson Martin N. Baily II Member Robert Z. Lawrence IV Member Kathryn Shaw IV COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITYa Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated George T. Frampton, Jr. Member 02/23/99 George T. Frampton, Jr. Member Confirmed Days to confirm Returned 12/15/00 Recess Appointment 8/4/00 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Chairperson George T. Frampton, Jr. a Level II P.L. 106-65, Title III, reduced the number of members on the council from three to one. CRS-23 Table 6. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in the Executive Office of the President (cont.) OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated G. Edward DeSeve Deputy Director 02/12/99 Joshua Gotbaum Controller-Office of Fed. Fin. Mgmt. 09/14/99 Sally Katzen Deputy Director - Management 07/01/99 Sally Katzen Deputy Director - Management Myrta K. Sale Controller - Off. of Federal Fin. Mgmt. 01/07/99 John T. Spotila Admin. - Off. of Inform. and Reg. Affrs. 01/07/99 Days to confirm Confirmed Withdrawn 07/01/99 11/10/99 57 Returned 12/15/00 Recess Appointment 8/3/00 Withdrawn 05/26/99 07/01/99 175 Average number of days to confirm a nomination 116 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level Director Jacob J. Lew I Deputy Director Sylvia M. Mathews II Deputy Director - Management Sally Katzen II Controller - Office of Federal Financial Management Joshua Gotbaum III Administrator - Office of Federal Procurement Policy Kenneth J. Oscar (A) IV Administrator - Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs John T. Spotila IV CRS-24 Table 6. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in the Executive Office of the President (cont.) OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Appointment Action Nominee Position Donald R. Vereen, Jr. Deputy Director Nominated Confirmed 11/10/99 Days to confirm Returned 12/15/00 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level Director Barry R. McCaffrey Deputy Director Acting official III Deputy Director - Demand Reduction Daniel Schecter (A) III Deputy Director - Supply Reduction Robert E. Brown (A) III Deputy Director - State and Local Acting official III I OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level Director Neal F. Lane II Associate Director - Environment Rosina M. Bierbaum III Associate Director - National Security and International Affairs Acting official III Associate Director - Science Arthur Bienenstock III Associate Director - Technology Duncan T. Moore III CRS-25 Table 6. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in the Executive Office of the President (cont.) OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Appointment Action Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm Deputy U.S. Trade Rep. 01/06/99 04/21/99 105 Gregory M. Frazier Chief Agricultural Negotiator 10/19/00 Gregory M. Frazier Chief Agricultural Negotiator Nominee Position Susan G. Esserman Returned 12/15/00 Recess Appointment 12/21/00 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level U.S. Trade Representative Charlene Barshefsky Deputy U.S. Trade Representative Richard W. Fisher III Deputy U.S. Trade Representative Rita Hayes III Deputy U.S. Trade Representative Susan G. Esserman III Deputy U.S. Trade Representative Gregory M. Frazier III I CRS-26 Table 7. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Multilateral Organizations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK Appointment Action Nominee Position Willene A. Johnson U.S. Director Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm 09/08/99 11/10/99 63 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent U.S. Directora Willene A. Johnson Level V a Term of office is five years; incumbent may continue in office when a term expires until a successor is appointed (22 U.S.C. 290i-1(a)). Current term expires Nov. 10, 2004. ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm N. Cinnamon Dornsife U.S. Director 10/29/99 5/24/00 143 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent U.S. Executive Director N. Cinnamon Dornsife Level V CRS-27 Table 7. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Multilateral Organizations (cont.) EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level U.S. Director Karen Shepherd n. a.a a The statutory basis for this position, 22 U.S.C. 290l-1, makes no provision regarding the compensation of the position holder. INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK Appointment Action Nominee Position Lawrence Harrington U.S. Executive Director Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm 03/02/99 11/10/99 220 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level U.S. Executive Directora Lawrence Harrington n. a.b U. S. Alternate Executive Directora Acting official n. a.b a Term of office is three years; incumbent may remain in office when a term expires until a successor is appointed (22 U.S.C. 2831(b)). Harrington’s term expires Nov. 10, 2002. b The incumbent is not paid by the U.S. government (22 U.S.C. 283a(c)). CRS-28 Table 7. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Multilateral Organizations (cont.) INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Level U.S. Executive Directora Jan Piercy IV U.S. Alternate Executive Directora Todd Crawford (A) V a Term of office is two years; the incumbent may remain in office when a term expires until a successor is appointed (22 U.S.C. 286a(a)). INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm Margrethe Lundsager U.S. Alternate Executive Director 07/25/00 12/15/00 104 Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent U.S. Executive Directora Karin Lissakers IV U.S. Alternate Executive Directora Margrethe Lundsager V a Level Term of office is two years; the incumbent may remain in office when a term expires until a successor is appointed (22 U.S.C. 286a(a)). CRS-29 Table 8. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in Legislative Branch Agencies ARCHITECT OF THE CAPITOL Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Architect of the Capitola Alan M. Hantman a Level III The Architect is appointed to a 10-year term; the current term expires Jan. 30, 2007. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Comptroller Generala David M. Walker II Deputy Comptroller Generalb Acting official III a Level The Comptroller General is appointed to a 15-year term, with no hold-over provision when the term expires. He may be removed before the term expires only by a joint resolution of Congress, for permanent disability, inefficiency, neglect of duty, malfeasance, or a felony or conduct involving moral turpitude (31 U.S.C. 703(e)(1)). Walker’s term expires Oct. 20, 2013. b The term of the deputy comptroller general expires upon the appointment of a new Comptroller General, or when a successor is appointed. CRS-30 Table 8. Nominees and Appointees to Full-Time Positions in the Legislative Branch (cont.) GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Public Printer Michael F. DiMario Level IV LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Appointment Action Nominee Position Nominated Confirmed Days to confirm None Positions and Incumbents in Agency Position Incumbent Librarian of Congress James H. Billington Level III CRS-31 Agency Abbreviations Independent Agencies ARC Appalachian Regional Commission CIA Central Intelligence Agency CNCS Corporation for National and Community Service CSOSA Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia EPA Environmental Protection Agency FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FMCS Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service GSA General Services Administration NARA National Archives and Records Administration NASA Nation Aeronautics and Space Administration NFAH National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities IMS Institute of Museum Sciences NEA National Endowment for the Arts NEH National Endowment for the Humanities NSF National Science Foundation OGE Office of Government Ethics OPM Office of Personnel Management OSC Office of Special Counsel OPIC Overseas Private Investment Corporation PC Peace Corps PCC Panama Canal Commission SBA Small Business Administration SSA Social Security Administration SSS Selective Service System TDA Trade Development Agency USAID United States Agency for International Development Executive Office of the President (EOP) CEA Council of Economic Advisers CEQ Council on Environmental Quality OMB Office of Management and Budget ONDCP Office of National Drug Control Policy OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy OUSTR Office of U.S. Trade Representative Multilateral Banking Organizations AfDB African Development Bank AsDB Asian Development Bank EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development IADB Inter-American Development Bank IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development IMF International Monetary Fund Legislative Branch Agencies AC Architect of the Capitol GAO General Accounting Office GPO Government Printing Office LC Library of Congres EveryCRSReport.com The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is a federal legislative branch agency, housed inside the Library of Congress, charged with providing the United States Congress non-partisan advice on issues that may come before Congress. 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