Appropriations for FY2000: An Overview

Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year.

Order Code RL30200 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Appropriations for FY2000: An Overview Updated February 29, 2000 Mary Frances Bley Information Research Specialist Information Research Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Appropriations are one part of a complex congressional budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) measures, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. Fiscal year (FY) 2000 covers October 1, 1999-September 30, 2000. The process begins with the President’s budget request and is bound by the rules of the House and Senate, the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 (as amended), the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990, and current program authorizations. This report is a guide to CRS reports that provide analytical perspectives on the 13 annual FY2000 appropriations bills, supplementals, a budget chronology, and other related appropriation measures. For a detailed explanation or description of the budget and appropriations processes, please see the suggested reading list at the end of this report. This report is updated as soon as possible after major legislative developments, especially following legislative action in the committees and on the floor of the House and Senate. NOTE: Congressional staff may access an Internet version of this document with active links to CRS FY2000 appropriations analysis and votes at: [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/apppage.html]. Members of the public may be referred to the THOMAS Current Status of FY2000 Appropriations Bills Page at [http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/legislative/appover.html]. Appropriations for FY2000: An Overview Summary This report provides an overview of Congressional Research Service (CRS) products on the FY2000 appropriations and summarizes selected action on regular, supplemental, and continuing appropriations. The Report on the Government-Wide Rescissions in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2000 (P.L 106–113) is located in the Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2001 (p. 377-97). In addition, see CRS Report RL30443, The 0.38 Percent Across-the-Board Cut in FY2000 Appropriations. Sources of information about the President’s FY2000 supplemental requests include a chapter in the Appendix, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2001, the OMB Budget Amendments and Supplementals page, [http://w3.access.gpo.gov/usbudget/fy2001/amndsup.html], and the White House “Recent Fact Sheets” section at: [http://www.pub.whitehouse.gov/WH/Publications/html/Publications.html]. FY2000 Consolidated Appropriations Act. On 11/29/99, the President signed the FY2000 Consolidated Appropriations Act, (P.L. 106-113, H.Rept. 106-479, H.R. 3194), covering the five remaining appropriation bills (District of Columbia, Commerce-Justice-State-Judiciary, Foreign Operations, Interior, and Labor-HHSEducation), the 0.38% across-the board cut in discretionary appropriations, offsets, Medicare, milk prices, inventor protection, satellite television, and international debt. Seven continuing resolutions were signed. Congressional staff may access the Act at: [http://www.congress.gov/omni99/omni99.html]. CRS Products on the FY2000 Consolidated Appropriations Act. For access to CRS Report RS20403, FY2000 Consolidated Appropriations Act: Reference Guide, and other CRS products relevant to provisions in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, see: [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/conbud.html]. FY2000 Appropriations and Continuing Resolutions. Congressional staff have access to the CRS FY2000 Appropriations/Budget Product series and the Vote Status Table at: [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/appover.html]. Constituents interested in the FY2000 Appropriations may be referred to THOMAS, the public version of the Library’s legislative Web site at: [http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/legislative/appover.html]. They can find specific information on the FY2000 Consolidated Appropriations Act at: [http://thomas.loc.gov/home/omni99/]. This report contains a list of relevant CRS products. Congressional offices can either access these products by number from the “All CRS Products Page” at [http://www.congress.gov/crsp/crspquery.html] or order paper copies by calling the CRS Products Line at (202) 707-7132 with the number of the product. Members of the public may receive CRS products through their Representative or Senator. Contents Most Recent Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appropriation/Budget Internet Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appropriations FY2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appropriations (Consolidated FY2000): Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appropriations (Consolidated FY2000): Reference Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appropriation Vetoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Budget Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Budget Surplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CBO Budget/Appropriation Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuing Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rescissions—0.38% Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Referrals for Constituents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 Votes and Budget Authority Amounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Votes for Appropriations, CRs, Supplementals, Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 CRS Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, Rural Development, FDA Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consolidated Appropriations Act, FY2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuing Resolutions(CR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defense (National Security) Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . District of Columbia Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy and Water Development Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign Operations Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government Shutdowns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interior Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Labor, Health and Human Services, Education Appropriations . . . . . . . . . Legislative Branch Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Military Construction Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Numbers (Appropriations and Budget) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process (Appropriations and Budget) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rescissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplemental Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Treasury, Postal Service, President, Government Appropriations . . . . . . . Veterans Affairs, HUD, and Independent Agencies Appropriations . . . . . Vetoes (FY1977-FY1999) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 18 19 20 20 21 22 23 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 27 28 CRS Appropriations Coordinators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Appropriations Information on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis/Vote Status Table (CRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bills, Reports, Laws (Full-Text): FY1997-FY2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Budget Process Institutes (CRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 29 29 29 Coordinators and Key Policy Staff (CRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost Estimates of Legislation (CBO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discretionary Appropriations (CBO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expiring Authorizations and Unauthorized Appropriations (CBO) . . . . . . Fact Sheets on Budget and Appropriation Topics (CRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hearings, Committee Membership, Jurisdiction, Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Locating Agencies, Departments, and Programs in Appropriation Bills . . . Statements of Administration Policy (SAPs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302(b) Allocations and Revisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Veto Indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Votes on Appropriations Legislation (CRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 Appropriations Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appropriations Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appropriations and Budget Process Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discretionary vs. Mandatory (Direct) Spending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Administration Appropriation Requests and Amounts Enacted . . . . . . . . . 31 31 32 34 36 List of Tables Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Votes: Appropriations and Continuing Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Votes: Supplementals (FY1999) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Votes: Budget Resolution (FY2000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Budget Authority Appropriation Amounts as of 1/11/00 . . . . . . . . . . 11 Discretionary/Mandatory Outlays: FY1981-1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Administration Requests and Amounts Enacted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Appropriations for FY2000: An Overview Most Recent Developments Appropriation/Budget Internet Sites 1) Three sources of information about the President’s FY2000 supplemental requests include a chapter in the Appendix, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2001, the OMB Budget Amendments and Supplementals page, [http://w3.access.gpo.gov/usbudget/fy2001/amndsup.html], and the White House “Recent Fact Sheets” section at: [http://www.pub.whitehouse.gov/WH/Publications/html/Publications.html] 2) The Report on the Government-Wide Rescissions in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2000 (P.L 106–113) is located in Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2001 (p. 377-97). Also see CRS Report RL30443, The 0.38 Percent Across-the-Board Cut in FY2000 Appropriations. A chapter on rescission proposals is also included in the Appendix, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2001. Other chapters cover the Proposed Changes to 2000 Estimates, Amendments to and Revisions in Budget Authority for 1999, and Advance Appropriations, Advance Funding, and Forward Funding: [http://w3.access.gpo.gov/usbudget/fy2001/app_down.html]. 3) A CRS guide and access to the FY2000 Consolidated Appropriations Act signed by the President on 11/29/99 (P.L. 106-113, H.Rept. 106-479, H.R. 3194) is available at: [http://www.congress.gov/omni99/omni99.html]. Constituents interested in this Act may be referred to THOMAS: [http://thomas.loc.gov/home/omni99/]. 4) The CRS Appropriations/Budget Page provides quick access to a CRS product series covering each of the 13 appropriation bills, supplementals, and continuing resolutions. Also included is an Appropriations Status Chart providing access to appropriation votes, bills, reports, and public laws. Other access points include a FY2000 budget chronology with active Internet links, an appropriations overview, and a list of key CRS policy staff: [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/apppage.html]. 5) CRS Budget Fact Sheets provide short explanations of budget concepts, terminology, the congressional and executive budget process, budget resolutions and reconciliation, the authorization and appropriations process, entitlements and discretionary spending, the Budget Enforcement Act and sequestration, surplus/ deficits, and the debt limit. [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/CRSFactSheets/FactSheetMenu NF.html#Budget Process]. CRS-2 6) Appropriations Legislation (Full-text access to public laws, conference and committee reports, and bills): [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/legislation/appro.html]. Appropriations FY2000 By the beginning of FY2000 (10/1/99), eight individual appropriation bills had been enacted (Agriculture, Defense, Energy and Commerce, Legislative Affairs, Military Construction, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development.) The five remaining regular appropriations acts (Commerce/Justice/ State, District of Columbia, Foreign Operations, Interior, and Labor/Health and Human Services/Education), supplemental and emergency appropriations, a 0.38% across-the-board spending cut, and other measures, were combined into the FY2000 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 106-113). For more details, see: [http://www.congress.gov/omni99/omni99.html]. Appropriations (Consolidated FY2000): Contents The President signed the FY2000 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 106-113, H.R. 3194) on 11/29/99. This Act covers the District of Columbia appropriations, and also enacts the following measures by cross-reference: H.R. 3421, Commerce-Justice-State-Judiciary Appropriations; H.R. 3422, Foreign Operations Appropriations; H.R. 3423, Interior Appropriations; H.R. 3424, Labor-HHS-Education Appropriations; H.R. 3425, Miscellaneous Appropriations, which includes the 0.38% across-the board cut in discretionary appropriations, emergency supplemental appropriations, offsets and rescissions, the Canyon Ferry Reservoir in Montana, international debt relief, survivor benefits, and miscellaneous provisions; H.R. 3426, Balanced Budget Act of 1997 Amendments (Medicare); H.R. 3427, State Department Authorizations; H.R. 3428, Federal Milk Marketing Orders; and S. 1948, Intellectual Property and Communications Omnibus Reform Act. Appropriations (Consolidated FY2000): Reference Guide CRS Report RS20403 [http://www.congress.gov/omni99/omni99.html] [http://www.congress.gov/cgi-lis/web_fetch_doc?dataset=erp_prd.dst&db=rs &doc_id=xRS20403] Appropriation Vetoes Four appropriation bills were vetoed, including Commerce/Justice/State (H.R. 2670, 10/25/99), the first Foreign Operations (H.R. 2606, 10/18/99), and the first and second District of Columbia bills (H.R. 2587, 9/28/99) and (H.R. 3064, 11/3/99). The second D.C. bill, H.R. 3064, also covered the Labor/Health and Human Services/Education appropriations bill, congressional salaries, and a 0.97% acrossthe-board rescission/spending cut. See also CRS Report RS20349, Annual Appropriations Acts Vetoed by the President: FY1977-1999. CRS-3 Budget Resolution (H. Con. Res. 68, H. Rept. 106-91). On April 14, 1999, the House passed the budget resolution conference report, 220-208 (vote #85), and the Senate agreed by a vote of 54-44 (vote #86) on April 15, 1999. The President does not sign budget resolutions. For historical information on budget resolutions from FY1975-FY2000, see CRS Report RL30297, Congressional Budget Resolutions: Selected Statistics and Information Guide. Budget Surplus The FY1999 (October 1, 1998-September 30, 1999) budget surplus was $124.4 billion, following a FY1998 surplus of $69.2 billion, the first surplus in 30 years. The FY1999 off-budget surplus (including the Social Security Trust Fund) was $124 billion, with an on-budget deficit of $1 billion. For more information see CRS IB10017, The Budget for Fiscal Year 2000. [http://www.congress.gov/cgi-lis/web_fetch_doc?dataset=erp_prd.dst&db=ib &doc_id=xIB10017] The two major sources for federal budget information are the Congressional Budget Office [http://www.cbo.gov/] and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) [http://www.whitehouse.gov/OMB/]. CBO Budget/Appropriation Reports The following reports can be accessed through [www.cbo.gov]: Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1812&sequence=0&from=7] The Long-Term Budget Outlook: An Update [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1806&sequence=0&from=7] End-of-Session Summary [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1784&sequence=0&from=5] Final Sequestration Report for Fiscal Year 2000 [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1060&sequence=0&from=5] Continuing Resolutions Seven continuing resolutions became law (H.J.Res. 68, H.J.Res. 71, H.J.Res. 73, H.J.Res.75, H.J.Res. 78, H.J.Res 80, and H.J.Res. 83), providing continued funding from the beginning of FY2000 (10/1/99) through the end of the first session of the 106th Congress (11/29/99). For more details, see CRS Report RL30343: Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices: [http://www.congress.gov/cgi-lis/web_fetch_doc?dataset=erp_prd.dst&db=rl &doc_id=xRL30343]. Also see the CRS Appropriations Status Table: [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/appover.html]. Rescissions—0.38% Cut The Report on the Government-Wide Rescissions in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2000 (P.L 106–113) is located in Chapter 21 (p. 377-97) of the Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2001, [http://w3.access.gpo.gov/usbudget/fy2001/maindown.html]. In addition, see CRS Report RL30443, The 0.38 Percent Across-the-Board Cut in FY2000 Appropriations. CRS-4 Referrals for Constituents Please refer constituents to the following Internet sites on THOMAS: Appropriations Status Table [http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/legislative/appover.html] FY2000 Consolidated Appropriations Act [http://thomas.loc.gov/home/omni99/] Major FY2000 legislation for the budget, appropriations, and continuing resolutions [http://thomas.loc.gov/bss/d106/hot-titl.html]. Votes and Budget Authority Amounts Votes for Appropriations, CRs, Supplementals, Budget Table 1. Votes: Appropriations and Continuing Resolutions For the most current appropriation votes, see the FY2000 Appropriations Bill Status Page at: Congressional offices: [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/appover.html] Public (THOMAS): [http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/legislative/appover.html] vv = voice vote; uc = unanimous consent. Bill No. Appropriation Appropriation Floor Vote/Date Subcommittee Committee Committee Report Vote/Date Vote/Date House Consolidated Appropriations (u) — Senate House — — Floor Vote/Date Conference Report Senate House Senate House — — — 296-135 74-24 11/18/99 11/19/99 Public Law Senate P.L. 106-113 Signed 11/29/99 H.R. 3194 H.Rept. 106-479 H.Rept. 106-479 (u) See Footnote U #7 (v) Final Continuing Resolution CRS Report RL30343 — — — — vv uc 11/18/99 11/18/99 — P.L. 106-106 Signed 11/19/99 — H.J.Res. 83 #6 Continuing Resolution CRS Report RL30343 H.J. Res. 80 — — — — — 403-8 uc 11/17/99 11/17/99 — Extended funding through 12/2/99 (midnight) — P.L. 106-105 Signed 11/18/99 — Extended funding through 11/18/99 CRS-5 Bill No. Appropriation Appropriation Floor Vote/Date Subcommittee Committee Committee Report Vote/Date Vote/Date House #5 Continuing Resolution — Senate House — — Senate — Floor Vote/Date Conference Report Senate House Senate vv uc 11/9/99 11/10/99 — — House — Extended funding through 11/17/99 (midnight) H.J.Res. 78 — — — — — 417-6 uc 11/4/99 11/4/99 — — Extended funding through 11/10/99 (midnight) H.J.Res. 75 — — — — 424-2 vv 10/28/99 10/28/99 — — Extended funding through 11/5/99 (midnight) — H.J.Res. 73 — — — — 421-2 vv 10/19/99 10/19/99 — — Extended funding through 10/29/99 (midnight) — H.J.Res. 71 — — — — 421-2 98-1 9/28/99 9/28/99 — — P.L. 106-62 Signed 9/30/99 CRS Report RL30343 H.J.Res. 68 P.L. 106-75 Signed 10/21/99 CRS Report RL30343 #1 Continuing Resolution P.L. 106-85 Signed 10/29/99 CRS Report RL30343 #2 Continuing Resolution P.L. 106-88 Signed 11/5/99 CRS Report RL30343 #3 Continuing Resolution P.L. 106-94 Signed 11/10/99 CRS Report RL30343 #4 Continuing Resolution Public Law — Extended funding through 10/21/99 (midnight) CRS-6 Bill No. Appropriation Appropriation Floor Vote/Date Subcommittee Committee Committee Report Vote/Date Vote/Date House vv Senate House uc vv Senate House CRS Report RL30201 H.R. 1906 S. 1233 Senate House vv (a) 240-175 74-26 8/4/99 10/1/99 10/13/99 H.Rept. 106-157 S.Rept. 106-80 Conference H. Rept. 106-354 vv 28-0 217-210 7/30/99 6/10/99 9/8/99 (m) 8/5/99 H.Rept. 106-283 215-213 uc 10/20/99 10/20/99 S.Rept. 106-76 10/18/99 H.R. 2670 S. 1217 uc vv vv 24-3 7/12/99 5/24/99 7/16/99 5/25/99 H.R. 2561 S. 1122 3rd District of Columbia P.L. 106-113 H.R. 3421 in H.R. 3194 Conference H.Rept. 106-398 (r) Defense Signed 10/22/99 Signed 11/29/99 CRS Report RL30209 CRS Report RL30205 P.L. 106-78 9/30/99 Commerce vv vv Justice 7/22/99 6/9/99 State Vetoed Public Law Senate 6/8/99 28-0 246-183 Agriculture 5/13/99 6/15/99 5/19/99 6/17/99 Floor Vote/Date Conference Report 379-45 uc (b) 372-55 87-11 7/22/99 7/28/99 10/13/99 10/14/99 H.Rept. 106-244 S.Rept. 106-53 Conference H.Rept. 106-371 See Footnote U P. L. 106-79 Signed 10/25/99 10/8/99 — — — — 216-210 uc 11/3/99 11/3/99 — — P.L. 106-113 Sent to conference CRS Report RL30213 Signed 11/29/99 — H.R. 3194 H.R. 3194 See Footnote U 2nd District of Columbia — — — — 211-205 uc 10/14/99 10/15/99 H.R. 3064 424-2 49-48 10/28/99 11/2/99 Vetoed(s) 11/3/99 Conference H.Rept. 106-419 10/27/99 1st District of Columbia H.R. 2587 S. 1283 uc 7/14/99 — vv 28-0 7/20/99 6/24/99 333-92 uc (c) 208-206 52-39 7/29/99 8/2/99 9/9/99 9/16/99 H.Rept. 106-249 S. Rept. 106-88 Conference H.Rept. 106-299 8/5/99 Vetoed (p) 9/28/99 CRS-7 Bill No. Appropriation Appropriation Floor Vote/Date Subcommittee Committee Committee Report Vote/Date Vote/Date Senate House Senate House 27-1 420-8 uc (d) 327-87 96-3 7/15/99 5/25/99 7/20/99 5/27/99 7/27/99 7/28/99 9/27/99 9/28/99 H.Rept. 106-253 S.Rept. 106-58 House Energy/ Water vv Senate House vv vv CRS Report RL30207 H.R. 2605 S. 1186 2nd Foreign Operations Floor Vote/Date Conference Report Public Law Senate Conference H.Rept. 106-336 P.L. 106-60 Signed 9/29/99 9/27/99 — — — — — — — 316-100 11/5/99 P.L. 106-113 Signed 11/29/99 CRS Report RL30211 H.R. 3196 H.R. 3422 in H.R. 3194 — See Footnote U 1st vv Foreign 7/14/99 Operations — vv 28-0 7/20/99 6/17/99 CRS Report RL30211 385-35 uc (e) 214-211 51-49 8/3/99 8/4/99 10/5/99 10/6/99 H.Rept. 106-254 S.Rept. 106-81 H.R. 2606 S. 1234 Interior CRS Report RL30206 vv vv 6/29/99 6/22/99 vv vv 7/1/99 6/24/99 Labor/ 8-6 32-36 19-0 HHS/ 9/23/99 9/27/99 9/30/99 9/28/99 Education CRS Report RL30203 H.R. 3064 11/3/99 H.R. 3037 S. 1650 Conference H.Rept. 106-339 9/27/99 H.R. 2466 S. 1292 (H.R. 2466 was not sent to the President) (t) Vetoed(s) Vetoed (q) 10/18/99 377-47(f) 89-10 (n) 225-200 uc 7/15/99 9/23/99 10/21/99 H.Rept. 106-222 S.Rept. 106-99 10/21/99 P.L. 106-113 Signed 11/29/99 Conference H.Rept. 106-406 H.R. 3423 in H.R. 3194 See Footnote U — 73-25 10/7/99 H.Rept. 106-370 424-2 49-48 10/28/99 11/2/99 S. Rept. 106-166 Conference H.Rept. 106-419 H.R. 3064 10/27/99 P.L. 106-113 Signed 11/29/99 H.R. 3424 in H.R. 3194 See Footnote U CRS-8 Bill No. Appropriation Appropriation Floor Vote/Date Subcommittee Committee Committee Report Vote/Date Vote/Date House Senate House Senate Legislative vv polled vv 28-0 Branch 5/12/99 out (g) 5/20/99 6/10/99 House Military Construction 6/10/99 6/16/99 H.Rept. 106-156 S.Rept. 106-75 Public Law Senate uc 8/5/99 8/5/99 Conference H.Rept. 106-290 P.L. 106-57 Signed 9/29/99 8/4/99 vv 6/28/99 polled out (i) vv 28-0 418-4 uc (j) 412-8 uc 7/1/99 6/10/99 7/13/99 7/14/99 7/29/99 8/3/99 H.Rept. 106-221 S.Rept. 106-74 CRS Report RL30210 H.R. 2465 S. 1205 Transportation House 214-197 95-4 (h) 367-49 CRS Report RL30212 H.R. 1905 S. 1206 Senate Floor Vote/Date Conference Report Conference H.Rept. 106-266 P.L. 106-52 Signed 8/17/99 7/27/99 vv vv 5/27/99 5/25/99 vv 27-1 429-3 95-0 304-91 88-3 6/8/99 5/27/99 6/23/99 9/16/99 10/1/99 10/4/99 H.Rept. 106-180 S. Rept. 106-55 CRS Report RL30208 H.R. 2084 S. 1143 Conference H. Rept. 106-355 P.L. 106-69 Signed 9/29/99 9/30/99 Treasury vv CRS Report RL30202 5/14/99 polled out (k) vv 28-0 210-209 uc (l) 292-126 54-38 7/13/99 6/8/99 7/15/99 7/19/99 9/15/99 9/16/99 H.Rept. 106-231 S.Rept. 106-87 H.R. 2490 S. 1282 Conference H.Rept. 106-319 P.L. 106-58 Signed 9/29/99 9/14/99 VA/HUD CRS Report RL30204 vv vv vv uc 7/26/99 9/15/99 7/30/99 9/16/99 H.R. 2684 S. 1596 235-187 vv (o) 406-18 93-5 9/9/99 9/24/99 10/14/99 10/15/99 H.Rept. 106-286 S.Rept. 106-161 Conference H.Rept. 106-379 P.L. 106-74 Signed 10/20/99 10/13/99 vv = voice vote; uc= unanimous consent. a. On August 4, 1999, the Senate vitiated previous passage of its agriculture appropriations bill (S. 1233, August 4, voice vote) and passed H.R. 1906, after striking all after the enacting clause and substituting the language of S. 1233. See Congressional Record, August 5, 1999, page S10214. b. On July 28, 1999, the Senate vitiated previous passage of its own defense appropriations bill (S. 1122, June 8, 1999, vote #158, 93-4), and passed H.R. 2561 after striking all after the enacting clause and inserting the text of S. 1122. See the Congressional Record, July 28, 1999, page S9640. c. On August 2, 1999, the Senate vitiated previous passage of its D.C. appropriations bill (S. 1283, July 1, 1999, voice vote), and passed H.R. 2587, after striking all after the enacting clause and substituting the language of S. 1283. See the Congressional Record, August 2, 1999, page D907. d. On July 28, 1999, the Senate vitiated previous passage of its own energy and water appropriations bill (S. 1186, June 16, 1999, vote #172, 97-2), and passed H.R. 2605 after striking all after the enacting clause and inserting the text of S. 1186. See the Congressional Record July 28, 1999, page S9650. e. On August 4, 1999, the Senate vitiated previous passage of its foreign operations appropriations bill (S. 1234, June 30, 1999, vote #192, 97-2), and passed H.R. 2606 by unanimous consent, after striking all after the enacting clause and substituting the language of S. 1234. See the Congressional Record, August 5, 1999, page S10214. CRS-9 f. H.R. 2466 passed at 12:15 a.m. on July 15, 1999. However, this vote (#296) is located in the July 14, 1999 Congressional Record on page H5568. g. The subcommittee was polled, and the measure was sent to the full Appropriations committee. h. On June 16, 1999, the Senate passed H.R. 1905, the legislative branch appropriations bill, after striking certain provisions of the House bill and inserting the text of S. 1206, as amended by the Senate. See the Congressional Record, June 16, 1999, page S7117. i. The subcommittee was polled, and the measure was sent to the full Appropriations committee. j. On July 14, 1999, the Senate vitiated passage of its own military construction appropriations bill (S. 1205, June 16, 1999, vote #168, 97-2) and passed H.R. 2465 after striking all after the enacting clause and substituting the language of S. 1205. See the Congressional Record, July 14, 1999, page S8504. k. The subcommittee was polled, and the measure was sent to the full Appropriations committee. l. On July 19, 1999, the Senate vitiated previous passage of its own treasury appropriations bill (S. 1282, July 1, 1999, voice vote), and passed H.R. 2490, after striking all after the enacting clause and substituting the language of S. 1282. See the Congressional Record, July 19, 1999, page S8811. m. On September 8, 1999, the Senate vitiated previous passage of its commerce/justice/state appropriations bill (S. 1217, July 22, 1999, voice vote) and passed H.R. 2670, after striking all after the enacting clause and substituting the language of S. 1217. See the Congressional Record, September 8, 1999, p. S10540. n. On September 23, 1999, the Senate passed the interior appropriations bill (H.R. 2466), as amended. See the Congressional Record, September 23, 1999, pages S11329-45. o. On September 22, 1999, the Senate struck certain provisions of H.R. 2684 and inserted in lieu thereof the text of S. 1596. See Congressional Record, September 22, 1999, page S11201. On September 24, 1999, the Senate passed H.R. 2684, as amended. See Congressional Record, September 24, 1999, page S11491. p. On 9/28/99, President Clinton vetoed the District of Columbia appropriation bill. He explained his reasons in H.Doc. 106-135, Congressional Record, 9/28/99, pages H8941-2. q. On 10/18/99, President Clinton vetoed the Foreign Operations appropriation bill. He explained his reasons in H.Doc. 106-145, Congressional Record, 10/18/99, pages H10142-51. r. On 10/25/99, President Clinton vetoed the Commerce/Justice/State appropriations bill. He explained his reasons in H. Doc. 106-148, Congressional Record, 10/26/99, pages H10835-36. s. On 11/3/99, the President vetoed the conference report, H.R. 3064 (H.Rept. 106-419), which covered the second District of Columbia bill, the Labor/HHS/Education appropriations, the 0.97% across-the-board rescissions (spending cuts), and legislation affecting congressional salaries. See the Congressional Record, 9/27/99, pages H10933-11065. Division C: “Rescissions and Offsets” is on p. H10958-9 and H11065. t. The enrolled copy of H.R. 2466, Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations, FY 2000 was not presented to the President and was laid on the table. See the 11/18/99 Congressional Record, Daily Digest, p. D1317. u. The Consolidated Appropriations covers the District of Columbia appropriations, and also enacts the following measures by cross-reference: H.R. 3421, Commerce-Justice-State-Judiciary Appropriations; H.R. 3422, Foreign Operations Appropriations; H.R. 3423, Interior Appropriations; H.R. 3424, Labor-HHS-Education Appropriations; H.R. 3425, Miscellaneous Appropriations, which include the 0.38% across-the-board cut in discretionary appropriations, emergency supplemental appropriations, offsets and rescissions, the Canyon Ferry Reservoir in Montana, international debt relief, survivor benefits, and miscellaneous provisions; H.R. 3426, Balanced Budget Act of 1997 Amendments (Medicare); H.R. 3427, State Department Authorizations; H.R. 3428, Federal Milk Marketing Orders; and S. 1948, Intellectual Property and Communications Omnibus Reform Act (satellite television). v. On 11/18/99, action also occurred on two other continuing resolutions (CR). H.J.Res. 84, a CR to extend funding through 12/3/99 (midnight), was passed by unanimous consent in the House, but was not sent to the Senate. H.J.Res. 82, a CR to provide funding through 11/23/99 (midnight) was passed by a vote of 406-16 in the House and passed the Senate with amendments by a vote of 88-1. The message on the Senate action and amendments was then sent back to the House, where no further action occurred. Supplementals. Three sources of information about the President’s FY2000 supplemental requests include a chapter in the Appendix, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2001, the OMB Budget Amendments and Supplementals page, [http://w3.access.gpo.gov/usbudget/fy2001/amndsup.html], and the White House “Recent Fact Sheets” section at: [http://www.pub.whitehouse.gov/WH/Publications/html/Publications.html]. The FY1999 Emergency Supplemental Act (P.L. 106-31, H.Rept. 106-143, H.R. 1141) was signed into law by President Clinton on 5/21/99. The Senate agreed CRS-10 to the conference report on 5/18/99 by a vote of 64-36 (S.Vote 136), with House passage on 5/18/99 by a vote of 269-158 (H.Vote 133). For more details, see CRS Report RL30083, Supplemental Appropriations for FY1999: Central America Disaster Aid, Middle East Peace, and Other Initiatives, and CRS Report RS20161, Kosovo Military Operations: Costs and Congressional Action on Funding. Table 2. Votes: Supplementals (FY1999) Vote/Date on Conference Report: Bill No. House H.R. 1141 *H.R. 1664 Public Law Senate 269-158 64-36 P.L. 106-31 5/18/99 5/20/99 Signed 5/21/99 *H.Rept. 106-143 S. 544 H.R. 4328 333-95 65-29 10/20/98 10/21/98 P.L. 105-277 10/21/99 The Omnibus also included supplemental appropriations. H.Rept. 105-825 *House and Senate conferees inserted funding for Kosovo military and humanitarian operations in the conference report, H. Rept. 106-143, that the House had passed in H.R. 1664. Budget Resolution. The FY2000 Budget Resolution conference report (H.Rept. 106-91, H.Con.Res. 68) was agreed to by the Senate on 4/15/99 by a vote of 54-44 (S. Vote 86), with House passage on 4/14/99 by a vote of 220-208 (H. Vote 85). The President does not sign budget resolutions. For more details on the FY2000 Budget, see CRS Issue Brief 10017, The Budget for Fiscal Year 2000, and CRS Report RL30199, Budget FY2000: A Chronology with Internet Access. Table 3. Votes: Budget Resolution (FY2000) vv = voice vote Bill No. Budget Committee Vote/Date House H.Con.Res. 68 S.Con.Res. 20 Committee Report Conference Report Vote/Date Vote/Date Senate House Senate House Senate vv 37-3 221-208 *55-44 220-208 54-44 3/23/99 7/23/99 3/25/99 3/25/99 4/14/99 4/15/99 H.Rept. 106-73 S.Rept. 106-27 H.Rept. 106-91 Public Law (President does not sign.) *Senate struck all after the resolving clause, substituted the language of S.Con.Res. 20 amended, and the resolution was agreed to in the Senate in lieu of S.Con.Res. 20 with an amendment. CRS-11 Table 4. Budget Authority Appropriation Amounts as of 1/11/00 Budget authority dollar figures may differ in various documents depending on whether dollar amounts include spending for supplementals, emergency appropriations, rescissions or across-the-board spending reductions, advance funding, score keeping adjustments, or whether discretionary and mandatory dollar figures are combined together or listed separately, etc. FY2000/FY1999 Budget Authority (In thousands of dollars) Appropriation Bills Enacted FY1999 President’s Request FY2000 Agriculture $61,127,000 Conference H.Rept. 106-354 CRS Report RL30201 $66,883,182 Approved by Full House Latest Senate Action FY2000 FY2000 $60,736,572 $68,358,618 Conference Report $69,017,125 P.L. 106-78 Signed 10/22/99 H.R. 1906 S. 1233 Commerce/ Justice/ State Conference H.Rept. 106-398 $34,385,000 $49,562,980 (a) $37,677,283 $35,384,564 (a) (a) CRS Report RL30209 $39,630,967 P.L. 106-113 Signed 11/29/99 H.R. 2670 S. 1217 Defense Conference H.Rept. 106-371 $266,600,000 $263,265,959 $268,661,503 $264,693,100 CRS Report RL30205 $267,795,360 P.L. 106-79 Signed 10/25/99 H.R. 2561 S. 1122 District of Columbia Revised bill: H.R. 3194 Vetoed: H.R. 3064 11/3/99 H.R. 2587 9/28/99 $619,500 CRS Report RL30213 $393,740 $453,000(b) $410,740 (b) $436,800 P.L. 106-113 Signed 11/29/99 CRS-12 FY2000/FY1999 Budget Authority (In thousands of dollars) Appropriation Bills Enacted FY1999 President’s Request FY2000 Energy/ Water Conference H.Rept. 106-336 $21,200,000 $21,996,026 Approved by Full House Latest Senate Action FY2000 FY2000 $20,640,395 $21,717,325 CRS Report RL30207 Conference Report $21,729,969 P.L. 106-60 Signed 9/29/99 H.R. 2605 S. 1234 Foreign Operations (f) Revised Bill: H.R. 3196 Vetoed: H.R. 2606 $13,401,000 $12,668,115 (c) $12,735,655 (c) $15,359,935 $15,422.700 P.L. 106-113 (with FY1999 Supplementals) Signed 9/29/99 $33,283.7 (with FY1999 Supplementals & International Monetary Fund) 1/18/996 CRS Report RL30211 Table 7 Interior $14,207,983 Conference H.Rept. 106-406 $14,615,535 (“Base”) $15,266,137 $13,934,609 $14,055,710 (d) (d) CRS Report RL30206 $14,928,411 P.L. 106-113 Signed 9/29/99 H.R. 2466 S. 1292 Labor/ HHS/ Education $292,600,000 $322,958,939 H.R. 3037 S. 1650 $2,581,152 Conference H.Rept. 106-290 CRS Report RL30212 H.R. 1905 S. 1206 $328,612,841 *Reported by the House Appropriations Committee. House did not vote on H.R. 3037. CRS Report RL30203 Legislative Branch $318,313,930* $2,033,129 $1,862,153 $328,229,885 P.L. 106-113 Signed 9/29/99 $2,488,708 $2,457,064 P.L. 106-57 Signed 9/29/99 CRS-13 FY2000/FY1999 Budget Authority (In thousands of dollars) Appropriation Bills Enacted FY1999 President’s Request FY2000 Military Construction $8,659,234 $8,499,273 Approved by Full House Latest Senate Action FY2000 FY2000 $8,449,742 $8,273,820 CRS Report RL30210 Conference Report $8,374,000 P.L. 106-52 Signed 8/17/99 Conference H.Rept. 106-266 H.R. 2465 S. 1205 Transportation Conference H.Rept. 106-355 H.R. 2084 S. 1143 Treasury/ Postal Conference H.Rept. 106-319 $12,982,809 $14,644,820 $8,356,275 $13,945,522 $14,372,057 H.Rept. 106-180 p. 216 P.L. 106-69 $14,353,303 Signed 10/9/99 S.Rept. 106-55 p. 1 Also see CRS Report RL30208 $27,122,000 $27,997,054 $27,800,105 $27,754,597 CRS Report RL30202 $27,972,418 P.L. 106-58 Signed 9/29/99 H.R. 2490 S. 1282 VA/HUD $92,117,000 Conference H.Rept. 106-379 CRS Report RL30204 $99,607,116 $91,980,156 $97,828,196 $99,452,918 P.L. 106-74 Signed 10/20/99 H.R. 2684 S. 1596 Miscellaneous Appropriations, Titles I &II H.R. 3425 $758,433 P.L. 106-113 Signed 11/29/99 Offsets & Rescissions Title III in Miscellaneous Appropriations H.R. 3425 Total: FY2000 Appropriaton Bills - $3,106,000 P.L. 106-113 Signed 11/29/99 — $907,723,890 $553,219,908 $896,25,396 $907,409,342 CRS-14 FY2000/FY1999 Budget Authority (In thousands of dollars) Appropriation Bills Enacted FY1999 President’s Request FY2000 Total: Approved by Full House Latest Senate Action FY2000 FY2000 Conference Report — $7,524,133 $13,219,678 - $2,577,691 $13,145,383 — $915,248,023 $566,439,586 (e) $893,681,705 $920,554,725 FY1999 Supplementals (Public Laws 106-31, 106-51,105-57) Total: Cumulative for Session to Date Source: House Appropriations, 1/11/00, unless otherwise cited. Figures include both discretionary and mandatory dollar amounts. a. The President’s request for Commerce/Justice/State appropriations includes $9.2 billion in advance appropriations. House and Senate reflect action on H.R. 2670 and S. 1217. b. House and Senate reflect action on H.R. 2561 and H.R. 3064, which were vetoed. c. House and Senate reflect action on H.R. 2606 and S. 1234, which were vetoed. d. House and Senate reflect action on H.R. 2466 and S. 1292. e. Figure does not include the amount of $318,313,930,000 from H.R. 3037, the House Labor/HHS/Education bill, which was approved by the House Appropriations Committee, but not voted on by the House. f. The FY1999 enacted amount is reported as $33,330,393 in H.Rept. 106-254 (p. 97) and as $31,719,553 in S.Rept. 106-81 (p. 64). From CRS Report RL30211, Appropriations for FY2000: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs: The “Base” Appropriation refers to amounts funded in the regular Foreign Operations Appropriations for FY1999, as included in Division A of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, FY1999 (P.L. 105-277). Congress approved additional Foreign Operations funds in two supplemental measures: $411 million for Child Survival programs, aid to Russia, victims of the Kenya/Tanzania embassy bombings, counter-narcotics, counter-terrorism, and Y2K upgrades (Division B of P.L. 105-277); and $1.641 billion for Central America hurricane relief, Kosovo humanitarian assistance, counter-narcotics, and the administration of three foreign affairs commissions. All but about $5 million of the supplementals were declared “emergencies” and do not count against the Foreign Operations FY1999 allocation limits. Under special allowances provided in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Foreign Operations Appropriations for multilateral development bank arrearage payments and IMF funds also did not count against the FY1999 allocation limits. Also, IMF funding occurs only occasionally—about every 5 years. There is no request for FY2000. CRS Products Agriculture, Rural Development, FDA Appropriations Summary from CRS Report RL30201, Appropriations for FY2000: U.S. Department of Agriculture (12/6/99): The FY2000 appropriations bill (P.L. 106-78, H.R. 1906) for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and related agencies was signed into law on October 22, 1999. P.L. 106-78 contains regular (non-emergency) appropriations of $60.559 billion, which is $2 billion below the Administration request, but nearly $6 billion above the FY1999 level. Just over three-fourths ($46.57 billion) of the total amount in the act is classified as mandatory spending (primarily food stamps and farm programs funded through USDA’s Commodity Credit Corporation), which in essence is governed by authorizing statutes and is out of the direct control of appropriators. The remaining spending of $13.988 billion is for discretionary programs, which require an annual appropriation. CRS-15 In addition to the regular appropriations, P.L. 106-78 provides $8.7 billion in emergency spending for farm income and disaster assistance, including $5.5 billion in direct payments to grain and cotton farmers and $1.2 billion in natural disaster assistance. An additional $576 million in farm disaster assistance, primarily in response to damage caused by Hurricane Floyd, is included in the FY2000 consolidated appropriations act (P.L. 106-113, H.R. 3194) signed into law on November 29, 1999. Controversial dairy policy provisions that were considered but not included in P.L. 106-78 are part of P.L. 106-113, including a 2-year extension of the Northeast dairy compact and a mandate that USDA adopt a milk pricing scheme for fluid farm milk that is close to current price levels. P.L. 106-113 also includes a 0.38% across-the-board cut in total discretionary budget authority for FY2000, which will require a $49 million cut within USDA and a $4 million cut in FDA programs, with specific cuts to be determined by the Administration. Exclusive of the FY2000 emergency spending provisions, most of the difference between the FY1999 and FY2000 enacted levels in P.L. 106-78 is explained by a $5.9 billion increase in the requested appropriation for the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). The CCC is the funding mechanism for the commodity support programs and farm disaster assistance. It borrows directly from the Treasury and subsequently requests an appropriation for a reimbursement of its net losses. CCC spending was at a 12-year high in FY1999, because of a weak farm economy and regional natural disasters, and some $6 billion in supplemental spending approved by the Congress in FY1999 for emergency assistance to farmers. To stay within the measure’s allocation for discretionary spending, P.L. 106-78 contains spending restrictions for several mandatory programs, including a new research program, certain conservation programs, and the Fund for Rural America. Separately, conferees deleted a provision in the House bill that would have prevented FDA from using any FY2000 funds for the approval of RU-486, or any other drug to induce abortion. P.L. 106-78 also does not include a Senate-passed provision that would have exempted the export of agricultural and medical products from current and future unilateral trade sanctions on Cuba and other countries. Chronologies CRS Report RL30199, Budget FY2000: A Chronology with Internet Access, by Susan E. Watkins. Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary Appropriations Summary from CRS Report RL30209, Appropriations for FY2000: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies (1/20/00): On October 18, 1999, the Conference Committee approved a FY 2000 Commerce/Justice/State (CJS) bill totaling $39 billion—$2.8 billion (or 7.7%) above the FY1999 appropriation and $1.3 billion below the President’s request. The bill passed the House and Senate, without amendment, on October 20. The President vetoed the bill on October 25, because, among other things, it (1) did not provide enough money for his community policing program (better known as the COPS CRS-16 program), (2) contained no funding for its lawsuit against the tobacco industry, and (3) did not provide adequate funding for direct payment of dues and arrears to the United Nations and for other peacekeeping operations abroad. Following negotiations between congressional leaders and the White House, these issues and number of other issues were apparently resolved. A second CJS bill approved by Conference (H.Rept. 106-479) included in H.R. 3194, the Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY 2000, was passed by the House on November 18, 1999. The number for the CJS bill is H.R. 3421, which is in Division B of H.R. 3194, Section 1000(a). The legislation was passed by the Senate on November 19, 1999. The bill approves total funding of $39.63 billion which is about $625 million above the level initially approved by Congress, $3.4 billion (or 9.5%) above the FY1999 appropriation, and $920 million below the President’s request. The President signed the bill into law on November 29, 1999 (P.L. 106-113; 113 Stat. 1501). Consolidated Appropriations Act, FY2000 CRS Report RS20403, FY2000 Consolidated Appropriations Act: Reference Guide, by Robert Keith. Continuing Resolutions(CR) CRS Report RL30343, Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices, by Sandy Streeter. Debt CRS Report 98-346, Budget Surpluses: Economic and Budget Effects of Using Them for Debt Repayment, Tax Cuts or Spending (full-length version of overview listed below), by William Cox. CRS Report 98-96, Budget Surpluses: Economic Effects of Debt Repayment, Tax Cuts, or Spending: An Overview, by William Cox. CRS Report RS20302, Paying Down the Federal Debt: A Discussion of Methods, by James M. Bickley. CRS Report RS20065, Surpluses and Federal Debt, by Philip D Winters. Defense (National Security) Appropriations Summary from CRS Report RL30205, Appropriations for FY2000: Defense (10/27/99): On October 6, conferees reached agreement on the FY2000 defense appropriations bill, H.R. 2561, and the conference report was filed on October 8. The House approved the conference agreement by a vote of 372-55 on October 13, and the Senate approved it by a vote of 87 to 11 on October 14, and the President signed the bill into law, P.L. 106-79, on October 25. The key issue in the conference CRS-17 concerned funding for the F-22 fighter. The conference agreement provides a total of $2.522 billion for the program, including $1.222 billion for R&D, $1 billion for acquisition of test aircraft, and $300 million in advance FY2001 appropriations for program termination liability. The total amount is about $500 million below the request ($1.85 billion in procurement and $1.2 billion in R&D). The conference agreement also prohibits award of an initial low-rate production contract unless certain testing is successfully completed. Aside from the F-22, major issues in the FY2000 defense debate included whether to approve a new round of military base closures, how much to provide for military pay and benefits, whether to impose constraints on funding for U.S. military operations in Kosovo, how to fund theater missile defense programs, and how to respond to security lapses at Department of Energy (DOE) weapons labs. The conference agreement on the defense authorization bill does not approve a new round of military base closures. It provides somewhat larger increases in pay and benefits than the Administration had requested, including a 4.8% pay raise in 2000 and increased retirement benefits, though it does not include a Senate-passed provision to expand Montgomery GI Bill benefits. Although Congress approved supplemental FY1999 appropriations for Kosovo operations, the Administration’s policy remains controversial. The House removed a provision from the defense authorization bill prohibiting funds to be used for future operations in Kosovo, but only after the Administration agreed to seek supplemental appropriations to cover costs of a peacekeeping mission in FY2000. Earlier in the year, both houses approved bills calling for deployment of a nationwide missile defense, but funding for theater missile defense programs was a matter of dispute. The authorization conference agreement establishes an independent organization within DOE to oversee security, and the President objected to these provisions even as he signed the bill into law. Finally, the level of defense spending was resolved only at the very end of the appropriations process. The Senate-passed appropriations bill used about $4.9 billion of funds provided in the Kosovo supplemental appropriations bill as an offset for defense increases and provided a net total of $264.7 billion, $1.4 billion above the request. The House bill provided $268.7 billion in new budget authority, $5.4 billion above the request and $4.0 billion above the Senate level. The appropriations conference agreement provides $267.8 billion in FY2000, of which $7.2 billion is designated as emergency appropriations. District of Columbia Appropriations Summary from CRS Report RL30213, Appropriations for FY2000: District of Columbia (12/23/99): On November 29, 1999, President Clinton signed the Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY2000, formerly H.R. 3194, into law as P.L. 106-113. The Act appropriates funds for the District of Columbia, Division A of the act, and four other appropriation measures, Division B of the act, including: Commerce, Justice, CRS-18 State, Judiciary; Foreign Operation Appropriations; Interior Appropriations; and Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations for FY2000. Division B of P.L. 106-113, also includes a section governing Miscellaneous Appropriations, and provisions amending the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, State Department authorization, milk supports, and intellectual properties. As originally forwarded to the conference committee, H.R. 3194 provided appropriations for FY2000 solely for the District of Columbia. The House approved the conference measure on November 18, 1999, and the Senate approved the measure on November 19, 1999. Division A of P.L. 106-113 is the third District of Columbia Appropriations Act for FY2000 considered by Congress. The Act includes $436 million in special federal payments to the District of Columbia. This is slightly higher than the amount included in the vetoed version of H.R. 3064 ($429 million) and H.R. 2587 ($430 million). The difference is $6.7 million in federal funds for the environmental cleanup of the Lorton Correctional Facility. On November 3, 1999, President Clinton vetoed H.R. 3064, which included funds for the District of Columbia and the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education for FY2000. On September 28, 1999, the President vetoed H.R. 2587, Congress’ first attempt to appropriate funds for the District of Columbia for FY2000. District officials urged the President to veto H.R. 2587, because of the inclusion of several so called “social rider” provisions. They characterized the provisions as assaults on the city’s limited home rule. P.L. 106-113 includes many of the social riders contained in H.R. 2587 and H.R. 3064. The Act includes provisions that prohibit the use of federal or local funds to establish and maintain a needle exchange program, but would allow the private financing of needle exchange programs; the District from decriminalizing the use of marijuana and implementing Initiative 59 governing medical marijuana; the use of federal or District funds to finance a court challenge aimed at securing congressional voting representation in the House and Senate for District residents, but would allow the city’s corporation counsel to review and comment on private lawsuits filed on behalf of citizens of the District of Columbia; the use of federal or District funds for abortions except in cases or rape, incest, or the mother’s health is endangered; and the implementation of a domestic partners act passed in 1992 that would extend health, employment, and other benefits and protections to unmarried, cohabiting, heterosexual or homosexual couples. Energy and Water Development Appropriations Excerpt from CRS Report RL30207, Appropriations for FY2000: Energy and Water Development (10/26/99): The Energy and Water Development appropriations bill includes funding for civil projects of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation (BuRec), most of the Department of Energy (DOE), and a number of independent agencies. The Administration requested $22 billion for these programs for FY2000. The House and Senate approved $21.3 billion. CRS-19 Low allocations under Section 302 (b) of the Budget Act created difficulties for Appropriations Committees in both Houses. The Senate Committee responded by cutting water projects for the Corps and BuRec, and keeping DOE funding about at the requested level. The House Appropriations Committee increased money for the Corps and cut about $1.5 billion from DOE, much of it in the weapons program. The Senate passed the bill (S. 1186) June 16, 1999. The House passed its version of the bill (H.R. 2605) July 27, 1999. The House-Senate Conference Committee reported out its agreement on September 24, 1999, with some of the Senate cuts to the Corps, and some of the House cuts to DOE, restored. The bill was signed by the President on September 29, 1999 (P.L. 106-60). Other key issues involving Energy and Water Development appropriations programs included: Policy issues related to wetlands regulatory programs involving the Corps; the Bureau of Reclamation’s controversial Animas-La Plata project in Colorado, a large irrigation and tribal projects with likely controversial environmental impacts, for which the Administration requested no new appropriations in FY2000; a pending decision by DOE on the electrometallurgical treatment of nuclear spent fuel for storage and disposal, a process that opponents contend raises nuclear nonproliferation concerns; proposed funding increases for DOE’s accelerated computer simulation efforts to simulate nuclear weapons explosions and other important aspects of the nuclear weapons stockpile; increased funding for DOE’s Nuclear Cities Initiative in Russia, to find alternative work for unemployed Russian nuclear weapons designers; NRC’s plans to overhaul its regulatory system for nuclear power plant safety, as urged by the House and Senate Appropriations Committees; The ongoing controversy over interim civilian nuclear waste storage; and DOE’s “privatization” program for nuclear waste cleanup. Foreign Operations Appropriations Summary from CRS Report RL30211, Appropriations for FY2000: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs (12/10/99): The annual Foreign Operations appropriations bill is the primary legislative vehicle through which Congress reviews the U.S. foreign aid budget and influences executive branch foreign policy making generally. It contains the largest share over two-thirds of total U.S. international affairs spending. For FY2000, President Clinton requested $14.1 billion (later amended upward to $14.4 billion), plus $1.9 billion over three years for the Wye River/Middle East peace accord. The President’s proposal, excluding the Wye River funds, was about $1.35 billion, or 9% less than FY1999 amounts. Congressional action on the FY2000 budget resolution resulted in preliminary funding allocations for Foreign Operations programs well below the requested amount. H.Con.Res. 68, which cleared Congress on April 15, cut the $20.9 billion overall foreign policy discretionary budget request to $17.7 billion, 15% less than the President seeks. Because Foreign Operations funds represent over two-thirds of the foreign policy budget, a reduction of this order would substantially limit amounts available for Foreign Operations programs. In addition to total funding levels, five issues were among those that received the most attention during the FY2000 debate, and in some cases, resulted in the sharpest split between House and Senate, and Congress-Executive branch positions: 1) U.S. development aid policy and CRS-20 spending priorities; 2) population aid and international family planning policy; 3) regional aid allocations; 4) U.S. funding for North Korea’s heavy fuel oil and broad U.S.-North Korean policy; and 5) competing initiatives to reduce debt owed to the United States and other creditors by the world’s poorest and most highly indebted nations. During the summer, the Senate (S. 1234) and House (H.R. 2606) approved FY2000 Foreign Operations spending measures providing $12.69 billion and $12.62 billion, respectively. Because of the reduced funding levels and a House-passed abortion restriction, the White House said the President would veto either bill. A House-Senate conference committee, after deleting the House abortion restriction, agreed to $12.69 billion for Foreign Operations. President Clinton vetoed the bill, however, due to cuts totaling $1.92 billion to his budget request. Following weeks of negotiations, Congress and the White House agreed to a revised Foreign Operations bill (H.R. 3422, enacted by reference in H.R. 3194, P.L. 106-113) that totals $15.3 billion, including $1.8 billion for the Wye River/Middle East peace accord. The compromise package further funds $799 million of White House spending priorities that Congress had rejected in the vetoed H.R. 2606. Government Shutdowns CRS Report RS20348, Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview, by Robert Keith. CRS Report RL30339, Preventing Federal Government Shutdowns: Proposals for an Automatic Continuing Resolution, by Robert Keith. CRS Report 98-844, Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process, by Sharon S. Gressle. Interior Appropriations Summary from CRS Report RL30206, Appropriations for FY2000: Interior and Related Agencies (12/6/99): The Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations bill includes funding for agencies and programs in four separate federal departments as well as numerous smaller agencies and diverse programs. The bill includes funding for the Interior Department except the Bureau of Reclamation, but only segments of the funding of the other three departments, Agriculture, Energy, and Health and Human Services. On February 1, 1999, President Clinton submitted his FY2000 budget to Congress. The FY2000 request for Interior and Related Agencies totaled $15.266 billion compared to the $14.298 billion enacted for FY1999 (P.L. 105-277), an increase of almost $1 billion. The Administration also proposed $579 million for Department of Interior agencies as part of the $1 billion Lands Legacy Initiative. The Senate Appropriations Committee reported the FY2000 Interior Appropriations bill (S. 1292, S.Rept. 106-99) on June 28, 1999, and the House Appropriations Committee reported its version of the bill (H.R. 2466, H.Rept. 106-222) on July 2, 1999. The committee-approved levels were $14.058 billion in the Senate and $14.105 billion in the House, a difference of $46.7 million. On July 15, CRS-21 1999, the House passed H.R. 2466 by a vote of 377-47, providing $13.935 billion in FY2000 funding. On September 23, 1999, the Senate passed its version of H.R. 2466 by a vote of 89-10, providing $14.056 billion for FY2000. The conference report (H.R. 2466, H.Rept. 106-406) was agreed to by both the House and Senate on October 21, 1999. It provided a total of $14.534 billion; after score keeping adjustments, the amount was $14.565 billion (including $57.4 million in mandatory funding). The totals included $68 million of emergency funding for the United Mine Workers of America combined benefit fund. However, this conference agreement was not sent to the President. Instead, following renegotiations, the House and Senate incorporated the five remaining appropriations measures into a single measure (H.R. 3194, H.Rept. 106-479), which initially provided funding only for the District of Columbia. The omnibus measure passed the House on November 18, 1999, and the Senate on November 19, 1999. The “Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY2000" was enacted into law on November 29, 1999 (P.L. 106-113). The Interior appropriations portion of the consolidated measure also was introduced as a separate bill (H.R. 3423), which the consolidated measure enacted by cross-reference. The consolidated measure contained a total Interior appropriation of $14.928 billion; after score keeping adjustments, the total was $14.959. These amounts, and others in this report, do not reflect the government-wide cut of 0.38% in discretionary appropriations for FY2000 that was required by the omnibus appropriations measure. Before the consolidated appropriations measure was signed into law, a total of seven measures providing continuing appropriations for Interior (and other appropriations measures) had been enacted. These continuing resolutions covered October 1, 1999, through December 2, 1999. Labor, Health and Human Services, Education Appropriations Summary from CRS Report RL30203, Appropriations for FY2000: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education (12/17/99): This report describes the enactment of the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies (L-HHS-ED) Appropriations Act, 2000. This Act provides nearly all discretionary funds for three federal departments and related agencies. The report summarizes L-HHS-ED discretionary funding issues; it does not directly track authorization or entitlement issues. On February 1, 1999, the President submitted the Administration’s FY2000 budget to the Congress. Following a series of seven continuing resolutions and the veto of H.R. 3064, the President signed H.R. 3194 into law, P.L. 106-113, on November 29, 1999. Discretionary appropriations may be described as “program level” for funding from the current Act for any year, and “budget authority” (BA) for funding for the current year from any Act. The L-HHS-ED program level was $90.0 billion in FY1999; $93.6 billion was requested by the President; and $96.9 billion was enacted. Comparable BA amounts are $83.3 billion, $91.6 billion, and $86.1 billion, respectively. FY1999 funding was enacted primarily through P.L. 105-277. U.S. Department of Labor (DOL): Discretionary DOL program level funding was $10.9 billion in FY1999, and $11.2 billion as enacted. The comparable BA amounts were $10.9 billion and $8.8 billion, respectively. Funding for the Workforce Investment CRS-22 Act (WIA) was increased by $248 million for FY2000, including $195 million more for WIA’s Dislocated Worker Assistance. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS): Discretionary DHHS program level was $36.4 billion in FY1999, and $41.3 billion as enacted; respective BA amounts were $36.2 billion and $39.9 billion. FY2000 funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) was increased by $2.2 billion; increases of $100 million or more were provided for Ryan White AIDS programs, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Head Start, and the Public Health and Social Service Emergency Fund. Funding for the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) Program Management was reduced by $134 million. U.S. Department of Education (ED): Discretionary ED program level was $33.3 billion in FY1999, and $35.7 billion as enacted; respective BA amounts were $28.8 billion and $29.5 billion. FY2000 increases of $100 million or more were provided for 21st Century Community Learning Centers, Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies, Class Size Reduction, Special Education State Grants, and Fund for the Improvement of Education (FIE). Related Agencies: Discretionary program level funding for related agencies was $7.8 billion in FY1999 and $8.2 billion as enacted; respective BA amounts are $7.8 billion and $8.1 billion. Funding for the Social Security Administration (SSA) Limitation on Administrative Expenses was increased by $115 million in FY2000. Legislative Branch Appropriations Summary from CRS Report RL30212, Appropriations for FY2000: Legislative Branch (1/11/00): On September 29, 1999, the President signed a $2.457 billion FY2000 legislative branch appropriations bill into Public Law 106-57 (113 Stat. 408). This represented a reduction of 4.8%, or $124.1 million, from the FY1999 budget of $2.581 billion. The House bill, H.R. 1905, contained $1.862 billion, excluding funds for Senate activities and Senate activities of the architect of the Capitol. This appropriation was a $54.8 million decrease from that reported by the House Appropriations Committee. The reduction was contained in an amendment agreed to by the House. The total legislative appropriation passed by the House was a reduction of $190 million, or 9.3%, from the FY1999 funding level of $2.052 billion, also excluding Senate items. As reported to the House, H.R. 1905 contained $1.917 billion, excluding funds for Senate items. This was a reduction of $135.2 million, or 6.6%, from the FY1999 level of $2.052 billion, also excluding Senate items. The bill reduced FTE staff positions by 98, making a cumulative reduction of 4,412, or 16%, since 1994. The Senate passed bill, S.1206, contained $1.679 billion, excluding funds for House internal activities and House activities of the architect of the Capitol. This was a reduction of $114 million, or 6.4%, from the FY1999 appropriation of $1.793 billion, also excluding funds for House items. Subsequently, the FY2000 legislative budget was rescinded by 0.38% in Public Law 106-113, Consolidated Appropriations Act, signed on November 29, 1999. An FY1999 supplemental appropriation of $5.6 million was made available to the architect of the Capitol in P.L. 106-31, which was signed on May 21, 1999. The act contained $3.8 million for the “necessary expenses of a House page dormitory” and $1.8 million for life safety renovations to the O’Neill House Office Building. Among issues under consideration were: What additional staff and funds might be necessary to ensure that Congress’s computers are Year CRS-23 2000 compliant? What funds are needed for technology development, including electronic document printing and development of a legislative information system? What attention should be given to the support agencies’ staff recruitment to replace employees who are eligible for retirement in the immediate future? How much should funding be increased for security enhancement for the Capitol, other congressional buildings, and adjacent grounds? How much should be appropriated for the Office of the Architect of the Capitol’s request to undertake capital improvements? At an appropriation level of $2.457 billion for FY2000, the legislative budget comprises 0.15% of the total federal budget. Military Construction Appropriations Summary from CRS Report RL30210, Appropriations for FY2000: Military Construction (8/23/99): The military construction (MilCon) appropriations bill finances (1) military construction projects in the United States and overseas; (2) military family housing operations and construction; (3) U.S. contributions to the NATO Security Investment Program; and (4) most base realignment and closure costs. This paper reviews the appropriations and authorization process for military construction. The congressional debate perennially centers on the adequacy of the President’s budget for military construction needs and the necessity for congressional add-ons, especially for Guard and Reserve projects. In recent years, Congress has pointed out that the Pentagon has not funded nor planned adequately for military construction. The Administration has asked the Congress to approve an unusual funding mechanism for the FY2000 military construction program, in order to fit its defense budget request within the caps set on total discretionary spending in the Budget Enforcement Act of 1997. For FY2000, the Administration has requested budget authority of $5.4 billion, which is only part of the funding necessary to carry out the proposed projects. The rest of the FY2000 military construction program would be funded by advance appropriations of $3.1 billion in FY2001. (In this advance appropriations proposal, Congress would approve the $3.1 billion now for the FY2000 program, which would be spent and scored in FY2001.) Adding the split FY2000 request with the advance appropriations request brings the total value of the proposed FY2000 military construction program to $8.5 billion. This total continues a downward trend from the FY1996 level of $11.2 billion, the FY1997 level of $9.8 billion, the FY1998 level of $9.3 billion and the FY1999 level of $8.7 billion. Appropriations and authorization hearings on the FY2000 military construction budget have highlighted the following issues: split funding and advance appropriations proposal for the FY2000 military construction budget request, long-term planning for the military construction program, and implementation of privatization of the military family housing initiative. The conference committee for military construction appropriations printed its conference report (H.Rept. 106-266) on July 27, 1999. The conference report agreed to a total $8.4 billion military construction appropriation, which is $776 million less than current FY1999 funding. The conference split the difference between the Senate- approved $8.3 billion and House-approved $8.5 billion amounts. The House passed the conference report on July 29, 1999, by a vote of 412-8. The Senate passed the conference report on August 3, 1999, by voice vote. The bill became law (P.L. 106-52) on August 17, 1999. CRS-24 Numbers (Appropriations and Budget) CRS Issue Brief IB10017, Budget for Fiscal Year 2000, by Philip D. Winters. CRS Report 95-920, Appropriations Measures and Amounts: Summary Tables, by Sandy Streeter and Matthew Ginsburg. CRS Report RS20283, Budget Surpluses or Deficits Under Alternative Discretionary Spending Assumptions, by Philip D. Winters. CRS Report 96-963, Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts, by Gail E. Makinen. CRS Report RL30353, Discretionary Spending Limits and Social Security Surplus, by Robert Keith. CRS Report RL30239, Economic Forecasts and the Budget, by Brian W. Cashell. CRS Issue Brief IB10024, Federal Civilian Employees and the FY2000 Budget, by Sharon S. Gressle. CRS Report RS20096, Natural Resources and Environment Function in the FY2000 Federal Budget: A Description of Programs and Funding, by David Michael Bearden. CRS Report RS20034, Proposed and Actual Budget Totals for the Fiscal Years 1980 through 1998, by Philip D. Winters. CRS Report 98-422, Social Security and the Federal Budget: What Does Social Security’s Being “Off-Budget” Mean?, by David Stuart Koitz. CRS Report RL30269, Social Security: How Can Budget Surpluses Help Bridge Long-Term Funding Shortfalls?, by William A. Cox. Process (Appropriations and Budget) CRS Budget Fact Sheets, CRS Guide to the Legislative and Budget Process. [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/CRSFactSheets/FactSheetMenuNF. html#Budget Process] CRS Report 98-558, Appropriations Bills: What is Report Language?, by Sandy Streeter. CRS Report 97-947, Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, by James V. Saturno. CRS Report 94-1005, Authorization, Appropriations, and Budget Process in Congress: An Introduction, by Stanley Bach. CRS-25 CRS Report 97-684, Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction, by Sandy Streeter. CRS Report 98-518, Earmarks and Limitations in Appropriations Bills, by Sandy Streeter. CRS Report 98-37L, Federal Budget Issues: A Checklist of CRS Products, by Robert H. Howe. CRS Report 98-721, Introduction to the Federal Budget Process, by Robert Keith. CRS Report RL30337, Legislative Provisions (“Riders”) in Annual Appropriation Acts: Illustrative Examples, by Robert Keith. CRS Report 98-720, Manual on the Federal Budget Process, by Robert Keith (184 pages). To order call 7-7132. CRS Report 97-865, Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process, by James V. Saturno. CRS Report RS20165, Social Security “Lock Box,” by David Stuart Koitz. Rescissions CRS Report RL30443, The 0.38 Percent Across-the-Board Cut in FY2000 Appropriations, by Robert Keith. Research and Development CRS Issue Brief 10018, Research and Development Funding: Fiscal Year 2000. Supplemental Appropriations CRS Report RS20161, Kosovo Military Operations: Costs and Congressional Action on Funding, by Stephen Daggett. CRS Report RL30083, Supplemental Appropriations for FY1999: Central America Disaster Aid, Middle East Peace, and Other Initiatives, by Larry Nowels. Transportation Appropriations Summary from CRS Report RL30208, Appropriations for FY2000: Department of Transportation and Related Agencies (2/4/00): On October 9, 1999, the President signed the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Act, 2000 (P.L. 106-69). The Act provided $50.2 billion for the Department of Transportation (DOT). DOT had requested funding similar to the level enacted in P.L. 106-69. However, the FY2000 Consolidated Appropriations Act, P.L. 106-113, calls for an across-the-board rescission of 0.38% from each CRS-26 agency’s discretionary budget authority and obligation limits. This will result in a reduction of approximately $179 million from the level enacted in P.L. 106-69. he Federal Highway Administration (-$105.3 million), the Airport Improvement Program (-$54.4 million), the Federal Transit Administration (-$17.6 million), and the Coast Guard (-$1.6 million) together absorb all but about $0.5 million of the DOT reductions. Even with the rescission, the amount provided represents a nearly 6% increase over the FY1999 enacted level. Reflecting the continuing impact of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21), both the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) received increases of 7% above FY1999 enacted levels. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) received a more modest increase of just under 3%. The FY2000 Act funds the entire FAA budget out of the airport and airway trust fund. Historically, a significant portion of the FAA operations budget has been provided from general fund revenues. Much of the debate over the Department’s budget focused on allocating resources raised by user fees and deposited in specific transportation trust funds. A debate arose between those in favor of a unified budget vs. Those seeking to protect individual programs either by taking them off budget or using fiscal boundaries or “firewalls” to ensure a minimum level of financing. This policy of creating discretionary spending guarantees originated with the provisions of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21), legislation that placed “firewalls” around certain categories of the Federal Highway Administration’s programs. The House version of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) reauthorization bill, H.R. 1000, proposes also changing the budgetary treatment of the airport and airway trust fund by taking the fund off budget. For the highway trust fund, TEA21 provided for the disposition of actual receipts above those forecast and authorized. The Revenue Aligned Budget Authority (RABA) provisions require additional trust fund receipts to be redistributed to individual states based on the formula used to apportion highway dollars. The enacted version of H.R. 2084 narrows the scope of RABA distribution to certain core highway programs, thereby reducing the allocations to a number of smaller TEA21 programs and increasing the funds flowing to the states. Treasury, Postal Service, President, Government Appropriations Summary from CRS Report RL30202, Appropriations for FY2000: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government (1/19/00): Public Law 106-58 (H.R. 2490), signed by the President September 29, 1999, to fund the Department of the Treasury, the Executive Office of the President, several independent agencies and to provide partial funding for the U.S. Postal Service. The act funds the accounts at $27.99 billion, including mandatories (before score keeping by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). The consolidated FY2000 funding measure, P.L. 106-113, signed November 29, 1999, requires a cut by 0.38% in all accounts. The administration’s budget, to be submitted in early February, will contain a report on the exact amounts of cuts for each of the accounts. The Senate-passed version of H.R. 2490 would have funded the accounts at $27.77 billion and the House at $27.8 billion. The President’s FY2000 budget, submitted February 1, 1999, requested a funding level of $27.997 billion for the mandatory and discretionary accounts. This is an increase over the FY1999 level enacted at just under $27 billion in regular appropriations, with additional emergency funding. CBO scores the total CRS-27 for the FY2000 funding at $28.2 billion. The mandatories are $14.5 billion and the discretionary funding are $13.7 billion. In summary, P.L. 106-58, prior to the across-the-board cut, funds the Department of Treasury at $12,354.6 million, which is $ 282.6 million less than the FY1999 enacted (which included emergency funding), $21.5 million less than requested, $165 million more than the House passed, and $120 million more than the Senate passed for FY2000. One principle point of difference is the funding for the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Both the House and Senate would have substantially cut funding in several of the IRS accounts (See Table 4 of CRS Report RL30202 for specifics). Although the total appropriation for the U.S. Postal Service equals the request by the Administration, only $29 million of the $93.4 million is available in FY2000. The remainder will be delayed until FY2001. Title III of the Treasury appropriation funds the Executive Office of the President and accounts entitled, “Funds Appropriated to the President.” Under the act, those accounts total $645.5 million. That funding level is $6 million more than the President’s request, $9.3 million less than House-enacted, and $75.4 million more than Senate-enacted. Both the House- and Senate-passed versions would have funded the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) at about $10 million over the request. The major differences between the chamber action and the act are in the Funds Appropriated to the President, which are funds the ONDCP transfers to other entities for drug control efforts. The independent agencies are funded at $14.9 billion. That is $9.1 million less than requested, $16.6 million more than House-enacted and $2.5 million more than Senate-enacted. Funding for the General Services Administration and the National Archives and Records Administration represent the largest differences. Veterans Affairs, HUD, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Summary from CRS Report RL30204, Appropriations for FY2000: VA, HUD, Independent Agencies (12/7/99): P.L. 106-74 (H.R. 2684). On October 20, 1999, the President signed H.R. 2684, FY2000 funding for the Departments of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and several independent agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Science Foundation (NSF), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNS). The bill provides $99.5 billion in FY2000 appropriations for programs covered under the Act, compared to $99.6 billion requested. As requested, the bill incorporated $4.2 billion in advance FY2001 funding, and $2.08 billion in rescissions of funds appropriated in previous years. (Given the discretion granted to agencies, the effect on any particular program of the across-the-board rescission of 0.38% in the Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY2000 is not yet known.) P.L. 106-74 added $1.7 billion to the FY2000 VA medical care request, bringing the total to $19 billion, plus $608 million in estimated collections from health plans sharing coverage of veterans (total funding for VA is $44.3 billion). After including rescissions and advance funding, the net HUD appropriation of $26 billion is $2 billion above FY1999, or about $2 billion less than the Administration requested. Conferees also attached House provisions that seek to improve affordable housing opportunities for seniors. Conferees added funds that brought EPA to $385 million above the CRS-28 requested level, $270 million above the Senate funding, and $284 million above the House amount. Conferees also added funds to approved amounts for NASA ($1 billion above the House, $74 million above the Senate), accepted the Administration’s request of $2.5 billion in emergency funding for FEMA (not included in either House’s bill), and provided $354.5 for CNS programs (up $11 million from the Senate level; the House provided nothing). The final bill dropped a House provision to save $3 billion by limiting borrowing authority for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Preliminary House and Senate Action. In action leading to final passage, the House had approved $92 billion, the Senate had approved $97.8 billion. Most of the differences between the bills were in NASA, CNS, and HUD. The Senate approved $1 billion more than the House for NASA, funded CNS at $343.5 million (the House provided no CNS program funding), and incorporated the proposal for HUD to receive $4.2 billion in advance FY2001 funding, a proposal rejected by the House. The Administration’s FY2000 Budget. The Administration requested $42.5 billion for VA, including $17.3 billion for medical care, plus $608 million from funds mostly collected from health plans with joint coverage of veterans. The Administration proposed consolidating HUD’s housing subsidy programs, with FY2000 spending approximating FY1999 levels. Also requested were a 5% reduction to EPA spending; a 7% increase in funds for NSF, and a small reduction to funds for NASA. In spite of continued resistance in Congress to its programs (mostly AmeriCorps), the Administration again proposed expansion of CNS by adding $110 million to FY1999 levels of $438.5 million. Vetoes (FY1977-FY1999) CRS Report RS20349, Annual Appropriations Acts Vetoed by the President: FY1977-1999, by Robert Keith. CRS Appropriations Coordinators Area of Expertise Agriculture Commerce, Justice, State, and the Judiciary Defense District of Columbia Energy and Water Energy and Water Foreign Operations Interior Labor, Health, Human Services, and Education Name Ralph Chite Ed Knight Stephen Daggett Eugene P. Boyd Carl Behrens Marc Humphries Larry Nowels Alfred R. Greenwood Paul M. Irwin CRS Division Tel. RSI G&F FDT G&F RSI RSI FDT RSI 7-7296 7-7785 7-7642 7-8689 7-8303 7-7264 7-7645 7-7236 DSP 7-7573 CRS-29 Area of Expertise Name Legislative Branch Military Construction Paul E. Dwyer Mary T. Tyszkiewicz Paul Rothberg Duane Thompson Sharon Gressle Dennis W. Snook CRS Division G&F FDT Tel. 7-8668 7-3144 Transportation G&F 7-7252 Transportation RSI 7-7252 Treasury, Postal Service G&F 7-8677 Veterans and Housing and Urban RSI 7-7314 Development Division abbreviations: DSP = Domestic Social Policy; FDT = Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade; G&F = Government and Finance; RSI = Resources, Science, and Industry. Appropriations Information on the Internet Analysis/Vote Status Table (CRS) [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/apppage.html] Bills, Reports, Laws (Full-Text): FY1997-FY2000 [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/legislation/appro.html] Budget Process Institutes (CRS) [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/briefing.html#budget] Coordinators and Key Policy Staff (CRS) [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/appkpstf.html] Cost Estimates of Legislation (CBO) [http://www.cbo.gov/costextend.shtml] “CBO prepares cost estimates and mandates statements for all bills ordered reported by a full committee of the Congress ... Unless listed separately, intergovernmental and private-sector mandates statements for each bill are included in the cost estimate.” Search by bill number, word or phrase, committee, or budget function. Discretionary Appropriations (CBO) [http://www.cbo.gov/] Estimates of discretionary appropriations budget authority and outlays. (Located at the bottom of the CBO Home Page under “Data Highlights.”) Expiring Authorizations and Unauthorized Appropriations (CBO) “The purpose of the report is to help the Congress adopt authorizing legislation that should be in place before it considers the 13 regular appropriation bills for the fiscal year.” [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1812&sequence=0&from=7] Fact Sheets on Budget and Appropriation Topics (CRS) [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/CRSFactSheets/FactSheetNavigation NF.html] CRS-30 Glossaries [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/Glossary/CQDictionaryNF.html] [http://www.senate.gov/~budget/republican/reference/cliff_notes/cliffapi.htm] [http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1059&sequence=14] Hearings, Committee Membership, Jurisdiction, Rules House: [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/house/house02.html] Senate: [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/senate/senate03.html] Locating Agencies, Departments, and Programs in Appropriation Bills. “I’m looking for a particular program, but I don’t know which appropriation bill it’s in.” Federal agencies may receive funds from more than one appropriations act. Consult the “Guide to Federal Programs” on the CRS FY2000 Appropriations Products Page; it identifies the major source of appropriated funds for federal agencies and programs. [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/appprogs.html] See also: [http://www.senate.gov/~appropriations/jurisd.htm] Statements of Administration Policy (SAPs) Statements and veto indicators on appropriations (and non-appropriations) legislation scheduled for House or Senate floor action. Covers the 106th and 105th Congresses and can be searched by bill number, by appropriations legislation, or by Appropriations subcommittees. [http://www.whitehouse.gov/OMB/legislative/sap/Appropriations/] 302(b) Allocations and Revisions. For the most recent 302(b) allocations, check the House and Senate Appropriations Committee Pages: [http://www.house.gov/appropriations/] [http://www.senate.gov/~appropriations/FY00302b.htm] House 302(b) Allocations and Revisions: H.Rept. 106-163 (May 25, 1999), H.Rept. 106-217 (July 1, 1999), H.Rept. 106-233 (July 14, 1999), H. Rept. 106-245 (July 20,1999), H. Rept. 106-288 (August 4, 1999), H.Rept. 106-373 (October 12, 1999). Senate 302(b) Allocations and Revisions: S.Rept. 106-52 (May 25, 1999), S.Rept. 106-56 (May 27, 1999), S.Rept. 106-73 (June 10, 1999), S.Rept. 106-85 (June 24, 1999), S.Rept. 106-101 (July 1, 1999), S.Rept. 106-118 (July 22,1999), S.Rept. 106-158 (September 15, 1999), S.Rept. 106-165 (September 28, 1999). Veto Indications The White House viewpoint on appropriation bills can be found in the Statements of Administration Policy (SAPs): [http://www.whitehouse.gov/OMB/legislative/sap/Appropriations/] Votes on Appropriations Legislation (CRS) [http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/appover.html] CRS-31 Appropriations Process Appropriations Sequence The congressional budget and appropriations sequence ideally flows as shown below. However, in practice the process is rarely so simple. The following links from GPO provide comprehensive access to the House and Senate Budget and Appropriation Committee Web sites, publications, hearings, prints, legislation, membership, jurisdiction, and rules. [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/house/hclinks.html] [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/senate/sclinks.html] ! President presents his budget proposals to Congress by the first Monday in February. [http://www.whitehouse.gov/OMB/budget/index.html] ! House and Senate Budget Committees hold hearings on the President’s budget, with testimony from the Administration, CBO, Federal Reserve, and others. [http://www.house.gov/budget/] [http://www.senate.gov/~budget/] ! CBO, which is an independent support agency for Congress, assists the Budget committees through the process with reports on economic forecasts, budgetary analysis, and deficit/surplus options, including The Economic and Budget Outlook (and Update issued in July), An Analysis of the President’s Budget Proposals, and Maintaining Budgetary Discipline: Spending and Revenue Options. [www.cbo.gov] ! House and Senate Appropriations committees and subcommittees hold hearings to review budget justifications from each federal agency. [http://www.house.gov/appropriations/] [http://www.senate.gov/~appropriations/] ! House and Senate Budget Committees receive Views and Estimates on spending and revenues from all full committees 6 weeks after the President’s budget is received. ! House and Senate Budget Committees report budget resolutions to the House and Senate, respectively. ! Each Chamber debates and considers amendments to the original resolution. ! Each Chamber adopts a budget resolution, with differences between the two versions resolved in a conference committee. ! Each Chamber adopts the final version. The budget resolution is not signed by the President and does not become public law. ! Each House and Senate Appropriations subcommittee holds markups, in which they consider amendments and formulate the regular bill under their CRS-32 jurisdiction. Each subsequently reports its version to their respective Appropriations Committee. ! Full House and Senate Appropriations Committees hold markups on their subcommittees’ versions and report the committees’ versions to their respective Chambers. ! House and Senate debate, consider amendments, and pass each regular bill; differences between the House- and Senate-passed bills are resolved in conference committee. The final version is adopted by both Chambers and sent to the President. If the bill is approved, it becomes law. Generally, either all 13 regular bills are enacted separately, or some are enacted together in an omnibus measure. ! House and Senate adopt continuing resolutions to provide short-term funding if the regular bills are not enacted by the October 1 deadline. ! Appropriations follow the same legislative course as other legislation, affected by congressional rules, congressional procedures, and possible presidential approval or veto (procedure). White House indications of opposition or support to appropriation and non-appropriation legislation scheduled for floor action, called Statements of Administration Policy (SAPs) are located at: [http://www.whitehouse.gov/OMB/legislative/sap/Appropriations/] Appropriations and Budget Process Overview (The following is excerpted from CRS Report RL30001, 106th Congress: Key Issues and Early Agenda, p. 7-10.) Many of the key issues that Congress faces each year are addressed through budgetary legislation or legislation that has important budgetary components. As a consequence, the legislative agenda is closely tied to the requirements and constraints of the federal budget process. The President’s Budget and the Budget Resolution. Following many months of development by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the executive agencies, the President’s budget is submitted to Congress. Under current law, the deadline for the budget submission is the first Monday in February. Congress considers the President’s budget recommendations through a decentralized committee system that involves multiple budget processes. Before Congress acts on individual spending and revenue legislation to implement budget policies, it is required (by the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended) to fashion its own budget plan in the form of a concurrent resolution. The budget resolution, under the jurisdiction of House and Senate Budget Committees, is not sent to the President for approval or veto. Instead, it is enforced through the rules and procedures of each Chamber. CRS-33 The budget resolution sets overall fiscal and budgetary policy; specific programmatic decisions are left to the revenue and spending committees. Final House and Senate action on the budget resolution is scheduled for completion by April 15. While the House and Senate often complete initial action by this date, final action usually is not completed until weeks, or even months, later. Implementation of the Budget. Revenue and borrowing decisions fall within the jurisdiction of the House Ways and Means Committee and the Senate Finance Committee. Spending decisions are decided along two tracks. Discretionary spending, which is under the jurisdiction of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees, is provided annually in regular, supplemental, and continuing appropriations acts. Direct spending, which largely involves entitlement and other mandatory programs (such as Social Security, Medicare, federal retirement, and unemployment insurance), is under the jurisdiction of the Ways and Means and Finance Committees, as well as other House and Senate legislative committees, and is provided in substantive legislation. For the most part, revenues and direct spending flow automatically each year without any legislative action. Congress, however, usually decides each year to make some changes in revenue and direct spending laws. Reconciliation Legislation. Since 1980, Congress has used an optional reconciliation process in conjunction with the budget resolution. The process allows the House and Senate to instruct committees, in the budget resolution, to develop legislation by a particular deadline that conforms existing revenue and direct spending law to budget resolution policies. The legislative recommendations of the instructed committees usually are consolidated into an omnibus bill in each Chamber, which is considered under expedited procedures. Reconciliation has been used 11 times since 1980, resulting in the enactment of 14 separate reconciliation bills. For many years, the reconciliation process was used primarily to reduce the deficit (often through a combination of spending cuts and revenue increases) and, in some instances, to increase the debt limit. Recently, reconciliation also has been used to reduce revenues and to increase spending for some programs. Two reconciliation bills, one dealing principally with revenue matters and the other with direct spending, were enacted in 1997 to implement the 1997 budget summit agreement. In view of the many changes in budget policy expected to be considered in 1999, the House and Senate may well use the reconciliation process again. Annual Appropriations Acts. Roughly one-third of all federal spending is discretionary spending provided in annual appropriations acts (some direct spending, such as funding for Medicaid, also is provided in annual appropriations acts, but the levels of such spending effectively are determined by the legislative committees). Although the rules of the House and Senate traditionally have served to separate the consideration of appropriations from legislative matters, policy issues often arise in the appropriations process in the form of legislative “riders.” The final appropriation act considered in the 105th Congress, the Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for FY1999 (P.L. 105-277), was a massive bill. Although it merged together the full text of eight of the 13 regular appropriations acts, along with emergency supplemental appropriations, well over one-third of its text contained legislative riders, such as the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring CRS-34 Act of 1998, the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998, and the Internet Tax Freedom Act. Budget Resolution Enforcement and Sequestration. Budget resolution policies are enforced under the 1974 Congressional Budget Act by the reconciliation process and by point-of-order provisions that operate as House and Senate rules. Although enforcement procedures under the 1974 Act are extensive, reconciliation potentially is the most important enforcement tool for revenue and direct spending legislation; annual appropriations measures are controlled principally by allocations of spending made to the Appropriations Committees and their subcommittees under Section 302 of the Act (the so-called 302 allocations and subdivisions). Congressional action on budgetary legislation also is influenced by enforcement procedures under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, as amended by the Budget Enforcement Act (BEA) of 1990 and other laws. Under a sequestration process in the Act, automatic spending reductions are made toward the end of the congressional session if, in the judgment of the director of the Office of Management and Budget, certain budgetary goals specified in the law are not met. Discretionary spending is controlled by adjustable discretionary spending limits, while legislation affecting revenues or direct spending is subject to a deficitneutral, “pay-as-you-go” (PAYGO) requirement. In 1997, these procedures were extended to bills considered through FY2002. The congressional budget process is linked in various ways to the statutory discretionary spending limits and PAYGO requirement. The President gives Congress a preliminary assessment of the likelihood of a sequester in his sequestration preview report, included in his February budget submission. These figures are updated in the Mid-Session Review, issued in July by OMB. At first, sequestration was viewed as giving the President and Congress a strong incentive to reach agreement on budgetary goals, thereby avoiding the legislative deadlock that characterized the early 1980s. With the emergence of a surplus, however, some Members have questioned the need for continuing the BEA procedures. They argue that the BEA procedures should be eliminated, or at least substantially modified, so that Congress and the President can “use” the surplus for tax cuts and other actions otherwise prohibited. (For more detailed information, see CRS Report 98-721, Introduction to the Federal Budget Process, CRS Report 98-720, Manual on the Federal Budget Process, and CRS Report 97-684, The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction.) Discretionary vs. Mandatory (Direct) Spending Discretionary spending, which is usually funded through the 13 annual appropriation bills, accounted for 33.6% ($554.7 billion) of total federal spending in FY1998 (the most recent fiscal year for which actual outlays are available). Discretionary funding activities include national defense, transportation, education, income security, agriculture, natural resources and the environment, international affairs, the space program, and salaries and expenses for federal agencies. CRS-35 Mandatory (direct) spending, including net interest, accounted for 66.4% ($1,652.6 billion) of all spending in FY1998. Of that amount, interest on the national debt accounted for approximately 14.7 % ($243.4 billion) and entitlement programs accounted for 51.7% ($854.5 billion). Some of the larger entitlement programs include (in descending order) Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, unemployment compensation, military retirement, supplemental security income (SSI), food stamps, veterans’ pension and compensation, and family support payments (Aid to Families with Dependent Children). Entitlements are based solely on meeting eligibility criteria (age, income, etc.) and are sometimes referred to as “uncontrolled” spending. Table 5. Discretionary/Mandatory Outlays: FY1981-1998 (in billions of dollars) Fiscal Year Outlays Discretionary Spending Entitlement/ Other Mandatory Spending Net Interest Offsetting Receipts Total 1981 307.8 339.6 68.8 -37.9 678.2 1982 325.8 370.9 85.0 -36.0 745.8 1983 353.1 410.7 89.8 -45.3 808.4 1984 379.2 405.8 111.1 -44.2 851.9 1985 415.7 448.4 129.5 -47.1 946.5 1986 438.4 462.0 136.0 -45.9 990.9 1987 444.0 474.4 138.7 -52.9 1,004.1 1988 464.2 505.3 151.8 -56.8 1,064.5 1989 488.6 549.6 169.3 -63.8 1,143.7 1990 500.3 627.3 184.2 -58.7 1,253.2 1991 533.0 702.6 194.5 -105.7 1,324.4 1992 534.0 716.6 199.4 -68.4 1,381.7 1993 540.4 736.8 198.8 -66.6 1,409.4 1994 543.3 784.0 203.0 -68.5 1,461.7 1995 545.1 818.2 232.2 -79.7 1,515.7 1996 533.8 857.5 241.1 -71.9 1,560.5 1997 548.3 896.3 244.0 -87.3 1,601.2 1998 553.6 938.6 243.4 -84.1 1,651.4 Source: Congressional Budget Office. The Economic and Budget Outlook: Fiscal Years 2000-2009. January 1999. Washington, GPO, 1999. Table F-8, p. 132. CRS-36 Administration Appropriation Requests and Amounts Enacted Table 6. Administration Requests and Amounts Enacted Calendar Year Amount Requested by President Amount Enacted Difference (under -) (over +) 1981 541,827,827,909 554,457,423,541 +2,629,595,632 1982 507,740,133,484 514,832,375,371 +7,092,241,887 1983 542,956,052,209 551,620,505,328 +8,664,453,119 1984 576,343,258,980 559,151,835,986 -17,191,422,994 1985 588,698,503,939 583,446,885,087 -5,251,618,852 1986 590,345,199,494 577,279,102,494 -13,066,097,000 1987 618,268,048,956 614,526,518,150 -3,741,530,806 1988 621,250,663,756 625,967,372,769 +4,716,709,013 1989 652,138,432,359 666,211,680,769 +14,073,248,410 1990 704,510,961,506 697,257,739,756 -7,253,221,750 1991 756,428,166,591 748,448,989,695 -7,979,176,896 1992 776,072,233,291 764,493,307,753 -11,578,925,538 1993 818,126,396,224 788,612,997,811 -29,513,398,413 1994 786,217,794,485 783,750,778,821 -2,467,015,664 1995 804,207,430,414 761,097,095,624 -43,110,334,790 1996 801,214,438,737 793,403,351,752 -7,811,086,985 1997 799,196,396,980 787,614,001,680 -11,582,395,300 1998 859,790,824,685 864,003,763,488 +4,212,938,803 1999 916,654,274,000 922,902,292,000 +6,248,018,000 Source: House Committee on Appropriations, 11/23/99. Comparison of Administration budget authority requests of regular annual, supplemental, and deficiency appropriation bills to the amount enacted.