Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2019 Appropriations

The Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies appropriations bill includes funding for more than 30 agencies and entities. They include most of the Department of the Interior (DOI) as well as agencies within other departments, such as the Forest Service within the Department of Agriculture and the Indian Health Service within the Department of Health and Human Services. The bill also provides funding for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), arts and cultural agencies, and other organizations and entities. At issue for Congress is determining the amount, terms, and conditions of funding for FY2019 for agencies and programs within the bill.

For FY2019, President Trump requested $28.34 billion for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies. For DOI agencies (Title I), the request was $10.59 billion, or 37.4% of the total requested. For EPA (Title II), the request was $6.19 billion, or 21.8% of the total. For the more than 20 entities funded in Title III, the request was $11.56 billion, or 40.8% of the total. The President’s request for FY2019 also included a legislative proposal to authorize a $1.52 billion cap adjustment to the discretionary spending limits in law for certain wildland fire suppression activities. Budget authority designated for those activities would cause the limits to be adjusted, making those funds effectively not subject to the discretionary spending limits.

H.R. 6147, as passed by the House on July 19, 2018, contained $35.31 billion for FY2019 for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies. H.R. 6147, as passed by the Senate on August 1, 2018, included $35.91 billion for FY2019. Neither chamber approved a discretionary cap adjustment for wildland fire suppression for FY2019 as proposed by the President. However, Congress enacted a similar proposal as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 (P.L. 115-141), although the cap adjustment is not available until FY2020.

For FY2018, the total enacted appropriation for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies was $36.59 billion, including $35.31 billion in regular appropriations (in P.L. 115-141) and $1.28 billion in emergency supplemental appropriations for disaster relief (in P.L. 115-72 and P.L. 115-123). The President, House, and Senate each proposed less funding for FY2019 relative to the FY2018 enacted total of $36.59 billion, proposing 22.5%, 3.5%, and 1.8% less, respectively. In contrast, relative to the regular FY2018 appropriation of $35.31 billion, the President would reduce funding (19.8%), the House would provide nearly level appropriations (<0.1% decrease), and the Senate would increase funding (1.7%) for FY2019.

For individual agencies and programs in the bill, there are many differences among the funding levels enacted for FY2018 and those supported by the President, House, and Senate for FY2019. This report highlights funding for selected agencies and programs that have been among the many of interest to Congress, stakeholders, and the public. They include the Bureau of Land Management, EPA, Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, Indian Affairs, Indian Health Service, Land and Water Conservation Fund, National Park Service, Payments in Lieu of Taxes Program, Smithsonian Institution, U.S. Geological Survey, and Wildland Fire Management.

Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2019 Appropriations

Updated September 19, 2018 (R44934)
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Contents

Summary

The Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies appropriations bill includes funding for more than 30 agencies and entities. They include most of the Department of the Interior (DOI) as well as agencies within other departments, such as the Forest Service within the Department of Agriculture and the Indian Health Service within the Department of Health and Human Services. The bill also provides funding for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), arts and cultural agencies, and other organizations and entities. At issue for Congress is determining the amount, terms, and conditions of funding for FY2019 for agencies and programs within the bill.

For FY2019, President Trump requested $28.34 billion for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies. For DOI agencies (Title I), the request was $10.59 billion, or 37.4% of the total requested. For EPA (Title II), the request was $6.19 billion, or 21.8% of the total. For the more than 20 entities funded in Title III, the request was $11.56 billion, or 40.8% of the total. The President's request for FY2019 also included a legislative proposal to authorize a $1.52 billion cap adjustment to the discretionary spending limits in law for certain wildland fire suppression activities. Budget authority designated for those activities would cause the limits to be adjusted, making those funds effectively not subject to the discretionary spending limits.

H.R. 6147, as passed by the House on July 19, 2018, contained $35.31 billion for FY2019 for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies. H.R. 6147, as passed by the Senate on August 1, 2018, included $35.91 billion for FY2019. Neither chamber approved a discretionary cap adjustment for wildland fire suppression for FY2019 as proposed by the President. However, Congress enacted a similar proposal as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 (P.L. 115-141), although the cap adjustment is not available until FY2020.

For FY2018, the total enacted appropriation for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies was $36.59 billion, including $35.31 billion in regular appropriations (in P.L. 115-141) and $1.28 billion in emergency supplemental appropriations for disaster relief (in P.L. 115-72 and P.L. 115-123). The President, House, and Senate each proposed less funding for FY2019 relative to the FY2018 enacted total of $36.59 billion, proposing 22.5%, 3.5%, and 1.8% less, respectively. In contrast, relative to the regular FY2018 appropriation of $35.31 billion, the President would reduce funding (19.8%), the House would provide nearly level appropriations (<0.1% decrease), and the Senate would increase funding (1.7%) for FY2019.

For individual agencies and programs in the bill, there are many differences among the funding levels enacted for FY2018 and those supported by the President, House, and Senate for FY2019. This report highlights funding for selected agencies and programs that have been among the many of interest to Congress, stakeholders, and the public. They include the Bureau of Land Management, EPA, Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, Indian Affairs, Indian Health Service, Land and Water Conservation Fund, National Park Service, Payments in Lieu of Taxes Program, Smithsonian Institution, U.S. Geological Survey, and Wildland Fire Management.


Introduction

This report focuses on FY2019 discretionary appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies.1 At issue for Congress is determining the amount of funding for agencies and programs in the bill, and the terms and conditions of such funding.

This report first presents a short overview of the agencies and other entities funded in the bill. It then describes the appropriations requested by President Trump for FY2019 for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies. Next, it briefly compares the appropriations enacted for FY2018,2 requested by the President for FY2019, passed by the House for FY2019, and passed by the Senate for FY2019.3 The comparison focuses on several agencies and issues that have been among those of interest to Congress.

Appropriations are complex. Budget justifications for some agencies are large, often several hundred pages long and containing numerous funding, programmatic, and legislative changes for congressional consideration. Further, appropriations laws provide funds for numerous accounts, activities, and subactivities, and the accompanying explanatory statements provide additional directives and other important information. This report generally does not provide in-depth information at the account and subaccount levels, nor does it detail budgetary reorganizations or legislative changes enacted in law or proposed for FY2019. For information on a particular agency or on individual accounts, programs, or activities administered by a particular agency, contact the key policy staff listed at the end of this report. In addition, for selected reports related to appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies, such as individual agencies (e.g., National Park Service) or cross-cutting programs (e.g., Wildland Fire Management), see the "Interior & Environment Appropriations" subissue under the "Appropriations" Issue Area page on the Congressional Research Service (CRS) website.4

Overview of Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies

The annual Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies appropriations bill includes funding and other provisions for agencies and programs in three separate federal departments and for numerous related agencies. The Interior bill typically contains three primary appropriations titles and a fourth title with general provisions. Title I provides funding for most Department of the Interior (DOI) agencies,5 many of which manage land and other natural resource or regulatory programs. Title I also typically includes general provisions related to DOI agencies. Title II contains appropriations and administrative provisions for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Title III, Related Agencies, currently funds 23 agencies in other departments, such as the Forest Service in the Department of Agriculture and the Indian Health Service in the Department of Health and Human Services; arts and cultural agencies, including the Smithsonian Institution; and various other organizations and entities. Title III also contains administrative provisions for some agencies funded therein. A fourth title of the bill, General Provisions, typically contains additional guidance and direction for agencies in the bill. In addition, in the FY2018 appropriations law and the House- and Senate-passed bills for FY2019, Title IV also included appropriations, primarily for EPA. Selected major agencies in the Interior bill are briefly described below.

Title I. Department of the Interior

DOI's mission is to protect and manage the nation's natural resources and cultural heritage; provide scientific and other information about those resources and natural hazards; and exercise trust responsibilities and other commitments to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and affiliated island communities.6 There are eight DOI agencies and two other broad accounts funded in the Interior bill that carry out this mission. Hereinafter, these agencies and broad accounts are referred to collectively as the 10 DOI "agencies." DOI agencies funded in the Interior bill include the following:7

  • The Bureau of Land Management administers about 248 million acres of public land, mostly in the West, for diverse uses such as energy and mineral development, livestock grazing, recreation, and preservation. The agency also is responsible for about 700 million acres of federal onshore subsurface mineral estate throughout the nation and supervises the mineral operations on about 56 million acres of Indian trust lands.
  • The Fish and Wildlife Service administers 89 million acres of federal land within the National Wildlife Refuge System and other areas,8 including 77 million acres in Alaska. It also manages several large marine refuges and marine national monuments, sometimes jointly with other federal agencies. In addition, the Fish and Wildlife Service is the primary agency responsible for implementing the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. §§1531 et seq.) through listing of species; consulting with other federal agencies; collaborating with private entities and state, tribal, and local governments; and other measures. It is also the primary agency responsible for promoting wildlife habitat; enforcing federal wildlife laws; supporting wildlife and ecosystem science; conserving migratory birds; administering grants to aid state fish and wildlife programs; and coordinating with state, international, and other federal agencies on fish and wildlife issues.
  • The National Park Service administers 80 million acres of federal land within the National Park System, including 417 separate units in the 50 states, District of Columbia, and U.S. territories. Roughly two-thirds of the system's lands are in Alaska. The National Park Service has a dual mission—to preserve unique resources and to provide for their enjoyment by the public. The agency also supports and promotes some resource conservation activities outside the National Park System through grant and technical assistance programs and cooperation with partners.
  • The U.S. Geological Survey is a science agency that provides physical and biological information related to geological resources; climate and land use change; natural hazards; and energy, mineral, water, and biological sciences and resources. In addition, it is the federal government's principal civilian mapping agency and a primary source of data on the quality of the nation's water resources.
  • The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management manages development of the nation's offshore conventional and renewable energy resources in the Atlantic, the Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Arctic. These resources are located in areas covering approximately 1.7 billion acres located beyond state waters, mostly in the Alaska region (more than 1 billion acres) but also off all coastal states.9
  • The Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement provides regulatory and safety oversight for resource development in the outer continental shelf. Among its responsibilities are oil and gas permitting, facility inspections, environmental compliance, and oil spill response planning.
  • The Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement works with states and tribes to reclaim abandoned coal mining sites. The agency also regulates active coal mining sites to minimize environmental impacts during mining and to reclaim affected lands and waters after mining.
  • Indian Affairs agencies provide and fund a variety of services to federally recognized American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and their members. Historically, these agencies have taken the lead in federal dealings with tribes. The Bureau of Indian Affairs is responsible for programs that include government operations, courts, law enforcement, fire protection, social programs, roads, economic development, employment assistance, housing repair, irrigation, dams, Indian rights protection, implementation of land and water settlements, and management of trust assets (real estate and natural resources). The Bureau of Indian Education funds an elementary and secondary school system, institutions of higher education, and other educational programs.10

Title II. Environmental Protection Agency

EPA has no organic statute establishing an overall mission; rather, the agency administers various environmental statutes, which have an express or general objective to protect human health and the environment. Primary responsibilities include the implementation of federal statutes regulating air quality, water quality, drinking water safety, pesticides, toxic substances, management and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes, and cleanup of environmental contamination. EPA also awards grants to assist states and local governments in implementing federal law and complying with federal requirements to control pollution. The agency also administers programs that provide financial assistance for public wastewater and drinking water infrastructure projects.

Title III. Related Agencies

Title III of the Interior bill currently funds 23 agencies, organizations, and other entities, which are collectively referred to hereinafter as the "Related Agencies." Among the Related Agencies funded in the Interior bill, roughly 95% of the funding is typically provided to the following:

  • The Forest Service in the Department of Agriculture manages 193 million acres of federal land within the National Forest System—consisting of national forests, national grasslands, and other areas—in 43 states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. It also provides technical and financial assistance to states, tribes, and private forest landowners and conducts research on sustaining forest resources for future generations.
  • The Indian Health Service in the Department of Health and Human Services provides medical and environmental health services for more than 2 million American Indians and Alaska Natives. Health care is provided through a system of facilities and programs operated by the agency, tribes and tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations. The agency operates 26 hospitals, 57 health centers, and 21 health stations. Tribes and tribal organizations, through Indian Health Service contracts and compacts, operate another 22 hospitals, 286 health centers, 62 health stations, and 134 Alaska Native village clinics.11
  • The Smithsonian Institution is a museum and research complex consisting of 19 museums and galleries, the National Zoo, and 9 research facilities throughout the United States and around the world.12 Established by federal legislation in 1846 with the acceptance of a trust donation by the institution's namesake benefactor, the Smithsonian is funded by both federal appropriations and a private trust.
  • The National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities make up the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. The National Endowment for the Arts is a major federal source of support for all arts disciplines. Since 1965, it has awarded more than 145,000 grants, which have been distributed to all states. The National Endowment for the Humanities generally supports grants for humanities education, research, preservation, and public humanities programs; creation of regional humanities centers; and development of humanities programs under the jurisdiction of state humanities councils. Since 1965, it has awarded approximately 63,000 grants. It also supports a Challenge Grant program to stimulate and match private donations in support of humanities institutions.

FY2019 Appropriations

Components of President Trump's Request

For FY2019, President Trump requested $28.34 billion for the more than 30 agencies and entities in the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies appropriations bill. The President also requested the establishment of a new adjustment to the discretionary spending limits for certain wildland fire suppression activities, and he requested $1.52 billion to be made available through the cap adjustment for FY2019.13 Budget authority designated for those activities would cause the spending limits to be adjusted, making it effectively not subject to the limits.14

For the 10 major DOI agencies in Title I of the bill, the request was $10.59 billion, or 37.4% of the $28.34 billion total requested. For EPA, funded in Title II of the bill, the request was $6.19 billion, or 21.8% of the total. For the 23 agencies and other entities funded in Title III of the bill, the request was $11.56 billion, or 40.8% of the total.

Appropriations for agencies vary widely for reasons relating to the number, breadth, and complexity of agency responsibilities; alternative sources of funding (e.g., mandatory appropriations); and Administration and congressional priorities, among other factors. Thus, although the President's FY2019 request covered more than 30 agencies, funding for a small subset of these agencies accounted for most of the total. For example, the requested appropriations for three agencies—EPA, Forest Service, and Indian Health Service—were more than half (57.4%) of the total request.15 Further, three-quarters (75.5%) of the request was for these three agencies and two others, National Park Service and Indian Affairs.16

For DOI agencies, the FY2019 requests ranged from $121.7 million for the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement to $2.70 billion for the National Park Service. The requests for 5 of the 10 agencies exceeded $1 billion. Nearly half (48.3%) of the $10.59 billion requested for DOI agencies was for two agencies—the National Park Service ($2.70 billion) and Indian Affairs ($2.41 billion).

For Related Agencies in Title III, the requested funding levels exhibited even more variation. The President sought amounts ranging from no funding for two entities—grants under National Capital Arts and Cultural Affairs and the Women's Suffrage Centennial Commission—to $5.42 billion for the Indian Health Service. The Forest Service would be the only other agency to receive more than $4 billion. The next-largest request was for the Smithsonian Institution, at $957.4 million. By contrast, 19 entities would each receive $62 million or less, including 12 with appropriations of less than $10 million each.

Figure 1 identifies the share of the President's FY2019 request for particular agencies in the Interior bill.

Figure 1. Components of President Trump's FY2019 Request for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies

Source: Prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) with data from the House Appropriations Committee.

Notes: Agencies shown in shades of red are in the Department of the Interior, Title I of the bill. The Environmental Protection Agency, shown in green, is in Title II of the bill. Agencies shown in shades of gold are Related Agencies, Title III of the bill. Figures may not add to total shown due to rounding.

Overview of FY2019 Requested, House-Passed, and Senate-Passed Appropriations as Compared with FY2018 Enacted Appropriations

For FY2018, the total enacted appropriation for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies was $36.59 billion. This total included $35.31 billion in regular appropriations and $1.28 billion in emergency supplemental appropriations for disaster relief.17 As noted, for FY2019, the President sought $28.34 billion for agencies in the Interior bill and a discretionary cap adjustment of $1.52 billion for wildland fire suppression. Neither the House nor the Senate version of the bill contained the cap adjustment.18

H.R. 6147, as passed by the House on July 19, 2018, would provide $35.31 billion for FY2019. H.R. 6147, as passed by the Senate on August 1, 2018, would provide $35.91 billion for FY2019. Thus, when including the supplemental disaster funding, the President, House, and Senate would provide less overall funding for FY2019 as compared to the FY2018 enacted total of $36.59 billion, as follows:

  • $8.25 billion (22.5%) less under the President's request,
  • $1.28 billion (3.5%) less under the House-passed bill, and
  • $674.4 million (1.8%) less under the Senate-passed bill.

However, relative to the regular FY2018 appropriation of $35.31 billion (excluding the supplemental disaster funding), for FY2019:

  • the President's request would reduce funding by $6.98 billion (19.8%),
  • the House-passed bill would provide nearly level appropriations, with a decrease of $5.5 million (<0.1%), and
  • the Senate-passed bill would increase funding by $601.0 million (1.7%).

Figure 2 depicts the regular enacted appropriations for FY2018, requested by the President for FY2019, passed by the House for FY2019, and passed by the Senate for FY2019. It shows the appropriations contained in each of the three main appropriations titles of the Interior bill—Title I (DOI), Title II (EPA), and Title III (Related Agencies)—and in the general provisions in Title IV. For FY2018 enacted appropriations, it also depicts the emergency supplemental appropriations for disaster relief. Table 1, at the end of this report, lists the appropriations for each agency that were enacted for FY2018, requested by the President for FY2019, passed by the House for FY2019, and passed by the Senate for FY2019. It also contains the percentage changes between FY2018 enacted appropriations and the FY2019 levels requested by the President, passed by the House, and passed by the Senate.

Figure 2. Appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies, by Major Title, FY2018-FY2019

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from the House and Senate Appropriations Committees.

Notes: This figure depicts appropriations enacted for FY2018, requested by the President for FY2019, contained in H.R. 6147 as passed by the House for FY2019, and contained in H.R. 6147 as passed by the Senate for FY2019. The FY2018 enacted total reflects $774.0 million in Title IV (General Provisions) of the law, of which $766.0 million was for EPA and $8.0 million was for other purposes. It also reflects $1.28 billion in emergency supplemental appropriations for disaster relief (under P.L. 115-72 and P.L. 115-123). The FY2019 House-passed total reflects $373.0 million in Title IV of the bill, consisting of $375.0 million for EPA and a reduction of $2.0 million for specified purposes. The FY2019 Senate-passed total reflects $766.0 million for EPA.

Selected Agencies and Programs

There are many differences among the FY2018 enacted appropriations and the FY2019 funding requested by the President, passed by the House, and passed by the Senate. Selected agencies and programs are highlighted below, among the many of interest to Members of Congress, stakeholders, and the public. For the selected agencies and programs, the discussions below briefly compare FY2018 regular annual funding with FY2019 levels requested by the Administration, approved by the House, and approved by the Senate.19 Including FY2018 emergency supplemental appropriations would result in different comparisons for some of the agencies and programs covered below.20

Bureau of Land Management

The Administration sought a decrease of 23.2% from the FY2018 appropriation ($1.33 billion) for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The request contained lower funding for many BLM accounts and programs, including those for overall Management of Lands and Resources, and Land Acquisition by the agency. The House and Senate versions of the bill would approve increased appropriations for BLM for FY2019, of 4.1% and 0.9% respectively, with additional funds for the Management of Lands and Resources. The Senate also would provide an increase for Land Acquisition, but the House would reduce funds for that purpose. Further, the Administration proposed a budget restructuring within the Management of Lands and Resources account, to increase flexibility, cost savings, and program integration. The Senate, but not the House, would adopt this restructuring.21

Environmental Protection Agency

For FY2018, EPA received $8.06 billion in Title II of the regular appropriations law, and another $766.0 million in Title IV of that law, for an FY2018 regular appropriation of $8.82 billion.22 Relative to the FY2018 appropriations in Title II only ($8.06 billion), the EPA would receive a decrease under the Administration's request (23.2%) and under the House-passed bill (1.6%), but it would receive level funding under the Senate-passed bill. The request contained lower funding for several accounts,23 among them Science and Technology, Environmental Programs and Management (including geographic programs), and State and Tribal Assistance Grants (STAG, including categorical grants).24 However, the Administration sought level funding in the STAG account for grants to states for wastewater infrastructure projects through the Clean Water State Revolving Fund and for drinking water infrastructure grants to states through the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund.25 Moreover, the Administration asked for increased appropriations for two accounts, Buildings and Facilities and the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Program.26

The House and Senate versions of the bill both supported level (or nearly level) funding for some accounts and programs (e.g., the Clean Water State Revolving Fund and the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund). However, whereas the Senate would provide level funding for many accounts, the House more often supported decreases (e.g., Science and Technology, and Environmental Programs and Management) or increases (e.g., Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Program, and Hazardous Substance Superfund).

Fish and Wildlife Service

For the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), differing amounts of reductions from the FY2018 level ($1.59 billion)27 were proposed for FY2019 by the Administration (23.1%), House (0.9%), and Senate (1.2%). The Administration sought to reduce funding for the Resource Management account overall, with cuts in programs such as ecological services, habitat conservation, and fish and aquatic conservation, and to eliminate funding for programs including cooperative landscape conservation and science support. The House and Senate versions of the bill would increase funding for Resource Management, with little change for many programs relative to FY2018, and would retain funding for cooperative landscape conservation and science support. Citing "higher priorities,"28 the Administration also proposed eliminating discretionary appropriations for two other FWS accounts—the Cooperative Endangered Species Conservation Fund and the National Wildlife Refuge Fund.29 The House- and Senate-passed bills retained discretionary funding for these accounts. Further, the Administration proposed relatively large reductions from the FY2018 level for the Land Acquisition (89.1%) and Construction (79.3%) accounts. The House and Senate supported smaller reductions for both accounts.30

Forest Service

For FY2019, the Administration requested 21.5% less for the Forest Service (FS) than was enacted for FY2018 ($5.93 billion).31 Within the overall reduction, the President proposed decreases for each FS account, including 81.6% less for Capital Improvement and Maintenance, 47.7% less for State and Private Forestry, and 10.6% less for the National Forest System. The Administration also sought to eliminate funding for some programs, including Land Acquisition (from the Land and Water Conservation Fund), Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration, and cooperative forestry programs such as Forest Legacy. For FY2019, the House and Senate bills would provide overall increases for the FS of 3.3% and 6.1% respectively, with increases for some FS accounts and retention of programs the Administration sought to eliminate. The House and Senate supported differing levels of appropriations for major FS accounts, with the House approving higher amounts than the Senate for the National Forest System and Capital Improvement and Maintenance and the Senate approving higher amounts than the House for Land Acquisition and Wildland Fire Management, among other differences.32

Indian Affairs

The Administration's FY2019 requested appropriation for Indian Affairs (IA) was 21.2% less than the FY2018 enacted amount ($3.06 billion). Most Indian programs would be funded at lower levels, including human services, natural resources management, and public safety and justice. Education and construction (including construction of educational facilities) were among the largest dollar decreases in the budget request. The House- and Senate-passed measures contained overall increases of 1.3% and 0.4% respectively for IA, with relatively stable funding for many programs and activities as compared with FY2018 enacted amounts.

Indian Health Service

Under the Administration's FY2019 request, the Indian Health Service (HIS) would receive 2.1% less than the FY2018 appropriation ($5.54 billion). The overall decrease is comprised of a variety of program reductions and increases. For example, the Administration proposed cutting the Indian Health Facilities account (41.7%), including for maintenance and improvement of facilities and construction of both health care and sanitation facilities, and proposed no funding for programs including the Indian Health Care Improvement Fund, health education, and community health representatives. However, the Administration requested additional monies for clinical services including hospital and health clinics, mental health, and alcohol and substance abuse, and for contract support costs (to help tribes pay the costs of administering IHS-funded programs). The Administration also sought to fund the Special Diabetes Program for Indians through discretionary appropriations; currently the program has a direct appropriation.

The House and Senate bills would approve increases of 6.7% and 4.2% respectively over FY2018 appropriations for IHS. Both chambers included higher funding for clinical services than enacted for FY2018 and requested by the Administration for FY2019, and both agreed with the Administration's proposed level for contract support costs. The House, but not the Senate, included appropriations for the Indian Health Care Improvement Fund and would provide more than the FY2018 appropriation for the fund. Both chambers would retain funding for health education and community health representatives. Both chambers also supported level funding for most Indian Health Facilities programs but provided additional funds for facilities and environmental health support. Neither chamber would fund the Special Diabetes Program for Indians through discretionary appropriations.33

Land and Water Conservation Fund

The Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) has funded land acquisition for the four main federal land management agencies,34 a matching grant program to states to support outdoor recreation, and other purposes. The Administration did not seek discretionary appropriations for most programs appropriated from the LWCF in FY2018,35 and it proposed an overall reduction of $12.9 million due to rescisssions of prior-year funds for some program components. In contrast, the House and Senate would provide LWCF funding for the same programs as in FY2018, including land acquisition by the federal land management agencies. However, both the House and the Senate versions of the bill contained reductions from the FY2018 level ($425.0 million), of 15.2% and 3.8% respectively.36

National Park Service

For FY2019, the Administration requested 15.6% less for the National Park Service (NPS) than was enacted for FY2018 ($3.20 billion).37 Within the overall reduction, the President proposed cuts for each NPS account and many programs, including Construction, the Historic Preservation Fund, facility operations and maintenance, and heritage partnership programs. The President proposed the elimination of funding for other programs, including grants to states for outdoor recreation, line item acquisitions by the NPS, and the Centennial Challenge Program (a matching grant program to encourage donations).

The House and Senate would approve overall increases of 1.9% and 0.5% respectively for the NPS for FY2019. Their bills would fund many accounts and programs at levels similar to those enacted for FY2018. However, both chambers included increases for some programs (e.g., facility operations and maintenance) and reductions for other programs (e.g., line-item acquisitions). In still other cases, the chambers differed as to the direction of the change, for instance, with the House supporting an increase for the Historic Preservation Fund and the Senate approving a decrease.38

Payments in Lieu of Taxes

The Payments in Lieu of Taxes Program (PILT) would be reduced from the FY2018 level ($553.2 million) under the President's request (15.9%), the House-passed bill (9.6%), and the Senate-passed bill (9.6%).39 PILT compensates counties and local governments for nontaxable lands within their jurisdictions. The authorized level for the program is calculated under a formula that considers various factors and varies from year to year. The authorized payment is currently subject to annual appropriations.40

Smithsonian Institution

For FY2019, the Smithsonian Institution (SI) would receive a decrease (8.2%) under the Administration's request, an increase (1.2%) under the House-passed bill, and essentially level funding under the Senate-passed bill as compared with the FY2018 appropriation ($1.04 billion). However, the Administration, House, and Senate all supported funding at or near the FY2018 level for most SI museums, research institutes, and other programs. A key difference was in funding for the Facilities Capital account, which includes revitalization, planning and design, and construction of facilities. The Administration requested a 29.6% decrease for this account, the Senate approved a smaller decrease of 2.7%, and the House approved an increase of 1.8%. In addition, the Administration, House, and Senate all supported an increase of 2.2% over the FY2018 level for Facilities Services, which encompasses maintenance, operation, security, and support of facilities.

U.S. Geological Survey

Relative to FY2018 appropriations ($1.15 billion),41 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) would receive a decrease (25.1%) under the Administration's request, an increase (2.1%) under the House-passed bill, and level funding under the Senate-passed bill. The request proposed reduced funding for all eight major USGS program areas, including ecosystems, land resources, natural hazards, and water resources. The request also would cut most subprograms, although in a few cases it contained additional funds (e.g., for mineral and energy resources). In contrast, both chambers would maintain level funding or would increase appropriations for all USGS program areas except natural hazards, which would decline by 4.8% in the House-passed bill and by 12.0% in the Senate-passed bill.42

Wildland Fire Management

For FY2019, the Administration proposed $3.79 billion in discretionary appropriations for Wildland Fire Management (WFM) of DOI and the FS, a 12.9% decrease from the FY2018 enacted level ($4.36 billion).43 However, the President also sought a $1.52 billion cap adjustment to the discretionary spending limits in law, so that funding for certain wildland fire suppression activities would not be subject to the limits. Including those funds, the total FY2019 request was $5.31 billion. This would be an increase of 22.0% over the FY2018 appropriation. The House and Senate bills would approve increases of 3.1% and 12.0% respectively over the FY2018 appropriation. Neither chamber's bill included a discretionary cap adjustment for wildland fire suppression for FY2019.44 Further, the Administration, House, and Senate did not support appropriations for FY2019 for the FS or DOI FLAME accounts.45 The FS FLAME account received $342.0 million in emergency supplemental appropriations in FY2018.46

Table 1. Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2018-FY2019 Appropriations

(in thousands of dollars)

Bureau or Agency

FY2018 Enacted Approps.

FY2019 Requested Approps.

% Change, FY2018 Enacted- FY2019 Request

FY2019 House Passed

% Change, FY2018 Enacted- FY2019 House Passed

FY2019 Senate Passed

% Change, FY2018 Enacted- FY2019 Senate Passed

Title I: Department of the Interior

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bureau of Land Management

$1,331,944

$1,023,278

-23.2%

$1,386,956

4.1%

$1,343,398

0.9%

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

$1,594,646

$1,226,129

-23.1%

$1,580,395

-0.9%

$1,574,934

-1.2%

National Park Service

$3,202,162

$2,701,969

-15.6%

$3,261,554

1.9%

$3,218,565

0.5%

U.S. Geological Survey

$1,148,457

$859,680

-25.1%

$1,173,090

2.1%

$1,148,457

0%

Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

$114,166

$129,450

13.4%

$130,406

14.2%

$129,450

13.4%

Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement

$123,439

$132,051

7.0%

$135,642

9.9%

$134,051

8.6%

Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement

$255,476

$121,673

-52.4%

$258,515

1.2%

$252,852

-1.0%

Bureau of Indian Affairs and Bureau of Indian Education

$3,063,642

$2,414,260

-21.2%

$3,103,642

1.3%

$3,077,045

0.4%

Departmental Offices

$585,337

$443,976

-24.2%

$434,827

-25.7%

$466,464

-20.3%

Office of the Secretary

$124,182

$134,673

8.4%

$101,924

-17.9%

$131,673

6.0%

Insular Affairs

$224,057

$84,076

-62.5%

$104,051

-53.6%

$104,251

-53.5%

Office of the Solicitor

$66,675

$65,674

-1.5%

$65,674

-1.5%

$65,674

-1.5%

Office of Inspector General

$51,023

$52,486

2.9%

$52,486

2.9%

$52,486

2.9%

Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians

$119,400

$107,067

-10.3%

$110,692

-7.3%

$112,380

-5.9%

Department-Wide Programsa

$1,165,991

$1,536,224

31.8%

$1,653,720

41.8%

$1,326,093

13.7%

Wildland Fire Management

$948,087

$870,384

-8.2%

$939,660

-0.9%

$1,116,076

17.7%

Central Hazardous Materials Fund

$10,010

$2,000

-80.0%

$10,010

0%

$10,010

0%

Natural Resource Damage Assessment Fund

$7,767

$4,600

-40.8%

$7,767

0%

$7,767

0%

Working Capital Fund

$62,370

$56,735

-9.0%

$58,778

-5.8%

$54,735

-12.2%

Office of Natural Resources Revenue

$137,757

$137,505

-0.2%

$137,505

-0.2%

$137,505

-0.2%

Payments in Lieu of Taxesb

[$530,000]

$465,000

-12.3%

$500,000

-5.7%

[$500,000]

-5.7%

Subtotal, Title I: Department of the Interior

$13,115,260

$10,588,690

-19.3%

$13,118,747

<0.1%

$13,171,309

0.4%

Subtotal, Title II: Environmental Protection Agencyc

$8,058,488

$6,191,887

-23.2%

$7,931,488

-1.6%

$8,058,488

0%

Title III: Related Agencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dept. of Agri. Under Secretary for Natural Resources & Envt.

$875

$875

0%

$875

0%

$875

0%

Forest Service

$5,934,664

$4,658,189

-21.5%

$6,131,637

3.3%

$6,298,429

6.1%

Indian Health Service

$5,537,764

$5,424,023

-2.1%

$5,907,614

6.7%

$5,772,116

4.2%

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

$77,349

$53,967

-30.2%

$80,000

3.4%

$78,349

1.3%

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

$74,691

$62,000

-17.0%

$62,000

-17.0%

$74,691

0%

Council on Environmental Quality and Office of Environmental Quality

$3,000

$2,994

-0.2%

$2,994

-0.2%

$3,005

0.2%

Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

$11,000

$9,500

-13.6%

$12,000

9.1%

$11,000

0%

Office of Navajo and Hopi Indian Relocation

$15,431

$4,400

-71.5%

$7,750

-49.8%

$7,400

-52.0%

Institute of American Indian and Alaska Native Culture and Arts Development

$9,835

$9,960

1.3%

$9,960

1.3%

$9,960

1.3%

Smithsonian Institution

$1,043,347

$957,444

-8.2%

$1,055,944

1.2%

$1,043,397

<0.1%

National Gallery of Art

$165,993

$146,900

-11.5%

$168,354

1.4%

$167,202

0.7%

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts

$40,515

$37,490

-7.5%

$40,515

0%

$41,290

1.9%

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

$12,000

$7,474

-37.7%

$12,000

0%

$12,000

0%

National Endowment for the Arts

$152,849

$28,949

-81.1%

$155,000

1.4%

$155,000

1.4%

National Endowment for the Humanities

$152,848

$42,307

-72.3%

$155,000

1.4%

$155,000

1.4%

Commission of Fine Arts

$2,762

$2,771

0.3%

$2,771

0.3%

$2,771

0.3%

National Capital Arts and Cultural Affairs

$2,750

$0

-100%

$2,750

0%

$2,750

0%

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation

$6,400

$6,440

0.6%

$6,440

0.6%

$6,440

0.6%

National Capital Planning Commission

$8,099

$7,948

-1.9%

$8,099

0%

$7,948

-1.9%

U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum

$59,000

$56,602

-4.1%

$58,000

-1.7%

$59,500

0.8%

Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission

$46,800

$31,800

-32.1%

$1,800

-96.2%

$1,800

-96.2%

Women's Suffrage Centennial Commission

$1,000

$0

-100%

$500

-50.0%

$1,000

0%

World War I Centennial Commission

$7,000

$6,000

-14.3%

$3,000

-57.1%

$7,000

0%

Subtotal, Title III: Related Agencies

$13,365,972

$11,558,033

-13.5%

$13,885,003

3.9%

$13,918,923

4.1%

Title IV: General Provisions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treatment of Certain Hospitals

$8,000

$0

-100%

$0

-100%

$0

-100%

EPA Water Infrastructure & Superfund

$766,000

$0

-100%

$365,000

-52.3%

$766,000

0%

EPA Drinking Water Lead Reduction Grants

$0

$0

0%

$10,000

$0

0%

Attorney Fees

$0

$0

0%

-$2,000

$0

0%

Subtotal, Title IV: General Provisions

$774,000

$0

-100%

$373,000

-51.8%

$766,000

-1.0%

Total: Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies

$35,313,720

$28,338,610

-19.8%

$35,308,238

<-0.1%

$35,914,720

1.7%

Subtotal, Supplemental Emergency Appropriationsd

$1,275,427

$0

-100%

$0

-100%

$0

-100%

Total: Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies with Supplemental Emergency Appropriations

$36,589,147

$28,338,610

-22.5%

$35,308,238

-3.5%

$35,914,720

-1.8%

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from the House and Senate Appropriations Committees.

a. The FY2018 enacted figure and the FY2019 Senate-passed figure do not reflect appropriations for the Payments in Lieu of Taxes Program, because these appropriations were included in the general provisions of Title 1.

b. FY2018 enacted appropriations and FY2019 Senate-passed appropriations were included in the general provisions of Title I. They are shown here under Department-Wide Programs for easier comparison with FY2019 requested and House-passed appropriations, which were included under Department-Wide Programs. In addition, at the time the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 (P.L. 115-141) was enacted, full PILT funding for FY2018 was estimated to be $530.0 million, as shown in this table. However, the actual FY2018 PILT funding under the statutory formula was $553.2 million, as identified in the discussion of the PILT program in the body of this report.

c. See also Title IV.

d. This line reflects total FY2018 emergency supplemental appropriations for disaster relief appropriated in P.L. 115-72 and P.L. 115-123.

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Specialist in Natural Resources Policy ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Key Policy Staff

Area of Expertise

Name

Interior Appropriations, coordinator

[author name scrubbed]

Bureau of Indian Affairs, coordinator

[author name scrubbed]

Bureau of Indian Education

[author name scrubbed]

Bureau of Land Management

[author name scrubbed]

Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

[author name scrubbed]

[author name scrubbed]

Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement

[author name scrubbed]

[author name scrubbed]

Environmental Protection Agency

[author name scrubbed]

Fish and Wildlife Service

[author name scrubbed]

Forest Service

[author name scrubbed]

Indian Health Service

[author name scrubbed]

Land and Water Conservation Fund

[author name scrubbed]

Office of Insular Affairs

[author name scrubbed]

Office of Natural Resources Revenue

[author name scrubbed]

Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement

[author name scrubbed]

National Endowment for the Arts and National Endowment for the Humanities

[author name scrubbed]

National Park Service

[author name scrubbed]

Payments in Lieu of Taxes

[author name scrubbed]

Smithsonian Institution

[author name scrubbed]

U.S. Geological Survey

[author name scrubbed]

Wildland Fire Management

[author name scrubbed]

Footnotes

1.

Hereinafter, the annual Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies appropriations bill is sometimes referred to as the Interior bill. Many of the agencies that receive discretionary appropriations through the Interior bill also receive mandatory appropriations under various authorizing statutes. This report does not address mandatory appropriations.

2.

Regular appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies for FY2018 were included in Division G of P.L. 115-141, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018. In addition, some agencies in the Interior bill also received FY2018 emergency supplemental appropriations for disaster relief through other laws: P.L. 115-72, the Additional Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster Relief Requirements Act, 2017, and P.L. 115-123, Division B, Subdivision 1, Further Additional Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster Relief Requirements Act, 2018.

3.

The House included FY2019 appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies in Division A of H.R. 6147, as passed by the House on July 19, 2018. The Senate also included FY2019 appropriations for these agencies in Division A of H.R. 6147, as passed by the Senate on August 1, 2018. In earlier action, the Senate Appropriations Committee reported S. 3073 with FY2019 appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies.

4.

For selected relevant reports, see Congressional Research Service (CRS), "Interior & Environment Appropriations," at http://www.crs.gov/search/#/0?termsToSearch=Interior%20%26%20Environment%20Appropriations&orderBy=Date&navIds=4294930742.

5.

The exceptions are the Bureau of Reclamation and the Central Utah Project, which receive appropriations through Energy and Water Development appropriations laws. For information on FY2019 appropriations for these entities, see CRS Report R45258, Energy and Water Development: FY2019 Appropriations, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

6.

This statement is taken from the Department of the Interior (DOI) website at https://www.doi.gov/whoweare.

7.

In addition, Interior appropriations bills provide funding within two broad DOI accounts covering diverse programs. In FY2018, the Departmental Offices account funded the Office of the Secretary, Insular Affairs, Office of the Solicitor, Office of Inspector General, and Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians. The Department-Wide Programs account funded DOI Wildland Fire Management, the Central Hazardous Materials Fund, the Natural Resource Damage Assessment Fund, the Working Capital Fund, and the Office of Natural Resources Revenue.

8.

This is the acreage over which the Fish and Wildlife Service has primary jurisdiction in the United States and the territories, but the figure excludes acreage in marine national monuments over which the agency has jurisdiction.

9.

For a discussion of state and federal waters, see CRS Report RL33404, Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework, by [author name scrubbed].

10.

Hereinafter, "Indian Affairs" refers to the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Indian Education.

11.

Department of Health and Human Services, Indian Health Service (IHS), Justification of Estimates for Appropriations Committees, p. CJ-232, at https://www.ihs.gov/budgetformulation/includes/themes/responsive2017/display_objects/documents/FY2019CongressionalJustification.pdf#page=264. For additional information on the agency, see CRS Report R43330, The Indian Health Service (IHS): An Overview, by [author name scrubbed].

12.

These statistics are from the Smithsonian Institution's website at http://www.si.edu/About.

13.

For information on discretionary spending limits, see CRS Report R41965, The Budget Control Act of 2011, by [author name scrubbed], [author name scrubbed], and [author name scrubbed] and CRS Report R44874, The Budget Control Act: Frequently Asked Questions, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

14.

Congress enacted a budget cap adjustment for wildfire suppression costs, beginning in FY2020, as part of P.L. 115-141, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018.

15.

Information on the President's FY2019 request for appropriations for the Forest Service is contained in CRS In Focus IF10898, Forest Service: FY2018 Appropriations and FY2019 Request, by [author name scrubbed]. Information on the President's FY2019 request for appropriations for the Indian Health Service appropriations is contained in CRS Report R45201, Indian Health Service (IHS) FY2019 Budget Request and Funding History: A Fact Sheet, by [author name scrubbed].

16.

Information on the President's FY2019 request for appropriations for the National Park Service is contained in CRS In Focus IF10900, National Park Service: FY2019 Appropriations, by [author name scrubbed].

17.

Of the $1.28 billion, $576.5 million was included in P.L. 115-72 for wildfire suppression and management by the Forest Service and the Department of the Interior, and $698.9 million was included in P.L. 115-123 for various activities of several agencies.

18.

Neither the House nor the Senate version of the bill contained the cap adjustment for FY2019. A cap adjustment was enacted as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 (P.L. 115-141), and is scheduled to go into effect in FY2020.

19.

In these descriptions, the names of appropriations accounts and major programs generally are capitalized.

20.

For additional information on the agencies and programs discussed in this section, as well as other agencies and programs in the Interior bill, see the CRS products referenced in this report and other products on the CRS website at http://www.crs.gov/search/#/0?termsToSearch=Interior%20%26%20Environment%20Appropriations&orderBy=Date&navIds=4294930742, or contact the CRS experts identified at the end of this report.

21.

For additional information on appropriations for BLM for FY2019, see CRS In Focus IF10381, Bureau of Land Management: FY2019 Appropriations, by [author name scrubbed].

22.

The comparisons in this paragraph do not reflect EPA appropriations in Title IV of the Interior bill. Specifically, the FY2018 appropriations law included $766.0 million in Title IV (of Division G, P.L. 115-141) for EPA water infrastructure priorities and Superfund emergency response, removal, and remedial actions. (For a discussion of these monies, see CRS In Focus IF10717, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) FY2018 Appropriations: Congressional Action, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].) For these activities, Title IV of H.R. 6147 as passed by the Senate for FY2019 also included $766.0 million, and as passed by the House included $365.0 million. Title IV of the House-passed bill also included $10.0 million for EPA grants for reducing lead in drinking water.

Further, for FY2018, an additional $63.2 million in emergency supplemental appropriations was provided (in P.L. 115-123) for the Hazardous Substance Superfund ($6.2 million), the Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund ($7.0 million), and State and Tribal Assistance Grants ($50.0 million).

23.

The Administration's FY2019 request proposed a rescission totaling $220.5 million, but did not specify amounts within individual accounts. In contrast, the FY2018 enacted appropriation, and House-passed and Senate-passed bills for FY2019, included account specific rescissions of unobligated balances.

24.

Funds are allocated for "categorical" grants generally to support day-to-day implementation of environmental laws, including a range of activities such as monitoring, permitting, standard setting, training, and other pollution control and prevention activities.

25.

For information on EPA state revolving funds and other water infrastructure appropriations for FY2018, see CRS In Focus IF10883, Overview of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Water Infrastructure Programs and FY2018 Appropriations, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

26.

This program was included as Title V, Subtitle C, in the Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014 (P.L. 113-121). For additional information, see CRS Report R43315, Water Infrastructure Financing: The Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) Program, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

27.

In addition, $210.6 million in emergency supplemental appropriations for FY2018 was provided (in P.L. 115-123) for Construction.

28.

See Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Budget Justifications and Performance Information, Fiscal Year 2019, p. CESCF-2 and RF-3, at https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/uploads/fy2019_fws_budget_justification.pdf.

29.

Both the Cooperative Endangered Species Conservation Fund and the National Wildlife Refuge Fund also receive mandatory funding under current law.

30.

For additional information on appropriations for FWS for FY2019, see CRS In Focus IF10846, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: FY2019 Appropriations, by [author name scrubbed].

31.

In addition, $646.3 million in emergency supplemental appropriations for FY2018 was provided (in P.L. 115-72 and P.L. 115-123). Of the total, $184.5 million was for Wildland Fire Management, $342.0 million was for FLAME, $7.5 million was for State and Private Forestry, $20.7 million was for the National Forest System, and $91.6 million was for Capital Improvement and Maintenance.

32.

For additional information on appropriations for FS for FY2019, see CRS In Focus IF10898, Forest Service: FY2018 Appropriations and FY2019 Request, by [author name scrubbed].

33.

For additional information on appropriations for IHS for FY2019, see CRS Report CRS Report R45201, Indian Health Service (IHS) FY2019 Budget Request and Funding History: A Fact Sheet, by [author name scrubbed].

34.

These agencies are the Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Park Service, all within the Department of the Interior, and the Forest Service within the Department of Agriculture.

35.

The state grant program for outdoor recreation also receives mandatory funding under current law (the Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006, P.L. 109-432, Division C, §105).

36.

For an overview of LWCF funding, see CRS Report RL33531, Land and Water Conservation Fund: Overview, Funding History, and Issues, by [author name scrubbed].

37.

In addition, $257.6 million in emergency supplemental appropriations for FY2018 was provided (in P.L. 115-123) for Construction ($207.6 million) and the Historic Preservation Fund ($50.0 million).

38.

For additional information on appropriations for NPS for FY2019, see CRS In Focus IF10900, National Park Service: FY2019 Appropriations, by [author name scrubbed]. For historical information on NPS appropriations, see CRS Report R42757, National Park Service Appropriations: Ten-Year Trends, by [author name scrubbed].

39.

At the time the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 (P.L. 115-141) was enacted, full funding for FY2018 was estimated to be $530.0 million. Table 1 of this report shows $530.0 million for FY2018, and the corresponding percentage change under the President's request, House-passed bill, and Senate-passed bill for FY2019.

40.

For on overview of PILT, including calculation of the payment, funding history, recent legislation, and related issues, see CRS Report RL31392, PILT (Payments in Lieu of Taxes): Somewhat Simplified, by [author name scrubbed].

41.

In addition, $42.2 million in emergency supplemental appropriations for FY2018 was provided (in P.L. 115-123) for Surveys, Investigations, and Research.

42.

For additional information on appropriations for USGS for FY2019, see CRS In Focus IF10879, The U.S. Geological Survey: FY2019 Appropriations and Background, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

43.

In addition, $576.5 million in emergency supplemental appropriations was provided for FY2018 (in P.L. 115-72), consisting of $526.5 million for the FS and $50.0 million for DOI.

44.

A cap adjustment was enacted as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 (P.L. 115-141), and is scheduled to go into effect in FY2020.

45.

The FLAME accounts were established in FY2010 to cover the costs of large or complex fires and to be used when amounts provided in the FS and DOI Wildland Fire Management Accounts for suppression were exhausted. See 43 U.S.C. §1748a.

46.

For additional information on funding for wildland fire management, see CRS Report R45005, Wildfire Management Funding: Background, Issues, and FY2018 Appropriations, by [author name scrubbed] and CRS Report R44966, Wildfire Suppression Spending: Background, Issues, and Legislation in the 115th Congress, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].