Cybersecurity: Overview Reports and Links to Government, News, and Related Resources

Much is written on the topic of cybersecurity. This CRS report and those listed below direct the reader to authoritative sources that address many of the most prominent issues. Included in the reports are resources and studies from government agencies (federal, state, local, and international), think tanks, academic institutions, news organizations, and other sources. This report is intended to serve as a starting point for congressional staff assigned to cover cybersecurity issues. It includes annotated descriptions of reports, websites, or external resources: Table 1—cybersecurity overview Table 2—congressional and government resources Table 3—international organizations resources Table 4—news resources Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the sources.

Table 5—other associations and institutions resources The following CRS reports comprise a series that compiles authoritative reports and resources on these cybersecurity topics: CRS Report R44406, Cybersecurity: Education, Training, and R&D Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Rita Tehan CRS Report R44408, Cybersecurity: Cybercrime and National Security Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Rita Tehan CRS Report R44410, Cybersecurity: Critical Infrastructure Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Rita Tehan CRS Report R44417, Cybersecurity: State, Local, and International Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Rita Tehan CRS Report R44427, Cybersecurity: Federal Government Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Rita Tehan CRS Report R43317, Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents, by Rita Tehan CRS Report R43310, Cybersecurity: Data, Statistics, and Glossaries, by Rita Tehan

Cybersecurity: Overview Reports and Links to Government, News, and Related Resources

November 21, 2017 (R44405)
Jump to Main Text of Report


Much is written on the topic of cybersecurity. This CRS report and those listed below direct the reader to authoritative sources that address many of the most prominent issues. Included in the reports are resources and studies from government agencies (federal, state, local, and international), think tanks, academic institutions, news organizations, and other sources.

This report is intended to serve as a starting point for congressional staff assigned to cover cybersecurity issues. It includes annotated descriptions of reports, websites, or external resources:

The following CRS reports comprise a series that compiles authoritative reports and resources on these cybersecurity topics:

Cybersecurity: Overview Reports and Links to Government, News, and Related Resources


Much is written on this topic, and this CRS report directs the reader to authoritative sources that address many of the most prominent issues. The annotated descriptions of these sources are listed in reverse chronological order, with an emphasis on material published in the past several years. This report includes resources and studies from government agencies (federal, state, local, and international), think tanks, academic institutions, news organizations, and other sources:

Table 1. Cybersecurity Overview

(reports offer an overview of single or multiple cybersecurity issues)





Cybersecurity Collection

The National Academies Press

Continuously Updated

The prevention of cyberattacks on a nation's important computer and communications system and networks is a problem that looms large. To best prevent such attacks, this collection explains the importance of increasing the usability of security technologies, recommends strategies for future research aimed at countering cyberattacks, and considers how information technology systems can be used to not only maximize protection against attacks but also respond to threats.

Cyber Leadership

Pell Center for International Relations and Public Policy

Continuously Updated

"Leadership in a Cyber Age" is an initiative intended to help prepare America's institutional leaders for the complexities of operating in an era of cyber threat. Ongoing research seeks to identify and investigate key issues in leadership development across society and to recommend improvements so that the United States, as a society, is prepared for the threats of the modern world.

Cyber Policy

Homeland Security Digital Library

Continuously Updated

A database of reports and documents grouped by audits and investigations, CRS reports, DOD reports, executive branch, hearings, international perspective, research and analysis, theses, and websites.

Cyber Security Policy and Research Institute (CSPRI)

George Washington University

Continuously Updated

CSPRI is a center for George Washington University and the Washington area to promote technical research and policy analysis of issues that have a significant computer security and information assurance component. CSPRI is the home for a major information assurance and cybersecurity scholarship programs funded by the Department of Homeland Security and the National Science Foundation.

The Cyber Vault

National Security Archive

Continuously Updated

The Cyber Library contains all primary-source materials gathered by the project across the full range of cybersecurity issues. New materials will be added on a regular basis. All materials will be fully searchable and permanently stored on the project site. The project aims to enhance the National Security Archive's mission to broaden public understanding of the nature, history, and conduct of U.S. foreign and national security policy.

Software Update as a Mechanism for Resilience and Security: Proceedings of a Workshop

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), National Academy of Sciences

October 2017

Software update is an important mechanism by which security changes and improvements are made in software, and this seemingly simple concept encompasses a wide variety of practices, mechanisms, policies, and technologies. To explore the landscape further, the Forum on Cyber Resilience hosted a workshop featuring invited speakers from government, the private sector, and academia. The publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop. (96 pages)

Foundational Cybersecurity Research: Improving Science, Engineering, and Institutions

National Academies Press

July 2017

The report focuses on foundational research strategies for organizing people, technologies, and governance. These strategies seek to ensure the sustained support needed to create an agile, effective research community, with collaborative links across disciplines and between research and practice. The report is primarily aimed at the cybersecurity research community, but takes a broad view that efforts to improve foundational cybersecurity research will need to include many disciplines working together to achieve common goals. (92 pages)

Keeping America Safe: Toward More Secure Networks for Critical Sectors: Report on a Series of MIT Workshops, 2015-2016, With Recommendations for the New Administration

MIT Center for International Studies

March 28, 2017

The report identifies eight strategic challenges to illuminate the critical infrastructure predicament and guide policy and research. The recommendations cover a wide range of issues, from the organization of cybersecurity in the President's executive office to technical measures of network security and misaligned regulatory incentives. Each of the challenges is then followed by a series of research questions whose answers could help meet that challenge. (49 pages)

From Awareness to Action: A Cybersecurity Agenda for the 45th President


January 7, 2017

The Task Force recommendations would strengthen federal organization, focus private-sector leadership on data security, create consequences for attackers, and incentivize domestic actors to improve cybersecurity. (34 pages)

Cybersecurity Policy Ideas for a New Presidency

UC Berkeley Center for Long-Term Cybersecurity (CLTC)

November 18, 2016

The report outlines recommendations for a cybersecurity agenda for the first 10, 100, and 1000 days of the next Administration.

A Framework for Programming and Budgeting for Cybersecurity

RAND Corporation

April 2016

When defending an organization against cyberattacks, cybersecurity professionals are faced with the dilemma of selecting from a large set of cybersecurity defensive measures while operating with a limited set of resources with which to employ the measures. Engaging in this selection process is not easy and can be overwhelming. Furthermore, the challenge is exacerbated because many cybersecurity strategies are presented as itemized lists, with few hints at how to position a given action within the space of alternative actions. The report aims to address these difficulties by explaining the menu of actions for defending an organization against cyberattacks and recommending an approach for organizing the range of actions and evaluating cybersecurity defensive activities. (74 pages)

Internet Fragmentation: An Overview

World Economic Forum

January 23, 2016

The document contributes to the emergence of a common baseline understanding of Internet fragmentation. It maps the landscape of some of the key trends and practices that have been variously described as constituting Internet fragmentation and highlights 28 examples. A distinction is made between cases of technical, governmental, and commercial fragmentation. The technical cases generally can be said to involve fragmentation of the Internet, or its underlying physical and logical infrastructures. The governmental and commercial cases often more directly involve fragmentation on the Internet, or the transactions and cyberspace it conveys, although they also can involve the infrastructure as well. The examples cited placed in these three conjoined baskets provide a holistic overview of their nature and scope and allows for more readily engagement in the sort of dialogue and cooperation that is needed. (80 pages)

The Defender's Dilemma: Charting a Course Toward Cybersecurity

RAND Corp.

December 2015

The report, the second in a multiphase study on the future of cybersecurity, reveals perspectives and perceptions from chief information security officers; examines the development of network defense measures—and the countermeasures that attackers create to subvert those measures; and explores the role of software vulnerabilities and inherent weaknesses. Among the report's findings were that cybersecurity experts are at least as focused on preserving their organizations' reputations as protecting actual property. Researchers also found that organizational size and software quality play significant roles in the strategies that defenders may adopt. (162 pages)

Cybersecurity Dilemmas: Technology, Policy, and Incentives: Summary of Discussions at the 2014 Raymond and Beverly Sackler U.S.-U.K. Scientific Forum

National Academy of Sciences (NAS)

October 2015

The forum examined a broad range of topics, including cybersecurity and international relations, privacy, rational cybersecurity, and accelerating progress in cybersecurity. The report summarizes the presentations and discussions from this forum. (32 pages)

Cyber Benefits and Risks: Quantitatively Understanding and Forecasting the Balance

Pardee Center for International Futures

August 28, 2015

The report analyzes the current economic impact of information communication technology (ICT) and examines potential futures through 2030. The research also considers the costs of adverse cyber events and the costs of efforts to prevent such events. (135 pages)

Net of Insecurity: A Disaster ForetoldAnd Ignored (Part 3)

Washington Post

June 22, 2015

The May 19, 1998 testimony (before the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee) "from L0pht, as the hacker group called itself, was among the most audacious of a rising chorus of warnings delivered in the 1990s as the Internet was exploding in popularity, well on its way to becoming a potent global force for communication, commerce and criminality...."

Net of Insecurity: The Long Life of a Quick Fix (Part 2)

Washington Post

May 31, 2015

"A key protocol created as a short-term solution in 1989 is designed to automatically trust users, a flaw that leaves the network ripe for attack."

Net of Insecurity: A Flaw in the Design (Part 1)

Washington Post

May 30, 2015

"Even as scientists spent years developing the Internet, few imagined how popular and essential it would become. Fewer still imagined that eventually it would be available for almost anybody to use, or to misuse."

Cyber Threat Information Sharing: Recommendations for Congress and the Administration

Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)

March 10, 2015

The success of the President's executive order promoting cyberthreat information sharing depends on legislation passing Congress. The report recommends that legislation should not be one-size-fits-all; have a minimal role for government; build on existing information sharing; streamline mechanisms to share information; add value for all parties participating; protect information shared from FOIA requests, litigation, or regulatory enforcement; and protect organizations from civil and criminal liability for monitoring and sharing on cyberthreats if done in good faith. (18 pages)

The Emergence of Cybersecurity Law

Indiana University Maurer School of Law

February 2015

The paper examines cyberlaw as a growing field of legal practice and the roles that lawyers play in helping companies respond to cybersecurity threats. Drawing on interviews with lawyers, consultants, and academics knowledgeable in the intersection of law and cybersecurity, as well as a survey of lawyers working in general counsel's offices, the study examines the broader context of cybersecurity, the current legal framework for data security and related issues, and the ways in which lawyers learn about and involve themselves in cybersecurity issues. (31 pages)

OMG Cyber! Thirteen Reasons Why Hype Makes for Bad Policy

The RUSI Journal

November 4, 2014

The article argues that cyber is "hyped out." Overstating the threat does have benefits (for some); it also comes with significant costs. The benefits are short-lived and easy to spot, whereas the costs are long-term and harder to understand—and they are piling up fast and high. Indeed, the costs are so high that the debate inches toward a turning point for all parties involved. The authors list 13 reasons why cybersecurity hype is counterproductive. (8 pages)

Power Relationships in the United States Federal Government and its Effect on Cybersecurity Policy

Journal of Information System Security

October 2014

The paper explores the power relationships that affected the decisions made by the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. It also describes how these power relationships changed as a result of the emerging reality of cyber security. (18 pages)

Ten Strategies of a World-Class Cybersecurity Operations Center

MITRE Corporation

October 2014

Reportedly, all too often, cybersecurity operations centers (CSOCs) are set up and operate with a focus on technology without adequately addressing people and process issues. The main premise of this book is that a more balanced approach would be more effective. The book describes the 10 strategies of effective CSOCs—regardless of their size, offered capabilities, or type of constituency served cost. (346 pages)

Policies for Enhancing U.S. Leadership in Cyberspace

National Science Foundation (NSF)

August 20, 2014

The project focuses on three areas in which U.S. policy could provide additional leadership in cyberspace—publication of zero-day exploits; labeling of neutral infrastructure, such as networks associated with hospitals or religious sites, and shared norms to protect neutral cyberspaces; and sustainment of Internet interoperability, which allows Internet users on different networks to communicate directly without interference. The findings may benefit national security by giving policymakers a way of assessing the costs and benefits of publishing exploits or patches.

Surviving on a Diet of Poisoned Fruit: Reducing the National Security Risks of America's Cyber Dependencies

Center for New American Security

July 2014

For key systems, the paper recommends sacrificing some Internet benefits to ensure security. "Methods for pursuing this strategy include stripping down systems so they do less but have fewer vulnerabilities, and integrating humans and other out-of-band (i.e., non-cyber) factors so the nation is not solely dependent on digital systems," as well as "making investments for graceful degradation." (64 pages)

At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy: Some Basic Concepts and Issues

National Academies Press

May 13, 2014

The report is a call for action to make cybersecurity a public safety priority. For a number of years, the cybersecurity issue has received increasing public attention; however, most policy focus has been on the short-term costs of improving systems. In its explanation of the fundamentals of cybersecurity and the discussion of potential policy responses, the book may be a resource for policymakers, cybersecurity and IT professionals, and anyone who wants to understand threats to cyberspace. (102 pages)

Immediate Opportunities for Strengthening the Nation's Cybersecurity

President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)

November 2013

The report recommends the government phase out insecure, outdated operating systems, such as Windows XP, implement better encryption technology, and encourage automatic security updates, among other changes. PCAST also recommends, for regulated industries, that the government help create cybersecurity best practices and audit the adoption of these practices. For independent agencies, the report suggests that PCAST should write new rules that require businesses to report their cyber improvements. (31 pages)

Defending an Open, Global, Secure, and Resilient Internet

Council on Foreign Relations

June 2013

The task force recommends that the United States develop a digital policy framework based on four pillars, the last of which is that U.S.-based industry work rapidly to establish an industry-led approach to counter current and future cyberattacks. (127 pages)

Measuring What Matters: Reducing Risk by Rethinking How We Evaluate Cybersecurity, in coordination with the National Academy of Public Administration

March 2013

The report recommends that rather than periodically auditing whether an agency's systems meet the standards enumerated in the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA; P.L. 107-296 (Title X), and P.L. 107-347 (Title III)) at a static moment in time, agencies and their inspectors general should keep running scorecards of "cyber risk indicators" based on continual inspector general assessments of a federal organization's cyber vulnerabilities. (39 pages)

SEI [Software Engineering Institute] Emerging Technology Center: Cyber Intelligence Tradecraft Project

Carnegie Mellon University

January 2013

The report addresses the endemic problem of functional cyber intelligence analysts not effectively communicating with nontechnical audiences. It also notes organizations' reluctance to share information within their own entities, industries, and across economic sectors. (23 pages)

The National Cyber Security Framework Manual

NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Center of Excellence

December 11, 2012

The report provides detailed background information and in-depth theoretical frameworks to help the reader understand the various facets of national cybersecurity, according to different levels of public policy formulation. The four levels of government—political, strategic, operational, and tactical/technical—each have their own perspectives on national cybersecurity, and each is addressed in individual sections within the manual. (253 pages)

20 Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defense


November 2012

The top 20 security controls from a public-private consortium. Members of the consortium include the National Security Agency (NSA), U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team, Department of Defense (DOD) Joint Task Force-Global Network Operations, Department of Energy Nuclear Laboratories, Department of State, and DOD Cyber Crime Center plus commercial forensics experts in the banking and critical infrastructure communities. (89 pages)

Mission Critical: A Public-Private Strategy for Effective Cybersecurity

Business Roundtable

October 11, 2011

The report suggests that "[p]ublic policy solutions must recognize the absolute importance of leveraging policy foundations that support effective global risk management, in contrast to 'check-the-box' compliance approaches that can undermine security and cooperation." The document concludes with specific policy proposals and activity commitments. (28 pages)

A Review of Frequently Used Cyber Analogies

National Security Cyberspace Institute

July 22, 2011

"The current cybersecurity crisis can be described several ways with numerous metaphors. Many compare the current crisis with the lawlessness to that of the Wild West and the outdated tactics and race to security with the Cold War. When treated as a distressed ecosystem, the work of both national and international agencies to eradicate many infectious diseases serves as a model as how poor health can be corrected with proper resources and execution. Before these issues are discussed, what cyberspace actually is must be identified." (7 pages)

America's Cyber Future: Security and Prosperity in the Information Age

Center for a New American Security

May 31, 2011

To help U.S. policymakers address the growing danger of cyber insecurity, the two-volume report features chapters on cybersecurity strategy, policy, and technology by some of the world's leading experts on international relations, national security, and information technology. (296 pages)

Resilience of the Internet Interconnection Ecosystem

European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA)

April 11, 2011

The study consists of several parts. Part I provides a summary and recommendations. Part II (State of the Art Review) offers a detailed description of the Internet's routing mechanisms and an analysis of their robustness at the technical, economic, and policy levels. Part III (Report on the Consultation) reports and summarizes the results of consultation with a broad range of stakeholders. Part IV includes the bibliography and appendices. (238 pages)

Cybersecurity Two Years Later


January 2011

The Commission on Cybersecurity for the 44th Presidency's reviews what progress has been made and what still need to be done, stemming from its 2008 report citing 25 recommendations for change. (22 pages)

Toward Better Usability, Security, and Privacy of Information Technology: Report of a Workshop

National Research Council (NRC)

September 21, 2010

The report discusses computer system security and privacy, their relationship to usability, and research at their intersection. It is drawn from remarks made at the NRC's July 2009 Workshop on Usability, Security and Privacy of Computer Systems as well as reports from the NRC's Computer Science and Telecommunications Board on security and privacy. (70 pages)

National Security Threats in Cyberspace

Joint Workshop of the National Security Threats in Cyberspace and the National Strategy Forum

September 15, 2009

The two-day workshop brought together more than two dozen experts with diverse backgrounds, including physicists; telecommunications executives; Silicon Valley entrepreneurs; federal law enforcement, military, homeland security, and intelligence officials; congressional staffers; and civil liberties advocates. Participants engaged in an open-ended discussion of cyber policy as it relates to national security. (37 pages)

Sources: Highlights compiled by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) from the sources.

Notes: Page counts are given for documents; other cited resources are web pages.

Table 2. Congressional and Government Agencies Resources




Computer Security Resource Center

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Links to NIST resources, publications, and computer security groups.

Congressional Cybersecurity Caucus

Congressional Cybersecurity Caucus

House Cybersecurity Caucus, led by Representatives Jim Langevin and Mike McCaul. Provides statistics, news on congressional cyberspace actions and links to other information websites.

Cyber Domain Security and Operations

Department of Defense (DOD)

Links to press releases, fact sheets, speeches, announcements, and videos.

Cyber Strategy


The purpose of this strategy is to guide the development of DOD's cyber forces and strengthen its cyber defense and cyber deterrence posture. It focuses on building cyber capabilities and organizations for DOD's three primary cyber missions.

Congressional Cybersecurity Caucus

Congressional Cybersecurity Caucus

Provides statistics, news on congressional cyberspace actions, and links to other information websites. The caucus is led by Representatives Jim Langevin and Mike McCaul.


White House National Security Council

Links to White House policy statements, key documents, videos, and blog posts.


National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) of U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC)

DOC's Internet Policy Task Force is conducting a comprehensive review of the nexus between cybersecurity challenges in the commercial sector and innovation in the Internet economy.

Cybersecurity and Information Systems

National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Trustworthiness Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

A list of independent and informed reports on cybersecurity and public policy.

Cyberspace Policy Review

White House

Document repository (news, federal, trade association, think tank reports, congressional hearings, etc.) posted to

Getting Started for State, Local, Tribal, and Territorial (SLTT) Governments

United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (U.S. CERT)

The resources are available to state, local, tribal, and territorial governments. These resources have been aligned to the five Cybersecurity Framework function areas. The page will be updated as additional resources—from DHS, other federal agencies, and the private sector—are identified.

Integrated Intelligence Center (IIC)

Center for Internet Security

Serves as a resource for state, local, tribal, and territorial government partners to engage in a collaborative information sharing and analysis environment on cybersecurity issues. Through this initiative, the IIC provides fusion centers, homeland security advisors, and law enforcement entities with access to a broad range of cybersecurity products, reflecting input from many sources.

Office of Cybersecurity and Communications

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

CS&C is responsible for enhancing the security, resilience, and reliability of the nation's cyber and communications infrastructure. CS&C leads efforts to protect the federal ".gov" domain of civilian government networks and to collaborate with the private sector ".com" domain to increase the security of critical networks. In addition, the National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) serves as a 24/7 cyber monitoring, incident response, and management center and as a national point of cyber and communications incident integration.

President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC)


NSTAC's goal is to develop recommendations to the President to assure vital telecommunications links through any event or crisis and to help the U.S. government maintain a reliable, secure, and resilient national communications posture.

Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports.

Table 3. International Organizations Resources

(international governments, associations, and think tanks)




Center for Internet Security (Australia)

Australian Communications and Media Authority

The Australian Internet Security Initiative (AISI) is an anti-botnet initiative that collects data on botnets in collaboration with Internet service providers and two industry codes of practice.


Council of Europe

Links to the Convention on Cybercrime treaty, standards, news, and related information.

Cybersecurity Gateway

International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

ITU's Cybersecurity Gateway aims to be a collaborative platform, providing and sharing information between partners in civil society, private sector, governmental, and international organizations working in different areas of cybersecurity.

Cybercrime Legislation - Country Profiles

Council of Europe

These profiles have been prepared within the framework of the Council of Europe's Project on Cybercrime in view of sharing information on cybercrime legislation and assessing the current state of implementation of the Convention on Cybercrime under national legislation.

ENISA: Securing Europe's Information Society

European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA)

ENISA informs businesses and citizens in the European Union about cybersecurity threats, vulnerabilities, and attacks. (Requires free registration to access.)

International Cyber Security Protection Alliance (ICSPA)


A global nonprofit organization that aims to channel funding, expertise, and assistance directly to law enforcement cybercrime units around the world.

NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCD COE) (Tallinn, Estonia)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

The center is an international effort that currently includes Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Spain as sponsoring nations to enhance NATO's cyberdefense capability.

NCI Agency Cyber Security


The NCI Agency Cyber Security Service Line is responsible for the full lifecycle of NATO Cyber Security activities, designing, implementing and operating: Scientific and technical expertise, Supporting Acquisition, Maintenance and Sustainment, and Conducting Operations and Incident Management.

Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports.

Table 4. News Publications Resources

(articles from news organizations)

Publication Name



Best Cybersecurity Twitter Accounts

Computer Business Review

Computer Business Review (CBR) has compiled a list of some of the best cybersecurity Twitter accounts.

Computer Security (Cybersecurity)

New York Times

News about computer security (cybersecurity), including commentary and archival articles.


The latest developments in protecting critical networks and digital information.

Cybersecurity Review

Delta Business Media

The Cyber Security Review is a publication designed to draw on the combined knowledge, skills, and expertise of the cyber security community to identify the emerging threats and facilitate the development of coherent policies and robust capabilities. The Cyber Security Review mission is to promote dialogue and provide a platform for information exchange and cooperation between stakeholders, industry, academia, and security experts worldwide.

Cyberwarfare and Cybersecurity

Benton Foundation

Information on the use of computers and the Internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace.

Homeland Security

Congressional Quarterly (CQ)

News and analysis centered on homeland security issues, both within CQ on Defense and among the CQ's broader coverage of policy and legislation.


The Hill

Cybersecurity news stories, video and regulations.


Homeland Security News Wire

Analysis and coverage of cybersecurity news.

Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the sources.

Table 5. Other Associations and Institutions Resources

(academic institutions, think tanks, trade associations, and other nongovernmental sources)



Carnegie Cyber Policy Initiative

Focuses on addressing international cyber policy challenges, as cyberspace is increasingly central to international security and diplomacy. The Initiative develops and promotes norms and policy recommendations for enhancing international stability and security in cyberspace.

Center for Long-Term Cybersecurity

CLTC was established in 2015 as a research and collaboration hub at the University of California, Berkeley School of Information. The center will create an effective dialogue among industry, academia, policy, and practitioners, with an aim to foster research programs, technologies, and recommendations. CLTC's work is founded on a future-oriented conceptualization of cybersecurity—what it could imply and mean for human beings, machines, and the societies that will depend on both.

Council on Cybersecurity

The council, based in the Washington, DC, area, is the successor organization to the National Board of Information Security Examiners (NBISE), founded in the United States in 2010 to identify and strengthen the skills needed to improve the performance of the cybersecurity workforce. The council will also be home to the U.S. Cyber Challenge, formerly a program of NBISE, which works with the cybersecurity community to bring accessible, compelling programs that motivate students and professionals to pursue education, development, and career opportunities in cybersecurity.

Cyber Aces Foundation

According to the Foundation, it offers challenging and realistic cybersecurity competitions, training camps, and educational initiatives through which high school and college students and young professionals develop the practical skills needed to excel as cybersecurity practitioners.

Cybersecurity from the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)

Links to experts, programs, publications, and multimedia. CSIS is a bipartisan, nonprofit organization whose affiliated scholars conduct research and analysis and develop policy initiatives that look to the future and anticipate change.

Cybersecurity Initiative

In partnership with the Hewlett Foundation, the Cybersecurity Initiative will build (1) a network of Cyber Fellows to write and contribute new thinking to the policy debate, (2) an International Cyber Network to write and comment on cybersecurity issues from a range of vantage points, and (3) a series of media partnerships to connect the above networks into and push forward wider public discourse. These include New America's relationship with Slate Magazine and its Future Tense blog, a cybersecurity focused podcast co-hosted with Christian Science Monitor, its "Future of War" programming with Defense One/The Atlantic.

Cyber Corps: Scholarship For Service (SFS)

SFS is designed to increase and strengthen the cadre of federal information assurance professionals that protect the government's critical information infrastructure. The program provides scholarships that fully fund the typical costs that students pay for books, tuition, and room and board while attending an approved institution of higher learning.

Cyber Policy

A featured collection of the Homeland Security Digital Library. Groups resources by audits and investigations, CRS reports, DOD reports, executive branch, hearings, international perspective, research and analysis, theses, and websites.

Cyber Security & Privacy Research Institute (GWU)

The Cyber Security Policy and Research Institute (CSPRI) is a center for George Washington University and the Washington area to promote technical research and policy analysis of issues that have a significant computer security and information assurance component. CSPRI is the home for major information assurance and cybersecurity scholarship programs funded by the Department of Homeland Security and the National Science Foundation.

Digital and Cyberspace Policy Program, Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)

CFR experts investigate the impact of information and communication technologies on security, privacy, and international affairs.

Institute for Critical Infrastructure Technology

ICIT is a tactical, bipartisan forum of federal agency executives, legislative community members, and industry leaders focused on solution-based strategies to our nation's critical infrastructure obstacles‏. These publications are distributed to House and Senate Members, federal agencies, DHS-sector coordinating councils, and critical infrastructure leaders.

Institute for Information Infrastructure Protection (I3P)

I3P is a consortium of leading universities, national laboratories, and nonprofit institutions. It assembles multidisciplinary and multi-institutional research teams able to bring in-depth analysis to complex and pressing problems. Research outcomes are shared at I3P-sponsored workshops, professional conferences, and in peer-reviewed journals, as well as via technology transfer to end-users.

Integrated Intelligence Center (IIC)

IIC is a unit at the Center for Internet Security that serves as a resource to facilitate collaboration across multiple levels of government (federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial), relevant domains (both cyber and physical), and key disciplines (law enforcement, military, policy, and technical) to improve the responsiveness and efficiency of anticipating and responding to cyber events. The IIC includes the CIS 24/7/365 security operations center, incident response team, forensics lab, intelligence analysts, and key partners to identify patterns that may not have been detected without this collaborative environment.

Internet Security Alliance (ISA)

ISA is a nonprofit collaboration between the Electronic Industries Alliance, a federation of trade associations, and Carnegie Mellon University's CyLab.

Maryland Cybersecurity Center (University of Maryland)

MC2 is partnering with government and industry to provide educational programs to prepare the future cybersecurity workforce, and develop new, innovative technologies to defend against cybersecurity attacks.

National Association of State Chief Information Officers (NASCIO)

NASCIO provides state chief information officers (CIOs) and state members with products and services designed to support the challenging role of the state CIO, stimulate the exchange of information, and promote the adoption of IT best practices and innovations. The resource guide provides examples of state awareness programs and initiatives.

National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE)

NICE's goal is to establish an operational, sustainable, and continually improving cybersecurity education program for the nation to use sound cyber practices that will enhance the nation's security. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is leading the NICE initiative, including more than 20 federal departments and agencies, to try to ensure coordination, cooperation, focus, public engagement, technology transfer, and sustainability.

National Security Cyberspace Institute (NSCI)

NSCI provides education, research, and analysis services to government, industry, and academic clients aiming to increase cyberspace awareness, interest, knowledge, and capabilities.

Securing the Human

Dozens of tools, videos, and articles related to security awareness from the SANS Institute.

Security Studies: Cybersecurity

Research LibGuide, created by the Georgia Institute of Technology Library, is a guide to resources in international security, military, defense, and intelligence studies.

U.S. Cyber Challenge (USCC)

USCC's goal is to find 10,000 of America's best and brightest people to fill the ranks of cybersecurity professionals where their skills can be of the greatest value to the nation.

U.S. Cyber Consequences Unit

U.S.-CCU, a nonprofit 501c(3) research institute, provides assessments of the strategic and economic consequences of possible cyberattacks and cyber-assisted physical attacks. It also investigates the likelihood of such attacks and examines the cost-effectiveness of possible counter-measures.

Source: Highlights compiled by CRS from the reports of related associations and institutions.

Author Contact Information

Rita Tehan, Information Research Specialist ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])


See CRS Report R42619, Cybersecurity: CRS Experts, by Eric A. Fischer, for the names and contact information of CRS experts on policy issues related to cybersecurity.