Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Cybersecurity vulnerabilities challenge governments, businesses, and individuals worldwide. Attacks have been initiated against individuals, corporations, and countries. Targets have included government networks, companies, and political organizations, depending upon whether the attacker was seeking military intelligence, conducting diplomatic or industrial espionage, engaging in cybercrime, or intimidating political activists. In addition, national borders mean little or nothing to cyberattackers, and attributing an attack to a specific location can be difficult, which may make responding problematic.

Despite many recommendations made over the past decade, most major legislative provisions relating to cybersecurity were enacted prior to 2002. However, on December 18, 2014, five cybersecurity bills were signed by the President. These bills from the 113th Congress changed federal cybersecurity programs in a number of ways:

codifying the role of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in developing a “voluntary, industry-led set of standards” to reduce cyber risk;

codifying the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center as a hub for interactions with the private sector;

updating the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) by requiring the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to “eliminate ... inefficient and wasteful reports”; and

requiring DHS to develop a “comprehensive workforce strategy” within a year and giving DHS new authorities for cybersecurity hiring.

In the 114th Congress, the House passed eight cyber-related bills:

H.R. 1073, Critical Infrastructure Protection Act.

H.R. 1560, Protecting Cyber Networks Act.

H.R. 1731, National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act of 2015.

H.R. 3490, Strengthening State and Local Cyber Crime Fighting Act.

H.R. 3510, Department of Homeland Security Cybersecurity Strategy Act of 2015.

H.R. 3869, State and Local Cyber Protection Act of 2015.

H.R. 3878, Strengthening Cybersecurity Information Sharing and Coordination in Our Ports Act of 2015.

H.R. 4743, National Cybersecurity Preparedness Consortium Act of 2016.

The Senate passed one cyber-related bill in the 114th Congress:

S. 754, Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015.

In addition to congressional passage of these cyber-specific bills, on December 18, 2015, H.R. 2029, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, was signed into public law (P.L. 114-113). The omnibus law’s cybersecurity provisions are located in Division N (Cybersecurity Act of 2015), including Title I, Cybersecurity Information Sharing; Title II, National Cybersecurity Advancement; Title III, Federal Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment; and Title IV, Other Cyber Matters. The measure represents a compromise between the House and Senate intelligence committees and the House Homeland Security Committee. It includes various components of three separate information sharing bills: H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731, passed by the House in April 2015, and S. 754, passed by the Senate in October 2015. The bill encourages private companies to voluntarily share information about cyber threats with each other as well as the government. Firms that participate in the information sharing will receive liability protection.

In the 115th Congress, 27 bills have received committee consideration or passed one or both chambers.

This report links to cybersecurity legislation and hearings in the 113th, 114th, and 115th Congresses. In addition it provides a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to information and computer security from 1990-present.

Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

May 24, 2018 (R43317)
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Contents

Tables

Summary

Cybersecurity vulnerabilities challenge governments, businesses, and individuals worldwide. Attacks have been initiated against individuals, corporations, and countries. Targets have included government networks, companies, and political organizations, depending upon whether the attacker was seeking military intelligence, conducting diplomatic or industrial espionage, engaging in cybercrime, or intimidating political activists. In addition, national borders mean little or nothing to cyberattackers, and attributing an attack to a specific location can be difficult, which may make responding problematic.

Despite many recommendations made over the past decade, most major legislative provisions relating to cybersecurity were enacted prior to 2002. However, on December 18, 2014, five cybersecurity bills were signed by the President. These bills from the 113th Congress changed federal cybersecurity programs in a number of ways:

  • codifying the role of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in developing a "voluntary, industry-led set of standards" to reduce cyber risk;
  • codifying the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS's) National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center as a hub for interactions with the private sector;
  • updating the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) by requiring the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to "eliminate ... inefficient and wasteful reports"; and
  • requiring DHS to develop a "comprehensive workforce strategy" within a year and giving DHS new authorities for cybersecurity hiring.

In the 114th Congress, the House passed eight cyber-related bills:

  • H.R. 1073, Critical Infrastructure Protection Act.
  • H.R. 1560, Protecting Cyber Networks Act.
  • H.R. 1731, National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act of 2015.
  • H.R. 3490, Strengthening State and Local Cyber Crime Fighting Act.
  • H.R. 3510, Department of Homeland Security Cybersecurity Strategy Act of 2015.
  • H.R. 3869, State and Local Cyber Protection Act of 2015.
  • H.R. 3878, Strengthening Cybersecurity Information Sharing and Coordination in Our Ports Act of 2015.
  • H.R. 4743, National Cybersecurity Preparedness Consortium Act of 2016.

The Senate passed one cyber-related bill in the 114th Congress:

  • S. 754, Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015.

In addition to congressional passage of these cyber-specific bills, on December 18, 2015, H.R. 2029, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, was signed into public law (P.L. 114-113). The omnibus law's cybersecurity provisions are located in Division N (Cybersecurity Act of 2015), including Title I, Cybersecurity Information Sharing; Title II, National Cybersecurity Advancement; Title III, Federal Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment; and Title IV, Other Cyber Matters. The measure represents a compromise between the House and Senate intelligence committees and the House Homeland Security Committee. It includes various components of three separate information sharing bills: H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731, passed by the House in April 2015, and S. 754, passed by the Senate in October 2015. The bill encourages private companies to voluntarily share information about cyber threats with each other as well as the government. Firms that participate in the information sharing will receive liability protection.

In the 115th Congress, 27 bills have received committee consideration or passed one or both chambers.

This report links to cybersecurity legislation and hearings in the 113th, 114th, and 115th Congresses. In addition it provides a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to information and computer security from 1990-present.


Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Summary of Legislation and Executive Branch Action

Most major legislative provisions relating to cybersecurity were enacted prior to 2002, despite many recommendations made over the past decade. This report covers legislation from 2013-present.

112th Congress: Summary of Legislative Action

In the 112th Congress, the White House sent a comprehensive, seven-part legislative proposal (White House Proposal) to Congress on May 12, 2011.1 Some elements of that proposal were included in both House and Senate bills. The House passed a series of bills that addressed a variety of issues—from toughening law enforcement of cybercrimes to giving the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) oversight of federal information technology and critical infrastructure security to lessening liability for private companies that adopt cybersecurity best practices. The Senate pursued a comprehensive cybersecurity bill (S. 3414) with several committees working to create a single vehicle for passage, backed by the White House, but the bill failed to overcome two cloture votes and did not pass.

113th Congress: Summary of Legislative Action

In the 113th Congress, five cybersecurity bills were signed by the President on December 18, 2014:

  • H.R. 2952, the Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment Act, which requires the DHS to develop a cyber-workforce strategy;
  • S. 1353, the Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2014, which codifies the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST's) role in cybersecurity;
  • S. 1691, the Border Patrol Agent Pay Reform Act of 2014, which gives DHS new authorities for cybersecurity hiring;
  • S. 2519, the National Cybersecurity Protection Act of 2014, which codifies DHS's cybersecurity center; and
  • S. 2521, the Federal Information Security Modernization Act of 2014, which reforms federal IT security management.

The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 became P.L. 113-66 on December 26, 2013 and included a variety of cybersecurity-related provisions related to the cybersecurity workforce and training.

114th Congress: Summary of Legislative Action and Executive Branch Actions

In February 2015, the White House issued Executive Order 13691,2 which, along with a legislative proposal, was aimed at enhancing information sharing in cybersecurity among private sector entities. It promoted the use of information sharing and analysis organizations (ISAOs), which were defined in the Homeland Security Act (6 U.S.C. §131(5)) as entities that gather, analyze, and share information on the security of critical infrastructure (CI)3 to assist in defense against and recovery from incidents. The White House initiatives would broaden the reach of ISAOs beyond CI to any affinity group. In that sense, they differ from the more familiar information sharing and analysis centers (ISACs), created in response to Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 63 in 1998 specifically to address information-sharing needs in CI sectors.

Also in February 2015, the Obama Administration established, via presidential memorandum,4 the Cyber Threat Intelligence Integration Center (CTIIC) to be established by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). Its purposes are to provide integrated analysis on foreign cybersecurity threats and incidents affecting national interests and to support relevant government entities, including the National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) at the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), as well as others at the Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Justice (DOJ).

More than 20 bills were introduced in the 114th Congress that would address several issues, including data-breach notification, incidents involving other nation-states, information sharing, law enforcement and cybercrime, protection of critical infrastructure (CI), workforce development, and education. The Obama Administration released proposals for three bills—on information sharing, data-breach notification, and revision of cybercrime laws.

On April 22, 2015, the House passed H.R. 1560, which would provide liability protection to companies that share cyber threat information with the government and other companies so long as personal information is removed before the sharing of such information. On April 23, 2015, the House passed H.R. 1731, which would encourage information sharing with the Department of Homeland Security by protecting entities from civil liabilities.

On October 27, 2015, the Senate passed S. 754, the Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015 (CISA), by a vote of 74-21 (Roll call vote 291). The House approved companion legislation in April, so the cybersecurity measure is now on track to reach President Obama's desk and be signed into law, once a conference report is negotiated. CISA attempts to open up communication channels between industry and federal agencies by offering legal immunity to companies that share data with the government. For more information on what is covered in the Senate bill, see CRS Legal Sidebar WSLG1429, Senate Passes Cybersecurity Information Sharing Bill –What's Next?, by [author name scrubbed].

On November 30, 2015, the House passed H.R. 3490, which would establish in the Department of Homeland Security a National Computer Forensics Institute to be operated by the U.S. Secret Service for the dissemination of homeland security information related to the investigation and prevention of cyber and electronic crime. On December 10, 2015, the House passed H.R. 3869, the State and Local Cyber Protection Act of 2015, which requires the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS's) national cybersecurity and communications integration center (NCCIC) to assist state and local governments with cybersecurity, and on December 16, 2015, the House passed H.R. 3878, Strengthening Cybersecurity Information Sharing and Coordination in Our Ports Act of 2015, which requires DHS to seek to enhance cybersecurity situational awareness and information sharing between and with maritime security stakeholders from federal, state, local, and tribal governments, public safety and emergency response agencies, law enforcement and security organizations, maritime industry participants, port owners and operators, and maritime terminal owners and operators.

On December 18, 2015, H.R. 2029, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, was signed into public law (P.L. 114-113). The omnibus law's cybersecurity provisions are located in Division N (Cybersecurity Act of 2015), including Title I, Cybersecurity Information Sharing; Title II, National Cybersecurity Advancement; Title III, Federal Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment; and Title IV, Other Cyber Matters. The measure represents a compromise between the House and Senate intelligence committees and the House Homeland Security Committee. It includes various components of three separate information sharing bills: H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731, passed by the House in April 2015, and S. 754, passed by the Senate in October 2015. The bill encourages private companies to voluntarily share information about cyber threats with each other as well as the government. Firms that participate in the information sharing will receive liability protection.

115th Congress: Summary of Legislative Action

Twenty-seven bills have received committee consideration or passed one or both chambers in the 115th Congress. See Table 1 and Table 2 for a list of these bills.

CRS Reports and Other CRS Products: Legislation

Legislation in the 115th, 114th, and 113th Congresses

The following tables list House and Senate bills in the 115th, 114th, and 113th Congresses. Thus far, in the 115th Congress, 27 bills have received committee consideration, or passed one or both chambers. Table 1 is a list of House bills in the 115th Congress, and Table 2 is a list of Senate bills. Table 3 and Table 4 list bills in the 114th Congress. Table 5 and Table 6 and list bills in the 113th Congress.

Table 1. 115th Congress Legislation: House

Bill No.

Title

Committee(s)

Date Introduced

Latest Major Action

Date

H.R. 239

Support for Rapid Innovation Act of 2017

Homeland Security

January 4, 2017

Passed House

January 10, 2017

H.R. 387

Email Privacy Act

Judiciary

January 9, 2017

Passed House by voice vote

February 6, 2017

H.R. 584

Cyber Preparedness Act of 2017

Homeland Security

January 17, 2017

Passed House

January 31, 2017

H.R. 589

Department of Energy Research and Innovation Act

Science, Space, and Technology

January 20, 2017

Passed House

January 24, 2017

H.R. 600

Digital GAP Act

Foreign Affairs

January 23, 2017

Passed House by voice vote

January 24, 2017

H.R. 612

United States-Israel Cybersecurity Cooperation Enhancement Act of 2017

Homeland Security

January 23, 2017

Passed House

January 31, 2017

H.R. 678

Department of Homeland Security Support to Fusion Centers Act of 2017

Homeland Security

January 24, 2017

Passed House by voice vote

January 31, 2017

H.R. 1224

NIST Cybersecurity Framework, Assessment, and Auditing Act of 2017

Science, Space, and Technology

February 27, 2017

Ordered to be reported by Yeas and Nays: 19-14

March 1, 2017

H.R. 1616

Strengthening State and Local Cyber Crime Fighting Act of 2017

Judiciary, Homeland Security

May 16, 2017

Became Public Law (P.L. 115-76)

November 2, 2017

H.R. 2105

NIST Small Business Cybersecurity Act

Science, Space and Technology

April 20, 2017

Passed House by voice vote

October 11, 2017

H.R. 2227

Modernizing Government Technology Act

Appropriations

April 28, 2017

Passed House by voice vote

May 17, 2017

H.R. 2470

Homeland Threat Assessment Act

Homeland Security

May 16, 2017

Passed House by voice vote

September 12, 2017

H.R. 2810

National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018

Armed Services

June 7, 2017

Became Public Law (P.L. 115-91)

December 12,2017

H.R. 2910

Promoting Interagency Coordination for Review of Natural Gas Pipelines Act

Energy and Commerce

June 15, 2017

Passed House. Roll call vote 402

July 19, 2017

H.R. 3050

Enhancing State Energy Security Planning and Emergency Preparedness Act of 2017

Energy and Commerce

June 23, 2017

Passed House by voice vote

July 18, 2017

H.R. 3101

Strengthening Cybersecurity Information Sharing and Coordination in Our Ports Act of 2017

House Homeland Security, Transportation and Infrastructure and Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation

June 28, 2017

Passed House by voice vote

October 24, 2017

H.R. 3180

Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018

Intelligence (Permanent Select)

July 11, 2017

Passed House. Roll call vote 437

 

H.R. 3202

Cyber Vulnerability Disclosure Reporting Act

Homeland Security

July 12, 2017

Passed House by voice vote

January 9, 2018

H.R. 3243

FITARA Enhancement Act of 2017

Oversight and Government Reform

July 14, 2017

Became Public Law (P.L. 115-88)

November 21, 2017

H.R. 3359

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency Act of 2017

Homeland Security; Energy and Commerce; Oversight and Government Reform; Transportation and Infrastructure

July 24, 2017

Passed House by voice vote

December 11, 2017

H.R. 3776

Cyber Diplomacy Act of 2017

Foreign Affairs

September 14, 2017

Passed House by voice vote

January 17, 2018

Source: Compiled by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) from Congress.gov.

Note: This list includes bills with committee action or a House vote.

Table 2. 115th Congress Legislation: Senate

Bill No.

Title

Committee(s)

Date Introduced

Latest Major Action

Date

S. 79

Securing Energy Infrastructure Act

Energy and Natural Resources

January 10, 2017

Subcommittee hearing held

March 28, 2017

S. 88

DIGIT Act

Commerce, Science, and Transportation

January 10, 2017

Passed Senate by voice vote

August 3, 2017

S. 442

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017

Passed without amendment by Unanimous Consent and sent to House

February 17, 2017

Became Public Law (P.L. 115-10)

March 21, 2017

S. 770

MAIN STREET Cybersecurity Act of 2017

Commerce, Science, and Transportation

March 29, 2017

Passed Senate

September 28, 2017

S. 782

PROTECT Our Children Act of 2017

Judiciary

March 30, 2017

Became Public Law (P.L. 115-82)

November 2, 2017

S. 1281

Hack the Department of Homeland Security Act of 2017

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

May 25, 2017

Passed Senate by voice vote

April 17, 2018

Source: Compiled by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) from Congress.gov.

Note: This list includes bills with committee action or a Senate vote.

Table 3. 114th Congress Legislation: House

Bill No.

Title

Committee(s)

Date Introduced

Latest Major Action

Date

H.R. 451

Safe and Secure Federal Websites Act of 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

January 21, 2015

Reported (amended) by the committee

January 6, 2016

H.R. 1073

Critical Infrastructure Protection Act (CIPA)

Homeland Security

February 25, 2015

Measure, as amended, passed in the House by voice vote, under suspension of the rules (two-thirds vote required)

November 16, 2015

H.R. 1560

Protecting Cyber Networks Act

Intelligence

March 24, 2015

Passed by House April 22, Roll Cal Vote 170, Received in Senate

April 22, 2015

H.R. 1731

National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act

Homeland Security

April 14, 2015

Passed House, Roll Call Vote 173

April 23, 2015

H.R. 1770

Data Security and Breach Notification Act of 2015

Energy and Commerce

April 14, 2015

Reported (Amended) by the Committee

January 3, 2017

H.R. 20295

Consolidated Appropriations Act

Appropriations

April 24, 2015

Became P.L. 114-113

December 18, 2015

H.R. 2205

Data Security Act of 2015

Energy and Commerce; Financial Services

May 1, 2015

Ordered to be Reported (Amended) by the Yeas and Nays: 46 - 9

December 9, 2015

H.R. 3490

Strengthening State and Local Cyber Crime Fighting Act

Homeland Security; Judiciary

September 11, 2015

Passed House (Amended) by voice vote

November 30, 2015

H.R. 3510

Department of Homeland Security Cybersecurity Act of 2015

Homeland Security

September 17, 2015

Passed House by voice vote

October 6, 2015

H.R. 3869

State and Local Cyber Protection Act of 2015

Homeland Security

November 2, 2015

Passed House

December 10, 2015

H.R. 3878

Strengthening Cybersecurity Information Sharing and Coordination in Our Ports Act of 2015

Homeland Security; Transportation and Infrastructure

November 2, 2015

Passed House by voice vote

December 16, 2015

H.R. 4743

National Cybersecurity Preparedness Consortium Act of 2016

House Homeland Security and Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

March 15, 2016

Passed House

May 16, 2016

H.R. 5064

Improving Small Business Cyber Security Act of 2016

Small Business; Homeland Security

April 26, 2016

Reported by Homeland Security Committee

July 1, 2016

H.R. 5459

Cyber Preparedness Act of 2016

Homeland Security

June 16, 2016

Passed House

September 26, 2016

H.R. 6032

Data Breach Insurance Act

Ways and Means

September 14, 2016

Referred to committee

 

Source: Compiled by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) from Congress.gov.

Note: This list includes bills with committee action or a House vote.

Table 4. 114th Congress Legislation: Senate

Bill No.

Title

Committee(s)

Date Introduced

Latest Major Action

Date

H.R. 20296

Consolidated Appropriations Act

Appropriations

April 24, 2015

Became P.L. 114-113

December 18, 2015

S. 135

Secure Data Act of 2015

Commerce, Science, and Transportation

January 8, 2015

Referred to committee

January 8, 2015

S. 177

Data Security and Breach Notification Act of 2015

Commerce, Science, and Transportation

January 13, 2015

Referred to committee

January 13, 2015

S. 456

Cyber Threat Sharing Act of 2015

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

February 11, 2015

Referred to committee

February 11, 2015

S. 754

Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015

Intelligence

March 17, 2015

Passed Senate 74-21, Roll Call Vote 291

October 27, 2015

S. 1027

Data Breach Notification and Punishing Cyber Criminals Acts of 2015

Commerce, Science and Transportation

April 21, 2015

Referred to committee

April 21, 2015

S. 1241

Enhanced Grid Security Act of 2015

Energy and Natural Resources

May 7, 2015

Hearings held

June 9, 2015

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Table 5. 113th Congress, Legislation: House

Bill No.

Title

Committee(s)

Date Introduced

Latest Major Action

Date

H.R. 624

Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act (CISPA)

Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

February 13, 2013

Passed House. Roll no. 117. Referred to Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

April 18, 2013

H.R. 756

Cybersecurity R&D [Research and Development]

Science, Space, and Technology 

February 15, 2013

Passed House, Roll no. 107.

April 16, 2013

H.R. 967

Advancing America's Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Act of 2013

Science, Space, and Technology

March 14, 2013

Passed House, Roll No. 108. Referred to the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee

April 17, 2013

H.R. 1163

Federal Information Security Amendments Act of 2013

Oversight and Government Reform

March 14, 2013

Passed House. Referred to Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

April 17, 2013

H.R. 2952

Critical Infrastructure Research and Development Advancement Act of 2013

Homeland Security

August 1, 2013

P.L. 113-246

December 18, 2014

H.R. 3107

Homeland Security Cybersecurity Boots-on-the-Ground Act

Homeland Security

September 17, 2013

Passed/agreed to in House, Roll No. 457

July 28, 2014

H.R. 3304

National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014

House Armed Services; Senate Armed Services

October 22, 2013

P.L. 113-66

December 26, 2013

H.R. 3635

Safe and Secure Federal Websites Act of 2014

House Oversight and Government Reform; Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

December 3, 2013

Passed House by voice vote

July 28, 2014

H.R. 3696

National Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure Protection Act

Homeland Security; Science, Space, and Technology

December 11, 2013

Passed/agreed to in House, by voice vote

July 28, 2014

H.R. 4435

National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015

Armed Services

April 9, 2014

Passed/agreed to in House, Roll no. 240

May 22, 2014

Source: Compiled by CRS from Legislative Information System (LIS).

Table 6. 113th Congress, Legislation: Senate

Bill No.

Title

Committee(s)

Date Introduced

Latest Major Action

Date

S. 1197

National Defense Authorization for Fiscal Year 2014

Armed Services

June 20, 2013

P.L. 113-66

December 26, 2013

S. 1353

Cybersecurity Act of 2013

Commerce, Science, and Transportation

July 24, 2013

P.L. 113-274

December 18, 2014

S. 1691

Border Patrol Agent Pay Reform Act of 2014

Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs; House Oversight and Government Reform; House Homeland Security

November 13, 2013

P.L. 113-277

December 18, 2014

S. 1927

Data Security Act of 2014

Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

January 15, 2014

Subcommittee on National Security and International Trade and Finance hearings held

February 3, 2014

S. 2354

DHS Cybersecurity Workforce Recruitment and Retention Act of 2014

Homeland Security and Government Affairs

May 20, 2014

With written S.Rept. 113-207

July 14, 2014

S. 2410

Carl Levin National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015

Armed Services

June 2, 2014

With written S.Rept. 113-176

June 2, 2014

S. 2519

National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center Act of 2014

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

June 24, 2014

P.L. 113-282

December 18, 2014

S. 2521

Federal Information Security Modernization Act of 2014

Homeland Security and Government Affairs

June 24, 2014

P.L. 113-283

December 18, 2014

S. 2588

Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2014

Intelligence

July 10, 2014

Reported to Senate without written report

July 10, 2014

Source: Compiled by CRS from Legislative Information System (LIS).

Hearings in the 115th Congress

The following tables list cybersecurity hearings in the 115th Congress. The tables contain identical content but are organized differently.

Table 7 lists House hearings arranged by date (most recent first), and Table 8 lists House hearings arranged by committee. Table 9 lists Senate hearings by date. Table 10 lists Senate hearings arranged by committee. When viewed in HTML, the document titles are active links to the committee's website for that particular hearing.

Table 7. 115th Congress, House Hearings by Date

Title

Date

Committee

Subcommittee

Cyber Operations Today: Preparing for 21st Century Challenges in an Information-Enabled Society

April 11, 2018

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

CDM [Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation]: Government Perspectives on Security and Modernization

March 20, 2018

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

DOE Modernization: Legislation Addressing Cybersecurity and Emergency Response

March 14, 2018

Energy and Commerce

 

DHS Efforts to Strengthen Its' Cybersecurity Workforce

March 8, 2018

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection; Oversight and Management Efficiency (Joint hearing)

Legislative Proposals to Reform the Current Data Security and Breach Notification Regulatory Regime

March 7, 2018

Financial Services

Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit

A Review and Assessment of the Department of Defense Budget, Strategy, Policy, and Programs for Cyber Operations and U.S. Cyber Command for Fiscal Year 2019

February 28, 2018

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

Beyond Bitcoin: Emerging Applications for Blockchain Technology

February 14, 2018

Science, Space and Technology

Oversight and Research and Technology

U.S. Cyber Diplomacy in an Era of Growing Threats

February 6, 2018

Foreign Affairs

 

Small Business Information Sharing: Combating Foreign Cyber Threats

January 30, 2018

Small Business

 

CDM, The Future of Federal Cybersecurity?

January 17, 2018

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

Oversight of IT and Cybersecurity at the Department of Veterans Affairs

December 7, 2017

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Implementation and Cybersecurity Protocols of the Consolidated Audit Trail

November 30, 2017

Financial Services

Capital Markets, Securities, and Investment

Cybersecurity of Voting Machines

November 29, 2017

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Maximizing the Value of Cyber Threat Information Sharing

November 15, 2017

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

Federal Government and Small Businesses: Promoting Greater Information Sharing for Stronger Cybersecurity

November 15, 2017

Small Business

 

Bolstering the Government's Cybersecurity: A Survey of Compliance with the DHS Directive

November 14, 2017

Science, Space and Technology

Oversight

Securing Consumers' Credit Data in the Age of Digital Commerce

November 1, 2017

Energy and Commerce

Digital and Consumer Protection

Data Security: Vulnerabilities and Opportunities for Improvement

November 1, 2017

Financial Services

Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit

Examining Physical Security and Cybersecurity at Our Nation's Ports (Field Hearing)

October 30, 2017

Homeland Security

 

Bolstering the Government's Cybersecurity: Assessing the Risk of Kaspersky Lab Products to the Federal Government

October 25, 2017

Science, Space and Technology

Oversight

Continuation of Hearing entitled "Examining the Equifax Data Breach"

October 25, 2017

Financial Services

 

Public-Private Solutions to Educating a Cyber Workforce

October 24, 2017

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

Examining the Equifax Data Breach

October 5, 2017

Financial Services

 

Examining DHS's Cybersecurity Mission

October 3, 2017

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

Oversight of the Equifax Data Breach: Answers for Consumers

October 3, 2017

Energy and Commerce

Digital Commerce and Consumer Protection

Cybersecurity of the Internet of Things

October 3, 2017

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Challenges of Recruiting and Retaining a Cybersecurity Workforce

September 7, 2017

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

Protecting Small Businesses from Cyber Attacks: the Cybersecurity Insurance Option

July 26, 2017

Small Business

 

Russia Investigative Task Force Hearing with Former Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson (Open)

June 21, 2017

Intelligence

 

Cybersecurity Regulation Harmonization

June 21, 2017

Homeland Security

 

Bolstering the Government's Cybersecurity: Lessons Learned from WannaCry

June 15, 2017

Science, Space and Technology

Research and Technology; Oversight (Joint hearing)

Examining the Role of the Department of Health and Human Services in Health Care Cybersecurity

June 8, 2017

Energy and Commerce

Oversight and Investigations

Fiscal Year 2018 Budget Request for U.S. Cyber Command: Cyber Mission Force Support to Department of Defense Operations

May 23, 2017

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

Reviewing the FAFSA Data Breach

May 3, 2017

Oversight and Government Reform

 

Reviewing Federal IT Workforce Challenges and Possible Solutions

April 4, 2017

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

The Current State of DHS' Efforts to Secure Federal Networks

March 28, 2017

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

A Borderless Battle: Defending Against Cyber Threats

March 22, 2017

Homeland Security

 

The Current State of DHS Private Sector Engagement for Cybersecurity

March 9, 2017

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

Coordinating Federal Cybersecurity Resources for Small Businesses

March 8, 2017

Small Business

 

Cyber Warfare in the 21st Century: Threats, Challenges and Opportunities

March 1, 2017

Armed Services

 

Strengthening U.S. Cybersecurity Capabilities

February 14, 2017

Science, Space, and Technology

Research and Technology

The Electricity Sector's Efforts to Respond to Cybersecurity Threats

February 1, 2017

Energy and Commerce

 

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Table 8. 115th Congress, House Hearings by Committee

Committee

Subcommittee

Title

Date

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

Cyber Operations Today: Preparing for 21st Century Challenges in an Information-Enabled Society

April 11, 2018

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

A Review and Assessment of the Department of Defense Budget, Strategy, Policy, and Programs for Cyber Operations and U.S. Cyber Command for Fiscal Year 2019

February 28, 2018

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

Fiscal Year 2018 Budget Request for U.S. Cyber Command: Cyber Mission Force Support to Department of Defense Operations

May 23, 2017

Armed Services

 

Cyber Warfare in the 21st Century: Threats, Challenges and Opportunities

March 1, 2017

Energy and Commerce

 

DOE Modernization: Legislation Addressing Cybersecurity and Emergency Response

March 14, 2018

Energy and Commerce

Digital and Consumer Protection

Securing Consumers' Credit Data in the Age of Digital Commerce

November 1, 2017

Energy and Commerce

Digital and Consumer Protection

Oversight of the Equifax Data Breach: Answers for Consumers

October 3, 2017

Energy and Commerce

Oversight and Investigations

Examining the Role of the Department of Health and Human Services in Health Care Cybersecurity

June 8, 2017

Energy and Commerce

 

The Electricity Sector's Efforts to Respond to Cybersecurity Threats

February 1, 2017

Financial Services

Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit

Legislative Proposals to Reform the Current Data Security and Breach Notification Regulatory Regime

March 7, 2018

Financial Services

Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit

Implementation and Cybersecurity Protocols of the Consolidated Audit Trail

November 30, 2017

Financial Services

Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit

Data Security: Vulnerabilities and Opportunities for Improvement

November 1, 2017

Financial Services

 

Continuation of Hearing entitled "Examining the Equifax Data Breach"

October 25, 2017

Financial Services

 

Examining the Equifax Data Breach

October 5, 2017

Foreign Affairs

 

U.S. Cyber Diplomacy in an Era of Growing Threats

February 6, 2018

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

DHS Efforts to Strengthen Its' Cybersecurity Workforce

March 8, 2018

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

CDM, The Future of Federal Cybersecurity?

January 17, 2018

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

Maximizing the Value of Cyber Threat Information Sharing

November 15, 2017

Homeland Security

 

Examining Physical Security and Cybersecurity at Our Nation's Ports (Field hearing)

October 30, 2017

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

Public-Private Solutions to Educating a Cyber Workforce

October 24, 2017

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

Examining DHS's Cybersecurity Mission

October 3, 2017

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

Challenges of Recruiting and Retaining a Cybersecurity Workforce

September 7, 2017

Homeland Security

 

Cybersecurity Regulation Harmonization

June 21, 2017

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

The Current State of DHS' Efforts to Secure Federal Networks

March 28, 2017

Homeland Security

 

A Borderless Battle: Defending Against Cyber Threats

March 22, 2017

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection

The Current State of DHS Private Sector Engagement for Cybersecurity

March 9, 2017

Intelligence

 

Russia Investigative Task Force Hearing with Former Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson (Open)

June 21, 2017

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

CDM [Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation]: Government Perspectives on Security and Modernization

March 20, 2018

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Oversight of IT and Cybersecurity at the Department of Veterans Affairs

December 7, 2017

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Cybersecurity of Voting Machines

November 29, 2017

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Cybersecurity of the Internet of Things

October 3, 2017

Oversight and Government Reform

 

Reviewing the FAFSA Data Breach

May 3, 2017

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Reviewing Federal IT Workforce Challenges and Possible Solutions

April 4, 2017

Science, Space, and Technology

Oversight and Research and Technology

Beyond Bitcoin: Emerging Applications for Blockchain Technology

February 14, 2018

Science, Space, and Technology

Oversight

Bolstering the Government's Cybersecurity: A Survey of Compliance with the DHS Directive

November 14, 2017

Science, Space, and Technology

Oversight

Bolstering the Government's Cybersecurity: Assessing the Risk of Kaspersky Lab Products to the Federal Government

October 25, 2017

Science, Space, and Technology

Research and Technology; Oversight (Joint hearing)

Bolstering the Government's Cybersecurity: Lessons Learned from WannaCry

June 15, 2017

Science, Space, and Technology

Research and Technology

Strengthening U.S. Cybersecurity Capabilities

February 14, 2017

Small Business

 

Small Business Information Sharing: Combating Foreign Cyber Threats

January 30, 2018

Small Business

 

Federal Government and Small Businesses: Promoting Greater Information Sharing for Stronger Cybersecurity

November 15, 2017

Small Business

 

Protecting Small Businesses from Cyber Attacks: the Cybersecurity Insurance Option

July 26, 2017

Small Business

 

Coordinating Federal Cybersecurity Resources for Small Businesses

March 8, 2017

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Table 9. 115th Congress, Senate Hearings by Date

Title

Date

Committee

Subcommittee

Preparing Small Businesses for Cybersecurity Success

April 25, 2018

Small Business and Entrepreneurship

 

Mitigating America's Cybersecurity Risk

April 24, 2018

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Election Security

March 21, 2018

Select Committee on Intelligence

 

Cyber Posture of the Services

March 13, 2018

Armed Services

 

United States Cyber Command

February 27, 2018

Armed Services

 

Department of Defense's Role in Protecting Democratic Elections

February 13, 2018

Armed Services

 

Data Security and Bug Bounty Programs: Lessons Learned from the Uber Breach and Security Researchers

February 6, 2018

Commerce, Science and Transportation

Consumer Protection, Product Safety, Insurance, and Data Security

Protecting Consumers in the Era of Major Data Breaches

November 8, 2017

Commerce, Science and Transportation

 

2020 Census: Examining Cost Overruns, Information Security, and Accuracy

October 31, 2017

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Cyber Technology and Energy Infrastructure

October 26, 2017

Energy and Natural Resources

 

Roles and Responsibilities for Defending the Nation from Cyber Attack

October 19, 2017

Armed Services

 

Consumer Data Security and the Credit Bureaus Files

October 17, 2017

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs

 

An Examination of the Equifax Cybersecurity Breach

October 4, 2017

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs

 

Equifax: Continuing to Monitor Data-Broker Cybersecurity

October 4, 2017

Judiciary

Privacy, Technology and the Law

Examining the Fintech Landscape

September 12, 2017

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs

 

Open Hearing: Russian Interference in the 2016 U.S. Elections

June 21, 2017

Select Committee on Intelligence

 

State-Sponsored Cyberspace Threats: Recent Incidents and U.S. Policy Response

June 13, 2017

Foreign Relations

East Asia, the Pacific, and International Cybersecurity

Cyber Posture of the Services

May 23, 2017

Armed Services

 

Cyber Policy, Strategy, and Organization

May 11, 2017

Armed Services

 

Worldwide Threats

May 11, 2017

Select Committee on Intelligence

 

Cyber Threats Facing America: An Overview of the Cybersecurity Threat Landscape

May 10, 2017

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

United States Cyber Command

May 9, 2017

Armed Services

 

Cyber-enabled Information Operations

April 27 2017

Armed Services

Cybersecurity

American Leadership in the Asia-Pacific, Part 1: Security Issues

March 29, 2017

Foreign Relations

East Asia, The Pacific, and International Cybersecurity Policy

Cybersecurity Threats to the U.S. Electric Grid and Technology Advancements to Maximize Such Threats, including S. 79, the "Securing Energy Infrastructure Act."

March 28, 2017

Energy and Natural Resources

Energy

The Promises and Perils of Emerging Technologies for Cybersecurity

March 22, 2017

Commerce, Science and Transportation

 

Cyber Strategy and Policy

March 2, 2017

Armed Services

 

CLOSED: Cyber Threats

February 7, 2017

Armed Services

 

Foreign Cyber Threats to the United States

January 5, 2017

Armed Services

 

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Table 10. 115th Congress, Senate Hearings by Committee

Committee

Subcommittee

Title

Date

Armed Services

 

Cyber Posture of the Services

March 13, 2018

Armed Services

 

United States Cyber Command

February 27, 2018

Armed Services

 

Department of Defense's Role in Protecting Democratic Elections

February 13, 2018

Armed Services

 

Roles and Responsibilities for Defending the Nation from Cyber Attack

October 19, 2017

Armed Services

 

Cyber Posture of the Services

May 23, 2017

Armed Services

 

United States Cyber Command

May 9, 2017

Armed Services

Cybersecurity

Cyber-enabled Information Operations

April 27 2017

Armed Services

 

Cyber Strategy and Policy

March 2, 2017

Armed Services

 

CLOSED: Cyber Threats

February 7, 2017

Armed Services

 

Foreign Cyber Threats to the United States

January 5, 2017

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs

 

Consumer Data Security and the Credit Bureaus Files

October 17, 2017

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs

 

An Examination of the Equifax Cybersecurity Breach

October 4, 2017

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs

 

Examining the Fintech Landscape

September 12, 2017

Commerce, Science and Transportation

Consumer Protection, Product Safety, Insurance, and Data Security

Data Security and Bug Bounty Programs: Lessons Learned from the Uber Breach and Security Researchers

February 6, 2018

Commerce, Science and Transportation

 

Protecting Consumers in the Era of Major Data Breaches

November 8, 2017

Commerce, Science and Transportation

 

The Promises and Perils of Emerging Technologies for Cybersecurity

March 22, 2017

Energy and Natural Resources

 

Cyber Technology and Energy Infrastructure

October 26, 2017

Energy and Natural Resources

Energy

Cybersecurity Threats to the U.S. Electric Grid and Technology Advancements to Maximize Such Threats, including S. 79, the Securing Energy Infrastructure Act.

March 28, 2017

Foreign Relations

East Asia, The Pacific, and International Cybersecurity Policy

State-Sponsored Cyberspace Threats: Recent Incidents and U.S. Policy Response

June 13, 2017

Foreign Relations

East Asia, The Pacific, and International Cybersecurity Policy

American Leadership in the Asia-Pacific, Part 1: Security Issues

March 29, 2017

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Mitigating America's Cybersecurity Risk

April 24, 2018

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

2020 Census: Examining Cost Overruns, Information Security, and Accuracy

October 31, 2017

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Cyber Threats Facing America: An Overview of the Cybersecurity Threat Landscape

May 10, 2017

Judiciary

Privacy, Technology and the Law

Equifax: Continuing to Monitor Data-Broker Cybersecurity

October 4, 2017

Select Committee on Intelligence

 

Election Security

March 21, 2018

Select Committee on Intelligence

 

Open Hearing: Russian Interference in the 2016 U.S. Elections

June 21, 2017

Small Business and Entrepreneurship

 

Preparing Small Businesses for Cybersecurity Success

April 25, 2018

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Hearings in the 114th Congress

The following tables list cybersecurity hearings in the 114th Congress. The tables contain identical content but are organized differently.

Table 11 lists Senate hearings arranged by date. Table 14 lists Senate hearings arranged by committee. Table 11 lists House hearings arranged by date (most recent first), and Table 12 lists House hearings arranged by committee. When viewed in HTML, the document titles are active links to the committee's website for that particular hearing.

Table 11. 114th Congress, House Hearings, by Date

Title

Date

Committee

Subcommittee

Cybersecurity: Ensuring the Integrity of the Ballot Box

September 28, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Protecting the 2016 Elections from Cyber and Voting Machine Attacks

September 13, 2016

Science, Space and Technology

 

Evaluating FDIC's Response to Major Data Breaches: Is the FDIC Safeguarding Consumers' Banking Information?

July 14, 2016

Science

 

Digital Acts of War: Evolving the Cybersecurity Conversation

July 13, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

National Security; Information Technology (Joint hearing)

The Value of DHS's Vulnerability Assessments in Protecting Our Nation's Critical Infrastructure

July 12, 2016

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

Foreign Cyber Threats: Small Business, Big Target

July 7, 2016

Small Business

 

Military Cyber Operations

June 22, 2016

Armed Services

 

Federal Efforts to Improve Cybersecurity (Field hearing: Chicago)

June 20, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Oversight of the Cybersecurity Act of 2015

June 15, 2016

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

Examining Cybersecurity Responsibilities at HHS

May 25, 2016

Energy and Commerce

 

Enhancing Preparedness and Response Capabilities to Address Cyber Threats

May 24, 2016

Homeland Security

Emergency Preparedness, Response and Communications; Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies (Joint hearing)

FDIC Data Breaches: Can Americans Trust that Their Private Banking Information Is Secure?

May 12, 2016

Science, Space and Technology

Oversight

Federal Cybersecurity Detection, Response, and Mitigation

April 20, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Small Business and the Federal Government: How Cyber-Attacks Threaten Both

April 20, 2016

Small Business

 

Hearing on Tax Return Filing Season (Focusing on Efforts to Protect Americans from Identity Theft Related Tax Fraud and Cybersecurity Attacks)

April 19, 2016

Ways and Means

Oversight

Blackout! Are We Prepared to Manage the Aftermath of a Cyber-Attack or Other Failure of the Electrical Grid?

April 14, 2016

Transportation and Infrastructure

Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management

Can the IRS Protect Taxpayers' Personal Information?

April 14, 2016

Science, Space and Technology

Research and Technology

Cyber Preparedness and Response at the Local Level (Field hearing)

April 7, 2016

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

Fiscal Year 2017 Information Technology and Cyber Programs: Foundations for a Secure Warfighting Network

March 23, 2016

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

The Role of Cyber Insurance in Risk Management

March 22, 2016

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

VA Cybersecurity and IT Oversight

March 16, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Fiscal 2017 Budget Request for the Department of Homeland Security and Readiness

March 16, 2016

Homeland Security

 

Fiscal Year 2017 Budget Request for U.S. Cyber Command: Preparing for Operations in the Cyber Domain

March 16, 2016

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

FY 2017 Budget Hearing - Office of Personnel Management

March 14, 2016

Appropriations

Financial Services and General Government

Emerging Cyber Threats to the United States

February 25, 2016

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

U.S. Department of Education: Investigation of the CIO

February 2, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

 

Wassenaar: Cybersecurity and Export Control

January 12, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Cyber Security: What the Federal Government Can Learn from the Private Sector

January 8, 2016

Science, Space and Technology

Research and Technology

Document Production Status Update (OPM Data Breaches)

January 7, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

 

The Internet of Cars

November 18, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

Transportation and Public Assets

U.S. Department of Education: Information Security Review

November 17, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

 

Cybersecurity for Power Systems

October 21, 2015

Science, Space and Technology

Energy; Research and Technology

Protecting Maritime Facilities in the 21st Century: Are Our Nation's Ports at Risk for a Cyber-Attack?

October 8, 2015

Homeland Security

 

The EMV Deadline and What it Means for Small Business

October 7, 2015

Small Business

 

Examining the Mission, Structure, and Reorganization Effort of the National Protection and Programs Directorate

October 7, 2915

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security

Implementing the Department of Defense Cyber Strategy

September 30, 2015

Armed Services

 

The State of the Cloud (Field hearing University of Texas-San Antonio)

September 22, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Examining Vulnerabilities of America's Power Supply

September 10, 2015

Science, Space and Technology

Oversight/Energy

World Wide Cyber Threats

September 10, 2015

Intelligence

 

Internet of Things

July 29, 2015

Judiciary

 

Promoting and Incentivizing Cybersecurity Best Practices

July 28, 2015

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Cybersecurity: The Department of the Interior

July 15, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology; Interior, Energy, and Environment (Joint hearing)

Is the OPM [Office of Personnel Management] Data Breach the Tip of the Iceberg?

July 8, 2015

Science, Space and Technology

Research and Technology

DHS' Efforts to Secure.Gov

June 24, 2015

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technology

OPM Data Breach: Part II

June 24, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

 

Evaluating the Security of the U.S. Financial Sector (Task Force to Investigate Terrorism Financing)

June 24, 2015

Financial Services

 

OPM Data Security Review

June 23, 2015

Appropriations

Financial Services and General Government

OPM: Data Breach

June 16, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

 

A Global Perspective on Cyber Threats

June 16, 2015

Financial Services

 

Protecting Critical Infrastructure: How the Financial Sector Addresses Cyber Threats

May 19, 2015

Financial Services

Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit

Protecting Consumers: Financial Data Security in the Age of Computer Hackers

May 14, 2015

Financial Services

 

Enhancing Cybersecurity of Third-Party Contractors and Vendors

April 22, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

 

Small Business, Big Threat: Protecting Small Businesses from Cyber Attacks

April 22, 2015

Small Business

 

Full Committee Meets to Formulate a Rule on H.R. 1560, the "Protecting Cyber Networks Act"; and H.R. 1731, the "National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act of 2015"

April 21, 2015

Rules

 

[CLOSED] Special Activities

April 15, 2015

Intelligence

National Security Agency and Cybersecurity

The Internet of Things: Exploring the Next Technology Frontier

March 24, 2015

Energy and Commerce

Commerce, Manufacturing and Trade

The Growing Cyber Threat and its Impact on American Business

March 19, 2015

Intelligence

 

Discussion Draft of H.R. 1704, Data Security and Breach Notification Act of 2015

March 18, 2015

Energy and Commerce

Commerce, Manufacturing, and Trade

Cybersecurity: The Evolving Nature of Cyber Threats Facing the Private Sector

March 18, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Industry Perspectives on the President's Cybersecurity Information Sharing Proposal

March 4, 2015

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

Cyber Operations: Improving the Military Cyber Security Posture in an Uncertain Threat Environment

March 4, 2015

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

Understanding the Cyber Threat and Implications for the 21st Century Economy

March 3, 2015

Energy and Commerce

Oversight and Investigations

Examining the President's Cybersecurity Information Sharing Proposal

February 25, 2015

Homeland Security

 

Emerging Threats and Technologies to Protect the Homeland

February 12, 2015

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

The Expanding Cyber Threat

January 27, 2015

Science, Space and Technology

Research and Technology

What are the Elements of Sound Data Breach Legislation?

January 27, 2015

Energy and Commerce

 

Briefing: The North Korean Threat: Nuclear, Missiles and Cyber

January 13, 2015

Foreign Affairs

 

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Table 12. 114th Congress, House Hearings, by Committee

Committee

Subcommittee

Title

Date

Appropriations

Financial Services and General Government

FY 2017 Budget Hearing - Office of Personnel Management

March 14, 2016

Armed Services

 

Military Cyber Operations

June 22, 2016

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

Fiscal Year 2017 Information Technology and Cyber Programs: Foundations for a Secure Warfighting Network

March 23, 2016

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

Fiscal Year 2017 Budget Request for U.S. Cyber Command: Preparing for Operations in the Cyber Domain

March 16, 2016

Armed Services

 

Implementing the Department of Defense Cyber Strategy

September 30, 2015

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

Cyber Operations: Improving the Military Cyber Security Posture in an Uncertain Threat Environment

March 4, 2015

Energy and Commerce

 

Examining Cybersecurity Responsibilities at HHS

May 25, 2016

Energy and Commerce

Commerce, Manufacturing, and Trade

The Internet of Things: Exploring the Next Technology Frontier

March 24, 2015

Energy and Commerce

Commerce, Manufacturing, and Trade

Discussion Draft of H.R. 1704, Data Security and Breach Notification Act

March 18, 2015

Energy and Commerce

Oversight and Investigations

Understanding the Cyber Threat and Implications for the 21st Century Economy

March 3, 2015

Energy and Commerce

 

What are the Elements of Sound Data Breach Legislation?

January 27, 2015

Financial Services

 

Evaluating the Security of the U.S. Financial Sector (Task Force to Investigate Terrorism Financing)

June 24, 2015

Financial Services

Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit

Protecting Critical Infrastructure: How the Financial Sector Addresses Cyber Threats

May 19, 2015

Financial Services

 

Protecting Consumers: Financial Data Security in the Age of Computer Hackers

May 14, 2015

Foreign Affairs

 

Briefing: The North Korean Threat: Nuclear, Missiles and Cyber

January 13, 2015

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

The Value of DHS's Vulnerability Assessments in Protecting Our Nation's Critical Infrastructure

July 12, 2016

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

Oversight of the Cybersecurity Act of 2015

June 15, 2016

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

Enhancing Preparedness and Response Capabilities to Address Cyber Threats

May 24, 2016

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

Cyber Preparedness and Response at the Local Level (Field hearing)

April 7, 2016

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

The Role of Cyber Insurance in Risk Management

March 22, 2016

Homeland Security

 

Fiscal 2017 Budget Request for the Department of Homeland Security and Readiness

March 16, 2016

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

Emerging Cyber Threats to the United States

February 25, 2016

Homeland Security

 

Protecting Maritime Facilities in the 21st Century: Are Our Nation's Ports at Risk for a Cyber-Attack?

October 8, 2015

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

Examining the Mission, Structure, and Reorganization Effort of the National Protection and Programs Directorate

October 7, 2015

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Promoting and Incentivizing Cybersecurity Best Practices

July 28, 2015

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

DHS' Efforts to Secure .Gov

June 24, 2015

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies

Industry Perspectives on the President's Cybersecurity Information Sharing Proposal

March 4, 2015

Homeland Security

 

Examining the President's Cybersecurity Information Sharing Proposal

February 25, 2015

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Emerging Threats and Technologies to Protect the Homeland

February 12, 2015

Intelligence

 

World Wide Cyber Threats

September 10, 2015

Intelligence

National Security Agency and Cybersecurity

[CLOSED] Special Activities

April 15, 2015

Intelligence

 

The Growing Cyber Threat and its Impact on American Business

March 19, 2015

Judiciary

 

Internet of Things

July 29, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Cybersecurity: Ensuring the Integrity of the Ballot Box

September 28, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology; National Security (Joint hearing)

Digital Acts of War: Evolving the Cybersecurity Conversation

July 13, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Federal Efforts to Improve Cybersecurity (Field hearing: Chicago)

June 20, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Federal Cybersecurity Detection, Response, and Mitigation

April 20, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

VA Cybersecurity and IT Oversight

March 16, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

 

U.S. Department of Education: Investigation of the CIO

February 2, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Wassenaar: Cybersecurity and Export Control

January 12, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

 

Document Production Status (OPM data breaches)

January 7, 2016

Oversight and Government Reform

Transportation and Public Assets

The Internet of Cars

November 18, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

 

U.S. Department of Education: Information Security Review

November 17, 2105

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

The State of the Cloud (Field hearing University of Texas-San Antonio)

September 22, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology; Interior, Energy, and Environment (Joint hearing)

Cybersecurity: The Department of the Interior

July 15, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

 

OPM Data Breach: Part II

June 24, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

 

OPM: Data Breach

June 16, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

 

Enhancing Cybersecurity of Third-Party Contractors and Vendors

April 22, 2015

Oversight and Government Reform

Information Technology

Cybersecurity: The Evolving Nature of Cyber Threats Facing the Private Sector

March 18, 2015

Rules

 

Full Committee Meets to Formulate a Rule on H.R. 1560, the "Protecting Cyber Networks Act"; and H.R. 1731, the "National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act of 2015"

April 21, 2015

Science, Space and Technology

 

Protecting the 2016 Elections from Cyber and Voting Machine Attacks

September 13, 2016

Science, Space and Technology

 

Evaluating FDIC's Response to Major Data Breaches: Is the FDIC Safeguarding Consumers' Banking Information?

July 14, 2016

Science, Space and Technology

Oversight; Energy (Joint hearing)

Examining Vulnerabilities of America's Power Supply

September 10, 2015

Science, Space and Technology

Oversight

FDIC Data Breaches: Can Americans Trust that Their Private Banking Information Is Secure?

May 12, 2016

Science, Space and Technology

Research and Technology

Can the IRS Protect Taxpayers' Personal Information?

April 14, 2016

Science, Space and Technology

Research and Technology

Cyber Security: What the Federal Government Can Learn from the Private Sector

January 8, 2016

Science, Space and Technology

Research and Technology; Energy (Joint hearing)

Cybersecurity for Power Systems

October 21, 2015

Science, Space and Technology

Research and Technology

The Expanding Cyber Threat

January 27, 2015

Small Business

 

Foreign Cyber Threats: Small Business, Big Target

July 7, 2016

Small Business

 

Small Business and the Federal Government: How Cyber-Attacks Threaten Both

April 19, 2016

Small Business

 

The EMV Deadline and What it Means for Small Business

October 7, 2015

Small Business

 

Small Business, Big Threat: Protecting Small Businesses from Cyber Attacks

April 22, 2015

Transportation and Infrastructure

Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management

Blackout! Are We Prepared to Manage the Aftermath of a Cyber-Attack or Other Failure of the Electrical Grid?

April 14, 2016

Ways and Means

Oversight

Hearing on Tax Return Filing Season (Focusing on Efforts to Protect Americans from Identity Theft Related Tax Fraud and Cybersecurity Attacks)

April 19, 2016

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Table 13. 114th Congress, Senate Hearings, by Date

Title

Date

Committee

Subcommittee

Encryption and Cyber Matters

September 13, 2016

Armed Services

 

Cybersecurity and U.S. National Security

July 14, 2016

Armed Services

 

How the Internet of Things (IoT) Can Bring U.S. Transportation and Infrastructure into the 21st Century

June 28, 2016

Commerce, Science and Transportation

Surface Transportation and Merchant Marine Infrastructure, Safety, and Security

International Cybersecurity Strategy: Deterring Foreign Threats and Building Global Cyber Norms

May 25, 2016

Foreign Relations

East Asia, the Pacific, and International Cybersecurity Policy

Assessing the Security of Critical Infrastructure: Threat, Vulnerabilities, and Solutions

May 18, 2016

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Ransomware: Understanding the Threat and Exploring Solutions

May 18, 2016

Judiciary

 

CLOSED: Cybersecurity and United States Cyber Command

April 19, 2016

Armed Services

 

Cybersecurity and Protecting Taxpayer Information

April 12, 2016

Finance

 

U.S. Cyber Command

April 5, 2016

Armed Services

 

Data Brokers – Is Consumers' Information Secure?

November 3, 2015

Judiciary

Privacy, Technology and the Law

Threats to the Homeland

October 8, 2015

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

The Changing Landscape of U.S.-China Relations: What's Next?

September 29, 2015

Foreign Relations

East Asia, The Pacific, and International Cybersecurity Policy

United States Cybersecurity Policy and Threats

September 29, 2015

Armed Services

 

Intelligence Issues

September 24, 2015

Intelligence

 

Protecting the Electric Grid from the Potential Threats of Solar Storms and Electromagnetic Pulse

July 22, 2015

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Counterterrorism, Counterintelligence, and the Challenges of "Going Dark"

July 8, 2015

Intelligence

 

Cyber Crime: Modernizing our Legal Framework for the Information Age

July 8, 2015

Judiciary

 

Under Attack: Federal Cybersecurity and the OPM Data Breach

June 25, 2015

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

OPM Information Technology Spending and Data Security

June 23, 2015

Appropriations

Financial Services and General Government

Hearing on Energy Accountability and Reform Legislation (including S. 1241, Enhanced Grid Security Act of 2015)

June 9, 2015

Energy and Natural Resources

 

The IRS Data Breach: Steps to Protect Americans' Personal Information

June 2, 2015

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Cybersecurity: Setting the Rules for Responsible Global Cyber Behavior

May 14, 2015

Foreign Relations

East Asia, The Pacific, And International Cybersecurity Policy

Military Cyber Programs and Posture

April 15, 2015

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

From Protection to Partnership: Funding the DHS role in Cybersecurity

April 15, 2015

Appropriations

Homeland Security

Examining the Evolving Cyber Insurance Marketplace

March 19, 2015

Commerce, Science and Transportation

Consumer Protection, Product Safety, Insurance and Data Security

U.S. Strategic Command, U.S. Transportation Command, and U.S. Cyber Command in Review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2016 and the Future Years Defense Program

March 19, 2015

Armed Services

 

The Connected World: Examining the Internet of Things

February 11, 2015

Commerce, Science and Transportation

 

Getting it Right on Data Breach and Notification Legislation in the 114th Congress

February 5, 2015

Commerce, Science and Transportation

Consumer Protection, Product Safety, Insurance, and Data Security

Building a More Secure Cyber Future: Examining Private Sector Experience with the NIST Framework

February 4, 2015

Commerce, Science and Transportation

 

Protecting America from Cyber Attacks: The Importance of Information Sharing

January 28, 2015

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Table 14. 114th Congress, Senate Hearings, by Committee

Committee

Subcommittee

Title

Date

Appropriations

Financial Services and General Government

OPM Information Technology Spending and Data Security

June 23, 2015

Appropriations

Homeland Security

From Protection to Partnership: Funding the DHS role in Cybersecurity

April 15, 2015

Armed Services

 

Encryption and Cyber Matters

September 13, 2016

Armed Services

 

Cybersecurity and U.S. National Security

July 14, 2016

Armed Services

 

CLOSED: Cybersecurity and United States Cyber Command

April 19, 2016

Armed Services

 

U.S. Cyber Command

April 5, 2016

Armed Services

 

United States Cybersecurity Policy and Threats

September 30, 2015

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

Military Cyber Programs and Posture

April 15, 2015

Armed Services

 

U.S. Strategic Command, U.S. Transportation Command, and U.S. Cyber Command in Review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2016 and the Future Years Defense Program

March 19, 2015

Commerce, Science and Transportation

Surface Transportation and Merchant Marine Infrastructure, Safety, and Security

How the Internet of Things (IoT) Can Bring U.S. Transportation and Infrastructure into the 21st Century

June 28, 2016

Commerce, Science and Transportation

Consumer Protection, Product Safety, Insurance and Data Security

Examining the Evolving Cyber Insurance Marketplace

March 19, 2015

Commerce, Science and Transportation

 

The Connected World: Examining the Internet of Things

February 11, 2015

Commerce, Science and Transportation

 

Getting it Right on Data Breach and Notification Legislation in the 114th Congress

February 5, 2015

Commerce, Science and Transportation

 

Building a More Secure Cyber Future: Examining Private Sector Experience with the NIST Framework

February 4, 2015

Energy and Natural Resources

 

Hearing on Energy Accountability and Reform Legislation (including S. 1241, Enhanced Grid Security Act of 2015)

June 9, 2015

Financial Services

 

A Global Perspective on Cyber Threats

June 16, 2015

Finance

 

Cybersecurity and Protecting Taxpayer Information

April 12, 2016

Foreign Relations

East Asia, The Pacific, And International Cybersecurity Policy

The Changing Landscape of U.S.-China Relations: What's Next?

September 29, 2015

Foreign Relations

East Asia, The Pacific, And International Cybersecurity Policy

Cybersecurity: Setting the Rules for Responsible Global Cyber Behavior

May 14, 2015

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Assessing the Security of Critical Infrastructure: Threat, Vulnerabilities, and Solutions

May 18, 2016

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Threats to the Homeland

October 8, 2015

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Protecting the Electric Grid from the Potential Threats of Solar Storms and Electromagnetic Pulse

July 22, 2015

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Under Attack: Federal Cybersecurity and the OPM Data Breach

June 25, 2015

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

The IRS Data Breach: Steps to Protect Americans' Personal Information

June 2, 2015

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Protecting America from Cyber Attacks: The Importance of Information Sharing

January 28, 2015

Intelligence

 

Intelligence Issues

September 24, 2015

Intelligence

 

Counterterrorism, Counterintelligence, and the Challenges of "Going Dark"

July 8, 2015

Judiciary

 

Ransomware: Understanding the Threat and Exploring Solutions

May 18, 2016

Judiciary

 

Data Brokers – Is Consumers' Information Secure?

November 3, 2015

Judiciary

 

Cyber Crime: Modernizing our Legal Framework for the Information Age

July 8, 2015

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Table 15. 114th Congress, Other Hearings

Committee

Subcommittee

Title

Date

U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission

 

Commercial Cyber Espionage and Barriers to Digital Trade in China

June 15, 2015

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Hearings in the 113th Congress

The following tables list cybersecurity hearings in the 113th Congress. The tables contain identical content but are organized differently.

Table 16 lists House hearings arranged by date (most recent first), and Table 17 lists House hearings arranged by committee. Table 18 lists Senate hearings arranged by date. Table 19 lists Senate hearings arranged by committee. When viewed in HTML, the document titles are active links to the committee's website for that particular hearing.

Table 16. 113th Congress, House Hearings, by Date

Title

Date

Committee

Subcommittee

How Data Mining Threatens Student Privacy

June 25, 2014

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Assessing Persistent and Emerging Cyber Threats to the U.S. Homeland

May 21, 2014

Homeland Security

Counterterrorism and Intelligence

Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP): Threat to Critical Infrastructure

May 8, 2014

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Protecting Your Personal Data: How Law Enforcement Works With the Private Sector to Prevent Cybercrime (Field hearing)

April 16, 2014

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Information Technology and Cyber Operations: Modernization and Policy Issues in a Changing National Security Environment

March 12, 2014

Armed Services

Intelligence, Emerging Threats, and Capabilities

International Cybercrime Protection

March 6, 2014

Science, Space, and Technology

Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit

Data Security: Examining Efforts to Protect Americans' Financial Information

March 5, 2014

Financial Services

 

Protecting Consumer Information: Can Data Breaches Be Prevented?

February 5, 2014

Energy and Commerce

Commerce, Manufacturing, and Trade

A Roadmap for Hackers? - Documents Detailing HealthCare.gov Security Vulnerabilities

January 28, 2014

Oversight and Government Reform

 

HealthCare.gov: Consequences of Stolen Identity

January 19, 2014

Science, Space, and Technology

 

HHS' Own Security Concerns About HealthCare.gov

January 16, 2014

Oversight and Government Reform

 

Is My Data on Healthcare.gov Secure?

November 19, 2013

Science, Space, and Technology

 

Security of Healthcare.gov

November 19, 2013

Energy and Commerce

 

Cyber Side-Effects: How Secure is the Personal Information Entered into the Flawed Healthcare.gov?

November 13, 2013

Homeland Security

 

Cyber Incident Response: Bridging the Gap Between Cybersecurity and Emergency Management

October 30, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Cybersecurity: 21st Century Threats, Challenges, and Opportunities

October 23, 2013

Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

 

A Look into the Security and Reliability of the Health Exchange Data Hub

September 11, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Asia: The Cyber Security Battleground

July 23, 2013

Foreign Affairs

Asia and the Pacific

Oversight of Executive Order 13636 and Development of the Cybersecurity Framework

July 18, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Reporting Data Breaches: Is Federal Legislation Needed to Protect Consumers?

July 18, 2013

Energy and Commerce

Commerce, Manufacturing, and Trade

Evaluating Privacy, Security, and Fraud Concerns with ObamaCare's Information Sharing Apparatus 

July 17, 2013

Homeland Security; Oversight and Government Reform (Joint hearing)

 

Cyber Espionage and the Theft of U.S. Intellectual Property and Technology

July 9, 2013

Energy and Commerce

Oversight and Investigation

Cyber Threats and Security Solutions

May 21, 2013

Energy and Commerce

 

Cybersecurity: An Examination of the Communications Supply Chain

May 21, 2013

Energy and Commerce

Communications and Technology

Facilitating Cyber Threat Information Sharing and Partnering with the Private Sector to Protect Critical Infrastructure: An Assessment of DHS Capabilities

May 16, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Striking the Right Balance: Protecting Our Nation's Critical Infrastructure from Cyber Attack and Ensuring Privacy and Civil Liberties

April 25, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Cyber Attacks: An Unprecedented Threat to U.S. National Security

March 21, 2013

Foreign Affairs

Europe, Eurasia, and Emerging Threats

Protecting Small Business from Cyber-Attacks

March 21, 2013

Small Business

Healthcare and Technology

Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure [Closed hearing]

March 20, 2013

Appropriations

 

Cyber Threats from China, Russia and Iran: Protecting American Critical Infrastructure

March 20, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

DHS Cybersecurity: Roles and Responsibilities to Protect the Nation's Critical Infrastructure

March 13, 2013

Homeland Security

 

Investigating and Prosecuting 21st Century Cyber Threats

March 13, 2013

Judiciary

Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security and Investigations

Information Technology and Cyber Operations: Modernization and Policy Issues to Support the Future Force

March 13, 2013

Armed Services

Intelligence, Emerging Threats, and Capabilities

Cyber R&D Challenges and Solutions

February 26, 2013

Science, Space, and Technology

Technology

Advanced Cyber Threats Facing Our Nation 

February 14, 2013

Select Committee on Intelligence

 

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Table 17. 113th Congress, House Hearings, by Committee

Committee

Subcommittee

Title

Date

Appropriations

 

Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure [Closed hearing]

March 20, 2013

Armed Services

Intelligence, Emerging Threats, and Capabilities

Information Technology and Cyber Operations: Modernization and Policy Issues in a Changing National Security Environment

March 12, 2014

Armed Services

Intelligence, Emerging Threats, and Capabilities

Information Technology and Cyber Operations: Modernization and Policy Issues to Support the Future Force

March 13, 2013

Energy and Commerce

Commerce, Manufacturing, and Trade

Protecting Consumer Information: Can Data Breaches Be Prevented?

February 5, 2014

Energy and Commerce

 

Security of Healthcare.gov

November 19, 2013

Energy and Commerce

Commerce, Manufacturing, and Trade

Reporting Data Breaches: Is Federal Legislation Needed to Protect Consumers?

July 18, 2013

Energy and Commerce

Oversight and Investigation

Cyber Espionage and the Theft of U.S. Intellectual Property and Technology

July 9, 2013

Energy and Commerce

 

Cyber Threats and Security Solutions

May 21, 2013

Energy and Commerce

Communications and Technology

Cybersecurity: An Examination of the Communications Supply Chain

May 21, 2013

Financial Services

Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit

Data Security: Examining Efforts to Protect Americans' Financial Information

March 5, 2014

Foreign Affairs

Asia and the Pacific

Asia: The Cyber Security Battleground

July 23, 2013

Foreign Affairs

Europe, Eurasia, and Emerging Threats

Cyber Attacks: An Unprecedented Threat to U.S. National Security

March 21, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

How Data Mining Threatens Student Privacy

June 25, 2014

Homeland Security

Counterterrorism and Intelligence

Assessing Persistent and Emerging Cyber Threats to the U.S. Homeland

May 21, 2014

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP): Threat to Critical Infrastructure

May 8, 2014

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Protecting Your Personal Data: How Law Enforcement Works With the Private Sector to Prevent Cybercrime (Field hearing)

April 16, 2014

Homeland Security

 

Cyber Side-Effects: How Secure is the Personal Information Entered into the Flawed Healthcare.gov?

November 13, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Cyber Incident Response: Bridging the Gap Between Cybersecurity and Emergency Management

October 30, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

A Look into the Security and Reliability of the Health Exchange Data Hub

September 11, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Oversight of Executive Order 13636 and Development of the Cybersecurity Framework

July 18, 2013

Homeland Security (Joint hearing with Oversight and Government Reform)

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies, and Energy Policy, Health Care, and Entitlements

Facilitating Cyber Threat Information Sharing and Partnering with the Private Sector to Protect Critical Infrastructure: An Assessment of DHS Capabilities

May 16, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Striking the Right Balance: Protecting Our Nation's Critical Infrastructure from Cyber Attack and Ensuring Privacy and Civil Liberties

April 25, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

Cyber Threats from China, Russia and Iran: Protecting American Critical Infrastructure

March 20, 2013

Homeland Security

Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies

DHS Cybersecurity: Roles and Responsibilities to Protect the Nation's Critical Infrastructure

March 13, 2013

Judiciary

Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations

Investigating and Prosecuting 21st Century Cyber Threats

March 13, 2013

Oversight and Government Reform

 

A Roadmap for Hackers? - Documents Detailing HealthCare.gov Security Vulnerabilities

January 28, 2014

Oversight and Government Reform

 

HHS' Own Security Concerns About HealthCare.gov

January 16, 2014

Oversight and Government Reform (Joint hearing with Homeland Security)

Energy Policy, Health Care, and Entitlements; Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies (Joint hearing)

Evaluating Privacy, Security, and Fraud Concerns with ObamaCare's Information Sharing Apparatus

July 18, 2013

Science, Space, and Technology

 

International Cybercrime Protection

March 6, 2014

Science, Space, and Technology

 

HealthCare.gov: Consequences of Stolen Identity

January 19, 2014

Science, Space, and Technology

 

Is My Data on Healthcare.gov Secure?

November 19, 2013

Science, Space, and Technology

Technology

Cyber R&D [Research and Development] Challenges and Solutions

February 26, 2013

Select Committee on Intelligence

 

Advanced Cyber Threats Facing Our Nation

February 14, 2013

Small Business

Healthcare and Technology

Protecting Small Business from Cyber-Attacks

March 21, 2013

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Table 18. 113th Congress, Senate Hearings, by Date

Title

Date

Committee

Subcommittee

Cybersecurity: Enhancing Coordination to Protect the Financial Sector

December 10, 2014

Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

 

Taking Down Botnets: Public and Private Efforts to Disrupt and Dismantle Cybercriminal Networks

July 15, 2014

Judiciary

Crime and Terrorism

Investing in Cybersecurity: Understanding Risks and Building Capabilities for the Future

May 7, 2014

Appropriations

Homeland Security

Data Breach on the Rise: Protecting Personal Information from Harm

April 2, 2014

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Protecting Personal Consumer Information from Cyber Attacks and Data Breaches

March 26, 2014

Commerce, Science, and Transportation

 

Strengthening Public-Private Partnerships to Reduce Cyber Risks to Our Nation's Critical Infrastructure

March 26, 2014

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Nomination of Vice Admiral Michael S. Rogers, USN to be admiral and Director, National Security Agency/ Chief, Central Security Services/ Commander, U.S. Cyber Command

March 11, 2014

Armed Services

 

U.S. Strategic Command and U.S. Cyber Command in Review of the fiscal 2015 Defense Authorization Request and the Future Years Defense Program

February 27, 2014

Armed Services

 

Oversight of Financial Stability and Data Security

February 6, 2014

Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

 

Privacy in the Digital Age: Preventing Data Breaches and Combating Cybercrime

February 4, 2014

Judiciary

 

Safeguarding Consumers' Financial Data, Panel 2

February 3, 2014

Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

National Security and International Trade and Finance

The Partnership Between NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] and the Private Sector: Improving Cybersecurity

July 25, 2013

Commerce, Science, and Transportation

 

Resilient Military Systems and the Advanced Cyber Threat (Closed briefing)

June 26, 2013

Armed Services

 

Cybersecurity: Preparing for and Responding to the Enduring Threat

June 12, 2013

Appropriations

 

Cyber Threats: Law Enforcement and Private Sector Responses

May 8, 2013

Judiciary

Crime and Terrorism

Defense Authorization: Cybersecurity Threats: To Receive a Briefing on Cybersecurity Threats in Review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2014 and the Future Years Defense Program

March 19, 2013

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

Fiscal 2014 Defense Authorization, Strategic Command: U.S. Cyber Command

March 12, 2013

Armed Services

 

The Cybersecurity Partnership Between the Private Sector and Our Government: Protecting Our National and Economic Security

March 7, 2013

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs; Commerce, Science, and Transportation (Joint hearing)

 

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congres.gov.

Table 19. 113th Congress, Senate Hearings, by Committee

Committee

Subcommittee

Title

Date

Appropriations

Homeland Security

Investing in Cybersecurity: Understanding Risks and Building Capabilities for the Future

May 7, 2014

Appropriations

 

Cybersecurity: Preparing for and Responding to the Enduring Threat

June 12, 2013

Armed Services

 

Nomination of Vice Admiral Michael S. Rogers, USN to be admiral and Director, National Security Agency/ Chief, Central Security Services/ Commander, U.S. Cyber Command

March 11, 2014

Armed Services

 

U.S. Strategic Command and U.S. Cyber Command in Review of the Fiscal 2015 Defense Authorization Request and the Future Years Defense Program

February 27, 2014

Armed Services

 

Resilient Military Systems and the Advanced Cyber Threat (Closed briefing)

June 26, 2013

Armed Services

Emerging Threats and Capabilities

Defense Authorization: Cybersecurity Threats: To Receive a Briefing on Cybersecurity Threats in Review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2014 and the Future Years Defense Program

March 19, 2013

Armed Services

 

Fiscal 2014 Defense Authorization, Strategic Command: U.S. Cyber Command

March 12, 2013

Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

 

Cybersecurity: Enhancing Coordination to Protect the Financial Sector

December 10, 2014

Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

 

Oversight of Financial Stability and Data Security

February 6, 2014

Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

National Security and International Trade and Finance

Safeguarding Consumers' Financial Data

February 3, 2014

Commerce, Science, and Transportation

 

Protecting Personal Consumer Information from Cyber Attacks and Data Breaches

March 26, 2014

Commerce, Science, and Transportation

 

The Partnership Between NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] and the Private Sector: Improving Cybersecurity

July 25, 2013

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Data Breach on the Rise: Protecting Personal Information from Harm

April 2, 2014

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

 

Strengthening Public-Private Partnerships to Reduce Cyber Risks to Our Nation's Critical Infrastructure

March 26, 2014

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs; Commerce, Science, and Transportation (Joint hearing)

 

The Cybersecurity Partnership Between the Private Sector and Our Government: Protecting Our National and Economic Security

March 7, 2013

Judiciary

Crime and Terrorism

Taking Down Botnets: Public and Private Efforts to Disrupt and Dismantle Cybercriminal Networks

July 15, 2014

Judiciary

 

Privacy in the Digital Age: Preventing Data Breaches and Combating Cybercrime

February 4, 2014

Judiciary

Crime and Terrorism

Cyber Threats: Law Enforcement and Private Sector Responses

May 8, 2013

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Table 20. 113th Congress, Other Hearings, by Date

Title

Date

Committee

Subcommittee

U.S.-China Cybersecurity Issues

July 11, 2013

Congressional-Executive Commission on China

 

Chinese Hacking: Impact on Human Rights and Commercial Rule of Law

June 25, 2013

Congressional-Executive Commission on China

 

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Table 21. 113th Congress, Other Hearings, by Committee

Committee

Subcommittee

Title

Date

Congressional-Executive Commission on China

 

U.S.-China Cybersecurity Issues

July 11, 2013

Congressional-Executive Commission on China

 

Chinese Hacking: Impact on Human Rights and Commercial Rule of Law

June 25, 2013

Source: Compiled by CRS from Congress.gov.

Executive Orders and Presidential Directives

Executive orders are official documents through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the federal government. Presidential directives guide the federal rulemaking policy and are signed or authorized by the President.

CRS Reports on Executive Orders and Presidential Directives

The following reports provide additional information on executive orders and presidential directives:

Table 22 provides a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to cybersecurity. (Titles are linked to documents.)

Table 22. Executive Orders and Presidential Directives

(by date of issuance)

Title

Date

Source

Notes

E.O. 13833: Enhancing the Effectiveness of Agency Chief Information Officers

May 15, 2018

White House

Enhancing the effectiveness of agency CIOs will better position agencies to modernize their IT systems, execute IT programs more efficiently, reduce cybersecurity risks, and serve the American people well.

E.O. 13801, Expanding Apprenticeships in America

June 20, 2017

White House

The Secretaries of Commerce and Labor shall promote apprenticeships to business leaders across critical industry sectors, including manufacturing, infrastructure, cybersecurity, and health care.

Strengthening the Cybersecurity of Federal Networks and Critical Infrastructure

May 11, 2017

White House

Requires an assessment of cybersecurity risks at every agency, orders a review of current efforts to protect vital infrastructure such as power plants and hospitals, and requires a report on building the cybersecurity workforce.

Amended Executive Order 13694, Cyber-Related Sanctions Designations

December 29, 2016

Treasury Department

Authorizes the imposition of sanctions on individuals and entities determined to be responsible for or complicit in malicious cyber-enabled activities that result in enumerated harms that are reasonably likely to result in, or have materially contributed to, a significant threat to the national security, foreign policy, or economic health or financial stability of the United States. The authority has been amended to also allow for the imposition of sanctions on individuals and entities determined to be responsible for tampering, altering, or causing the misappropriation of information with the purpose or effect of interfering with or undermining election processes or institutions. Five entities and four individuals are identified in the Annex of the amended Executive Order and will be added to OFAC's list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (SDN List). OFAC today is designating an additional two individuals who also will be added to the SDN List.

E.O. 13757, Taking Additional Steps to Address the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Malicious Cyber-Enabled Activities

December 29, 2016

White House

Amends Executive Order 13694, "Blocking the Property of Certain Persons Engaging in Significant Malicious Cyber-Enabled Activities," which authorized the imposition of sanctions on individuals and entities determined to be responsible for or complicit in malicious cyber-enabled activities that result in enumerated harms that are reasonably likely to result in, or have materially contributed to, a significant threat to the national security, foreign policy, or economic health or financial stability of the United States. The authority has been amended to allow for the imposition of sanctions on individuals and entities determined to be responsible for tampering, altering, or causing the misappropriation of information with the purpose or effect of interfering with or undermining election processes or institutions. Five entities and four individuals are identified in the Annex of the amended executive order and will be added to the Office of Foreign Assets Control's (OFAC's) list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (SDN List).

E.O. 13741, Amending Executive Order 13467 To Establish the Roles and Responsibilities of the National Background Investigations Bureau and Related Matters

September 29, 2016

White House

NBIB, established within the Office of Personnel Management, has responsibility for conducting effective, efficient, and secure personnel background investigations. NBIB will partner with the Department of Defense, which will build and manage a new IT platform for the background checks.

Presidential Policy Directive 41United States Cyber Incident Coordination

July 26, 2016

White House

Sets forth principles governing the federal government's response to any cyber incident, whether involving government or private-sector entities. For significant cyber incidents, the PPD establishes lead federal agencies and architecture for coordinating the broader federal government response. The PPD also requires the Departments of Justice and Homeland Security to maintain updated contact information for public use to assist entities affected by cyber incidents in reporting those incidents to the proper authorities.

Annex for Presidential Policy Directive 41United States Cyber Incident Coordination

July 26, 2016

White House

Provides further details concerning the federal government coordination architecture for significant cyber incidents and prescribes certain implementation tasks pertaining to coordination architecture, federal government response to incidents affecting federal networks, and implementation and assessment.

E.O. 13718, Commission on Enhancing National Cybersecurity

February 9, 2016

White House

The commission will consist of 12 members appointed by the President, including "top strategic, business, and technical thinkers from outside of Government—including members to be designated by the bi-partisan Congressional leadership."

E.O. 13694, Blocking the Property of Certain Persons Engaging in Significant Malicious Cyber-Enabled Activities

April 1, 2015

White House

Establishes the first sanctions program to allow the Administration to impose penalties on individuals overseas who engage in destructive attacks or commercial espionage in cyberspace. The order declares "significant malicious cyber-enabled activities" a "national emergency" and enables the Treasury Secretary to target foreign individuals and entities that take part in the illicit cyberactivity for sanctions that could include freezing their financial assets and barring commercial transactions with them.

Presidential MemorandumEstablishment of the Cyber Threat Intelligence Integration Center

February 25, 2015

White House

The CTIIC will be a national intelligence center focused on "connecting the dots" regarding malicious foreign cyber threats to the nation and cyber incidents affecting U.S. national interests, and on providing all-source analysis of threats to U.S. policymakers. The CTIIC will also assist relevant departments and agencies in their efforts to identify, investigate, and mitigate those threats

E.O. 13691, Encouraging Private-Sector Cybersecurity Collaboration

February 12, 2015

White House

Calls for establishing new "information sharing and analysis organizations to serve as focal points for cybersecurity information sharing and collaboration within the private sector and between the private sector and government." It also aims to streamline the process companies use to sign agreements with the federal government and grants DHS new powers to approve sharing classified intelligence with the private sector.

E.O. 13687, Imposing Additional Sanctions with Respect to North Korea

January 2, 2015

White House

States that North Korea engaged in "provocative, destabilizing, and repressive actions and policies," including "destructive, coercive cyber-related actions during November and December 2014," and authorizes sanctions against North Korea. The sanctions prohibit the people and organizations named from accessing the U.S. financial system and forbid any banks or other financial institutions that do business with the U.S. system from doing business with the sanctioned entities.

E.O. 13681, Improving the Security of Consumer Financial Transactions

October 17, 2014

White House

Mandates that government credit and debit cards be enabled with chip and PIN technology and that federal facilities accept chip and PIN-enabled cards at retail terminals.

E.O. 13636, Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity

February 12, 2013

White House

Addresses cybersecurity threats to critical infrastructure (CI) by, among other things,

  • expanding to other CI sectors an existing DHS program for information sharing and collaboration between the government and the private sector;
  • establishing a broadly consultative process for identifying CI with especially high priority for protection;
  • requiring the National Institute of Standards and Technology to lead in developing a Cybersecurity Framework of standards and best practices for protecting CI; and
  • requiring regulatory agencies to determine the adequacy of current requirements and their authority to establish requirements to address the risks.

Presidential Policy Directive (PPD) 21 - Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience 

February 12, 2013

White House

Establishes national policy on critical infrastructure security and resilience. This endeavor is a shared responsibility among the federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial (SLTT) entities, and public and private owners and operators of critical infrastructure (hereinafter referred to as "critical infrastructure owners and operators"). This directive also refines and clarifies the critical infrastructure-related functions, roles, and responsibilities across the federal government, as well as enhances overall coordination and collaboration. The federal government also has a responsibility to strengthen the security and resilience of its own critical infrastructure, for the continuity of national essential functions, and to organize itself to partner effectively with and add value to the security and resilience efforts of critical infrastructure owners and operators.

E. O. 13618, Assignment of National Security and Emergency Preparedness Communications Functions

July 6, 2012

White House

Addresses the federal government's need and responsibility to communicate during national security and emergency situations and crises by assigning federal national security and emergency preparedness communications functions. EO 13618 is a continuation of older executive orders issued by other presidents and is related to the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. §606). This executive order, however, changes federal national security and emergency preparedness communications functions by dissolving the National Communications System, establishing an executive committee to oversee federal national security and emergency preparedness communications functions, establishing a programs office within the DHS to assist the executive committee, and assigning specific responsibilities to federal government entities.

E.O. 13587, Structural Reforms to Improve the Security of Classified Networks and the Responsible

October 7, 2011

White House

Directs structural reforms to ensure responsible sharing and safeguarding of classified information on computer networks that shall be consistent with appropriate protections for privacy and civil liberties. Agencies bear the primary responsibility for meeting these twin goals. These policies and minimum standards will address all agencies that operate or access classified computer networks, all users of classified computer networks (including contractors and others who operate or access classified computer networks controlled by the federal government), and all classified information on those networks.

HSPD-23/NSPD-54 -Cybersecurity Policy

January 8, 2008

White House

Establishes U.S. policy, strategy, guidelines, and implementation actions to secure cyberspace. It strengthens and augments existing policies for protecting the security and privacy of information entrusted to the federal government and clarifies roles and responsibilities of federal agencies relating to cybersecurity. It requires the federal government to integrate many of its technical and organizational capabilities to better address sophisticated cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities.

E.O. 13407, Public Alert and Warning System

June 26, 2006

White House

Assigns the Secretary of Homeland Security the responsibility to establish or adopt, as appropriate, common alerting and warning protocols, standards, terminology, and operating procedures for the public alert and warning system to enable interoperability and the secure delivery of coordinated messages to the American people through as many communication pathways as practicable, taking account of Federal Communications Commission rules as provided by law.

HSPD-7, Homeland Security Presidential Directive No. 7: Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection

December 17, 2003

White House

Assigns the Secretary of Homeland Security the responsibility of coordinating the nation's overall efforts in critical infrastructure protection across all sectors. HSPD-7 also designates the DHS as lead agency for the nation's information and telecommunications sectors.

E.O. 13286, Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection With the Transfer of Certain Functions to the Secretary of Homeland Security

February 28, 2003

White House

Designates the Secretary of Homeland Security the Executive Agent of the National Communication System Committee of Principals, which are the agencies, designated by the President, that own or lease telecommunication assets identified as part of the National Communication System, or which bear policy, regulatory, or enforcement responsibilities of importance to national security and emergency preparedness telecommunications.

Presidential Decision Directive/NSC-63

May 22, 1998

White House

Sets as a national goal the ability to protect the nation's critical infrastructure from intentional attacks (both physical and cyber) by the year 2003. According to the PDD, any interruptions in the ability of these infrastructures to provide their goods and services must be "brief, infrequent, manageable, geographically isolated, and minimally detrimental to the welfare of the United States."

NSD-42, National Security Directive 42 - National Policy for the Security of National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems

July 5, 1990

White House

Establishes the National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee, now called the Committee on National Security Systems (CNSS). CNSS is an interagency committee, chaired by the Department of Defense. Among other assignments, NSD-42 directs the CNSS to provide system security guidance for national security systems to executive departments and agencies and submit annually to the Executive Agent an evaluation of the security status of national security systems. NSD-42 also directs the CNSS to interact, as necessary, with the National Communications System Committee of Principals.

Source: Descriptions compiled by CRS from government websites.

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Information Research Specialist ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Key CRS Policy Staff

See CRS Report R42619, Cybersecurity: CRS Experts, by [author name scrubbed], for the names and contact information for CRS experts on policy issues related to cybersecurity bills.

Footnotes

1.

The White House, Complete Cybersecurity Proposal, 2011, https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/omb/legislative/letters/law-enforcement-provisions-related-to-computer-security-full-bill.pdf.

2.

E.O. 13691, Encouraging Private-Sector Cybersecurity Collaboration, White House, February 12, 2015, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/02/12/fact-sheet-executive-order-promoting-private-sector-cybersecurity-inform.

3.

PDD-63, Critical Infrastructure Protection, White House, May 22, 1998, at http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/pdd/pdd-63.htm.

4.

Presidential Memorandum—Establishment of the Cyber Threat Intelligence Integration Center. White House, February 25, 2015, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/02/25/presidential-memorandum-establishment-cyber-threat-intelligence-integrat.

5.

The omnibus law's cybersecurity provisions are located in Division N (Cybersecurity Act of 2015), including Title I, Cybersecurity Information Sharing, Title II, National Cybersecurity Advancement, Title III, Federal Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment, and Title IV, Other Cyber Matters. The measure represents a compromise between the House and Senate intelligence committees and the House Homeland Security Committee. It includes various components of three separate information sharing bills: H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731, passed by the House in April 2015, and S. 754, passed by the Senate in October 2015.

6.

The omnibus law's cybersecurity provisions are located in Division N (Cybersecurity Act of 2015), including Title I, Cybersecurity Information Sharing, Title II, National Cybersecurity Advancement, Title III, Federal Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment, and Title IV, Other Cyber Matters. The measure represents a compromise between the House and Senate intelligence committees and the House Homeland Security Committee. It includes various components of three separate information sharing bills: H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731, passed by the House in April 2015, and S. 754, passed by the Senate in October 2015.