Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013

. Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 R. Eric Petersen Specialist in American National Government Lara E. Chausow Research Assistant Amber Hope Wilhelm Visual Information Specialist November 3, 2014 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R43774 c11173008 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Summary This report provides pay data for 16 staff position titles that are typically deployed in Senators’ offices. The positions include the following: Administrative Director; Casework Supervisor; Caseworker; Chief of Staff; Communications Director; Counsel; Executive Assistant; Field Representative; Legislative Assistant; Legislative Correspondent; Legislative Director; Press Secretary; Scheduler; “Specials Director,” a combined category that includes the job titles Director of Projects, Director of Special Projects, Director of Federal Projects, Director of Grants, Projects Director, or Grants Director; Staff Assistant; and State Director. Senators’ staff pay data for the years FY2009-FY2013 were derived from a random sampling of Senators’ offices in which at least one staff member worked in a position in each year. Data tables provide tabular pay data for each staff position. A graphic for each position is also included. The graphics display representations of pay from three perspectives, including the following: • change in pay, FY2009-FY2013, in nominal (current) and constant, 2014 dollars; • a comparison of the cumulative percentage change for that position to changes in pay, in constant dollars, for Members of Congress and federal civilian workers paid under the General Schedule in Washington, DC, and surrounding areas in northern Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia and Pennsylvania (DC), and Rest of the U.S. (RUS) from FY2009-FY2013; and • distributions of FY2013 pay in 2014 dollars, in $10,000 increments. Between FY2009 and FY2013, the median change in pay, in constant, 2014 dollars for all 16 staff positions working in Senators’ offices declined. The smallest, -0.13%, was found among administrative directors. Schedulers were affected by the greatest change, -20.56%. This may be compared to changes over approximately the same period (calendar years 2009-2013) to Members of Congress, -7.91%; General Schedule, DC, -5.67%; and General Schedule, RUS,6.28%. Pay data for staff working in House Member offices are available in CRS Report R43775, Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in House Member Offices, 2009-2013, by R. Eric Petersen, Lara E. Chausow, and Amber Hope Wilhelm. c11173008 Congressional Research Service Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1 Data Concerns .................................................................................................................................. 3 Data Tables and Visualizations ........................................................................................................ 3 Tables Table 1. Administrative Director...................................................................................................... 5 Table 2. Casework Supervisor ......................................................................................................... 6 Table 3. Caseworker ........................................................................................................................ 7 Table 4. Chief of Staff ...................................................................................................................... 8 Table 5. Communications Director .................................................................................................. 9 Table 6. Counsel ............................................................................................................................ 10 Table 7. Executive Assistant .......................................................................................................... 11 Table 8. Field Representative ......................................................................................................... 12 Table 9. Legislative Assistant ........................................................................................................ 13 Table 10. Legislative Correspondent ............................................................................................. 14 Table 11. Legislative Director........................................................................................................ 15 Table 12. Press Secretary ............................................................................................................... 16 Table 13. Scheduler........................................................................................................................ 17 Table 14. Specials Director ............................................................................................................ 18 Table 15. Staff Assistant ................................................................................................................ 19 Table 16. State Director ................................................................................................................. 20 Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 21 Acknowledgments ......................................................................................................................... 21 c11173008 Congressional Research Service Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Introduction Levels of pay for congressional staff are a source of recurring questions among Members of Congress, congressional staff, and the public. Senators set the terms and conditions of employment for staff in their offices. This includes job titles and descriptions, rates of pay, subject to minimum and maximum levels,1 and resources available to them to carry out their official duties.2 There may be interest in congressional pay data from multiple perspectives, including assessment of the costs of congressional operations; guidance in setting pay levels for staff in Member offices; or comparison of congressional staff pay levels with those of other federal government pay systems. Publicly available information sources do not provide aggregated congressional staff pay data in a readily retrievable form. The most recent publicly available Senate staff compensation report was issued in 2006,3 and relied on anonymous, self-reported survey data. Data in this report are based on official Senate reports, which afford the opportunity to use consistently collected data. Pay4 information in this report is based on the Senate’s Report of the Secretary of the Senate, published semiannually, in periods from April 1 to September 30, and October 1 to March 31,5 as collated by LegiStorm, a private entity that provides some congressional data by subscription.6 Additionally, this report provides annual data, which allows for observations about the nature of Senators’ personal staff compensation over time. This report provides pay data for 16 staff position titles that are typically used in Senators’ offices.7 The positions include the following: • Administrative Director8 • Casework Supervisor9 • Caseworker10 1 Since 2009, the minimum level of gross pay has been $2,267, and the maximum annual pay for staff in a Senator’s personal office has been $169,459, 2 U.S.C. 4575. 2 For discussion of resources available to Members to carry out their official duties, see CRS Report RL30064, Congressional Salaries and Allowances, by Ida A. Brudnick. 3 U.S. Senate, Secretary of the Senate, 2006 U.S. Senate Employment, Compensation, Hiring and Benefits Study (Washington: 2006). 4 In this report, pay refers to monies paid by the Senate to staff, and excludes other components of total compensation, which might include paid leave or employer contributions to various insurance and retirement benefits. 5 The Report of the Secretary of the Senate since April, 2011, is available at https://www.senate.gov/legislative/ common/generic/report_secsen.htm. 6 http://www.legistorm.com/. 7 For a discussion of staff roles in Members’ offices, see CRS Report RL34545, Congressional Staff: Duties and Functions of Selected Positions, by R. Eric Petersen. 8 Other job titles which may indicate similar duties, and for which pay data were collected, include Office Manager, Office Administrator, and Administrative Manager. 9 Other job titles which may indicate similar duties, and for which pay data were collected, include Casework Director, Casework Coordinator, and Director of Constituent Services. 10 Other job titles which may indicate similar duties, and for which pay data were collected, include Constituent Services Representative and Federal Caseworker. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 1 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . • Chief of Staff • Communications Director • Counsel11 • Executive Assistant • Field Representative12 • Legislative Assistant • Legislative Correspondent • Legislative Director. • Press Secretary • Scheduler • “Specials Director,” a combined category that includes the job titles Director of Projects, Director of Special Projects, Director of Federal Projects, Director of Grants, Projects Director, or Grants Director • Staff Assistant • State Director Senators’ staff pay data for the years FY2009-FY2013 were derived from a random sampling of Senators’ offices in which at least one staff member worked in a position in each year. For each fiscal year, FY2009-FY2013, a random sample13 of 25 Senators’ offices was taken for each position. In order to be included, Senate staff had to hold a position with the same job title in the Senator’s office for the entire fiscal year examined. Every recorded payment ascribed in the LegiStorm data to those staff for the fiscal year is included. For some positions, it was not possible to identify 25 offices that employed staff for an entire year. Generally, each position has no more than one observation per Senator’s office each fiscal year. Pay data for staff working in House Member offices are available in CRS Report R43775, Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in House Member Offices, 2009-2013, by R. Eric Petersen, Lara E. Chausow, and Amber Hope Wilhelm. 11 Other job titles which may indicate similar duties, and for which pay data were collected, include Legal Counsel, Legislative Counsel, Senior Counsel, Chief Counsel, and General Counsel. 12 Another job title which may indicate similar duties, and for which pay data were collected, was Regional Representative. 13 Obtaining the salaries of every congressional staff member from every Senator’s office listed in the Report of the Secretary of the Senate was beyond the capacity of available resources. Each year, a different, random sample of Senators’ offices was taken for each position. The large random samples of positions in Senators’ offices mean that a full accounting would be unlikely to yield significantly different results. At the same time, a study that examines pay data based on different job titles, or which combines pay data from positions of similar titles or duties (e.g., legislative assistant and senior legislative assistant, or executive assistants, schedulers and executive assistant/schedulers), could result in findings that are different from those provided here. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 2 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Data Concerns There may be some advantages to relying on official salary expenditure data instead of survey findings, but data presented here are subject to some challenges that could affect findings or their interpretation. Some of the concerns include the following: • Data are lacking for first-term Senators in the first session of a Congress. The periods of time covered by the Report of the Secretary of the Senate overlap the end of one Congress and convening of the next. This report provides no data for first-term Senators in the first nine months of their service.14 • Pay data provide no insight into the experience, tenure, full- or part-time status, demographics, or other potential explanations for levels of compensation. • Staff could be based in Washington, DC, state offices, or both. • Potential differences might exist in the job duties of positions with the same title. Aggregation of pay by job title rests on the assumption that staff with the same title carry out the same or similar tasks. Given the wide discretion congressional employing authorities have in setting the terms and conditions of employment, there may be differences in the duties of similarly titled staff that could have effects on their levels of pay. Acknowledging the imprecision inherent in congressional job titles, an older edition of the Senate Handbook states, “Throughout the Senate, individuals with the same job title perform vastly different duties.”15 Data Tables and Visualizations Data tables provide tabular pay data for each staff position. A graphic for each position is also included. The graphics display representations of pay from three perspectives, including the following: • change in pay, FY2009-FY2013, in nominal (current) and constant, 2014 dollars; • a comparison of the cumulative percentage change of that position to changes in pay, in constant dollars, of Members of Congress, and federal civilian workers paid under the General Schedule in Washington, DC, and surrounding areas in northern Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia and Pennsylvania (DC),16 and Rest of the U.S. (RUS)17 from FY2009-FY201318; and 14 For information on the number of first-term Members in each Congress, see CRS Report R41283, First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th - 113th Congresses, by Jennifer E. Manning and R. Eric Petersen. 15 U.S. Senate, Committee on Rules and Administration, Senate Handbook (Washington: 1996), pp. I-13, available from the authors. 16 For a complete description of areas covered under the Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WVPA locality pay table, see http://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/pay-leave/salaries-wages/2014/locality-pay-areadefinitions/#w. 17 The RUS pay table includes those portions of the United States and its territories and possessions (nonforeign areas) not located within another locality pay area. For definitions of 2014 locality pay areas, see Office of Personnel (continued...) c11173008 Congressional Research Service 3 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . • distributions of FY2013 pay in 2014 dollars, in $10,000 increments. Between 2009 and 2013, the median19 change in pay, in constant 2014 dollars, for all 16 staff positions working in Senators’ offices declined. The smallest change, -0.13%, was found among administrative directors. Schedulers were affected by the greatest change, -20.56%, between FY2009 and FY2013. This may be compared to changes over approximately the same period (calendar years 2009-2013) to Members of Congress, -7.91%; General Schedule, DC, -5.67%; and General Schedule, RUS, -6.28%. (...continued) Management, “Pay & Leave, Salaries & Wages,” http://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/pay-leave/salaries-wages/ 2014/locality-pay-area-definitions. For discussion of how locality pay is calculated, see CRS Report RL34463, Federal White-Collar Pay: FY2009 and FY2010 Salary Adjustments, by Barbara L. Schwemle. 18 Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff positions are based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. 19 The median is the midpoint at which half of the numbers in a list are higher and the other half lower. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 4 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 1. Administrative Director Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: directing the administrative support staff; maintenance of office accounts; and procuring and maintaining equipment for office. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $46,459 $64,772 $54,375 $58,000 $42,667 Median $95,164 $105,167 $107,000 $107,000 $103,200 Average $96,479 $102,624 $104,195 $104,323 $102,752 Maximum $140,250 $150,811 $153,506 $135,521 $169,000 Minimum $51,190 $70,216 $57,141 $59,715 $43,294 Median $104,855 $114,006 $112,444 $110,164 $104,718 Average $106,303 $111,250 $109,496 $107,408 $104,263 Maximum $154,532 $163,487 $161,317 $139,529 $171,486 Median – 8.73% -1.37% -2.03% -4.94% Average – 4.65% -1.58% -1.91% -2.93% Annual Average -0.44% Annual Median 0.10% FY09-FY13 Average -1.92% FY09-FY13 Median -0.13% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year from various Senators’ offices. Other job titles included in data for this position include Office Manager, Office Administrator, and Administrative Manager. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire five-year period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 5 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 2. Casework Supervisor Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: managing caseworkers and casework workflows; and acting as a liaison for the Senator with federal, state, and local agencies on behalf of constituents. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $55,750 $40,773 $40,773 $40,000 $34,187 Median $79,000 $81,416 $74,154 $76,000 $72,000 Average $79,269 $80,992 $76,233 $74,940 $68,184 Maximum $109,356 $120,697 $122,000 $127,000 $95,583 Minimum $61,427 $44,200 $42,847 $41,183 $34,689 Median $87,045 $88,259 $77,927 $78,247 $73,059 Average $87,341 $87,799 $80,111 $77,157 $69,187 Maximum $120,493 $130,841 $128,207 $130,756 $96,989 Median – 1.39% -11.71% 0.41% -6.63% Average – 0.53% -8.76% -3.69% -10.33% Annual Average -5.56% Annual Median -4.13% FY09-FY13 Average -20.78% FY09-FY13 Median -16.07% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year from various Senators’ offices. Other job titles included in data for this position include Casework Director, Casework Coordinator, and Director of Constituent Services. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire five-year period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 6 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 3. Caseworker Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: responding to casework inquiries from constituents; acting as a grassroots representative for the Senator within assigned areas of responsibility; and monitoring and updating the Senator or relevant official in the office on casework issues. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $19,583 $23,500 $28,237 $30,000 $30,000 Median $42,629 $41,745 $41,603 $43,365 $44,125 Average $44,897 $47,926 $44,809 $44,187 $46,201 Maximum $76,847 $90,800 $87,450 $87,465 $85,000 Minimum $21,578 $25,475 $29,674 $30,887 $30,441 Median $46,970 $45,253 $43,720 $44,647 $44,774 Average $49,469 $51,954 $47,089 $45,494 $46,881 Maximum $84,673 $98,432 $91,899 $90,052 $86,250 Median – -3.65% -3.39% 2.12% 0.28% Average – 5.02% -9.36% -3.39% 3.05% Annual Average -1.17% Annual Median -1.16% FY09-FY13 Average -5.23% FY09-FY13 Median -4.68% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year from various Senators’ offices. Other job titles included in data for this position include Constituent Services Representative and Federal Caseworker. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire five-year period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 7 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 4. Chief of Staff Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: developing and implementing all policy objectives, strategies, and operating plans for a Senator’s office; managing and directing all activities and staff of the Senator's Washington, DC, and field offices; coordinating the activities of the Senator with the leadership of the appropriate chamber and committees; and overseeing the Senator's office budget. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $147,960 $156,930 $138,500 $140,417 $128,844 Median $166,926 $169,428 $169,459 $169,459 $166,500 Average $164,532 $166,654 $166,692 $166,399 $161,550 Maximum $167,305 $169,459 $169,459 $169,459 $169,459 Minimum $163,027 $170,121 $145,547 $144,569 $130,739 Median $183,925 $183,669 $178,081 $174,471 $168,949 Average $181,287 $180,662 $175,174 $171,320 $163,926 Maximum $184,342 $183,702 $178,081 $174,471 $171,952 Median – -0.14% -3.04% -2.03% -3.16% Average – -0.35% -3.04% -2.20% -4.32% Annual Average -2.47% Annual Median -2.09% FY09-FY13 Average -9.58% FY09-FY13 Median -8.14% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year from various Senators’ offices. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire fiveyear period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 8 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 5. Communications Director Duties may include managing and coordination all messaging for the Senator and the office. Change Constant $ Nominal $ FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $75,400 $90,875 $90,000 $91,855 $80,333 Median $109,296 $116,996 $108,562 $117,500 $115,575 Average $111,197 $115,873 $113,114 $115,597 $116,213 Maximum $156,687 $167,500 $168,547 $147,184 $164,568 Minimum $83,078 $98,513 $94,579 $94,572 $81,515 Median $120,425 $126,829 $114,086 $120,975 $117,275 Average $122,521 $125,612 $118,869 $119,016 $117,922 Maximum $172,643 $181,579 $177,123 $151,537 $166,989 Median – 5.32% -10.05% 6.04% -3.06% Average – 2.52% -5.37% 0.12% -0.92% Annual Average -0.91% Annual Median -0.44% FY09-FY13 Average -3.75% FY09-FY13 Median -2.62% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year from various Senators’ offices. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire fiveyear period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 9 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 6. Counsel Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: advising the Senator on legal issues; and ensuring compliance with chamber rules, the law, and ethics guidelines. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $45,000 $45,000 $45,000 $49,750 $55,250 Median $89,000 $85,250 $81,663 $80,868 $83,200 Average $88,826 $86,043 $81,035 $87,312 $83,353 Maximum $129,788 $141,500 $138,000 $151,275 $109,000 Minimum $49,582 $48,782 $47,290 $51,221 $56,063 Median $98,063 $92,415 $85,818 $83,260 $84,424 Average $97,871 $93,275 $85,158 $89,894 $84,579 Maximum $143,005 $153,393 $145,022 $155,749 $110,603 Median – -5.76% -7.14% -2.98% 1.40% Average – -4.70% -8.70% 5.56% -5.91% Annual Average -3.44% Annual Median -3.62% FY09-FY13 Average -13.58% FY09-FY13 Median -13.91% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations in FY10 and FY12; 23 in FY09; and 21 in FY11 and FY13 from various Senators’ offices. Other job titles included in data for this position include Legal Counsel, Legislative Counsel, Senior Counsel, Chief Counsel, and General Counsel. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire five-year period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 10 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 7. Executive Assistant Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: maintaining the Senator's files, including notes, correspondence, and all information related to travel; logging and monitoring the Senator's incoming telephone calls; taking messages; and ensuring that the Senator is provided with briefing materials for various activities in which the Senator participates. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $42,272 $33,458 $37,500 $37,500 $37,667 Median $86,817 $88,531 $77,000 $86,000 $81,372 Average $91,183 $90,428 $84,788 $87,805 $85,565 Maximum $167,305 $169,459 $169,459 $169,459 $169,459 Minimum $46,577 $36,270 $39,408 $38,609 $38,221 Median $95,658 $95,972 $80,918 $88,543 $82,569 Average $100,469 $98,029 $89,102 $90,402 $86,824 Maximum $184,342 $183,702 $178,081 $174,471 $171,952 Median – 0.33% -15.69% 9.42% -6.75% Average – -2.43% -9.11% 1.46% -3.96% Annual Average -3.51% Annual Median -3.17% FY09-FY13 Average -13.58% FY09-FY13 Median -13.68% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year, FY09-FY12; and 22 in FY13, from various Senators’ offices. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire five-year period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 11 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 8. Field Representative Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: acting as a liaison with federal, state, and local agencies for the Senator and constituents; and assessing casework for matters that might require legislative action. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $29,495 $30,712 $32,250 $31,750 $33,500 Median $53,500 $58,750 $54,504 $53,768 $53,000 Average $55,405 $58,025 $54,968 $55,790 $55,482 Maximum $91,750 $102,500 $74,927 $79,670 $83,000 Minimum $32,499 $33,294 $33,891 $32,689 $33,993 Median $58,948 $63,688 $57,277 $55,358 $53,780 Average $61,047 $62,902 $57,765 $57,440 $56,298 Maximum $101,093 $111,115 $78,739 $82,026 $84,221 Median – 8.04% -10.07% -3.35% -2.85% Average – 3.04% -8.17% -0.56% -1.99% Annual Average -1.92% Annual Median -2.06% FY09-FY13 Average -7.78% FY09-FY13 Median -8.77% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year from various Senators’ offices. Another job title included in data for this position is Regional Representative. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire five-year period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 12 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 9. Legislative Assistant Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: developing legislative initiatives; advising the Senator on legislative issues; and monitoring legislative and policy developments within assigned substantive areas. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $50,042 $55,021 $46,042 $46,667 $42,333 Median $66,125 $77,344 $70,396 $74,000 $65,640 Average $69,293 $75,900 $70,272 $73,228 $65,043 Maximum $106,916 $110,528 $112,078 $120,828 $87,750 Minimum $55,138 $59,645 $48,384 $48,047 $42,956 Median $72,859 $83,845 $73,978 $76,188 $66,606 Average $76,349 $82,279 $73,847 $75,393 $66,000 Maximum $117,803 $119,818 $117,780 $124,401 $89,041 Median – 15.08% -11.77% 2.99% -12.58% Average – 7.77% -10.25% 2.09% -12.46% Annual Average -3.21% Annual Median -1.57% FY09-FY13 Average -13.56% FY09-FY13 Median -8.58% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year from various Senators’ offices. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire fiveyear period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 13 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 10. Legislative Correspondent Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: providing research for response to constituents' correspondence; drafting, proofreading, and transmitting letters; and providing administrative support to legislative staff as needed. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $30,156 $30,484 $31,500 $29,250 $34,000 Median $36,786 $39,850 $37,000 $35,786 $37,787 Average $38,093 $39,817 $37,460 $37,616 $39,396 Maximum $49,750 $50,500 $51,250 $53,417 $49,083 Minimum $33,226 $33,046 $33,103 $30,115 $34,500 Median $40,532 $43,199 $38,883 $36,844 $38,343 Average $41,972 $43,164 $39,366 $38,729 $39,976 Maximum $54,816 $54,745 $53,858 $54,996 $49,805 Median – 6.58% -9.99% -5.24% 4.07% Average – 2.84% -8.80% -1.62% 3.22% Annual Average -1.09% Annual Median -1.15% FY09-FY13 Average -4.76% FY09-FY13 Median -5.40% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year from various Senators’ offices. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire fiveyear period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 14 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 11. Legislative Director Duties may include: managing office legislative activities; supervising a Senator’s legislative staff; assisting in the development of policy positions and legislative initiatives; and monitoring floor activity. Change Constant $ Nominal $ LD FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $98,743 $105,000 $96,458 $99,667 $94,854 Median $134,583 $134,500 $130,000 $131,500 $130,000 Average $135,702 $138,951 $129,435 $133,606 $128,555 Maximum $167,305 $169,459 $169,459 $169,459 $156,205 Minimum $108,798 $113,825 $101,366 $102,614 $96,249 Median $148,288 $145,805 $136,614 $135,389 $131,912 Average $149,521 $150,630 $136,020 $137,557 $130,446 Maximum $184,342 $183,702 $178,081 $174,471 $158,503 Median – -1.67% -6.30% -0.90% -2.57% Average – 0.74% -9.70% 1.13% -5.17% Annual Average -3.25% Annual Median -2.86% FY09-FY13 Average -12.76% FY09-FY13 Median -11.04% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year from various Senators’ offices. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire fiveyear period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 15 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 12. Press Secretary Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: developing and implementing media and communications strategies for the Senator; acting as the formal spokesperson and media liaison for the Senator; and writing speeches for the Senator. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $38,452 $41,000 $46,808 $40,000 $39,221 Median $67,453 $70,096 $61,896 $59,083 $59,500 Average $71,592 $73,021 $65,442 $64,934 $64,690 Maximum $131,000 $138,419 $110,591 $118,000 $127,500 Minimum $42,368 $44,446 $49,190 $41,183 $39,798 Median $74,322 $75,987 $65,045 $60,831 $60,375 Average $78,883 $79,158 $68,772 $66,855 $65,642 Maximum $144,340 $150,053 $116,218 $121,490 $129,376 Median – 2.24% -14.40% -6.48% -0.75% Average – 0.35% -13.12% -2.79% -1.81% Annual Average -4.34% Annual Median -4.85% FY09-FY13 Average -16.79% FY09-FY13 Median -18.77% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year, FY09-FY10, and FY12-FY13; and 24, in FY11, from various Senators’ offices. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire five-year period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 16 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 13. Scheduler Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: briefing the Senator on all scheduling activities; making recommendations on proposed meetings; scheduling staff meetings; and coordinating the scheduling of the Senator’s press and media interactions with the press secretary or communications director. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $28,468 $34,916 $38,000 $38,792 $33,641 Median $78,250 $76,887 $72,500 $76,000 $67,500 Average $76,762 $78,105 $76,168 $77,970 $72,157 Maximum $162,986 $125,701 $159,333 $135,000 $130,000 Minimum $31,367 $37,851 $39,933 $39,939 $34,136 Median $86,218 $83,350 $76,189 $78,248 $68,493 Average $84,579 $84,669 $80,043 $80,276 $73,219 Maximum $179,583 $136,266 $167,440 $138,992 $131,912 Median – -3.33% -8.59% 2.70% -12.47% Average – 0.11% -5.46% 0.29% -8.79% Annual Average -3.46% Annual Median -5.42% FY09-FY13 Average -13.43% FY09-FY13 Median -20.56% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year from various Senators’ offices. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire fiveyear period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 17 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 14. Specials Director Duties may include: overseeing office activities or staff related to grants or projects designated by the Senator. Change Constant $ Nominal $ FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $16,810 $25,088 $38,000 $33,825 $40,600 Median $59,246 $60,653 $68,017 $60,962 $55,000 Average $64,690 $63,544 $67,259 $65,481 $60,860 Maximum $134,557 $139,788 $96,655 $97,083 $105,083 Minimum $18,522 $27,197 $39,933 $34,825 $41,197 Median $65,279 $65,751 $71,478 $62,765 $55,809 Average $71,278 $68,885 $70,681 $67,417 $61,756 Maximum $148,260 $151,538 $101,573 $99,954 $106,629 Median – 0.72% 8.71% -12.19% -11.08% Average – -3.36% 2.61% -4.62% -8.40% Annual Average -3.44% Annual Median -3.46% FY09-FY13 Average -13.36% FY09-FY13 Median -14.51% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year, FY09-FY10, 22, in FY11-FY12, and 15, in FY13, from various Senators’ offices. Job titles included in data for this combined category include Director of Projects, Director of Special Projects, Director of Federal Projects, Director of Grants, Projects Director, or Grants Director. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire five-year period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 18 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 15. Staff Assistant Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: answering telephones and providing support services; greeting visitors; assisting with scheduling; responding to constituent requests for general information, tours and other non-legislative matters; and monitoring delivery and pickup of materials. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $18,683 $18,781 $27,668 $22,000 $24,431 Median $35,216 $35,661 $35,083 $33,583 $35,062 Average $37,386 $36,566 $37,963 $37,968 $35,959 Maximum $56,500 $61,500 $59,300 $72,000 $60,300 Minimum $20,585 $20,359 $29,076 $22,651 $24,791 Median $38,802 $38,659 $36,868 $34,577 $35,578 Average $41,193 $39,639 $39,894 $39,091 $36,488 Maximum $62,254 $66,669 $62,317 $74,129 $61,187 Median – -0.37% -4.63% -6.22% 2.90% Average – -3.77% 0.64% -2.01% -6.66% Annual Average -2.95% Annual Median -2.08% FY09-FY13 Average -11.42% FY09-FY13 Median -8.31% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year from various Senators’ offices. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire fiveyear period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 19 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Table 16. State Director Change Constant $ Nominal $ Duties may include: managing the principal state office or other state offices of a Senator; and overseeing all state office operations. FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Minimum $81,132 $79,429 $81,500 $83,500 $56,167 Median $113,975 $116,496 $123,557 $116,500 $120,400 Average $118,890 $120,986 $126,386 $123,006 $125,491 Maximum $167,305 $169,459 $169,459 $169,459 $169,459 Minimum $89,394 $86,106 $85,647 $85,969 $56,993 Median $125,581 $126,288 $129,844 $119,945 $122,171 Average $130,997 $131,155 $132,816 $126,643 $127,337 Maximum $184,342 $183,702 $178,081 $174,471 $171,952 Median – 0.56% 2.82% -7.62% 1.86% Average – 0.12% 1.27% -4.65% 0.55% Annual Average -0.68% Annual Median -0.60% FY09-FY13 Average -2.79% FY09-FY13 Median -2.72% Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Visualizations provide information in constant 2014 dollars in thousands, except where indicated. Detailed information about data sources is available above in “Data Tables and Visualizations.” Notes: Data are based on a sample of 25 observations per year from various Senators’ offices. In the Change section of the data table, Annual Average and Annual Median cells provide the average and median change per year, respectively, while the FY09-FY13 Average and FY09-FY13 Median provide the change over the entire fiveyear period, respectively. Change in pay data for General Schedule and Members of Congress are based on calendar year 2009-2013 change; staff position is based on median change, FY2009-FY2013. In the FY2013 Distribution of Pay visualization, percentages are rounded, and may not equal 100%. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 20 Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2009-FY2013 . Author Contact Information R. Eric Petersen Specialist in American National Government epetersen@crs.loc.gov, 7-0643 Amber Hope Wilhelm Visual Information Specialist awilhelm@crs.loc.gov, 7-2392 Lara E. Chausow Research Assistant lchausow@crs.loc.gov, 7-2384 Acknowledgments Jose Wisniewski and Claire Laurence, former CRS interns, collected data for this report. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 21