Programs Available to Unemployed Workers Through the American Job Center Network

Many federally funded programs that assist unemployed workers are co-located and coordinated through state and locally run American Job Centers (AJCs; also known as One-Stop Career Centers). The specific set of benefits and services available to a worker through the AJC network varies by the worker’s characteristics and reason for unemployment.

Unemployment insurance (UI) is a federal-state system and mandatory AJC partner. UI benefits are available to workers who have involuntarily lost their jobs and have demonstrated a required level of labor force attachment. UI provides weekly cash payments to replace a portion of the eligible workers’ earnings, up to a statewide maximum. Eligibility and benefit levels vary by state, though most states offer up to 26 weeks of state-financed UI benefits through each state’s Unemployment Compensation (UC) program. Certain economic conditions may extend the duration of UI benefits through the permanent Extended Benefit (EB) program.

To assist workers in obtaining employment, AJCs coordinate a number of programs that provide career services and training benefits. These efforts include both broadly available programs and targeted programs. Unlike UI benefits, which are mandatory entitlements, these employment and training programs are subject to funding caps. The primary AJC partner programs can generally be characterized as follows:

Grants with a national scope support employment and training activities in all states. The activities supported by each grant vary. Some programs are available to all jobseekers while others limit eligibility based on a jobseeker’s reason for unemployment or personal characteristics.

Competitive grants support more targeted employment and training services. These grants may not have a presence in all states.

Other partner programs are mandatory AJC partners that indirectly support employment and training activities or support employment and training activities among other functions.

This report is limited to mandatory AJC partners under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014. Some federally funded programs with employment and training components are not AJC partners and some AJC partners have primary purposes other than employment. As such, the group of programs discussed in this report may vary from other reviews of federal workforce programs and should not be considered conclusive nor exhaustive.

Programs Available to Unemployed Workers Through the American Job Center Network

July 18, 2017 (R43301)
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Contents

Summary

Many federally funded programs that assist unemployed workers are co-located and coordinated through state and locally run American Job Centers (AJCs; also known as One-Stop Career Centers). The specific set of benefits and services available to a worker through the AJC network varies by the worker's characteristics and reason for unemployment.

Unemployment insurance (UI) is a federal-state system and mandatory AJC partner. UI benefits are available to workers who have involuntarily lost their jobs and have demonstrated a required level of labor force attachment. UI provides weekly cash payments to replace a portion of the eligible workers' earnings, up to a statewide maximum. Eligibility and benefit levels vary by state, though most states offer up to 26 weeks of state-financed UI benefits through each state's Unemployment Compensation (UC) program. Certain economic conditions may extend the duration of UI benefits through the permanent Extended Benefit (EB) program.

To assist workers in obtaining employment, AJCs coordinate a number of programs that provide career services and training benefits. These efforts include both broadly available programs and targeted programs. Unlike UI benefits, which are mandatory entitlements, these employment and training programs are subject to funding caps. The primary AJC partner programs can generally be characterized as follows:

  • Grants with a national scope support employment and training activities in all states. The activities supported by each grant vary. Some programs are available to all jobseekers while others limit eligibility based on a jobseeker's reason for unemployment or personal characteristics.
  • Competitive grants support more targeted employment and training services. These grants may not have a presence in all states.
  • Other partner programs are mandatory AJC partners that indirectly support employment and training activities or support employment and training activities among other functions.

This report is limited to mandatory AJC partners under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014. Some federally funded programs with employment and training components are not AJC partners and some AJC partners have primary purposes other than employment. As such, the group of programs discussed in this report may vary from other reviews of federal workforce programs and should not be considered conclusive nor exhaustive.


Programs Available to Unemployed Workers Through the American Job Center Network

Background on the American Job Center System

Many federally funded programs to assist unemployed workers are coordinated through state- and locally run American Job Centers (AJCs; also known as One-Stop Career Centers).1 Programs available to jobseekers at AJCs include income support (typically unemployment insurance), as well as a variety of reemployment and training services. Services may be provided on-site at an AJC or by a partner entity at a different location.

AJCs are operated by state and local workforce development boards. Boards are made up of representatives from business, government, the workforce, and other stakeholders. The federal government delegates most employment and training service decisions to state and local boards under the premise that sub-federal boards are best suited to meet the needs of the local labor market. There are approximately 2,500 AJC locations nationwide.

The AJC/One-Stop system was created by the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA; P.L. 105-220). WIA established that a group of federal funding streams ("mandatory partner programs") would be coordinated through state and locally run centers. The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014 (WIOA; P.L. 113-128) amended and reauthorized many WIA programs and maintained the AJC/One-Stop system.2

Report Structure and Programs Discussed

This report aims to offer a brief overview of the programs administered through the AJC system. It emphasizes eligibility requirements and the scope of benefits and services available to individuals. It does not emphasize the roles and responsibilities of institutional actors such as state agency grantees and local workforce boards. Readers seeking additional information on the programs discussed are encouraged to consult the CRS products and other resources referenced throughout this report.

This report divides AJC partner programs into several groups and subgroups.

  • Unemployment insurance provides weekly cash payments to workers who have involuntarily lost a job, have a demonstrated work history, and meet other requirements.
  • Grant programs with national scope support employment and training services and have a presence in every state.3
  • Competitive grant programs provide employment and training services but tend to be narrower in scope and reach than formula grant programs. The funding from these programs does not necessarily reach every state.
  • Other partner programs are mandatory AJC partners but may not typically provide benefits to individuals or may have a primary purpose other than placing individual jobseekers in employment.

This report focuses on mandatory partner programs in the AJC/One-Stop system with the primary purpose of providing workforce-related benefits to individuals.4 Some federally funded programs with employment and training components are not required partners with AJCs and therefore are not discussed in this report. As such, the group of programs included in this report may vary from other reviews of federal employment training programs and should not be considered exhaustive.

Unemployment Insurance5

Unemployment insurance (UI) provides a weekly cash payment to workers who involuntarily become unemployed after establishing a requisite work history. There are two programs currently authorized within the UI system:6

  • Unemployment Compensation (UC)
  • Extended Benefits (EB)

Federal laws and regulations provide broad guidelines on UC benefit coverage, eligibility, and benefit determination. The specifics of regular UC benefits are determined by each state. This results in essentially 53 different programs.7

When eligible workers lose their jobs, the UC program may provide income support through the payment of UC benefits. Individuals who exhaust UC benefits may be eligible for additional weeks of UI benefits through the permanent EB program, depending on worker eligibility, state law, and economic conditions in the state. No EB benefits were available in FY2016; and, as of the week of July 9, 2017, no EB benefits have been available in any state in FY2017 thus far.8

Table 1 provides data on recent outlays from the UC and EB programs.

Table 1. Unemployment Insurance Expenditures by Program Component, FY2016

Program Component

Description

FY2016 Outlays

Unemployment Compensation (UC)

Provides weekly cash payment to eligible, unemployed workers. (State-financed UI expenditures.)

$31.4 billion

Extended Benefits (EB)

Provides weekly cash payment to eligible, unemployed workers who have exhausted UC and EUC08 benefits. Availability and duration varies by state economic conditions. (50% state-financed/50% federally financed expenditures.)

$0.0 billion

UI Administrative Costs

Funds to states to administer UI benefits and programs. (Federally financed UI expenditures.)

$3.9 billion

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, UI Outlook, President's Budget FY2018, May 23, 2017, available at https://oui.doleta.gov/unemploy/pdf/prez_budget.pdf.

Notes: UC and EB benefits are mandatory entitlements. Annual expenditures on these benefits vary by number of claimants and duration of benefits. Under permanent law (P.L. 91-373), EB benefits are financed 50% by states and 50% by the federal government. P.L. 111-5, as amended, temporarily altered this federal-state funding arrangement through December 31, 2013, with the exception of "non-sharable" benefits (generally, these are former state and local employees' EB benefits). This temporary EB financing arrangement has now expired. The EB program is triggered when a state meets certain economic criteria; see the section in this report on "Extended Benefits" or CRS Report RL33362, Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits, for more details. No EB benefits were available in any state in FY2016. Federal grants for UI administrative costs are appropriated.

Unemployment Compensation

The UC program pays benefits to covered workers who become involuntarily unemployed for economic reasons and meet state-established eligibility rules.9 The UC program generally does not provide UC benefits to the self-employed, those who are unable to work, or those who do not have a recent earnings history. States usually disqualify claimants who lost their jobs because of inability to work, unavailability for work, or a labor dispute. Workers are also typically ineligible if they voluntarily quit without good cause, were discharged for job-related misconduct, or refused suitable work without good cause. To receive UC benefits, claimants must have enough recent earnings to meet their state's earnings requirements.

UC is financed by federal taxes under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) and by state payroll taxes under the State Unemployment Tax Acts (SUTA). Maximum weekly benefit amounts in January 2017 ranged from $133 (Puerto Rico) to $742 (Massachusetts) and, in states that provide dependents' allowances, up to $1,103 (Massachusetts). In April 2017, the average weekly benefit was $348. In most states, regular UC benefits are available for up to 26 weeks.10

Extended Benefits

The EB program, established by P.L. 91-373 (26 U.S.C. 3304 note), may extend UC benefits at the state level if certain economic conditions exist within the state. The EB program is permanently authorized, and is triggered when a state's insured unemployment rate (IUR) or total unemployment rate (TUR) reaches certain levels. All states must pay up to 13 weeks of EB if the IUR for the previous 13 weeks is at least 5% and is 120% of the average of the rates for the same 13-week period in each of the two previous years. There are two other optional thresholds that states may choose. If the state has chosen a given option, they would provide the following:

  • Option 1: an additional 13 weeks of benefits if the state's IUR is at least 6%, regardless of previous years' averages.
  • Option 2: an additional 13 weeks of benefits if the state's TUR is at least 6.5% and is at least 110% of the state's average TUR for the same 13-week period in either of the previous two years; an additional 20 weeks of benefits if the TUR is at least 8%.11

In addition to all state requirements for regular UC eligibility, the EB program requires claimants to have at least 20 weeks of full-time insured employment or the equivalent in their base period, and to conduct a systematic and sustained work search.12 A current listing of states that have triggered on for EB can be found at https://ows.doleta.gov/unemploy/claims_arch.asp.

The EB benefit amount is equal to the eligible individual's weekly regular UC benefits. Under permanent law, the federal government finances 50% of the EB payments and 100% of EB administrative costs through FUTA taxes. States fund the other half (50%) of EB benefit costs through their SUTA taxes.13

Employment and Training Programs

The AJC network co-locates and coordinates federally funded employment and training programs. Unlike UI, funding levels for employment and training programs are capped by statute or appropriation level. As such, it is possible that a jobseeker who is eligible for a program may not receive services. Table 3 at the end of this report provides brief descriptions of each AJC partner program and their FY2017 funding levels.

Grants with National Scope

The largest portion of AJC funding is from a group of grants that have a presence in all states. Most of these programs provide funding to state agencies via formula, though the specific funding processes and grant recipients vary by program. This report divides these partner programs with national scope into three groups:

  • Programs available to all jobseekers, which have no eligibility criteria;
  • Programs targeted by circumstances of job loss, which provide services to workers whose job loss and work history meet certain conditions; and
  • Programs targeted by jobseeker characteristics, which provide services to workers based on their personal characteristics (such as veteran status or disability) rather than their work history or reason for unemployment.

Table 2 at the end of this section summarizes the eligibility criteria for these primary partner programs.

Programs Available to All Jobseekers

The employment and training programs discussed in this section are funded by formula grants to states and do not have eligibility requirements. Funding levels are capped by annual appropriation levels. In times of high demand for services, jobseekers may receive less intensive services or be placed on waiting lists due to limited resources.

Adult Employment and Training Activities

This WIOA-authorized formula grant program provides funds to states for employment and training services for individuals ages 18 and older. It is a universal access system with no additional eligibility requirements other than age.14 Funds are allotted by formula grants to states (which in turn allocate funds to local entities) to provide training and related services to unemployed or underemployed individuals.

Services include job search assistance, skill assessment, career planning, case management, and training (including occupational skills training and on-the-job training). Training is conducted through a voucher system that allows individuals to attend training at eligible training providers (e.g., community colleges).

Employment Services under the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933

The Wagner-Peyser Act established the Employment Service (ES) as a system jointly operated by DOL and the state employment security agencies. The central mission of the ES is to facilitate the match between individuals seeking employment and employers seeking workers. ES funds are allotted from DOL to the states through a formula grant. Typically, UI recipients must register with the ES. Jobseekers who are not eligible for UI may also register with the ES.

ES offers an array of services to job seekers and employers, including career counseling, job search workshops, labor market information, job listings, applicant screening, and referrals to job openings. States provide ES services through three tiers of service delivery: self-service, facilitated self-help, and staff-assisted. As the names of the tiers imply, progressively more active staff involvement is required as services range from Internet job postings to career counseling.

Upon the establishment of the Unemployment Compensation (UC) program in 1935, ES offices also began to administer the UC "work test" requirements. These offices monitor UC claimants to ensure that they are able to work, available for work, and actively seeking work. For the recently unemployed, the ES processes UC income support claims while helping the individual find new employment.

Adult Education15

Education activities under the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) are a mandatory AJC partner.16 AEFLA provides formula grants to states to fund basic educational services at the high school level and below, as well as English language courses. States typically subgrant federal funds to local providers (such as school districts or community colleges) that provide the actual classes.

Programs Targeted by Circumstances of Job Loss

The programs discussed in this section are available to workers who are involuntarily separated from their jobs and meet other criteria. In some cases, workers who have been notified of a layoff but have not yet been separated from their jobs may also be eligible for these programs.

Dislocated Worker Employment and Training Activities

This program provides formula grants to states for services to dislocated workers. To qualify as a dislocated worker, an individual must have been laid off from employment, sufficiently attached to the workforce (e.g., eligible for unemployment benefits), and unlikely to return to the occupation or industry from which the worker was laid off. Services available under the Dislocated Worker program include job search assistance, skill assessment, career planning, case management, and training (including occupational skills training and on-the-job training).

Approximately 80% of Dislocated Worker funds are allotted by formula grants to states (which in turn allocate funds to local entities) to provide training and related services to qualified unemployed individuals. The remainder of the appropriation is reserved by DOL for National Dislocated Worker Grants, which, in part, provide funds to states or entities that are affected by major economic dislocations, such as plant closures or mass layoffs.

Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Program for Workers Adversely Affected by Foreign Trade17

Workers whose job loss is attributable to outsourcing or increased imports may be eligible for the TAA program. To be eligible for TAA benefits, a group of workers must petition DOL to certify that foreign trade "contributed importantly" to their job loss. Once a group is certified, individual workers may receive benefits through the AJC system. TAA provides reemployment services, training subsidies, and income support while in training. TAA-certified workers age 50 and over who pursue reemployment at a lower wage may participate in a wage insurance program.

Programs Targeted by Jobseeker Characteristics

The programs discussed in this section determine eligibility by workers' personal characteristics. These eligibility requirements may or may not include economic characteristics such as individual or household income.

Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) for Workers with Disabilities18

State VR agencies provide employment-related services to individuals with disabilities. These agencies are funded by a combination of federal formula grants and state funds.19 To be eligible for VR services, an applicant must establish that (1) he or she has a physical or mental impairment that results in a barrier to employment and (2) that the applicant would benefit from VR services. VR services are customized to each client and may vary. Services include (but are not limited to) counseling, job search assistance, training, and support services in the workplace.

Job Corps20

This primarily residential job training program provides a range of services to low-income individuals between the ages of 16 and 24. The purpose of the Job Corps program is to provide disadvantaged youth with the skills needed to obtain and hold a job, enter the Armed Forces, or enroll in advanced training or higher education. In addition to receiving academic and employment training, youth also engage in social and other services to promote their overall well-being. Services include educational support, work-based learning, counseling, and other support services.

Youth Activities

This WIOA-authorized state formula grant program provides funding for training and related services to certain youth who are in school or out of school. A youth is eligible for services funded by this program if the individual is between the ages of 14 and 21 (or 24 for out-of-school youth) and meets other statutory criteria regarding income (primarily for in-school youth only) and/or barriers to employment.

Eligible participants in a program funded by these grants receive services that provide assistance in achieving academic and employment success through activities that improve educational and skill competencies and foster effective connections to employers. Such services include those involving educational achievement, employment services, linkages between educational achievement and employment, and additional support services.

Community Service Employment for Older Americans (CSEOA) Program21

CSEOA (Title V of the Older Americans Act) is a formula grant program, also known as the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), which provides funding to promote part-time employment opportunities for unemployed low-income individuals who are age 55 or older. In addition to the age and income requirements to participate, individuals must generally have limited prospects of securing unsubsidized employment. The CSEOA provides funding to states and national sponsor organizations for subsidized employment in a variety of community-service activities, such as working at community centers, libraries, or schools. Participants in the program may receive training, counseling, transportation, and placement assistance into unsubsidized employment.

Jobs for Veterans State Grants (JVSG) Program22

JVSG provides grants to states to fund state personnel positions that provide employment services to and on behalf of veterans. JVSG-funded personnel are divided into Disabled Veteran Outreach Program (DVOP) personnel and Local Veterans' Employment Representative (LVER) personnel. DVOP personnel provide direct employment services to disabled and other high-need veterans. LVER personnel perform outreach to local employers, conduct employment workshops for veterans, and work with other AJC personnel to provide employment-related services to veterans.

JVSG does not provide funding for training, though DVOP and LVER personnel may refer veteran jobseekers to programs administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs that provide funding for education and training. Veterans also receive priority of service in all DOL-administered employment and training programs for which they qualify.23

Table 2. Eligibility Criteria for Employment and Training Programs Available Through the American Job Center Network

Programs Available to All Jobseekers

  • All jobseekers are eligible for job search assistance and training benefits under the Adult Activities provisions of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) and basic education and English literacy courses through the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA).
  • All jobseekers are eligible for job matching and other employment services, under the Wagner-Peyser Act. Recipients of unemployment insurance are required to receive these services.

Programs Targeted by Circumstance of Job Loss

  • Workers who were (1) involuntarily terminated, (2) well-attached to the labor force, and (3) unlikely to return to their previous occupation or industry are eligible for job search assistance and training benefits under the Dislocated Worker provisions of WIOA.
  • Workers whose job loss is attributable to foreign trade may be eligible for training and other benefits through the Trade Adjustment Assistance program.

Programs Targeted by Jobseeker Characteristics

  • Individuals with disabilities may be eligible for customized services (including training) through state vocational rehabilitation programs.
  • Disadvantaged youth may be eligible for services under the Youth Activities provisions of WIOA or placement in the residential Job Corps program.
  • Individuals age 55 or over may be eligible for subsidized part-time employment through the Community Service Employment for Older Americans program.
  • Veterans are eligible for job search assistance and other services through programs funded by the Jobs for Veterans State Grants.

Source: CRS review of eligibility criteria for listed programs.

Notes: Due to funding constraints, not all eligible individuals may actually receive benefits and services under each program. Additional services through competitive grants and other programs may also be available through the AJC network.

Competitive Grant Programs

Several competitive grant programs are mandatory AJC partners. Unlike the programs discussed in the prior section, these funding streams may not have a presence in every state.

YouthBuild Program24

Authorized by Section 171 of WIOA, this competitive grant program funds projects that provide education and construction skills training for disadvantaged youth. Participating youth gain work experience, job training, education (a GED or preparation for secondary education), and leadership development by working to rehabilitate and construct housing for homeless and low-income families.

Native American Program

Authorized by Section 166 of WIOA, this competitive grant program provides training and related services to low-income Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians through grants to Indian tribes and reservations and other Native American groups.

Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Programs

Authorized by Section 167 of WIOA, this competitive grant program provides training and related services, including technical assistance, to disadvantaged migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their dependents through discretionary grants awarded to public, private, and nonprofit organizations.

Reintegration of Ex-Offenders

Authorized by Section 212 of the Second Chance Act of 2007, this competitive grant program supports employment and training services for persons who have been incarcerated or are preparing for reentry.

Other Mandatory Partner Programs

In addition to the previously discussed grant programs, several other federally funded programs are required AJC partners under Section 121 of WIOA. While these programs can support employment and training activities, they may also support activities with other purposes and may have accountability measures that are related to non-employment outcomes. This report does not include funding figures for these programs since only a portion of funding for these programs support employment and training activities.

Community Services Block Grant (CSBG)25

The CSBG provides federal funds to states, territories, and tribes for distribution to local agencies to support a wide range of community-based activities to reduce poverty. In some cases, CSBG funds may support employment and training activities. WIOA specifies that employment and training activities carried out with CSBG funds must partner with AJCs. CSBG is administered by the Department of Health and Human Services.

Perkins Act Postsecondary Activities26

The Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act provides funds to states to support vocational and technical career programs at secondary and postsecondary institutions. Postsecondary providers that receive Perkins funds can include (but are not limited to) community and technical colleges, vocational schools, adult workforce education centers, and correctional facilities. Perkins Act programs are administered by the Department of Education.

Postsecondary activities supported under this act are a mandatory AJC partner. Unlike some other grant programs that are AJC partners, Perkins funds support institutions and do not provide direct funding to individual students.

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)27

TANF block grants are federal grants to states to provide benefits and services to low-income families. The TANF block grant's overall purpose is to "increase the flexibility of states to meet four statutory goals: (1) provide assistance to needy families so that children may remain in their homes; (2) reduce dependency of needy parents on government benefits through work, job preparation, and marriage; (3) reduce out-of-wedlock pregnancies; and (4) promote the formation and maintenance of two-parent families." States may use these funds for a variety of activities to meet these goals. TANF programs are administered by the Department of Health and Human Services.

Table 3. Employment and Training Programs Available to Unemployed Workers Through the American Job Center Network

Program

Description

FY2017 Appropriation
(in millions)

National Programs Available to All Jobseekers

Adult Employment and Training Activities

Provides job search assistance and training (including occupational skills training and on-the-job training). Training is conducted through a voucher system that allows individuals to attend training at eligible training providers.

$816

Employment Services under the Wagner-Peyser Act

Provides non-training services to job seekers and employers, including career counseling, job search workshops, labor market information, job listings, applicant screening, and referrals to job openings.

$671a

Basic Education under the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act

Provides educational services at the secondary level and below as well as English language training.

$582b

 

 

 

National Programs Targeted by Circumstances of Job Loss

Dislocated Worker Employment and Training Activities

Provides employment services and training subsidies to workers who have involuntarily lost their jobs and demonstrated a specified level of labor force attachment.

$1,242c

Trade Adjustment Assistance

Provides reemployment services, training services, income support payments, and other benefits to workers whose job loss was attributable to international trade.

$849d

 

 

 

National Programs Targeted by Jobseekers Characteristics

Vocational Rehabilitation

Provides customized counseling, training benefits, and other employment-related services to individuals with disabilities.

$3,399d

Job Corps

Through primarily residential programs, provides disadvantaged youth with the skills needed to obtain and hold a job, enter the Armed Forces, or enroll in advanced training or higher education.

$1,704

Youth Activities

Provides funding for training and related services to certain youth who are in school or out of school. A youth is eligible for services funded by this program if the individual is between the ages of 14 and 21 (or 24 for out-of-school youth) and meets other statutory criteria.

$873

Community Service Employment for Older Americans (Title V of Older Americans Act)

Provides funding for subsidized employment in a variety of community-service jobs. To be eligible, a participant must be unemployed, age 55 or over, and demonstrate limited potential to enter unsubsidized employment.

$400

Jobs for Veterans State Grants

Provides state personnel positions that provide employment-related services to veterans and outreach to local employers.

$175

 

 

 

Competitive Grants

Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers Program

Provides training and related services to disadvantaged migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their dependents.

$82

YouthBuild

Provides education and construction skills training for disadvantaged youth by rehabilitating and constructing housing for homeless and low-income families.

$84

Native American Programs

Provides training and related services to low-income Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians.

$50

Reintegration of Ex-Offenders

Supports employment and training services for persons who have been incarcerated or are preparing for reentry.

$88

Other Mandatory Partner Programs

Community Service Block Grant

Supports a range of community-based activities to reduce poverty. In cases where these funds support employment and training activities, the activities must partner with the AJC system.

e

Perkins Act Postsecondary Activities

Provides grants to states to support career and technical education. Postsecondary activities supported with this funding are an AJC partner.

e

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families

Supports a range of activities that address the effects and root causes of economic and social disadvantage for families with children.

e

Source: CRS analysis of Explanatory Note in the Congressional Record for May 3, 2017, and associated with H.R. 244 in the 115th Congress (enacted as P.L. 115-31).

Notes: Partner programs that do not primarily provide employment and training services to individuals are excluded from this table.

a. Funding limited to grants to states under the Wagner-Peyser Act.

b. Funding limited to grants to states under the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act.

c. Includes national reserve funding.

d. Program is mandatory spending and may be subject to post-appropriation sequestration. Number in the table reflects initial appropriation.

e. The portion of this program's funding that supports employment and training activities and/or AJC partner activities is not available.

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Analyst in Labor Policy ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])
[author name scrubbed], Specialist in Labor Economics ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])
[author name scrubbed], Analyst in Income Security ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Footnotes

1.

Statute typically refers to the physical locations as One-Stop Career Centers. In June 2012, the Department of Labor announced an initiative to unify One-Stop Career Centers under the brand of the American Job Center network. More information on the implementation of the AJC network brand is available in Department of Labor Training and Employment Guidance Letter No. 36-11 at http://wdr.doleta.gov/directives/attach/TEGL/TEGL_36_11.Acc.pdf.

2.

For more information on WIOA and legislative background on the AJC/One-Stop system, see CRS Report R44252, The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act and the One-Stop Delivery System, by [author name scrubbed].

3.

When this report refers to "states," it is including the District of Columbia. Territories are eligible for some, but not all, of the programs discussed in this report. For more information related to territorial eligibility, see the program-specific resources for each program cited in the footnotes throughout this report.

4.

Partner programs are defined in Section 121(b) of WIOA (29 U.S.C. 3151[b]).

5.

For additional background, see CRS Report RL33362, Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

6.

Until its expiration at the end of December 2013, the temporary Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) program also provided additional weeks of UI benefits. No benefits from the EUC08 program are currently available. For information on the expired EUC08 programs, see CRS Report R42444, Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08): Status of Benefits Prior to Expiration, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

7.

In limited circumstances, individuals who become unemployed due to a declared disaster and are not eligible for UC benefits in their state may be eligible for income support through the federal Disaster Unemployment Insurance (DUA) program. DUA is not a mandatory AJC partner. More information on DUA is available in CRS Report RS22022, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA), by [author name scrubbed].

8.

For weekly notices on EB availability in states, see https://ows.doleta.gov/unemploy/claims_arch.asp.

9.

For more information on UC, see CRS Report RS22538, Unemployment Compensation: The Cornerstone of Income Support for Unemployed Workers, by [author name scrubbed], and CRS Report RL33362, Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

10.

For information on states that have enacted reductions in UC maximum duration, see CRS Report R41859, Unemployment Insurance: Consequences of Changes in State Unemployment Compensation Laws, by [author name scrubbed].

11.

The Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, P.L. 111-312, as amended (the final time by P.L. 112-240), made technical changes to certain triggers in the EB program. These changes allowed states to temporarily use lookback calculations based on three years of unemployment rate data (rather than the permanent-law lookback of two years of data) as part of their mandatory IUR and optional TUR triggers if states would otherwise trigger off or not be on a period of EB benefits. Using a two-year versus a three-year EB trigger lookback was an important adjustment at the time of the signing of P.L. 111-312 (December 17, 2010) because many states were likely to trigger off of their EB periods despite high, sustained—but not increasing—unemployment rates. The authorization for the temporary EB trigger modifications expired the week ending on or before December 31, 2013.

12.

The base period is the time period during which wages earned and/or hours/weeks worked are examined to determine a worker's monetary entitlement to UI. Almost all states use the first 4 of the last 5 completed calendar quarters preceding the filing of the claim as their base period.

13.

P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, as amended (the final time by P.L. 112-240, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012), temporarily changed the federal-state funding arrangement for the EB program. EB benefits were 100% federally financed from February 17, 2009, through December 31, 2013. The one exception to the 100% federal financing was for those "non-sharable" EB benefits (work not subject to Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) taxes such as state and local government employment). Those non-sharable benefits continued to be 100% financed by the former employers.

14.

The workforce development system designed by WIOA is premised on universal access, such that an adult age 18 or older does not need to meet any qualifying characteristics in order to receive core services. However, Section 134(c) of WIOA stipulates that priority is to be given to recipients of public assistance and other low-income individuals. It is left to the discretion of the local Workforce Development Board, in consultation with the state's governor, to determine how this prioritization is implemented.

15.

For more information on Adult Education and AEFLA, see CRS Report R43789, Adult Education and Family Literacy Act: Major Statutory Provisions, by [author name scrubbed].

16.

AEFLA was created by Title II of WIA and reauthorized as Title II of WIOA. As such, adult education programs may also be referred to as "WIOA Title II" programs.

17.

For more information on TAA, see CRS Report R44153, Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers and the TAA Reauthorization Act of 2015, by [author name scrubbed].

18.

The VR state grants program is administered by the Department of Education. For more information on the VR state grants program, see CRS Report R43855, Rehabilitation Act: Vocational Rehabilitation State Grants, by [author name scrubbed].

19.

States must match their federal VR grants so that the federal share of VR funding is no more than 78.7%.

20.

For more information on youth programs, including Job Corps and WIA Youth, see CRS Report R40929, Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs, by [author name scrubbed].

21.

For more information on CSEOA programs, see CRS Report RL33880, Funding for the Older Americans Act and Other Aging Services Programs, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed] (available upon request to CRS).

22.

For more information on the JVSG program, see https://www.dol.gov/vets/grants/state/jvsg.htm.

23.

Priority of service for veterans was established by the Jobs for Veterans Act (P.L. 107-288). The priority of service provisions are in statute at 38 U.S.C. 4215 and clarified in regulations at 20 C.F.R. 1010.

24.

At the time of the enactment of WIA, YouthBuild was administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The program was moved to DOL and authorization was added to WIA in 2007 by the YouthBuild Transfer Act (P.L. 109-281).

25.

For more information on CSBG, see CRS Report RL32872, Community Services Block Grants (CSBG): Background and Funding, by [author name scrubbed].

26.

For more information on the Perkins Act, see CRS Report R44542, Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006: An Overview, by [author name scrubbed].

27.

For more information on TANF, see CRS Report RL32760, The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions, by [author name scrubbed].