Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies: History, Membership, and Inaugural Activities

Every four years, at noon on January 20, the President-elect is sworn in as President of the United States. The year before the inauguration, Congress establishes the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. The Joint Inaugural Committee is responsible for the planning and execution of the swearing-in ceremony and hosting an inaugural luncheon for the President and Vice President at the U.S. Capitol. Pursuant to S.Con.Res. 28 and S.Con.Res. 29 in the 114th Congress (2015-2016), the 2017 inaugural ceremony will be held at the U.S. Capitol, with the swearing-in ceremony on the West Front Steps and special events held in the Rotunda and Emancipation Hall of the Capitol Visitor Center.

The tradition of authorizing a Joint Inaugural Committee dates to 1901 for the inauguration of President William McKinley. At that time, the House and Senate authorized that inaugural expenses be paid by the Clerk of the House of Representatives and the Secretary of the Senate and created a committee of three Representatives and three Senators appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House. Since 1901, the Joint Inaugural Committee has been authorized quadrennially.

On February 3, 2016, Congress authorized the Joint Inaugural Committee for the 2017 Inauguration. Representing the Senate on the 2017 Joint Inaugural Committee are Senator Roy Blunt, chair of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration; Senator Mitch McConnell, Senate majority leader; and Senator Charles Schumer, ranking Member of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration. Representing the House of Representatives are Speaker of the House Paul Ryan, Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy, and House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi.

This report provides historical information on the Joint Inaugural Committee, including the committee’s origin, membership, leadership, staffing, and inaugural activities.

Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies: History, Membership, and Inaugural Activities

March 4, 2016 (R42603)
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Summary

Every four years, at noon on January 20, the President-elect is sworn in as President of the United States. The year before the inauguration, Congress establishes the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. The Joint Inaugural Committee is responsible for the planning and execution of the swearing-in ceremony and hosting an inaugural luncheon for the President and Vice President at the U.S. Capitol. Pursuant to S.Con.Res. 28 and S.Con.Res. 29 in the 114th Congress (2015-2016), the 2017 inaugural ceremony will be held at the U.S. Capitol, with the swearing-in ceremony on the West Front Steps and special events held in the Rotunda and Emancipation Hall of the Capitol Visitor Center.

The tradition of authorizing a Joint Inaugural Committee dates to 1901 for the inauguration of President William McKinley. At that time, the House and Senate authorized that inaugural expenses be paid by the Clerk of the House of Representatives and the Secretary of the Senate and created a committee of three Representatives and three Senators appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House. Since 1901, the Joint Inaugural Committee has been authorized quadrennially.

On February 3, 2016, Congress authorized the Joint Inaugural Committee for the 2017 Inauguration. Representing the Senate on the 2017 Joint Inaugural Committee are Senator Roy Blunt, chair of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration; Senator Mitch McConnell, Senate majority leader; and Senator Charles Schumer, ranking Member of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration. Representing the House of Representatives are Speaker of the House Paul Ryan, Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy, and House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi.

This report provides historical information on the Joint Inaugural Committee, including the committee's origin, membership, leadership, staffing, and inaugural activities.


Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies: History, Membership, and Inaugural Activities

Introduction

Every four years, on January 20 at noon, the President-elect is sworn in as President of the United States. Pursuant to the Constitution, the next presidential inauguration is set for Friday, January 20, 2017.1 Each year prior to an inauguration, Congress authorizes the creation of the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (Joint Inaugural Committee). The Joint Inaugural Committee is responsible for the planning and execution of the swearing-in ceremony and for hosting an inaugural luncheon for the President and Vice President at the U.S. Capitol.2

The 2017 Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies was authorized by the 114th Congress (2015-2017) when S.Con.Res. 28 was agreed to on February 3, 2016.3 Pursuant to the concurrent resolution, the Joint Inaugural Committee consists of three Senators, appointed by the President of the Senate, and three Representatives, appointed by the Speaker of the House. The resolution further authorizes the committee "to make the necessary arrangements for the inauguration of the President-elect and the Vice President-elect of the United States."4

This report provides a history of the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, including committee membership, staffing, and inaugural activities.

Origin of the Joint Inaugural Committee

In 1901, Congress established the first Joint Inaugural Committee for the inauguration of President William McKinley.5 Supervision of inaugural ceremonies prior to 1901 was conducted by the Senate. Sole responsibility for inaugural preparation and supervision had been a Senate function because of its standing as a continuing legislative body, while the House must organize anew at the beginning of each Congress.6 The relevance of this consideration was particularly evident during the times when the President was inaugurated on March 4, the same day a new Congress convened.7 There is no evidence indicating that the House seriously challenged this reasoning until 1901.

Inaugural Organization Prior to 1901

The Senate and House first agreed on a joint resolution calling for the creation of a Joint Inaugural Committee "consisting of three Senators and three Representatives ... to make the necessary arrangements for the inauguration of the President-elect and Vice President-elect of the United States" in 1901. The resolution called for the members of the joint committee "to be appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives respectively."8

Most of the limited House debate favoring creation of a Joint Inaugural Committee was not primarily based on a desire to have the chamber become an equal partner in planning the ceremonies. Instead, the concern that triggered the initial discussion was a feeling among certain House Members that they had historically been discriminated against with regard to their seating at the rear of the inaugural platform. The issue was first raised in February 1885, when Representative Roger Q. Mills introduced a resolution proposing that the House "decline to take any part" in that year's inaugural ceremonies because the Senate committee appointed to arrange the inaugural ceremonies had declined to give House Members their proper place. Following a relatively short debate, the Mills resolution was rejected by a 185 to 55 margin.9 That year, nevertheless, the Speaker of the House appointed three Members of the House to cooperate with the Senate inaugural committee. The trio, however, had virtually no involvement in the ceremonies.10

On the eve of the next inaugural (1889), Representative Newton C. Blanchard revived the issue of what he called the "inferior position assigned the members of the House and to members-elect" at the inaugural ceremonies. Blanchard's resolution declared that the place assigned to "members of the House of Representatives and members-elect" at the inauguration of the President "should be equal and similar to that of members of the Senate." Look at the official program, he told his House colleagues, and you "will see that a place is assigned to the members of the Senate at least three degrees higher in honor and dignity than the place assigned to members of the House of Representatives."11 The Senate Inaugural Committee had also given Senators five tickets for the inaugural platform while providing Representatives with only two tickets. At the conclusion of Blanchard's remarks, the resolution was adopted, but at his suggestion was not communicated to the Senate:

I did not think [it] proper to include in the resolution any direction that it should be communicated to the Senate. I considered it the proper and perhaps the more dignified course to simply assert the principle that the House of Representatives have a right to an equal share in these arrangements with the Senate, and to let that go on record as the judgment of the House, so that in the future, when arrangements are to be made for other inaugurations of Presidents, the Senate will take cognizance of the fact that this protest and this declaration of the principle involved and of the rights of the House was adopted by this House of Representatives.12

Creating the First Joint Inaugural Committee

More than a decade would pass before the issue of House involvement in the inaugural ceremonies reemerged. When the question was revisited in 1901, a different strategy was used. Representative John Dalzell, who led the effort, focused on modifying the joint resolution appropriating funds for the inaugural ceremony. He proposed that when the House Appropriations Committee reported the funding resolution, which had originated in the Senate, it include language calling for an inaugural program adopted by a joint committee of the Senate and House, rather than just the Senate.

The subsequently reported resolution stipulated that the Secretary of the Senate, as well as the Clerk of the House, were authorized to pay expenses associated with the inauguration of the President. The same day, Representative Henry H. Bingham introduced a resolution, which was immediately agreed to, authorizing the creation of a joint inaugural committee "consisting of three Senators and three Representatives, to be appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate and Speaker of the House, respectively." Following conference committee deliberations on the funding resolution, the Senate agreed to appropriation language approved by the House as well as the House resolution calling for the creation of the first joint inaugural committee.13

Authorizing the 2017 Joint Inaugural Committee

On February 3, 2016, the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies was authorized for the 2017 inauguration.14 S.Con.Res. 28, the resolution creating the Joint Inaugural Committee, is identical, except for the date, to previous authorizing resolutions:

SECTION 1. ESTABLISHMENT OF JOINT COMMITTEE.

There is established a Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (in this resolution referred to as the "joint committee") consisting of 3 Senators and 3 Members of the House of Representatives, to be appointed by the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, respectively. The joint committee is authorized to make the necessary arrangements for the inauguration of the President-elect and Vice President-elect of the United States on January 20, 2017.

SEC. 2. SUPPORT OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE.

The joint committee—

(1) is authorized to utilize appropriate equipment and the services of appropriate personnel of departments and agencies of the Federal Government, under arrangements between the joint committee and the heads of those departments and agencies, in connection with the inaugural proceedings and ceremonies; and

(2) may accept gifts and donations of goods and services to carry out its responsibilities.15

Committee Membership

Since 1901, when the first Joint Inaugural Committee was authorized, membership on the committee has consisted of three Senators and three Members of the House of Representatives. Currently, appointments to the committee are made by the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House respectively. Appointments are generally for the length of committee activities. For House committee members, however, reappointment is necessary because an intervening election occurs between initial appointment and the inaugural ceremony. The need to reappoint committee members does not generally apply to the Senate, unless a Senate committee member leaves the chamber in the intervening election.

Senate Membership

Senate membership on the Joint Inaugural Committee is appointed by the President of the Senate,16 pursuant to authority granted in the authorizing resolution. Past practice has been for the President of the Senate to appoint the chair and ranking Member of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, and the Senate majority leader. For the 2017 inauguration, the President of the Senate appointed Senate Rules and Administration Committee chair Roy Blunt and the committee's Ranking Member Charles Schumer along with Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell.17 Table 1 lists all Senators on the Joint Inaugural Committee since 1901.

Table 1. Senate Membership on the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, 1901-2017

Inaugural Year

Majority Members

Minority Members

1901

Marcus A. Hanna (R-OH) *

John C. Spooner (R-WI)

James K. Jones (D-AR)

1905

John C. Spooner (R-WI) *

Nelson W. Aldrich (R-RI)

Augustus O. Bacon (D-GA)

1909

Phlander C. Knox (R-PA) *

Henry Cabot Lodge (R-MA)

Augustus O. Bacon (D-GA)

1913

Augustus O. Bacon (D-GA)

Lee S. Overman (D-NC)

W. Murray Crane (R-MA) * a

1917

Lee S. Overman (D-NC) *

Hoke Smith (D-GA)

Francis E. Warren (R-WY)

1921

Philander C. Knox (R-PA) *

Knute Nelson (R-MN)

Lee S. Overman (D-NC)

1925

Charles Curtis (R-KS) *

Frederick Hale (R-ME)

Lee S. Overman (D-NC)

1929

George H. Moses (R-NH) *

Frederick Hale (R-ME)

Lee S. Overman (D-NC)

1933

George H. Moses (R-NH)

Frederick Hale (R-ME)

Joseph T. Robinson (D-AR) *

1937

Matthew M. Neely (D-WV) *

Joseph T. Robinson (D-AR)

Frederick Hale (R-ME)

1941

Matthew M. Neely (D-WV) *

Alben W. Barkley (D-KY)

Charles L. McNary (R-OR)

1945

Harry F. Byrd (D-VA) *

Kenneth McKellar (D-TN)

Arthur Vandenberg (R-MI)

1949

Carl T. Hayden (D-AZ) *

J. Howard McGrath (D-RI)

Ablen W. Barkely (D-KY) b

Kenneth S. Wherry (R-NE)

C. Wayland Brooks (R-IL)

1953

Styles Bridges (R-NH) c *

Margaret Chase Smith (R-ME)

Herman Welker (R-ID) d

Carl T. Hayden (D-AZ)

1957

John J. Sparkman (D-AL)

Theodore F. Green (D-RI)

Styles Bridges (R-NH) *

1961

John J. Sparkman (D-AL) *

Thomas Hennings (D-MO)

Carl T. Hayden (D-AZ) e

Styles Bridges (R-NH)

1965

B. Everett Jordan (D-NC) *

John J. Sparkman (D-AL)

Leverett Saltonstall (R-MA)

1969

B. Everett Jordan (D-NC)

Michael J. Mansfield (D-MT)

Everett M. Dirksen (R-IL) *

1973

Howard W. Cannon (D-NV) *

B. Everett Jordan (D-NC) f

Michael J. Mansfield (D-MT)

Marlow W. Cook (R-KY) *

1977

Howard W. Cannon (D-NV) *

Robert C. Byrd (D-WV)

Mark Hatfield (R-OR)

1981

Mark Hatfield (R-OR) *

Howard H. Baker (R-TN)

Robert C. Byrd (D-WV)

Claiborne Pell (D-RI) g

1985

Charles McC. Mathias (R-MD) *

Howard H. Baker (R-TN)

Wendell H. Ford (D-KY)

1989

Wendell H. Ford (D-KY) *

Robert C. Byrd (D-WV)

Ted Stevens (R-AK)

1993

Wendell H. Ford (D-KY) *

George J. Mitchell (D-ME)

Ted Stevens (R-AK)

1997

John Warner (R-VA) *

Trent Lott (R-MS)

Wendell H. Ford (D-KY)

2001

Mitch McConnell (R-KY) *

Trent Lott (R-MS)

Christopher Dodd (D-CT)

2005

Trent Lott (R-MS) *

William Frist (R-TN)

Christopher Dodd (D-CT)

2009

Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) *

Harry Reid (D-NV)

Bob Bennett (R-UT)

2013

Charles Schumer (D-NY) *

Harry Reid (D-NV)

Lamar Alexander (R-TN)

2017

Roy Blunt (R-MO) *

Mitch McConnell (R-KY)

Charles Schumer (D-NY)

Source: U.S. Congress, Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, Membership of the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, http://inaugural.senate.gov/cmte/membershiphistory.cfm. For 2017 appointments, see "Appointments," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 162 (February 4, 2016), p. S691.

Notes: Any Senator whose name appears with an asterisk (*) served as committee chair or co-chair.

a. Senator W. Murray Crane was the chair of the Committee on Rules in the 62nd Congress (1911-1913). In the 1912 election, the Democrats became the majority party for the 63rd Congress (1913-1915).

b. In November 1948, Senator Ablen W. Barkely was elected Vice President. Subsequently, Senator Carl T. Hayden was appointed to replace Senator Barkley on the committee. Additionally, in November 1948, after the Democratic Party won control of the Senate, Senator Hayden succeeded Senator C. Wayland Brooks as chair.

c. On January 6, 1953, following the Republican Party gaining control of the Senate as a result of the 1952 election, Senator Styles Bridges replaced Senator Carl T. Hayden as chair.

d. Senator Herman Welker replaced Senator Margaret Chase Smith, who resigned from the committee. Senator Smith had earlier replaced Senator Ernest W. McFarland, who resigned from the committee.

e. In 1961, Senator Carl T. Hayden replaced Senator Thomas Hennings, who died in office.

f. On August 2, 1972, Senator Howard W. Cannon replaced Senator B. Everett Jordan as chair after Senator Jordan was not re-nominated for the Senate by the North Carolina Democratic Party. Prior to replacing Senator Jordan as chair, Senator Cannon was the second-ranked Democrat on the Rules and Administration Committee.

g. On January 5, 1981, Senator Claiborne Pell stepped aside as chair, when the Republicans became the majority party in the Senate. Senator Mark Hatfield became chair, and Senator Pell remained on the committee as a fourth Senator pursuant to S.Con.Res. 2 (97th Congress).

House Membership

House membership on the Joint Inaugural Committee is appointed by the Speaker of the House, pursuant to authority granted in the authorizing resolution. Past practice has been for the Speaker to appoint himself or herself, along with the House majority leader and minority leader. For the 2017 inauguration, Speaker of the House Paul Ryan appointed himself, Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy, and Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi.18 Table 2 lists the House Members on the Joint Inaugural Committee since 1901, including the reappointment or replacement of committee members in the following Congress, when necessary.

Table 2. House of Representative Membership on the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, 1901-2017

Inaugural Year

Congress

Majority Members

Minority Members

1901

56th Congress

Joseph G. Cannon (R-IL)

John Dalzell (R-PA)

Thomas C. McRae (D-AR)

 

57th Congress

Joseph G. Cannon (R-IL)

John Dalzell (R-PA)

Thomas C. McRae (D-AR)

1905

58th Congress

John Dalzell (R-PA)

Edgard D. Crumpacker (R-IN)

John S. Williams (D-MS)

 

59th Congress

John Dalzell (R-PA)

Edgard D. Crumpacker (R-IN)

John S. Williams (D-MS)

1909

60th Congress

James F. Burke (R-PA)

Horace O. Young (R-MI)

John W. Gaines (D-TN)

 

61st Congress

James F. Burke (R-PA)

Horace O. Young (R-MI)

John W. Gaines (D-TN)

1913

62nd Congress

William W. Rucker (D-MO)

Finis J. Garrett (D-TN)

William B. McKinley (R-IL)

 

63rd Congress

William W. Rucker (D-MO)

Finis J. Garrett (D-TN)

William B. McKinley (R-IL)

1917

64th Congress

William W. Rucker (D-MO)

Finis J. Garrett (D-TN)

William B. McKinley (R-IL)

 

65th Congress

William W. Rucker (D-MO)

Finis J. Garrett (D-TN)

William B. McKinley (R-IL)

1921

66th Congress

Joseph G. Cannon (R-IL)

Charles F. Reavis (R-NE)

William W. Rucker (D-MO)

 

67th Congress

Joseph G. Cannon (R-IL)

Charles F. Reavis (R-NE)

Charles M. Stedman (D-NC) a

1925

68th Congress

William W. Griest (R-PA)

Lindley H. Hadley (R-WA)

Arthur B. Rouse (D-KY)

 

69th Congress

William W. Griest (R-PA)

Lindley H. Hadley (R-WA)

Arthur B. Rouse (D-KY)

1929

70th Congress

Bertrand H. Snell (R-NY)

Leonidas C. Dyer (R-MO)

Edward W. Pou (D-NC)

 

71st Congress

Bertrand H. Snell (R-NY)

Leonidas C. Dyer (R-MO)

Edward W. Pou (D-NC)

1933

72nd Congress

Edward W. Pou (D-NC)

Henry T. Rainey (D-IL)

Bertrand H. Snell (R-NY)

 

73rd Congress

Edward W. Pou (D-NC)

Henry T. Rainey (D-IL)

Bertrand H. Snell (R-NY)

1937

74th Congress

Robert L. Doughton (D-NC)

John J. O'Connor (D-NY)

Bertrand H. Snell (R-NY)

 

75th Congress

Robert L. Doughton (D-NC)

John J. O'Connor (D-NY)

Bertrand H. Snell (R-NY)

1941

76th Congress

Robert L. Doughton (D-NC)

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

Joseph W. Martin (R-MA)

 

77th Congress

Robert L. Doughton (D-NC)

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

Joseph W. Martin (R-MA)

1945

78th Congress

Robert L. Doughton (D-NC)

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

Joseph W. Martin (R-MA)

 

79th Congress

Robert L. Doughton (D-NC)

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

Joseph W. Martin (R-MA)

1949

80th Congress

Charles A. Halleck (R-IN)

Leslie C. Arends (R-IL) b

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

 

81st Congress

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Harry R. Sheppard (D-CA)

Charles A. Halleck (R-IN)

1953

82nd Congress

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Joseph W. Martin (R-MA)

 

83rd Congress

Joseph W. Martin (R-MA)

Leslie C. Arends (R-IL) c

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

1957

84th Congress

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Joseph W. Martin (R-MA)

 

85th Congress

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Joseph W. Martin (R-MA)

1961

86th Congress

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Charles A. Halleck (R-IN)

 

87th Congress

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Charles A. Halleck (R-IN)

1965

88th Congress

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Carl B. Albert (D-OK)

Charles A. Halleck (R-IN)

 

89th Congress

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Carl B. Albert (D-OK)

Gerald R. Ford (R-MI) d

1969

90th Congress

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Carl B. Albert (D-OK)

Gerald R. Ford (R-MI)

 

91st Congress

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Carl B. Albert (D-OK)

Gerald R. Ford (R-MI)

1973

92nd Congress

Carl B. Albert (D-OK)

T. Hale Boggs (D-LA) e

Gerald R. Ford (R-MI)

 

93rd Congress

Carl B. Albert (D-OK)

Thomas P. O'Neill (D-MA)

Gerald R. Ford (R-MI)

1977

94th Congress

Carl B. Albert (D-OK) f

Thomas P. O'Neill (D-MA)

John J. Rhodes (R-AZ)

 

95th Congress

Thomas P. O'Neill (D-MA)

James C. Wright (D-TX)

John J. Rhodes (R-AZ)

1981

96th Congress

Thomas P. O'Neill (D-MA)

James C. Wright (D-TX)

John J. Rhodes (R-AZ) g

 

97th Congress

Thomas P. O'Neill (D-MA)

James C. Wright (D-TX)

John J. Rhodes (R-AZ)

Robert H. Michel (R-IL)

1985

98th Congress

Thomas P. O'Neill (D-MA)

James C. Wright (D-TX)

Robert H. Michel (R-IL)

 

99th Congress

Thomas P. O'Neill (D-MA)

James C. Wright (D-TX)

Robert H. Michel (R-IL)

1989

100th Congress

James C. Wright (D-TX)

Thomas S. Foley (D-WA)

Robert H. Michel (R-IL)

 

101st Congress

James C. Wright (D-TX)

Thomas S. Foley (D-WA)

Robert H. Michel (R-IL)

1993

102nd Congress

Thomas S. Foley (D-WA)

Richard A. Gephardt (D-MO)

Robert H. Michel (R-IL)

 

103rd Congress

Thomas S. Foley (D-WA)

Richard A. Gephardt (D-MO)

Robert H. Michel (R-IL)

1997

104th Congress

Newt Gingrich (R-GA)

Richard K. Armey (R-TX)

Richard A. Gephardt (D-MO)

 

105th Congress

Newt Gingrich (R-GA)

Richard K. Armey (R-TX)

Richard A. Gephardt (D-MO)

2001

106th Congress

Newt Gingrich (R-GA)

Richard K. Armey (R-TX)

Richard A. Gephardt (D-MO)

 

107th Congress

J. Dennis Hastert (R-IL)

Richard K. Armey (R-TX)

Richard A. Gephardt (D-MO)

2005

108th Congress

J. Dennis Hastert (R-IL)

Tom DeLay (R-TX)

Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

 

109th Congress

J. Dennis Hastert (R-IL)

Tom DeLay (R-TX)

Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

2009

110th Congress

Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

Steny Hoyer (D-MD)

John Boehner (R-OH)

 

111th Congress

Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

Steny Hoyer (D-MD)

John Boehner (R-OH)

2013

112th Congress

John Boehner (R-OH)

Eric Cantor (R-VA)

Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

 

113th Congress

John Boehner (R-OH)

Eric Cantor (R-VA)

Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

2017

114th Congress

Paul Ryan (R-WI)

Kevin McCarthy (R-CA)

Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

Source: U.S. Congress, Senate, Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, "Committee Membership, 1901-2009," http://inaugural.senate.gov/cmte/membershiphistory.cfm; Garrison Nelson, Committees in the U.S. Congress 1947-1992, Volume 2: Committee Histories and Member Assignments (Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1994); U.S. Congress, Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, "Committee," at http://www.inaugural.senate.gov/about/committee; Appointment of Members to Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 146 (May 8, 2000), p. H2619; "Appointment of Members to Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 142 (September 10, 1996), p. H10115; "Reappointment as Members of Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," Congressional Record, vol. 155 (January 7, 2009), p. H42; "Appointment of Members to the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 158 (March 20, 2012), p. H1420; "Appointment of Members to Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 159 (January 14, 2013), p. H82; and "Appointment of Members to Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," daily edition, vol. 162 (February 11, 2016), p. H721.

Notes:

a. Representative Charles M. Stedman replaced Representative William W. Rucker, who resigned from the committee.

b. In the 1948 election, the Democrats won the majority in the House for the 81st Congress (1949-1950). As a result, Representative Leslie C. Arends was removed from the Joint Inaugural Committee and was replaced with Representative Harry R. Sheppard.

c. In the 1952 election, the Republicans won the majority in the House for the 83rd Congress (1953-1954). As a result, Representative Leslie C. Arends, who served as the majority whip, was added to the Joint Inaugural Committee as the second Republican member, replacing Representative John W. McCormack.

d. Representative Gerald R. Ford was elected House minority leader in the 89th Congress (1965-1966), replacing Representative Charles A. Halleck.

e. On October 16, 1972, a plane carrying Representative T. Hale Boggs disappeared between Anchorage and Juneau, Alaska, and Representative Boggs was presumed dead. Representative Thomas P. O'Neill was subsequently elected majority leader and appointed to replace Representative Boggs on the Joint Inaugural Committee. See H.Res. 1 (93rd Congress) for more information on Representative Bogg's disappearance and the role of the House in notifying the Governor of Louisiana.

f. Speaker of the House Carl B. Albert retired at the end of the 94th Congress (1975-1976). He was replaced as Speaker of the House by Representative Thomas P. O'Neill and on the Joint Inaugural Committee by Representative James C. Wright.

g. Representative John J. Rhodes stepped down as minority leader at the end of the 96th Congress (1979-1980). He was replaced as minority leader and on the Joint Inaugural Committee by Representative Robert H. Michel.

From time to time, a House Member appointed to serve on the Joint Inaugural Committee has not been reelected or has resigned from the House leadership, retired, or died in office. In such an instance, the Speaker has appointed another Representative to the committee in his or her place. Traditionally, the Speaker replaces the departing committee member with his or her House leadership replacement. For example, during the 88th Congress (1963-1964), Representative Charles A. Halleck served as the House minority leader. At the end of the 88th Congress, Representative Halleck stepped down as minority leader and was replaced by Representative Gerald R. Ford. In January 1965, when Congress convened for the 89th Congress (1965-1966), the Speaker reappointed the Joint Inaugural Committee, substituting Representative Ford for Representative Halleck.

Committee Chairs

Although none of the measures establishing the Joint Inaugural Committee have specified a process for selecting the committee chair, a Senator has always presided over committee activities. Through the end of World War II, the Senate traditionally provided the chair for each joint committee.19 In recent decades, however, the chairmanship of permanent joint committees has typically rotated between the chambers. Nevertheless, no House Member has ever chaired a temporary inaugural panel. Table 3 lists the chairs of the Joint Inaugural Committee between 1901 and 2017, and their institutional positions in the Senate at the time of the inauguration.

For 20 of the 30 inaugurations between 1901 and 2017, either the chair of the Senate Committee on Rules (1901-1945) or the chair of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration (1949-2012) has also chaired the Joint Inaugural Committee. On eight occasions (1901, 1929, 1933, 1953, 1957, 1961, 1969, and 1981), as noted in Table 3, the chairs of the Joint Inaugural Committee have been Senators drawn from other institutional positions.

Table 3. Chairs of the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, 1901-2017

Year

President (Party)

Chair (Party-State)

Senate Institutional Position

1901

William McKinley (R)

Marcus A. Hanna (R-OH)

Chair, Relations with Canada

1905

Theodore Roosevelt (R)

John C. Spooner (R-WI)

Chair, Rules

1909

William Taft (R)

Philander C. Knox (R-PA)

Chair, Rules

1913

Woodrow Wilson (D)

W. Murray Crane (R-MA)

Chair, Rules a

1917

Woodrow Wilson (D)

Lee S. Overman (D-NC)

Chair, Rules

1921

Warren Harding (R)

Philander C. Knox (R-PA)

Chair, Rules

1925

Calvin Coolidge (R)

Charles Curtis (R-KS)

Chair, Rules

1929

Herbert Hoover (R)

George H. Moses (R-NH)

Chair, Post Office and Post Roads b

1933

Franklin Roosevelt (D)

Joseph T. Robinson (D-AR)

Minority Leader

1937

Franklin Roosevelt (D)

Matthew M. Neely (D-WV)

Chair, Rules

1941

Franklin Roosevelt (D)

Matthew M. Neely (D-WV)

Chair, Rules

1945

Franklin Roosevelt (D)

Harry F. Byrd (D-VA)

Chair, Rules

1949

Harry Truman (D)

Carl T. Hayden (D-AZ) c

Chair, Rules and Administration

1953

Dwight Eisenhower (R)

Styles Bridges (R-NH)d

President Pro Tempore

1957

Dwight Eisenhower (R)

Styles Bridges (R-NH)

Ranking Member, Appropriations

1961

John F. Kennedy (D)

John J. Sparkman (D-AL)

Chair, Small Business

1965

Lyndon B. Johnson (D)

B. Everett Jordan (D-NC)

Chair, Rules and Administration

1969

Richard Nixon (R)

Everett M. Dirksen (R-IL)

Senate Minority Leader

1973

Richard Nixon (R)

Howard W. Cannon (D-NV) e

Chair, Rules and Administration

1977

Jimmy Carter (D)

Howard W. Cannon (D-NV)

Chair, Rules and Administration

1981

Ronald Reagan (R)

Mark Hatfield (R-OR) f

Chair, Appropriations

1985

Ronald Reagan (R)

Charles McC. Mathias (R-MD)

Chair, Rules and Administration

1989

George H.W. Bush (R)

Wendell H. Ford (D-KY)

Chair, Rules and Administration

1993

Bill Clinton (D)

Wendell H. Ford (D-KY)

Chair, Rules and Administration

1997

Bill Clinton (D)

John Warner (R-VA)

Chair, Rules and Administration

2001

George W. Bush (R)

Mitch McConnell (R-KY)

Chair, Rules and Administration

2005

George W. Bush (R)

Trent Lott (R-MS)

Chair, Rules and Administration

2009

Barack H. Obama (D)

Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)

Chair, Rules and Administration

2013

Barack H. Obama (D)

Charles Schumer (D-NY)

Chair, Rules and Administration

2017

Roy Blunt (R-MO)

Chair, Rules and Administration

Sources: U.S. Congress, Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, Membership of the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, http://inaugural.senate.gov/cmte/membershiphistory.cfm; Garrison Nelson, Committees in the U.S. Congress 1947-1992, Volume 2: Committee Histories and Member Assignments (Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1994); and David T. Cannon, Garrison Nelson, and Charles Steward III, Committees in the U.S. Congress 1789-1946, Volume 3: Member Assignments (Washington: CQ Press, 2002).

Notes:

a. Senator W. Murray Crane was the chair of the Committee on Rules in the 62nd Congress (1911-1913). In the 1912 election, the Democrats became the majority party for the 63rd Congress (1913-1915). Senator Crane remained as Joint Inaugural Committee chair, despite being a minority committee member.

b. Senator George H. Moses was the third-ranking Republican on the Committee on Rules.

c. In November 1948, Senator Ablen W. Barkely was elected Vice President. Subsequently, Senator Carl T. Hayden was appointed to replace Senator Barkley on the committee. As a result of the 1948 election, the Democratic Party won control of the Senate, and Senator Hayden succeeded Senator C. Wayland Brooks as chair.

d. On January 6, 1953, following the Republican Party gaining control of the Senate as a result of the 1952 election, Senator Styles Bridges replaced Senator Carl T. Hayden as chair.

e. On August 2, 1972, Senator Howard W. Cannon replaced Senator B. Everett Jordan as chair after Senator Jordan was not re-nominated for the Senate by the North Carolina Democratic Party. Prior to replacing Senator Jordan as chair, Senator Cannon was the second-ranked Democrat on the Rules and Administration Committee.

f. On January 5, 1981, Senator Claiborne Pell stepped aside as chair, when the Republicans became the majority party in the Senate. Senator Mark Hatfield became chair, and Senator Pell remained on the committee as the fourth Senator pursuant to S.Con.Res. 2 (97th Congress).

Inaugural Chairs Other than the Chair of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration

The chair of the Joint Inaugural Committee in 1901, 1929, 1933, 1953, 1957, 1961, 1969, and 1981, was a Senator other than the chair of the Senate Committee on Rules or the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration. The following section summarizes each of these instances.

1901

The 1901 Joint Inaugural Committee chair, Senator Marcus A. Hanna, was the chair of the Senate Committee on Relations with Canada in the 56th Congress (1899-1901). Senator Hanna was a close political confidant of President William McKinley, having served as his national party chair and campaign manager in the 1896 election.20 The Committee on Rules was represented on the Joint Inaugural Committee by Senator John C. Spooner, who was committee chair.21

1929

For the 1929 inauguration, Senator George H. Moses served as the chair of the Joint Inaugural Committee. Senator Moses was the third-ranking Republican on the Committee on Rules and chair of the Committee on Post Office and Post Roads.22 The two other Senators on the Joint Inaugural Committee were also members of the Committee on Rules. Senator Frederick Hale was the second-ranking Republican on the committee, and Senator Lee S. Overman was the ranking Member.23

1933

The composition of the 1933 inaugural committee was complicated by the 1932 election, when party control of the Senate switched from the Republicans to the Democrats. The incumbent, 72nd Congress (1931-1933)—with a Republican Senate majority—ended its term "just prior to noon" on Inauguration Day. Senator Joseph T. Robinson, chair of the Joint Inaugural Committee, had been ranking minority Member of the Committee on Rules in the 72nd Congress. At the time of the inauguration, however, he had become majority leader of the Senate for the 73rd Congress (1933-1934). Senator George H. Moses, the chair of the Committee on Rules for the 72nd Congress, was also a member of the inaugural committee, although his term of office ended minutes prior to the inauguration. The other Senator, Frederick Hale, was the second-ranking Republican on the Committee on Rules in the 72nd Congress.24

1953

Party control shifted in the Senate as a result of the 1952 elections. On January 6, 1953, when the Republicans assumed control of the Senate, Senator Styles Bridges succeeded Senator Carl T. Hayden as chair of the Joint Inaugural Committee for the 83rd Congress (1953-1954).25 Senator Bridges also served as President pro tempore of the Senate and was chair of the Appropriations Committee in the 83rd Congress. Senator Bridges never served on the Committee on Rules and Administration.26 After relinquishing the chair of the Joint Inaugural Committee, Senator Hayden, who was chair of the Rules and Administration Committee in the 82nd Congress (1951-1952) and ranking Member of this committee for the 83rd Congress (1953-1954), continued to serve as a member of the Joint Inaugural Committee.27

1957

Senator Styles Bridges returned as chair of the Joint Inaugural Committee for President Dwight D. Eisenhower's second inauguration. Even though the Democrats were the majority party in the 85th Congress (1957-1958), Senator Bridges was designated chair of the committee and was the only Republican appointee.28 Senator Theodore F. Green, chair of the Committee on Rules and Administration, also served on the Joint Inaugural Committee.29

1961

For President John F. Kennedy's inauguration in 1961, Senator John J. Sparkman served as chair of the Joint Inaugural Committee. At that time, Senator Sparkman served as chair of the Committee on Small Business, and had never served on the Committee on Rules and Administration. Senator Sparkman had previously served as a member of the Joint Inaugural Committee for the second inauguration of President Eisenhower in 1957.30 Senator Carl T. Hayden, the other Democratic member, also served as the second-ranking majority member of the Committee on Rules and Administration.31

1969

In the 91st Congress (1969-1970), Senator Everett M. Dirksen was the Senate minority leader and ranking Member of the Judiciary Committee when he was appointed chair of the Joint Inaugural Committee. Senator Dirksen had served as minority leader since the 86th Congress (1959-1960), and had served as a member of the Senate Rules and Administration Committee in the 82nd Congress (1951-1952) as well as the 87th Congress (1961-1962). He had not served on a previous inaugural committee.32 Representing the Committee on Rules and Administration was its chair, Senator B. Everett Jordan.33

1981

As a result of the 1980 elections, party control in the Senate switched from the Democrats to the Republicans. Senator Claiborne Pell, the chair of the Committee on Rules and Administration, had been chosen chair of the Joint Inaugural Committee prior to the election. On January 6, 1981, the Senate passed S.Con.Res. 2,34 to amend the concurrent resolution of the prior Congress that set up the Joint Inaugural Committee and to expand its membership to four Senators and four Representatives. Named to the additional Senate slot and serving as the new chair was Mark Hatfield, the ranking minority Member of the Committee on Rules and Administration in the 96th Congress (1979-1980). The other three Senators, Howard H. Baker, Robert C. Byrd, and Claiborne Pell, also were members of the Committee on Rules and Administration.35

Linkage Between Joint Committee Chair and President-Elect's Party

For 22 of the 29 inaugurations between 1901 and 2013, the party controlling the Senate at the time of the inauguration was also the party of the President-elect. This was not the case in 1933, 1957, 1969, 1973, 1989, and 1997. In the first four instances, a Joint Inaugural Committee member from the Senate minority party was chosen to be the chair (or co-chair) of the Joint Inaugural Committee. In the latter two inaugurations, a member of the Senate majority party (and not a member of the President-elect's party) chaired the Joint Inaugural Committee. See the Appendix for a full list of the members of the Joint Inaugural Committee on Inauguration Day since 1901.

Committee Staffing

Although the Senate and House have had equal membership on the Joint Inaugural Committee for more than a century, the committee has always been chaired by a Senator. Additionally, the panel has always included at least one member of Senate Committee on Rules (1901-1945), or the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration (1949-2009). The repeated involvement of members of the Senate Rules Committee or the Committee on Rules and Administration in the work of the Joint Inaugural Committee reflects some of the key responsibilities assigned to the committee.

Since 1947, pursuant to the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946, the Rules and Administration Committee—under Senate Rule XXV—has had jurisdiction over "[f]ederal elections generally, including the election of the President, Vice President, and Members of the Congress."36 Rule XXV further gives the committee authority over matters relating to the "payment of money out of the contingent fund of the Senate or creating a charge upon the same,"37 thereby granting the panel authority over the miscellaneous costs (e.g., Capitol Police security costs) associated with the inauguration. Prior to 1947, the precise legislative responsibilities of committees were not enumerated in Senate rules. Committee jurisdictions were determined by committee name and by precedent.

Measures establishing the Joint Inaugural Committee have never authorized the employment of specialized staff.38 Between 1901 and 1992, Congress approved two quadrennial funding resolutions for the inauguration—one covering the expenses associated with the inaugural ceremonies, which stipulated the amount of funds being appropriated for the Joint Inaugural Committee to make arrangements for the official ceremony on Capitol Hill; and the other providing funds for the District of Columbia to maintain public order and provide fire protection. The funds appropriated for the Joint Inaugural Committee were used to construct the inaugural platform, to prepare seating for those attending the swearing-in of the President and Vice President, and to reimburse other entities for salaries and expenses incurred in arranging the inaugural ceremonies.39

Only since 1996 have the funds appropriated for the Joint Inaugural Committee included specific language authorizing the committee to reimburse the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration for staff detailed to assist in the inaugural preparations.40 For the 2009 inauguration the resolution provided the following:

That the compensation of any employee of the Committee on Rules and Administration of the Senate who has been designated to perform service with respect to the inaugural ceremonies of 2009 shall continue to be paid by the Committee on Rules and Administration, but the account from which such staff member is paid may be reimbursed for the services of the staff member (including agency contributions when appropriate) out of funds made available under this heading.41

While the appropriations language prior to 1996 did not specify the use of Rules and Administration staff, William Cochrane, the staff director of the Senate Rules and Administration Committee for many years, is known to have served also as executive director of the Joint Inaugural Committee, or consultant to it, for the inaugurations from 1973 through 1985.42

Inaugural Activities

The Joint Inaugural Committee has traditionally been responsible for two major inaugural activities: arranging the swearing-in ceremony and hosting an inaugural luncheon. These two functions are coordinated with the President-elect's inaugural committee, and both occur at the U.S. Capitol.

Swearing-In Ceremony

In 1801, President-elect Thomas Jefferson became the first President to take the oath of office at the newly completed Capitol building. On March 2, 1801, President-elect Jefferson wrote to the Senate proposing the date, time, and place of his swearing-in ceremony. "I beg leave, through you, to inform the honorable Senate of the United States that I propose to take the oath which the Constitution prescribes to the President of the United States, before he enters on the execution of his office, on Wednesday, the 4th instant, at 12 o'clock, in the Senate Chamber."43 Since that time, the presidential and vice presidential oath of office has usually been administered at the U.S. Capitol.

Oversight of the inaugural platform's construction is one of the Joint Inaugural Committee's primary responsibilities. The platform is designed to hold more than 1,600 people—including the President and Vice President-elect, Members of Congress, Supreme Court Justices, the outgoing President and Vice President, former Presidents, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, governors, and other dignitaries. The platform is built from scratch for each inauguration by the Architect of the Capitol, and is fully American with Disabilities Act compliant.44

Beginning in 1981, for President Ronald Reagan's first inauguration, the inaugural ceremony has been held on the West Front Steps of the Capitol. Prior to 1981, outdoor inaugural ceremonies were held on the East Front of the Capitol. The ceremony was moved to the West Front because it "could accommodate more visitors."45

Inaugural Luncheon

Following the inaugural ceremony, the Joint Inaugural Committee hosts a luncheon for the President and Vice President in National Statuary Hall. "Often featuring cuisine reflecting the home states of the new President and Vice-President, ... the Luncheon program includes speeches, gift presentations ... , and toasts to the new administration."46

The luncheon has been held quadrennially, in its current form, since 1953.47 The tradition of hosting a luncheon, however, dates to 1897.48 The luncheon is generally a multiple course meal that features a specific painting displayed behind the dais. For President Barack Obama's inauguration in 2009, the luncheon featured the painting "View of Yosemite Valley" by Thomas Hill.49

Conclusion

Since 1901, when the first Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies was authorized, both the House and Senate have played a prominent role in the organization and execution of the inaugural ceremony. While prior to 1901, the Senate organized the inauguration and invited Members of the House to participate, today the House and Senate both have a formal role in celebrating the transition of power from one President to the next.

The House and Senate, through the Joint Inaugural Committee, organize and implement the arrangements for the 2017 presidential and vice presidential inauguration. Pursuant to S.Con.Res. 28 and S.Con.Res. 29 in the 114th Congress (2015-2016), the 2017 inaugural ceremony will be held at the U.S. Capitol, with the swearing-in ceremony on the West Front Steps and special events held in the Rotunda and Emancipation Hall of the Capitol Visitor Center.

Appendix. Joint Committee Membership on Inauguration Day

Table A-1. Joint Inaugural Committee Membership on Inauguration Day

Year

Chair

Senate Majority

Senate Minority

House Majority

House Minority

President William McKinley (R)

1901

Marcus A. Hanna (R-OH)

John C. Spooner (R-WI)

James K. Jones (D-AR)

Joseph G. Cannon (R-IL)

John Dalzell (R-PA)

Thomas C. McRae (D-AR)

President Theodore Roosevelt (R)

1905

John C. Spooner (R-WI)

Nelson W. Aldrich (R-RI)

Augustus O. Bacon (D-GA)

John Dalzell (R-PA)

Edgar D. Crumpacker (R-IN)

John S. Williams (D-MS)

President William Taft (R)

1909

Philander C. Knox (R-PA)

Henry Cabot Lodge (R-MA)

Augustus O. Bacon (D-GA)

James F. Burke (R-PA)

Horace O. Young (R-MI)

John W. Gaines (D-TN)

President Woodrow Wilson (D)

1913

W. Murray Crane (R-MA)

Augustus O. Bacon (D-GA)

Lee S. Overman (D-NC)

———a

William W. Rucker (D-MO)

Finis J. Garrett (D-TN)

William B. McKinley (R-IL)

1917

Lee S. Overman (D-NC)

Hoke Smith (D-GA)

Francis E. Warren (R-WY)

William W. Rucker (D-MO)

Finis J. Garrett (D-TN)

William B. McKinley (R-IL)

President Warren Harding (R)

1921

Philander C. Knox (R-PA)

Knute Nelson (R-MN)

Lee S. Overman (D-NC)

Joseph G. Cannon (R-IL)

Charles F. Reavis (R-NE)

Charles M. Stedman (D-NC)b

President Calvin Coolidge (R)

1925

Charles Curtis (R-KS)

Frederick Hale (R-ME)

Lee S. Overman (D-NC)

William W. Griest (R-PA)

Lindley H. Hadley (R-WA)

Arthur B. Rouse (D-KY)

President Herbert Hoover (R)

1929

George H. Moses (R-NH)

Frederick Hale (R-ME)

Lee S. Overman (D-NC)

Bertrand H. Snell (R-NY)

Leonidas C. Dyer (R-MO)

Edward W. Pou (D-NC)

President Franklin D. Roosevelt (D)

1933

Joseph T. Robinson (D-AR)

George H. Moses (R-NH)

Frederick Hale (R-ME)

———c

Edward W. Pou (D-NC)

Henry T. Rainey (D-IL)

Bertrand H. Snell (R-NY)

1937

Matthew M. Neely (D-WV)

Joseph T. Robinson (D-AR)

Frederick Hale (R-ME)

John J. O'Connor (D-NY)

Robert L. Doughton (D-NC)

Bertrand H. Snell (R-NY)

1941

Matthew M. Neely (D-WV)

Alben W. Barkley (D-KY)

Charles L. McNary (R-OR)

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

Robert L. Doughton (D-NC)

Joseph W. Martin (R-MA)

1945

Harry F. Byrd (D-VA)

Kenneth McKellar (D-TN)

Arthur Vandenberg (R-MI)

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

Robert L. Doughton (D-NC)

Joseph W. Martin (R-MA)

President Harry S. Truman (D)

1949

Carl T. Hayden (D-AZ)d

J. Howard McGrath (D-RI)e

Kenneth S. Wherry (R-NE)

Harry R. Sheppard (D-CA)f

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Charles A. Halleck (R-IN)

President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R)

1953

Styles Bridges (R-NH)

Herman Welker (R-ID)g

Carl T. Hayden (D-AZ)

Leslie C. Arends (R-IL)

Joseph W. Martin (R-MA)

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

1957

Styles Bridges (R-NH)

John J. Sparkman (D-AL)

Theodore F. Green (D-RI)

———h

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Joseph W. Martin (R-MA)

President John F. Kennedy (D)

1961

John J. Sparkman (D-AL)

Carl T. Hayden (D-AZ)i

Styles Bridges (R-NH)

Sam Rayburn (D-TX)

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Charles A. Halleck (R-IN)

President Lyndon B. Johnson (D)

1965

B. Everett Jordan (D-NC)

John J. Sparkman (D-AL)

Leverett Saltonstall (R-MA)

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Carl B. Albert (D-OK)

Gerald R. Ford (R-MI)

President Richard M. Nixon (R)

1969

Everett M. Dirksen (R-IL)

B. Everett Jordan (D-NC)

Michael J. Mansfield (D-MT)

———j

John W. McCormack (D-MA)

Carl B. Albert (D-OK)

Gerald R. Ford (R-MI)

1973

Howard W. Cannon (D-NV)k

Michael J. Mansfield (D-MT)

Marlow W. Cook (R-KY)l

Carl B. Albert (D-OK)

Thomas P. O'Neill (D-MA)m

Gerald R. Ford (R-MI)

President Jimmy Carter (D)

1977

Howard W. Cannon (D-NV)

Robert C. Byrd (D-WV)

Mark Hatfield (R-OR)

Thomas P. O'Neill (D-MA)

James C. Wright (D-TX)

John J. Rhodes (R-AZ)

President Ronald Reagan (R)

1981

Mark Hatfield (R-OR)

Howard H. Baker (R-TN)

Robert C. Byrd (D-WV)

Claiborne Pell (D-RI)n

Thomas P. O'Neill (D-MA)

James C. Wright (D-TX)

John J. Rhodes (R-AZ)

Robert H. Michel (R-IL)o

1985

Charles McC. Mathias (R-MD)

Howard H. Baker (R-TN)

Wendell H. Ford (D-KY)

Thomas P. O'Neill (D-MA)

James C. Wright (D-TX)

Robert H. Michel (R-IL)

President George H.W. Bush (R)

1989

Wendell H. Ford (D-KY)

Robert C. Byrd (D-WV)

Ted Stevens (R-AK)

James C. Wright (D-TX)

Thomas S. Foley (D-WA)

Robert H. Michel (R-IL)

President Bill Clinton (D)

1993

Wendell H. Ford (D-KY)

George J. Mitchell (D-ME)

Ted Stevens (R-AK)

Thomas S. Foley (D-WA)

Richard A. Gephardt (D-MO)

Robert H. Michel (R-IL)

1997

John Warner (R-VA)

Trent Lott (R-MS)

Wendell H. Ford (D-KY)

Newt Gingrich (R-GA)

Richard K. Armey (R-TX)

Richard A. Gephardt (D-MO)

President George W. Bush (R)

2001

Mitch McConnell (R-KY)

Trent Lott (R-MS)

Christopher Dodd (D-CT)

J. Dennis Hastert (R-IL)

Richard K. Armey (R-TX)

Richard A. Gephardt (D-MO)

2005

Trent Lott (R-MS)

William Frist (R-TN)

Christopher Dodd (D-CT)

J. Dennis Hastert (R-IL)

Tom DeLay (R-TX)

Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

President Barack Obama (D)

2009

Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)

Harry Reid (D-NV)

Bob Bennett (R-UT)

Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

Steny Hoyer (D-MD)

John Boehner (R-OH)

2013

Charles Schumer (D-NY)

Harry Reid (D-NV)

Lamar Alexander (R-TN)

John Boehner (R-OH

Eric Cantor (R-VA)

Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

Source: U.S. Congress, Senate, Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, "Committee Membership, 1901-2009," http://inaugural.senate.gov/cmte/membershiphistory.cfm.

Notes: All chairs of the Joint Inaugural Committee are Senators.

a. The minority party Senator of the committee also served as the chair.

b. Representative Charles M. Stedman replaced Representative William W. Rucker, who resigned from the committee.

c. The minority party Senator of the committee also served as the chair.

d. Senator Carl T. Hayden replaced Senator Ablen W. Barkely, who was elected Vice President.

e. Senator J. Howard McGrath replaced Senator C. Wayland Brooks, who did not win reelection to the Senate.

f. Representative Harry R. Sheppard replaced Representative Leslie C. Arends, who was removed from the committee when the Democrats won the House majority.

g. Senator Herman Welker replaced Senator Margaret Chase Smith, who resigned from the committee. Senator Smith had earlier replaced Senator Ernest W. McFarland, who resigned from the committee.

h. The minority party Senator of the committee also served as the chair.

i. Senator Carl T. Hayden replaced Senator Thomas Hennings, who died in office.

j. The minority party Senator of the committee also served as the chair.

k. Senator Howard W. Cannon replaced Senator B. Everett Jordan as chair after Senator Jordan was not renominated for the Senate by the North Carolina Democratic Party.

l. Senator Marlow W. Cook was designated co-chair of the committee.

m. Representative Thomas P. O'Neill replaced Representative T. Hale Boggs, who was presumed to have been killed in an airplane crash.

n. Senator Claiborne Pell stepped aside as chair on January 5, 1981, when the Republicans became the majority party in the Senate. Senator Mark Hatfield became the chair, and Senator Pell remained on the committee as a fourth Senator pursuant to S.Con.Res. 2 (97th Congress).

o. On November 12, 1980, the Speaker of the House appointed Representatives John J. Rhodes, Thomas P. O'Neill, and James C. Wright to the Joint Inaugural Committee. When the House Members were reappointed on January 6, 1981, the Speaker of the House, breaking with precedent, appointed four Members (Representatives Rhodes, O'Neill, and Wright, plus Representative Robert H. Michel) to the Joint Inaugural Committee. S.Con.Res. 2 (97th Congress), agreed to January 6, 1981. Pursuant to the resolution, Senator Pell continued as a member of the joint inaugural committee. See also, Senator Mark Hatfield, "Resolution to Provide for the Continuation of the Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," Senate debate, Congressional Record, vol. 127, part 1 (January 5, 1981), p. 10.

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Analyst on the Congress ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Footnotes

1.

National Archives, "20th Amendment," Constitution of the United States, http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_amendments_11-27.html.

2.

Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, http://inaugural.senate.gov.

3.

"Establishing the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 162 (January 20, 2016), pp. S139-S140; and "Establishing the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 162 (February 3, 2016), p. H539.

4.

S.Con.Res. 28 (114th Congress), agreed to February 3, 2016.

5.

"Inaugural Arrangements," Congressional Record, vol. 34, part 2 (February 5, 1901), p. 1923; and "Inauguration Arrangements," Congressional Record, vol. 34, part 2 (February 5, 1901), p. 1960.

6.

Senator John Sherman, "Inaugural Ceremonies," remarks in the Senate, Congressional Record, vol. 16, part 3 (March 2, 1885), p. 2390.

7.

Inauguration day was changed by the ratification of the Twentieth Amendment in January 1933, which moved inauguration day to January 20, and the beginning of Congress to January 3.

8.

"Inaugural Arrangements," House debate, Congressional Record, vol. 34, part 2 (January 17, 1901), p. 1125; and "Inaugural Arrangements," Senate debate, Congressional Record, vol. 34, part 2 (February 4, 1901), p. 1901.

9.

"Privileges of Representatives in Inaugural Ceremonies," House debate, Congressional Record, vol. 16, part 3 (March 2, 1885), p. 2406; and "Privilege of the House-Inaugural Ceremonies," House debate, Congressional Record, vol. 16, part 3 (March 2, 1885), pp. 2406-2410.

10.

Representative Charles Baker, "Arrangements for the Inauguration," House debate, Congressional Record, vol. 20, part 3 (March 2, 1889), p. 2716. Although the Congressional Record of 1885 does not acknowledge the appointment of the committee, Representative Charles Baker provided this information during the 1889 House debate.

11.

Representative Newton C. Blanchard, "Arrangements for the Inauguration," House debate, Congressional Record, vol. 20, part 3 (March 2, 1889), p. 2715.

12.

"Arrangements for the Inauguration," House debate, Congressional Record, vol. 20, part 3 (March 2, 1889), p. 2716.

13.

"Inaugural Expenses, March 4, 1901," House debate, Congressional Record, vol. 34, part 2 (January 15, 1901), p. 1033; "Inaugural Expenses, March 4, 1901," House debate, Congressional Record, vol. 34, part 2 (January 16, 1901), pp. 1105-1106; "Inaugural Arrangements," Senate debate, Congressional Record, vol. 34, part 2 (January 18, 1901), p. 1161; "Expenses of the Inaugural Ceremonies of the President and Vice President," House debate, Congressional Record, vol. 34, part 2 (February 2, 1901), p. 1862; and "Inaugural Arrangements," Senate debate, Congressional Record, vol. 34, part 2 (February 4, 1901), p. 1901. Also, see 31 Stat. 1461, February 8, 1901.

14.

"Establishing the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 162 (January 20, 2016), pp. S139-S140; and "Establishing the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 162 (February 3, 2016), p. H539.

15.

S.Con.Res. 28 (114th Congress), agreed to February 3, 2016.

16.

Pursuant to Article I, Section 3, clause 4, the Vice President of the United States serves as the President of the Senate. For more information, see U.S. Congress, Senate, The Constitution of the United States of America, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., S.Doc. 111-39 (Washington: GPO, 2010).

17.

"Appointment," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 162 (February 4, 2016), p. S691.

18.

"Appointment of Members to Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 162 (February 11, 2016), p. H721.

19.

Floyd M. Riddick, The United States Congress Organization and Procedure (Manassas, VA: National Capitol Publishers, 1949), pp. 146-148.

20.

Herbert Croly, Marcus Alonzo Hanna: His Life and Work (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1965).

21.

U.S. Congress, Congressional Directory, 56th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1900), pp. 141-148.

22.

U.S. Congress, Congressional Directory, 70th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1928), p. 208.

23.

Ibid., pp. 198-203.

24.

Garrison Nelson, Committees in the U.S. Congress 1947-1992, Volume 2: Committee Histories and Member Assignments (Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1994).

25.

Ibid., p. 960.

26.

Ibid., pp. 99-101.

27.

U.S. Congress, Congressional Directory, 83rd Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1953), p. 198.

28.

Nelson, pp. 99-101.

29.

U.S. Congress, Congressional Directory, 84th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1956), p. 230.

30.

Nelson, pp. 834-835.

31.

U.S. Congress, Congressional Directory, 86th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1960), p. 239.

32.

Nelson, pp. 236-238.

33.

U.S. Congress, Congressional Directory, 90th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1968), p. 254.

34.

S.Con.Res. 2 (97th Congress), agreed to January 6, 1981. Pursuant to the resolution, Senator Pell continued as a member of the joint inaugural committee. See also, Senator Mark Hatfield, "Resolution to Provide for the Continuation of the Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," Senate debate, Congressional Record, vol. 127, part 1 (January 5, 1981), p. 10.

35.

U.S. Congress, Congressional Directory, 97th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1981), p. 263.

36.

P.L. 79-601, 60 Stat. 812-852, August 2, 1946. Also, see U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, History of the Committee on Rules and Administration, United States Senate, prepared by Floyd M. Riddick, Parliamentarian Emeritus of the Senate, with the assistance of Louise M. McPherson, Research Assistant, 96th Cong., 2nd sess., S.Doc. 96-27 (Washington: GPO, 1980), p. 60; and U.S. Senate, Standing Rules of the Senate, "Rule XXV cl. 1 (n)(1)(5)," 110th Cong., 1st sess., S.Doc. 110-9 (Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 26. Pursuant to House Rule X, clause 1(k)(12), the Committee on House Administration has identical authority over the "election of the President, [and] Vice President ... " as the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration. For more information, see U.S. Congress, House, Constitution, Jefferson's Manual, and Rules of the House of Representatives of the United States, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., H.Doc. 111-157 (Washington: GPO, 2011), § 724, p. 454.

37.

Rule XXV, cl. 1 (n)(1)(8).

38.

A typical concurrent resolution creating the joint committee states: "Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That a joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies consisting of three Senators and three Representatives, to be appointed by the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, respectively, is authorized to make the necessary arrangements for the inaugural of the President-elect and Vice President-elect of the United States on the 20th day of January 2009." See S.Con.Res. 67 (110th Congress), agreed to by the House on February 28, 2008 and agreed to by the Senate on February 8, 2008, "Establishing the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies," House debate, Congressional Record, vol. 154 (February 28, 2008), pp. 1164-1165.

39.

For example, the appropriations language for 1989 read as follows: "For construction of platform and seating stands and for salaries and expenses of conducting the inaugural ceremonies of the President and Vice President of the United States, January 20, 1989, in accordance with such program as may be adopted by the joint committee authorized by Senate Concurrent Resolution 105, One Hundredth Congress, agreed to March 18, 1988, $775,000, to remain available until September 30, 1989. Such funds shall be available for such salaries (when paid on a reimbursable basis) and expenses, whether incurred on, before, or after, October 1, 1988." Also, see P.L. 100-458, 102 Stat. 2166, October 1, 1988.

40.

P.L. 104-197, 110 Stat. 2400, September 16, 1996; P.L. 106-520, 114 Stat. 2436, November 15, 2000; P.L. 108-83, 117 Stat. 1019, September 30, 2003; and P.L. 110-161, 121 Stat. 2226, December 27, 2007.

41.

P.L. 110-161, 121 Stat. 2226, December 27, 2007.

42.

Senator Claiborne Pell, "William Mc. Cochrane: Historical Consultant," remarks in the Senate, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 141, part 3 (February 10, 1995), p. 4428. See also, U.S. President (Gerald R. Ford), "The Daily Diary of President Gerald R. Ford," President's Daily Diary Collection, January 20, 1977, box 85, Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library, p. 4, http://www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/library/document/0036/pdd770120.pdf.

43.

"Proceedings," Annals of Congress, vol. 10 (March 2, 1801), p. 756. For a recounting of the 1801 Inauguration, also see "Proceedings," Annals of Congress, vol. 10 (March 4, 1801), pp. 762-766.

44.

U.S. Congress, Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, "Platform History," History, http://inaugural.senate.gov/history/platform/index.cfm.

45.

U.S. Congress, Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, "President Ronald Wilson Reagan, 1981," Chronology, http://inaugural.senate.gov/history/chronology/rwreagan1981.cfm.

46.

U.S. Congress, Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, Luncheon, http://inaugural.senate.gov/luncheon/index.cfm.

47.

Paul F. Boller Jr., Presidential Inauguration (New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2001), p. 172.

48.

Ibid.

49.

U.S. Congress, Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, "Inaugural Luncheon, 2009," Luncheon, http://inaugural.senate.gov/luncheon/2009luncheon.cfm.