The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008

The Davis-Bacon Act requires employers to pay workers at least the locally prevailing wage and fringe benefits on federal construction projects of more than $2,000. These wages and benefits are the minimum that employers must pay workers. In order to hire and retain workers, employers may pay more than the minimum amounts. Issues for Congress include the effect of the Davis-Bacon Act on labor costs in federal construction and the earnings of construction workers and their families. Other concerns include the administration and enforcement of the act.

The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) publishes Davis-Bacon prevailing wages for four types of construction: residential, building, highway, and heavy construction. A comparison of Davis-Bacon prevailing wages in these four types of construction with average hourly wages from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey in 12 states shows the following:

In 2000, 67.5% of Davis-Bacon prevailing wage rates (141 of 209) were either the same as or higher than OES average hourly wages. In 2000, OES wages are available for metropolitan areas only.

In 2008, if Davis-Bacon prevailing wages are compared to OES average hourly wages in metropolitan areas only, 62.4% of Davis-Bacon wages (189 of 303, where nonmetropolitan areas are excluded) were higher than OES wages.

Differences in Davis-Bacon prevailing wages and OES average hourly wages vary by type of construction. In 2008, in building, highway, and heavy construction, 66.7%, 63.6%, and 59.7%, respectively, of Davis-Bacon wages were higher than OES wages. By contrast, in residential construction, 19.0% of Davis-Bacon wages were higher than OES wages.

These findings indicate that Davis-Bacon prevailing wages are generally higher than average OES hourly wages in three of the four types of construction for which DOL publishes wage determinations. On the other hand, the findings suggest that from 2000 to 2008 the gap between Davis-Bacon and OES wages may have narrowed. The gap between Davis-Bacon OES wages may have narrowed for several reasons. First, from 2000 to 2008, 38.0% (157 of 413) of prevailing wages examined for this report did not increase or were raised because of a higher federal minimum wage. Second, research suggests that the wages of union workers are higher than the wages of nonunion workers, but that the gap may have narrowed. Therefore, to the extent that Davis-Bacon wages are union wages, the difference between Davis-Bacon and OES wages may have narrowed. Third, union membership in the construction industry has declined (from 18.3% to 15.6% between 2000 and 2008), which may have lowered the share of Davis-Bacon wages that are based on collective bargaining agreements.

If the Davis-Bacon Act causes contractors to pay wages that are higher than they would otherwise pay, Davis-Bacon may raise labor costs on federal construction projects. If these higher costs are not offset by greater labor productivity, better work quality, or improved timeliness in completing construction projects, Davis-Bacon likely raises the cost of federal construction. Inputs other than labor go into the costs of construction (e.g., land and materials). But, if the gap between Davis-Bacon and overall average hourly wages has narrowed, the effect of the Davis-Bacon Act on labor costs on federal construction projects may have diminished.

Finally, the average hourly wage for workers in many construction occupations appears to have fallen relative to the average hourly wage for all occupations. This trend could also affect labor costs on federal construction projects.

The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 (name redacted) Analyst in Labor Policy March 30, 2012 Congressional Research Service 7-.... www.crs.gov R40663 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 Summary The Davis-Bacon Act requires employers to pay workers at least the locally prevailing wage and fringe benefits on federal construction projects of more than $2,000. These wages and benefits are the minimum that employers must pay workers. In order to hire and retain workers, employers may pay more than the minimum amounts. Issues for Congress include the effect of the DavisBacon Act on labor costs in federal construction and the earnings of construction workers and their families. Other concerns include the administration and enforcement of the act. The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) publishes Davis-Bacon prevailing wages for four types of construction: residential, building, highway, and heavy construction. A comparison of DavisBacon prevailing wages in these four types of construction with average hourly wages from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey in 12 states shows the following: • In 2000, 67.5% of Davis-Bacon prevailing wage rates (141 of 209) were either the same as or higher than OES average hourly wages. In 2000, OES wages are available for metropolitan areas only. • In 2008, if Davis-Bacon prevailing wages are compared to OES average hourly wages in metropolitan areas only, 62.4% of Davis-Bacon wages (189 of 303, where nonmetropolitan areas are excluded) were higher than OES wages. Differences in Davis-Bacon prevailing wages and OES average hourly wages vary by type of construction. In 2008, in building, highway, and heavy construction, 66.7%, 63.6%, and 59.7%, respectively, of Davis-Bacon wages were higher than OES wages. By contrast, in residential construction, 19.0% of Davis-Bacon wages were higher than OES wages. • These findings indicate that Davis-Bacon prevailing wages are generally higher than average OES hourly wages in three of the four types of construction for which DOL publishes wage determinations. On the other hand, the findings suggest that from 2000 to 2008 the gap between Davis-Bacon and OES wages may have narrowed. The gap between Davis-Bacon OES wages may have narrowed for several reasons. First, from 2000 to 2008, 38.0% (157 of 413) of prevailing wages examined for this report did not increase or were raised because of a higher federal minimum wage. Second, research suggests that the wages of union workers are higher than the wages of nonunion workers, but that the gap may have narrowed. Therefore, to the extent that Davis-Bacon wages are union wages, the difference between Davis-Bacon and OES wages may have narrowed. Third, union membership in the construction industry has declined (from 18.3% to 15.6% between 2000 and 2008), which may have lowered the share of Davis-Bacon wages that are based on collective bargaining agreements. If the Davis-Bacon Act causes contractors to pay wages that are higher than they would otherwise pay, Davis-Bacon may raise labor costs on federal construction projects. If these higher costs are not offset by greater labor productivity, better work quality, or improved timeliness in completing construction projects, Davis-Bacon likely raises the cost of federal construction. Inputs other than labor go into the costs of construction (e.g., land and materials). But, if the gap between DavisBacon and overall average hourly wages has narrowed, the effect of the Davis-Bacon Act on labor costs on federal construction projects may have diminished. Finally, the average hourly wage for workers in many construction occupations appears to have fallen relative to the average hourly wage for all occupations. This trend could also affect labor costs on federal construction projects. Congressional Research Service The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 Contents The Davis-Bacon Act....................................................................................................................... 1 Davis-Bacon Wage Determinations........................................................................................... 2 Davis-Bacon Prevailing Wage Requirements in Other Acts...................................................... 3 Enforcement .............................................................................................................................. 3 Issues for Congress.................................................................................................................... 4 Comparison of Davis-Bacon Prevailing Wages with Average Hourly Wages from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) Survey..................................................................... 4 Summary of Findings ................................................................................................................ 5 Conclusion................................................................................................................................. 6 The Narrowing Gap Between Davis-Bacon Prevailing Wages and OES Average Wages ................................................................................................................. 7 The Relative Decline in the Wages of Construction Workers ............................................. 8 Tables Table 1. Average Real Hourly Wages in Selected Construction Occupations Compared to the Average Real Hourly Wage in all Occupations, 2000 and 2008 ............................................. 9 Table 2. Davis-Bacon Prevailing Wage Rates and OES Survey Average Hourly Wages in Selected States, by County, Type of Construction, and Occupation, 2000 and 2008 ................. 10 Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 58 Congressional Research Service The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 T he Davis-Bacon Act requires employers to pay workers on federal construction projects at least the locally prevailing wage and fringe benefits. These wages and benefits are the minimum that employers must pay workers. In order to hire and retain workers, employers may pay more than the minimum amounts required. This report describes the Davis-Bacon Act and explains how locally prevailing wages are determined. Congress is often interested in how wages on Davis-Bacon projects compare to wages on other construction projects. Therefore, the report compares Davis-Bacon prevailing hourly wages with average hourly wages from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, which is an employer survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). DavisBacon wages are compared to OES average wages for the same or similar areas and occupations. The report concludes with a discussion of some potential implications of the findings. Davis-Bacon prevailing wages may differ from average hourly wages from the OES survey for a number of reasons. If federal construction projects are different from other construction projects, the types of worker skills required may not be the same. Davis-Bacon wages and OES wages may apply to different geographic areas or time periods. OES average hourly wages may include industries other than construction. The Davis-Bacon Act The Davis-Bacon Act requires employers to pay employees at least the locally prevailing wage and fringe benefits on construction contracts of more than $2,000 to which the federal government is a party.1 Under the act, construction is defined as the construction of public buildings or public works. Construction includes both new construction and the alteration or repair of existing construction. The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) publishes locally prevailing wages and benefits for four types of construction: residential, building, highway, and heavy construction. • • • • Residential construction consists of single family homes and apartment buildings of four stories or less. Building construction consists of housing of five stories or more and construction of other buildings, including court houses, hospitals, office buildings, schools, and parking garages. Highway construction includes roads, bridges, trails, runways, and parking lots. Heavy construction consists of projects that are not properly classified under the other three types of construction.2 1 More specifically, the Davis-Bacon Act states that “The advertised specifications for every contract in excess of $2,000 to which the United States or the District of Columbia is a party, for construction, alteration, and/or repair … of public buildings or public works … shall contain a provision stating the minimum wages to be paid various classes of laborers and mechanics which shall be based upon the wages that will be determined by the Secretary of Labor to be prevailing for the corresponding classes of laborers and mechanics employed on projects of a character similar to the contract work in the city, town, village, or other civil subdivision of the State in which the work is to be performed, or in the District of Columbia if the work is to be performed there….” 40 U.S.C. § 276a(a). 2 U.S. Department of Labor, Employment Standards Administration, Application of the Standard of Comparison “Projects of a Character Similar” Under the Davis-Bacon and Related Acts, March 17, 1978, available at http://www.dol.gov/whd/programs/dbra/docs/memo-131.pdf, pp. 2-6. Congressional Research Service 1 The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 Each contractor subject to the Davis-Bacon Act must furnish a weekly payroll statement to the contracting federal agency. The statement must include the name of each covered worker and the worker’s job classification, hourly rate of pay, and number of hours worked.3 The President may suspend the Davis-Bacon Act in the case of a national emergency. Although the statute does not define a national emergency, the act has been suspended several times over the years. Most recently, President George W. Bush suspended the Davis-Bacon Act in September 2005 in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina. The suspension was lifted two months later in November 2005.4 Davis-Bacon Wage Determinations DOL publishes hourly prevailing wages in reports called wage determinations. DOL issues two types of wage determinations: “general” (or “area”) determinations and “project” determinations. General wage determinations are available for most counties in each state, while project determinations are issued for a specific project at the request of a federal agency. A general wage determination may cover one or more counties in a state, including the entire state. A wage determination may apply to one or more types of construction. Typically, a wage determination has prevailing wage rates for several occupations. In turn, an occupation may have several classifications. For example, the occupation of truck driver may have different wage rates for different types of trucks (e.g., dump trucks and cement trucks) or for trucks of different sizes. Prevailing wages and fringe benefits for each job classification are based on DOL surveys of construction contractors, subcontractors, and building trades unions. The surveys collect information on wages and fringe benefits paid to workers on active construction projects. Davis-Bacon surveys collect information on wages and fringe benefits paid to workers in different job classifications during the “peak week” of employment. The peak week of employment is the week in which the largest number of workers are employed in a job classification. The wages and benefits paid during the peak week are not necessarily the wages and benefits paid to workers in a job classification at the time of the survey. Thus, for a project that lasts several years, a survey conducted at the end of the project may collect information on wages and benefits paid at the beginning, middle, or end of the project. The peak week may differ for different job classifications on the same project. DOL’s stated goal is to conduct wage surveys in each state every three years for each type of construction.5 The survey schedule may be prioritized based on need (e.g., planned construction), resources, or the likelihood of federal construction in the area. Davis-Bacon prevailing wages are determined as follows. If more than 50% of workers in a job classification (on similar projects and in the same geographical area) are paid the same wage, the 3 29 C.F.R. § 3.3. U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division, Fact Sheet #66: The Davis-Bacon and Related Acts (DBRA), available at http://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs66.pdf. 4 For more information on the suspension of Davis-Bacon, see CRS Report RL33276, Prevailing Wage Requirements and the Emergency Suspension of the Davis-Bacon Act, by (name redacted) and (name redacted). 5 U.S. Department of Labor, Employment Standards Administration, Davis-Bacon and Related Acts, available at http://www.dol.gov/esa/whd/programs/dbra/faqs/page25.htm. Congressional Research Service 2 The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 majority wage is the prevailing wage. If a majority of workers in a job classification are not paid the same wage, the prevailing wage is the weighted average wage of workers in the job classification.6 The majority wage may be a wage negotiated under a collective bargaining agreement (CBA). DOL’s wage surveys also collect information on employer-paid fringe benefits. Employers may meet the fringe benefit requirement by paying employees the cash equivalent of the amount of fringe benefits.7 The Davis-Bacon prevailing wage may be the current federal or state minimum wage. The current federal minimum wage is $7.25. If the minimum wage is the prevailing wage, wage determinations are generally updated to take into account increases in the federal minimum wage. If a state has a minimum wage higher than the federal minimum wage, the wage determination may show the current federal minimum wage. But, the higher state minimum wage will generally apply. Davis-Bacon Prevailing Wage Requirements in Other Acts In addition to contractors performing work on federal construction projects, Congress has added Davis-Bacon prevailing wage requirements to other statutes. Under several Davis-Bacon “related acts,” prevailing wages are required on federal construction projects that are funded through grants, loans, loan guarantees, or other forms of financing. These related acts cover construction in such areas as transportation, housing, and water pollution control.8 Congress has also required Davis-Bacon prevailing wages in spending bills. For example, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (P.L. 111-5, ARRA) temporarily increased funding for a number of programs and created new programs. Section 1606 of ARRA required the payment of Davis-Bacon prevailing wages on projects “funded directly by or assisted in whole or in part by and through the Federal Government” pursuant to the act. Congress has also included prevailing wage requirements in annual appropriations bills. For example, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012 (P.L. 112-74) requires prevailing wages on projects funded “in whole or in part” with federal grants to state revolving loan programs under both the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (i.e., the Clean Water Act) and the Safe Drinking Water Act.9 Enforcement The Wage and Hour Division (WHD) of DOL is responsible for enforcing the prevailing wage requirements of the Davis-Bacon Act.10 WHD has a nationwide staff of supervisors, analysts, technical and administrative staff, and investigators. For FY2012, WHD received $227.1 million in funding, which included money for 1,759 full-time equivalent employees (FTEs).11 6 29 CFR § 1.2(a)(1). U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division, “DBA/DBRA Compliance Principles,” Prevailing Wage Resource Book, available at http://www.wdol.gov/docs/WRB2002.pdf, p. 19. 8 For a list of these related acts, see Appendix A to Part 1 of 29 C.F.R Subtitle A. 9 See CRS Report R41469, Davis-Bacon Prevailing Wages and State Revolving Loan Programs Under the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act, by (name redacted) and (name redacted). 10 WHD also enforces other labor laws, including the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), which establishes minimum standards for wages, overtime, and child labor; the Service Contract Act, which requires employers to pay at least locally prevailing wages and fringe benefits to workers employed on federal service contracts; the Family and Medical (continued...) 7 Congressional Research Service 3 The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 Issues for Congress Davis-Bacon issues for Congress include the effect of the act on construction costs, federal spending, and the earnings of construction workers and their families. The act does not define how locally prevailing wages should be determined. Thus, Congress has been interested in both the administration and enforcement of the act. Because Congress has added, and has considered adding, Davis-Bacon prevailing wage requirements to other statutes and to appropriations bills, Congress has also been interested in the effect of requiring prevailing wages and benefits on construction projects financed through other acts. Comparison of Davis-Bacon Prevailing Wages with Average Hourly Wages from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) Survey The remainder of this report examines prevailing wage rates in 12 states for the years 2000 and 2008.12 The 12 states were selected by first ranking all the states (and the District of Columbia) by population, from highest to lowest. The states were then separated into four groups, or quartiles. The three largest states in each quartile were selected for analysis. 13 For each state, the report examines wages in four counties. The counties in each state were also ranked by population and separated into four groups. The report analyzes the wage rates for the largest county in each quartile.14 The report compares hourly wages for the four types of construction for which DOL publishes Davis-Bacon wage determinations and for three common occupations within each type of construction. The occupations selected include both skilled and unskilled occupations. Where possible, the occupations chosen were the same or similar for each type of construction in each county in each state. If a wage determination did not have a prevailing wage for the common occupation, a different, but similar, construction occupation was used. (...continued) Leave Act (FMLA), which requires private employers of 50 or more employees and public employers of any size to provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave during any 12-month period to eligible employees for certain family and medical reasons; and the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA), which establishes standards for wages, housing, and transportation for migrant and seasonal farmworkers. 11 U.S. Department of Labor, Budget Justification of Appropriation Estimates for Committee on Appropriations, Fiscal Year 2013, vol. II, p. WHD-19, available at http://www.dol.gov/dol/budget/2013/PDF/CBJ-2013-V2-09.pdf. 12 Davis-Bacon prevailing wage rates are available at the U.S. Department of Labor, Wage Determinations Online.Gov, available at http://www.wdol.gov/sca.aspx#0. 13 The 12 states are Arizona, California, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Texas. 14 Examining Davis-Bacon prevailing wages and OES average hourly wages across states and counties is a labor intensive undertaking. For this reason, this report examines wages in 12 states and 4 counties in each state (as opposed to all counties in all states). The states and counties were selected based on relative population with the intent of choosing a representative sample of different size states and counties. A Davis-Bacon wage determination may be modified several times during the year to take into account the results of a new survey or to update wage rates from a collective bargaining agreement. This report uses the last published wage determination for 2000 and for 2008. Thus, if a wage determination for 2008 was modified in March, June, September, and December, this report uses the wage determination published in December. Congressional Research Service 4 The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 Finally, Davis-Bacon prevailing wage rates are compared to average hourly wages for the same or similar areas and occupations from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey.15 For 2008, the OES survey provides estimates of average hourly wages for metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and for nonmetropolitan areas called “balance of state.”16 Balance of state areas consist of counties or towns that are not part of an MSA. For 2000, OES data are not available for nonmetropolitan (i.e., balance of state) areas.17 Therefore, in this report, OES data for 2000 are for MSAs only.18 The analysis in this report examines prevailing wage rates only. It does not consider the amount of employer-paid fringe benefits. Summary of Findings Table 2 shows Davis-Bacon hourly prevailing wages by state, county, construction type, and occupation. The table also shows OES average hourly wage rates for the metropolitan or nonmetropolitan areas that include the counties for which Davis-Bacon wages are shown. Where wage determinations were not available or where the occupational category for 2000 was not comparable to the category for 2008 the cell is marked as “n.a.” (i.e., not available). The summary of findings below should be read with some caution. First, federal construction projects may not be the same as other construction projects. For example, the construction of a secure federal courthouse may require construction workers with different skills than the workers needed for other types of building construction. Second, the Davis-Bacon wage may apply to an area that is either larger or smaller than the area represented by the OES average wage. For example, a metropolitan or nonmetropolitan area may include more than the county for which the Davis-Bacon wage applies. Alternatively, a Davis-Bacon wage may apply to a larger area than the metropolitan or nonmetropolitan area; for example, the Davis-Bacon wage may be a statewide wage. Third, the OES wage may be the average wage for workers in several industries, and not just the construction industry. For example, the OES wage for electricians is the average wage for electricians employed in all industries. Fourth, the OES occupational category may be broader 15 The OES survey is a cooperative effort between the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and the state workforce agencies (SWAs). (A local SWA is the office of the state employment service that serves the area of proposed employment. 20 CFR, § 655.2.) OES wage data are collected from a sample of approximately 1.2 million establishments. About 200,000 establishments are surveyed each May and November over a three-year period. The OES survey provides wage estimates for wage and salary workers in approximately 800 occupations. The estimates include both full-time and part-time employees. (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2005, Bulletin 2585, available at stats.bls.gov/oes/oes_pub_2005.htm, p. 252.) Wages may change over time because of inflation and changes in labor productivity. To calculate average hourly earnings in constant dollars, BLS uses its Employment Cost Index (ECI) to convert the wages from the first five panels used in published OES wage data into dollars of the current (i.e., sixth) panel. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wages, 2008, available at stats.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/ocwage.pdf, Technical Note. 16 An MSA consists of an urban center (or centers) and adjacent communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration. Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Divisions, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, Combined Statistical Areas, New England City and Town Areas, and Combined New England City and Town Areas, OMB Bulletin No. 08-01, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/bulletins/fy2008/b08-01.pdf, Appendix, p. 2. 17 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Occupational Employment Statistics,” Handbook of Labor Methods, available at http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch3.pdf, p. 7. 18 OES wage rates for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas are available at the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics, available at http://stats.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcma.htm. Congressional Research Service 5 The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 than the Davis-Bacon classification for an occupation. For example, the OES survey provides wage data for a limited number of types of truck drivers. But, a Davis-Bacon wage determination may have prevailing wages for several classifications of truck drivers. Finally, neither the DavisBacon nor OES wages shown in Table 2 include the amount of employer-paid fringe benefits. The data in Table 2 show the following: • In 2000, 67.5% of Davis-Bacon prevailing wage rates (141 of 209) were either the same as or higher than OES average hourly wages. In 2000, OES hourly wages were available for metropolitan areas only. • In 2008, 51.8% of Davis-Bacon prevailing wage rates (284 of 548) were either the same as or higher than the average hourly wages for the same or similar areas and occupations from the OES survey. In 2008, OES wage data were available for both metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas.19 • In 2008, if Davis-Bacon prevailing wages are compared to OES average hourly wages in metropolitan areas only, 62.4% of Davis-Bacon wages (189 of 303, where nonmetropolitan areas are excluded) were the same as or higher than OES wages. From 2000 to 2008, in three-fifths (59.8%) of the 209 occupations where comparisons can be made, Davis-Bacon prevailing wages increased more than OES average hourly wages. Among those states examined, Davis-Bacon prevailing wages were generally higher than OES average hourly wages in the six larger states than in the six smaller states. In 2008, in the six larger states, 66.9% (182 of 272) of DavisBacon wages were higher than OES wages. For the six smaller states, 37.0% (102 of 276) of Davis-Bacon wages were higher than OES wages. Differences in Davis-Bacon prevailing wages and OES average hourly wages vary by type of construction. In 2008, in building construction, 66.7% of DavisBacon wages were higher than OES wages. In highway and heavy construction, 63.6% and 59.7%, respectively, of Davis-Bacon wages were higher than OES wages. By contrast, only 19.0% of Davis-Bacon wages in residential construction were higher than OES wages. • • • Conclusion The above findings indicate that Davis-Bacon prevailing wages were generally higher than average OES hourly wages in three of the four types of construction for which DOL publishes wage determinations. On the other hand, the findings suggest that from 2000 to 2008 the gap between Davis-Bacon and OES average hourly wages may have narrowed. In 2008, half (51.8%) of the Davis-Bacon prevailing wages reviewed for this report were either the same as or higher than the OES average hourly wages for the same or similar areas and occupations. If the analysis is restricted to building, highway, and heavy construction, DavisBacon wages were generally higher than average OES wages (i.e., 66.7%, 63.6%, and 59.7% for 19 The most recent Davis-Bacon prevailing wages and OES average hourly wages used in this report are for 2008. Since 2008, many of the Davis-Bacon wage rates may have been revised. Congressional Research Service 6 The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 building, highway, and heavy construction, respectively). In residential construction, 19.0% of Davis-Bacon wages exceeded average OES wages. One reason for the smaller gap between Davis-Bacon and OES wages in residential construction is that DOL appears to have revised prevailing wages in residential construction less often than in the other three types of construction. From 2000 to 2008, almost four-fifths of Davis-Bacon wages (77 of 98, or 78.6%) in residential construction were either unchanged or were raised because of an increase in the federal minimum wage. In the other three types of construction, onefourth of Davis-Bacon wages (80 of 315, or 25.4%) were either unchanged or were raised because of a higher federal minimum wage. DOL may not update prevailing wages in residential construction as often as in the other types of construction because the federal government may not build a large number of residential homes. From 2000 to 2008, the gap between Davis-Bacon prevailing wages and OES average hourly wages appears to have narrowed. For example, comparing Davis-Bacon and OES wages in metropolitan areas only, in 2000, 67.5% of Davis-Bacon wages were the same as or higher than the OES wage. In 2008, this percentage had fallen to 62.4%.20 At the same time, the average wage for many construction occupations appears to have fallen relative to the average wage for all occupations (see Table 1 below). The Narrowing Gap Between Davis-Bacon Prevailing Wages and OES Average Wages The overall gap between Davis-Bacon and average OES wages may have narrowed for several reasons. First, from 2000 to 2008, 38.0% (157 of 413) of Davis-Bacon prevailing wages analyzed in this report did not increase or were raised only because of a higher federal minimum wage. Thus, a large number of prevailing wage rates may not have been revised. Second, although estimates vary, research suggests that the wages of union workers are higher than the wages of nonunion workers, but that the gap between union and nonunion wages has narrowed.21 Therefore, where Davis-Bacon wages are based on collective bargaining agreements, the difference between Davis-Bacon and OES wages may have also narrowed. Third, from 2000 to 2008, union membership in the construction industry declined from 18.3% to 15.6%.22 Thus, the share of Davis-Bacon prevailing wages that are based on collective bargaining agreements may have declined. Effect of the Narrowing Gap in Wages on Construction Costs If the Davis-Bacon Act causes contractors to pay wages that are higher than they would otherwise pay, Davis-Bacon may raise labor costs on federal construction projects. If the higher labor costs 20 Comparing Davis-Bacon and OES wages in metropolitan areas only helps control for differences in wages between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. To some extent, differences in wages between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan can be seen in the comparisons between the larger and smaller states included in the analysis in this report. 21 Research suggests that the wages of union workers may be 10% to 30% higher than the wages of nonunion workers. CRS Report RL32553, Union Membership Trends in the United States, by (name redacted). 22 In 1973, 39.5% of construction workers were unionized. Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson, “Union Membership, Coverage, Density, and Employment Among Private Construction Workers, 1973-2008,” Union Membership and Coverage Database from the CPS, available at http://www.unionstats.com/. Congressional Research Service 7 The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 are not offset by greater labor productivity, better work quality, or improved timeliness in completing construction projects, Davis-Bacon likely raises the cost of federal construction.23 But, from 2000 to 2008, the gap between Davis-Bacon and average hourly wages appears to have narrowed. Inputs other than labor go into the costs of construction (e.g., land and materials), but the narrowing gap in wages could diminish the effect of the Davis-Bacon Act on labor costs in federal construction. The wage determinations analyzed in this report were selected based on population. It is possible that an analysis of wage determinations chosen based on the amount of construction spending in a state or county could reach a different conclusion. Estimates of the effect of Davis-Bacon prevailing wages on construction costs vary. A 1983 report by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimated that the Davis-Bacon Act raises the cost of federal construction by 3.7%. This estimate includes the effect of the act on both wages and administrative costs.24 The estimate does not take into account potential benefits of the act, such as the effect on labor productivity, quality of work, or timeliness in finishing projects. For a 1979 report, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) conducted wage surveys of private contractors in 30 areas in the United States. GAO compared their findings with the prevailing wages published by DOL for the same areas. In 12 areas, DOL’s wage rates were higher than GAO’s. In 18 areas, DOL’s wages rates were lower than GAO’s. In the 12 areas where DOL’s wage rates were higher, GAO estimated that the higher wage rates increased the cost of federal construction by an average of 3.4%. In the other 18 areas, GAO concluded that Davis-Bacon had little, if any, effect on the costs of construction.25 Other reports, more critical of Davis-Bacon, have concluded that Davis-Bacon has a more significant impact on the cost of federal construction. For example, a 2008 study published by the Beacon Hill Institute at Suffolk University concluded that Davis-Bacon raises the cost of federal construction by 9.9%.26 The Relative Decline in the Wages of Construction Workers From 2000 to 2008, the real hourly wages of construction workers appear to have declined relative to overall hourly wages. Using OES survey data, Table 1 shows the national average hourly wage, in constant 2008 dollars, for five of the common construction occupations shown in Table 2. Table 1 also shows the average real hourly wage for all occupations. For all five 23 In response to higher relative wages, contractors may hire more skilled and experienced workers, which may improve productivity, efficiency, and the quality of work. 24 CBO’s estimate of the effect of Davis-Bacon on wages includes an estimate of the difference between the DavisBacon and non-Davis-Bacon wage for the same occupation as well as an estimate of the effect of paying a less-skilled worker the higher prevailing wage paid to a more skilled worker because a wage determination does not include a prevailing wage for the less-skilled occupation; for example, an employer may pay a “helper” the prevailing wage for a carpenter if the wage determination that applies to an area and type of construction does not have a prevailing wage for helpers. Congressional Budget Office, Modifying the Davis-Bacon Act: Implications for the Labor Market and the Federal Budget, July 1983, available at http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/50xx/doc5030/doc12-Entire.pdf, pp. ix-xii, 3-5. 25 In 1979, the Government Accountability Office was called the General Accounting Office. U.S. General Accounting Office, The Davis-Bacon Act Should be Repealed, HRD-79-18, April 27, 1979, available at http://archive.gao.gov/ f0102/109236.pdf , pp. 68-69. 26 Sara Glassman, Michael Head, David G. Tuerck, and Paul Bachman, The Federal Davis-Bacon Act: The Prevailing Mismeasure of Wages, Beacon Hill Institute at Suffolk University, available at http://www.beaconhill.org/BHIStudies/ PrevWage08/DavisBaconPrevWage080207Final.pdf, p. 5. Congressional Research Service 8 The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 construction occupations shown, average real hourly wages fell from 2000 to 2008. By contrast, the average real hourly wage for all occupations increased by 2.8%. The bottom panel of Table 1 shows that from 2000 to 2008 the average real hourly wage for all five of the construction occupations shown fell relative to the average real hourly wage for all occupations. For example, in 2000 the average hourly wage of carpenters was 1.07 times higher ($21.11 divided by $19.77) than the average hourly wage for workers in all occupations. By 2008, this ratio had fallen to 1.02 ($20.64 divided by $20.32). In short, two wage trends may have affected labor costs on federal construction projects. First, the gap between Davis-Bacon prevailing wages and average hourly wages may have narrowed. Second, nationally, the average hourly wage of workers in different construction occupations may have declined relative to the average hourly wage for all occupations. Table 1. Average Real Hourly Wages in Selected Construction Occupations Compared to the Average Real Hourly Wage in all Occupations, 2000 and 2008 2000 Occupation All Occupations 2008 Average Real Hourly Wage Change from 2000 to 2008 Dollars Percent $19.77 $20.32 $0.55 2.8% Carpenters 21.11 20.64 -0.47 -2.2% Construction laborers 16.19 15.51 -0.68 -4.2% Electricians 25.37 23.98 -1.39 -5.5% Plumbers 24.14 23.65 -0.49 -2.0% Structural iron and steel workers 22.74 22.68 -0.06 -0.3% Ratio Between the Real Hourly Wage in Construction Occupations and All Occupations Ratio Carpenters 1.07 1.02 -0.05 Construction laborers 0.82 0.76 -0.06 Electricians 1.28 1.18 -0.10 Plumbers 1.22 1.16 -0.06 Structural iron and steel workers 1.19 1.12 -0.07 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics, available at http://stats.bls.gov/oes/current/ oessrcma.htm. Notes: Nominal wages for 2000 were adjusted to constant 2008 dollars using the Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers Research Series (CPI-U-RS). For 2000, the average hourly wage for all occupations was calculated by CRS. The U.S. economy entered a recession in December 2007. The recession officially ended in June 2009. Thus, the economy was in recession in 2008. The trends shown in Table 1 are not affected if data for 2007, instead of 2008, are used. Congressional Research Service 9 Table 2. Davis-Bacon Prevailing Wage Rates and OES Survey Average Hourly Wages in Selected States, by County,Type of Construction, and Occupation, 2000 and 2008 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 wages minus column 11) hourly wages hourly wages wages OES wages Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) 39.6% $2.92 14.5% (13) 2008 Dollars (14) (15) California Los Angeles Building Carpenter Electrician (inside work) $26.75 $37.35 $20.09 $23.01 $10.60 $6.66 $14.34 $7.68 nag. 35.95 20.18 25.01 n.a. n.a. 4.83 23.9% n.a. 10.94 n.a. Laborer (cement sprayer) 17.20 25.30 14.86 18.04 8.10 47.1% 3.18 21.4% 2.34 7.26 4.92 Electrician 28.55 35.95 20.18 25.01 7.40 25.9% 4.83 23.9% 8.37 10.94 2.57 Laborer (general) 18.18 26.33 14.86 18.04 8.15 44.8% 3.18 21.4% 3.32 8.29 4.97 Truck driver (two axle) n.a. 26.44 16.31 19.55 n.a. n.a. 3.24 19.9% n.a. 6.89 n.a. Ironworker (structural) 24.83 31.83 22.18 25.59 7.00 28.2% 3.41 15.4% 2.65 6.24 3.59 Laborer (asphalt) 18.58 26.88 14.86 18.04 8.30 44.7% 3.18 21.4% 3.72 8.84 5.12 n.a. 27.47 12.92 17.71 n.a. n.a. 4.79 37.1% n.a. 9.76 n.a. 18.79 29.55 20.09 23.01 10.76 57.3% 2.92 14.5% -1.30 6.54 7.84 n.a. 29.29 19.37 23.88 n.a. n.a. 4.51 23.3% n.a. 5.41 n.a. 16.53 24.65 14.86 18.04 8.12 49.1% 3.18 21.4% 1.67 6.61 4.94 Heavy Highway Truck driver (dump truck) Residential Carpenter Plumber Laborer (1 to 3 stories) CRS-10 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 22.77 27.52 19.84 24.83 4.75 20.9% 4.99 Electrician 28.06 33.50 19.64 25.03 5.44 19.4% Laborer (final clean-up) 14.60 18.58 13.72 17.41 3.98 Electrician 28.06 33.50 19.64 25.03 Laborer (construction) 20.90 24.89 13.72 Truck driver (dump truck) 21.66 27.08 Ironworker (structural) 24.83 Laborer (asphalt) Truck driver (dump truck) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 25.2% 2.93 2.69 -0.24 5.39 27.4% 8.42 8.47 0.05 27.3% 3.69 26.9% 0.88 1.17 0.29 5.44 19.4% 5.39 27.4% 8.42 8.47 0.05 17.41 3.99 19.1% 3.69 26.9% 7.18 7.48 0.30 14.63 20.78 5.42 25.0% 6.15 42.0% 7.03 6.30 -0.73 31.83 23.37 23.59 7.00 28.2% 0.22 0.9% 1.46 8.24 6.78 21.01 24.99 13.72 17.41 3.98 18.9% 3.69 26.9% 7.29 7.58 0.29 22.01 27.43 12.77 15.85 5.42 24.6% 3.08 24.1% 9.24 11.58 2.34 Carpenter n.a. 21.24 19.84 24.83 n.a. n.a. 4.99 25.2% n.a. -3.59 n.a. Plumber n.a. 34.50 19.70 23.20 n.a. n.a. 3.50 17.8% n.a. 11.30 n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 24.89 13.72 17.41 n.a. n.a. 3.69 26.9% n.a. 7.48 n.a. San Joaquin Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-11 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 22.77 27.52 18.90 25.58 4.75 20.9% 6.68 Electrician 24.59 37.93 22.46 23.31 13.34 54.2% Laborer (final clean-up) 14.60 18.58 15.02 18.12 3.98 Electrician 24.59 37.93 22.46 23.31 Laborer (construction) 20.90 24.89 15.02 Truck driver (dump truck) 21.66 27.08 Ironworker (structural) 24.83 Laborer (asphalt) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 35.3% 3.87 1.94 -1.93 0.85 3.8% 2.13 14.62 12.49 27.3% 3.10 20.6% -0.42 0.46 0.88 13.34 54.2% 0.85 3.8% 2.13 14.62 12.49 18.12 3.99 19.1% 3.10 20.6% 5.88 6.77 0.89 17.40 20.49 5.42 25.0% 3.09 17.8% 4.26 6.59 2.33 31.83 20.47 31.93 7.00 28.2% 11.46 56.0% 4.36 -0.10 -4.46 21.01 24.99 15.02 18.12 3.98 18.9% 3.10 20.6% 5.99 6.87 0.88 Truck driver (dump truck) 22.01 27.43 14.72 15.90 5.42 24.6% 1.18 8.0% 7.29 11.53 4.24 Carpenter 22.17 27.97 18.90 25.58 5.80 26.2% 6.68 35.3% 3.27 2.39 -0.88 Plumber 19.98 29.78 18.25 24.67 9.80 49.0% 6.42 35.2% 1.73 5.11 3.38 Laborer (final clean-up) 14.60 18.58 15.02 18.12 3.98 27.3% 3.10 20.6% -0.42 0.46 0.88 El Dorado Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-12 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 22.77 27.52 Electrician 28.06 Laborer (final clean-up) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) (10) n.a. 23.44 4.75 20.9% n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.08 n.a. 33.50 n.a. 28.03 5.44 19.4% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.47 n.a. 14.60 18.58 n.a. 16.09 3.98 27.3% n.a. n.a. n.a. 2.49 n.a. Electrician 28.06 33.50 n.a. 28.03 5.44 19.4% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.47 n.a. Laborer (construction) 20.90 24.89 n.a. 16.09 3.99 19.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. 8.80 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) 21.66 27.08 n.a. 18.49 5.42 25.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. 8.59 n.a. Ironworker (structural) 24.83 31.83 n.a. n.a. 7.00 28.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (asphalt) 21.01 24.99 n.a. 16.09 3.98 18.9% n.a. n.a. n.a. 8.90 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) 22.01 27.43 n.a. 20.93 5.42 24.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.50 n.a. Carpenter 22.17 27.97 n.a. 23.44 5.80 26.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.53 n.a. Plumber 27.79 34.50 n.a. n.a. 6.71 24.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (final clean-up) 14.60 18.58 n.a. 16.09 3.98 27.3% n.a. n.a. n.a. 2.49 n.a. Calaveras Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-13 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (9) (10) 2008 Dollars (15) (11) (12) (13) (14) Texas Harris Building Carpenter n.a. 21.00 13.87 15.84 n.a. n.a. 1.97 14.2% n.a. 5.16 n.a. Electrician n.a. 24.85 17.91 20.04 n.a. n.a. 2.13 11.9% n.a. 4.81 n.a. Laborer (common) n.a. 9.29 9.28 11.16 n.a. n.a. 1.88 20.3% n.a. -1.87 n.a. 11.40 17.00 17.91 20.04 5.60 49.1% 2.13 11.9% -6.51 -3.04 3.47 Laborer (common) 6.30 8.94 9.28 11.16 2.64 41.9% 1.88 20.3% -2.98 -2.22 0.76 Truck driver 7.30 12.02 14.08 17.24 4.72 64.7% 3.16 22.4% -6.78 -5.22 1.56 10.35 12.13 11.99 18.32 1.78 17.2% 6.33 52.8% -1.64 -6.19 -4.55 Laborer (common) 7.45 9.15 9.28 11.16 1.70 22.8% 1.88 20.3% -1.83 -2.01 -0.18 Truck driver (tandem axle) 8.00 10.25 10.91 13.25 2.25 28.1% 2.34 21.4% -2.91 -3.00 -0.09 Carpenter n.a. 12.06 13.87 15.84 n.a. n.a. 1.97 14.2% n.a. -3.78 n.a. Plumber n.a. 17.96 18.97 21.58 n.a. n.a. 2.61 13.8% n.a. -3.62 n.a. Laborer (common) n.a. 8.88 9.28 11.16 n.a. n.a. 1.88 20.3% n.a. -2.28 n.a. Heavy Electrician Highway Structural steel worker Residential CRS-14 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 9.38 9.38 Electrician 14.64 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) n.a. 14.74 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.36 n.a. 14.64 n.a. 16.65 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.01 n.a. 5.15 6.55 n.a. 10.95 1.40 27.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.40 n.a. 12.80 17.22 n.a. 16.65 4.42 34.5% n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.57 n.a. Laborer (common) 7.12 8.69 n.a. 10.95 1.57 22.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.26 n.a. Truck driver (single axle, heavy) 8.20 10.56 n.a. 17.68 2.36 28.8% n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.12 n.a. Reinforcing steel setter, paving 11.31 13.48 n.a. n.a. 2.17 19.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Cherokee Building Laborer (common) Heavy Electrician Highway Laborer (common) 7.12 8.69 n.a. 10.95 1.57 22.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.26 n.a. Truck driver (tandem axle) 8.42 10.33 n.a. 12.37 1.91 22.7% n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.04 n.a. Carpenter 8.00 8.00 n.a. 14.74 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.74 n.a. Plumber 7.88 7.88 n.a. 18.02 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -10.14 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) 5.15 6.55 n.a. 10.95 1.40 27.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Residential CRS-15 -4.40 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 12.25 12.25 Electrician 8.00 Laborer (unskilled) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) n.a. 14.14 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -1.89 n.a. 8.00 n.a. 17.94 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -9.94 n.a. 5.15 6.55 n.a. 11.04 1.40 27.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.49 n.a. Electrician n.a. 19.00 n.a. 17.94 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.06 n.a. Laborer (common) n.a. 8.25 n.a. 11.04 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.79 n.a. Truck driver (single axle, heavy) n.a. 11.00 n.a. 15.96 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.96 n.a. Reinforcing steel setter, paving n.a. 9.50 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (common) n.a. 8.25 n.a. 11.04 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.79 n.a. Truck driver (tandem axle) n.a. 9.02 n.a. 12.34 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -3.32 n.a. Carpenter 8.02 8.02 n.a. 14.14 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.12 n.a. Plumber 9.00 9.00 n.a. 16.65 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.65 n.a. Laborer 5.15 6.55 n.a. 11.04 1.40 27.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.49 n.a. Young Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-16 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) 16.60 19.95 Carpenter 12.93 Electrician 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) (10) n.a. 14.14 3.35 20.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.81 n.a. 12.93 n.a. 17.94 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.01 n.a. 6.00 6.55 n.a. 11.04 0.55 9.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.49 n.a. Electrician n.a. 19.00 n.a. 17.94 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.06 n.a. Laborer (common) n.a. 8.25 n.a. 11.04 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.79 n.a. Truck driver (single axle, heavy) n.a. 11.00 n.a. 15.96 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.96 n.a. Reinforcing steel setter, paving n.a. 9.50 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (common) n.a. 8.25 n.a. 11.04 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.79 n.a. Truck driver (tandem axle) n.a. 9.02 n.a. 12.34 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -3.32 n.a. Carpenter 6.73 6.73 n.a. 14.14 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.41 n.a. Plumber 7.48 7.48 n.a. 16.65 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -9.17 n.a. Laborer 5.15 6.55 n.a. 11.04 1.40 27.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.49 n.a. Dallam Building Laborer (common) Heavy Highway Residential CRS-17 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 32.22 43.02 23.40 27.75 10.80 33.5% 4.35 Electrician 35.00 46.00 29.51 35.21 11.00 31.4% Laborer (unskilled) 27.59 34.89 19.90 25.45 7.30 Electrician 35.00 46.00 29.51 35.21 Laborer (unskilled) 27.59 34.89 19.90 Truck driver 21.29 21.29 Ironworker (structural) 31.70 Laborer (highway) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 18.6% 8.82 15.27 6.45 5.70 19.3% 5.49 10.79 5.30 26.5% 5.55 27.9% 7.69 9.44 1.75 11.00 31.4% 5.70 19.3% 5.49 10.79 5.30 25.45 7.30 26.5% 5.55 27.9% 7.69 9.44 1.75 16.54 22.00 0.00 0.0% 5.46 33.0% 4.75 -0.71 -5.46 39.65 31.03 30.90 7.95 25.1% -0.13 -0.4% 0.67 8.75 8.08 26.09 28.94 19.90 25.45 2.85 10.9% 5.55 27.9% 6.19 3.49 -2.70 Truck driver (asphalt) 28.75 35.40 12.97 16.78 6.65 23.1% 3.81 29.4% 15.78 18.62 2.84 Carpenter 32.22 43.02 23.40 27.75 10.80 33.5% 4.35 18.6% 8.82 15.27 6.45 Plumber 38.26 51.36 25.21 29.13 13.10 34.2% 3.92 15.5% 13.05 22.23 9.18 Laborer (unskilled) 27.59 34.89 19.90 25.45 7.30 26.5% 5.55 27.9% 7.69 9.44 1.75 New York Kings Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-18 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 17.61 22.64 16.02 16.09 5.03 28.6% 0.07 Electrician 22.00 29.00 16.10 21.47 7.00 31.8% Laborer 15.00 17.00 15.96 17.55 2.00 Electrician 22.00 29.00 16.10 21.47 Laborer 18.75 21.90 15.96 Truck driver 17.62 17.62 Ironworker (structural) 19.91 Laborer (flagman) Truck driver (asphalt) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 0.4% 1.59 6.55 4.96 5.37 33.4% 5.90 7.53 1.63 13.3% 1.59 10.0% -0.96 -0.55 0.41 7.00 31.8% 5.37 33.4% 5.90 7.53 1.63 17.55 3.15 16.8% 1.59 10.0% 2.79 4.35 1.56 14.75 15.66 0.00 0.0% 0.91 6.2% 2.87 1.96 -0.91 23.13 n.a. n.a. 3.22 16.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 18.55 21.70 15.96 17.55 3.15 17.0% 1.59 10.0% 2.59 4.15 1.56 17.47 17.47 11.02 16.48 0.00 0.0% 5.46 49.5% 6.45 0.99 -5.46 Carpenter 8.53 8.53 16.02 16.09 0.00 0.0% 0.07 0.4% -7.49 -7.56 -0.07 Plumber 7.39 7.39 20.76 19.11 0.00 0.0% -1.65 -7.9% -13.37 -11.72 1.65 Laborer 7.36 7.36 15.96 17.55 0.00 0.0% 1.59 Oneida Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-19 10.0% -8.60 -10.19 -1.59 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 16.44 23.79 16.30 18.31 7.35 44.7% 2.01 Electrician 23.00 29.50 21.22 32.02 6.50 28.3% Laborer (building) 15.05 19.90 10.78 16.06 4.85 Electrician 23.00 29.50 21.22 32.02 Laborer (heavy) 17.34 21.33 10.78 Truck driver (dump truck) 16.60 27.65 Ironworker (structural) 20.70 Laborer (highway) Truck driver (asphalt) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 12.3% 0.14 5.48 5.34 10.80 50.9% 1.78 -2.52 -4.30 32.2% 5.28 49.0% 4.27 3.84 -0.43 6.50 28.3% 10.80 50.9% 1.78 -2.52 -4.30 16.06 3.99 23.0% 5.28 49.0% 6.56 5.27 -1.29 13.81 18.51 11.05 66.6% 4.70 34.0% 2.79 9.14 6.35 24.80 n.a n.a. 4.10 19.8% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 17.34 21.33 10.78 16.06 3.99 23.0% 5.28 49.0% 6.56 5.27 -1.29 16.25 28.14 13.30 13.91 11.89 73.2% 0.61 4.6% 2.95 14.23 11.28 Carpenter n.a. 15.02 16.30 18.31 n.a. n.a. 2.01 12.3% n.a. -3.29 n.a. Painter n.a. 20.16 16.15 18.63 n.a. n.a. 2.48 15.4% n.a. 1.53 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) n.a. 19.90 10.78 16.06 n.a. n.a. 5.28 49.0% n.a. 3.84 n.a. Chemung Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-20 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 18.43 22.66 Electrician 21.80 Laborer (general) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) (10) n.a. 18.55 4.23 23.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.11 n.a. 29.25 n.a. 25.61 7.45 34.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. 3.64 n.a. 17.12 19.87 n.a. 15.02 2.75 16.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.85 n.a. Electrician 21.80 29.25 n.a. 25.61 7.45 34.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. 3.64 n.a. Laborer (common) 19.49 21.77 n.a. 15.02 2.28 11.7% n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.75 n.a. Truck driver 18.11 22.02 n.a. 16.87 3.91 21.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.15 n.a. Ironworker (structural) 19.91 23.13 n.a. n.a. 3.22 16.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (flagman) 19.29 21.57 n.a. 15.02 2.28 11.8% n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.55 n.a. Truck driver 17.79 21.80 n.a. 14.40 4.01 22.5% n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.40 n.a. Carpenter 13.16 13.16 n.a. 18.55 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.39 n.a. Plumber 13.86 13.86 n.a. 20.68 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.82 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) 10.06 10.06 n.a. 15.02 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.96 n.a. Franklin Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-21 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 19.17 22.00 15.74 17.64 2.83 14.8% 1.90 Electrician 11.83 24.80 16.63 20.71 12.97 109.6% 7.78 11.37 10.54 13.66 3.59 Electrician n.a. 24.80 16.63 20.71 Laborer n.a. 10.32 10.54 Truck driver (dump truck) n.a. 12.13 Ironworker (structural) 18.40 Laborer (unskilled) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 12.1% 3.43 4.36 0.93 4.08 24.5% -4.80 4.09 8.89 46.1% 3.12 29.6% -2.76 -2.29 0.47 n.a. n.a. 4.08 24.5% n.a. 4.09 n.a. 13.66 n.a. n.a. 3.12 29.6% n.a. -3.34 n.a. 17.02 19.29 n.a. n.a. 2.27 13.3% n.a. -7.16 n.a. 25.52 15.72 16.45 7.12 38.7% 0.73 4.6% 2.68 9.07 6.39 10.32 14.74 10.54 13.66 4.42 42.8% 3.12 29.6% -0.22 1.08 1.30 Truck driver (five axle) 15.92 18.20 11.32 14.09 2.28 14.3% 2.77 24.5% 4.60 4.11 -0.49 Carpenter 12.00 22.00 15.74 17.64 10.00 83.3% 1.90 12.1% -3.74 4.36 8.10 Plumber 12.85 15.13 17.40 19.81 2.28 17.7% 2.41 13.9% -4.55 -4.68 -0.13 7.23 8.72 10.54 13.66 1.49 20.6% 3.12 29.6% -3.31 -4.94 -1.63 Arizona Maricopa Building Laborer (general) Heavy Highway Residential Laborer (general) CRS-22 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) Mohave Building Carpenter n.a. 22.00 n.a. 16.36 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.64 n.a. Electrician n.a. 24.80 n.a. 22.87 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.93 n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 11.37 n.a. 13.11 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -1.74 n.a. Electrician n.a. 24.80 n.a. 22.87 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.93 n.a. Laborer n.a. 10.32 n.a. 13.11 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.79 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) n.a. 12.13 n.a. 16.04 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -3.91 n.a. Ironworker (structural) 18.40 25.52 n.a. n.a. 7.12 38.7% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (unskilled) 10.32 14.74 n.a. 13.11 4.42 42.8% n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.63 n.a. Truck driver (five axle) 15.92 18.20 n.a. 13.82 2.28 14.3% n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.38 n.a. Carpenter n.a. 22.00 n.a. 16.36 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.64 n.a. Plumber n.a. 15.13 n.a. 19.83 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.70 n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 8.72 n.a. 13.11 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.39 n.a. Heavy Highway Residential CRS-23 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (9) (10) 2008 Dollars (15) (11) (12) (13) (14) Coconino Building Carpenter n.a. 22.00 18.12 16.25 n.a. n.a. -1.87 -10.3% n.a. 5.75 n.a. Electrician n.a. 24.80 14.49 19.25 n.a. n.a. 4.76 32.9% n.a. 5.55 n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 11.37 10.97 13.57 n.a. n.a. 2.60 23.7% n.a. -2.20 n.a. Electrician n.a. 24.80 14.49 19.25 n.a. n.a. 4.76 32.9% n.a. 5.55 n.a. Laborer n.a. 10.32 10.97 13.57 n.a. n.a. 2.60 23.7% n.a. -3.25 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) n.a. 12.13 15.16 18.18 n.a. n.a. 3.02 19.9% n.a. -6.05 n.a. Ironworker (structural) 18.40 25.52 n.a. n.a. 7.12 38.7% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (unskilled) 10.32 14.74 10.97 13.57 4.42 42.8% 2.60 23.7% -0.65 1.17 1.82 Truck driver (five axle) 15.92 18.20 11.65 15.44 2.28 14.3% 3.79 32.5% 4.27 2.76 -1.51 Carpenter n.a. 22.00 18.12 16.25 n.a. n.a. -1.87 -10.3% n.a. 5.75 n.a. Plumber n.a. 15.13 17.73 17.79 n.a. n.a. 0.06 0.3% n.a. -2.66 n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 8.72 10.97 13.57 n.a. n.a. 2.60 23.7% n.a. -4.85 n.a. Heavy Highway Residential CRS-24 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 12.44 14.70 Electrician 11.34 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) (10) n.a. 15.67 2.26 18.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. -0.97 n.a. 20.75 n.a. 20.55 9.41 83.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.20 n.a. 6.45 9.51 n.a. 11.81 3.06 47.4% n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.30 n.a. Electrician 18.00 20.75 n.a. 20.55 2.75 15.3% n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.20 n.a. Laborer (general) 10.32 14.74 n.a. 11.81 4.42 42.8% n.a. n.a. n.a. 2.93 n.a. 8.43 8.43 n.a. 15.04 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.61 n.a. Ironworker (structural) n.a. 25.52 n.a. n.a n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (unskilled) n.a. 11.59 n.a. 11.81 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -0.22 n.a. Truck driver (five axle) n.a. 18.20 n.a. 12.38 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.82 n.a. 10.00 13.35 n.a. 15.67 3.35 33.5% n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.32 n.a. Plumber 9.91 15.45 n.a. 15.64 5.54 55.9% n.a. n.a. n.a. -0.19 n.a. Laborer (general) 6.40 7.98 n.a. 11.81 1.58 24.7% n.a. n.a. n.a. -3.83 n.a. Santa Cruz Building Laborer (general) Heavy Truck driver Highway Residential Carpenter CRS-25 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 23.15 31.58 20.43 26.98 8.43 36.4% 6.55 Electrician 25.87 33.88 23.93 29.24 8.01 31.0% Laborer 19.90 26.55 19.41 24.01 6.65 Electrician 25.87 33.88 23.93 29.24 Laborer 19.90 26.55 19.41 Truck driver (four and five axle) 21.39 29.99 Ironworker 26.82 Laborer (unskilled) Truck driver (five axle) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 32.1% 2.72 4.60 1.88 5.31 22.2% 1.94 4.64 2.70 33.4% 4.60 23.7% 0.49 2.54 2.05 8.01 31.0% 5.31 22.2% 1.94 4.64 2.70 24.01 6.65 33.4% 4.60 23.7% 0.49 2.54 2.05 18.40 20.83 8.60 40.2% 2.43 13.2% 2.99 9.16 6.17 34.89 24.87 35.76 8.07 30.1% 10.89 43.8% 1.95 -0.87 -2.82 19.55 26.55 19.41 24.01 7.00 35.8% 4.60 23.7% 0.14 2.54 2.40 18.00 18.00 13.58 16.65 0.00 0.0% 3.07 22.6% 4.42 1.35 -3.07 Carpenter n.a. 31.58 20.43 26.98 n.a. n.a. 6.55 32.1% n.a. 4.60 n.a. Plumber n.a. 36.54 23.11 30.91 n.a. n.a. 7.80 33.8% n.a. 5.63 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) n.a. 18.73 19.41 24.01 n.a. n.a. 4.60 23.7% n.a. -5.28 n.a. Massachusetts Middlesex Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-26 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 27.34 36.93 20.43 26.98 9.59 35.1% 6.55 Electrician 31.55 41.21 23.93 29.24 9.66 30.6% Laborer 21.50 28.50 19.41 24.01 7.00 Electrician 31.55 41.21 23.93 29.24 Laborer 21.50 28.50 19.41 Truck driver (four and five axle) 21.39 29.99 Ironworker 25.50 Laborer (unskilled) Truck driver (five axle) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 32.1% 6.91 9.95 3.04 5.31 22.2% 7.62 11.97 4.35 32.6% 4.60 23.7% 2.09 4.49 2.40 9.66 30.6% 5.31 22.2% 7.62 11.97 4.35 24.01 7.00 32.6% 4.60 23.7% 2.09 4.49 2.40 18.40 20.83 8.60 40.2% 2.43 13.2% 2.99 9.16 6.17 34.89 24.87 35.76 9.39 36.8% 10.89 43.8% 0.63 -0.87 -1.50 21.50 28.50 19.41 24.01 7.00 32.6% 4.60 23.7% 2.09 4.49 2.40 18.00 18.00 13.58 16.65 0.00 0.0% 3.07 22.6% 4.42 1.35 -3.07 Carpenter n.a. 36.93 20.43 26.98 n.a. n.a. 6.55 32.1% n.a. 9.95 n.a. Plumber n.a. 44.22 23.11 30.91 n.a. n.a. 7.80 33.8% n.a. 13.31 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) n.a. 18.73 19.41 24.01 n.a. n.a. 4.60 23.7% n.a. -5.28 n.a. Suffolk Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-27 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 20.38 28.23 18.51 20.49 7.85 38.5% 1.98 Electrician 23.13 31.58 19.06 24.36 8.45 36.5% Laborer 16.95 23.39 15.63 18.77 6.44 Electrician 23.75 31.58 19.06 24.36 Laborer 16.95 22.27 15.63 Truck driver (four and five axle) 21.39 29.99 Ironworker 22.51 Laborer (unskilled) Truck driver 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 10.7% 1.87 7.74 5.87 5.30 27.8% 4.07 7.22 3.15 38.0% 3.14 20.1% 1.32 4.62 3.30 7.83 33.0% 5.30 27.8% 4.69 7.22 2.53 18.77 5.32 31.4% 3.14 20.1% 1.32 3.50 2.18 16.05 20.13 8.60 40.2% 4.08 25.4% 5.34 9.86 4.52 26.76 n.a. n.a. 4.25 18.9% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 17.20 23.39 15.63 18.77 6.19 36.0% 3.14 20.1% 1.57 4.62 3.05 16.91 16.91 12.81 16.35 0.00 0.0% 3.54 27.6% 4.10 0.56 -3.54 Carpenter n.a. 28.23 18.51 20.49 n.a. n.a. 1.98 10.7% n.a. 7.74 n.a. Plumber n.a. 31.58 20.01 25.64 n.a. n.a. 5.63 28.1% n.a. 5.94 n.a. Laborer n.a. 18.73 15.63 18.77 n.a. n.a. 3.14 20.1% n.a. -0.04 n.a. Hampden Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-28 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 18.34 28.23 15.90 18.17 9.89 53.9% 2.27 Electrician 23.13 31.58 15.67 27.60 8.45 36.5% Laborer 15.75 20.95 15.18 16.91 5.20 Electrician 23.13 31.58 15.67 27.60 Laborer 16.95 22.27 15.18 Truck driver 21.39 29.99 Ironworker 22.51 Laborer Truck driver 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 14.3% 2.44 10.06 7.62 11.93 76.1% 7.46 3.98 -3.48 33.0% 1.73 11.4% 0.57 4.04 3.47 8.45 36.5% 11.93 76.1% 7.46 3.98 -3.48 16.91 5.32 31.4% 1.73 11.4% 1.77 5.36 3.59 16.76 19.49 8.60 40.2% 2.73 16.3% 4.63 10.50 5.87 26.76 n.a. n.a. 4.25 18.9% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 16.95 22.27 15.18 16.91 5.32 31.4% 1.73 11.4% 1.77 5.36 3.59 16.91 16.91 13.47 15.89 0.00 0.0% 2.42 18.0% 3.44 1.02 -2.42 Carpenter n.a. 28.23 15.90 18.17 n.a. n.a. 2.27 14.3% n.a. 10.06 n.a. Plumber n.a. 31.58 22.05 24.29 n.a. n.a. 2.24 10.2% n.a. 7.29 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) n.a. 18.73 15.18 16.91 n.a. n.a. 1.73 11.4% n.a. 1.82 n.a. Berkshire Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-29 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 23.48 27.52 17.42 20.00 4.04 17.2% 2.58 Electrician 25.55 30.05 21.34 25.27 4.50 17.6% Laborer (building) 17.98 20.93 15.25 17.23 2.95 Electrician 25.55 30.05 21.34 25.27 Laborer (construction) 16.82 20.12 15.25 Truck driver (tri-axle) 18.58 25.40 Sheet metal worker 24.93 Laborer (construction) Truck driver (tandem) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 14.8% 6.06 7.52 1.46 3.93 18.4% 4.21 4.78 0.57 16.4% 1.98 13.0% 2.73 3.70 0.97 4.50 17.6% 3.93 18.4% 4.21 4.78 0.57 17.23 3.30 19.6% 1.98 13.0% 1.57 2.89 1.32 17.13 17.99 6.82 36.7% 0.86 5.0% 1.45 7.41 5.96 29.43 17.04 20.51 4.50 18.1% 3.47 20.4% 7.89 8.92 1.03 16.82 20.12 15.25 17.23 3.30 19.6% 1.98 13.0% 1.57 2.89 1.32 18.63 25.45 13.66 14.53 6.82 36.6% 0.87 6.4% 4.97 10.92 5.95 Carpenter n.a. 12.68 17.42 20.00 n.a. n.a. 2.58 14.8% n.a. -7.32 n.a. Plumber n.a. 13.97 18.12 23.29 n.a. n.a. 5.17 28.5% n.a. -9.32 n.a. Laborer n.a. 9.22 15.25 17.23 n.a. n.a. 1.98 13.0% n.a. -8.01 n.a. Indiana Marion Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-30 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 21.78 25.72 Electrician 24.20 Laborer (building) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) (10) n.a. 18.87 3.94 18.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.85 n.a. 27.70 n.a. 24.34 3.50 14.5% n.a. n.a. n.a. 3.36 n.a. 15.96 18.53 n.a. 13.66 2.57 16.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.87 n.a. Electrician 24.20 27.70 n.a. 24.34 3.50 14.5% n.a. n.a. n.a. 3.36 n.a. Laborer (construction) 16.82 20.12 n.a. 13.66 3.30 19.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.46 n.a. Truck driver (tri-axle) 18.58 25.40 n.a. 19.72 6.82 36.7% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.68 n.a. Ironworker (structural) 21.90 24.85 n.a. 21.73 2.95 13.5% n.a. n.a. n.a. 3.12 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) 16.82 20.12 n.a. 13.66 3.30 19.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.46 n.a. Truck driver (tandem) 18.63 25.45 n.a. 14.68 6.82 36.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. 10.77 n.a. Carpenter n.a. 13.42 n.a. 18.87 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.45 n.a. Plumber n.a. 14.89 n.a. 22.19 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.30 n.a. Laborer n.a. 11.15 n.a. 13.66 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.51 n.a. Wayne Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-31 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 20.53 23.46 Electrician 24.33 Laborer (building) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) (10) n.a. 17.31 2.93 14.3% n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.15 n.a. 29.17 n.a. 21.28 4.84 19.9% n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.89 n.a. 17.10 18.75 n.a. 14.36 1.65 9.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.39 n.a. Electrician 24.33 29.17 n.a. 21.28 4.84 19.9% n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.89 n.a. Laborer (construction) 16.82 20.12 n.a. 14.36 3.30 19.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.76 n.a. Truck driver (tri-axle) 18.58 25.40 n.a. 19.44 6.82 36.7% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.96 n.a. Ironworker (structural) 20.90 23.32 n.a. n.a. 2.42 11.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (unskilled) 16.82 20.12 n.a. 14.36 3.30 19.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.76 n.a. Truck driver (tandem) 18.63 25.45 n.a. 14.19 6.82 36.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. 11.26 n.a. Carpenter 7.40 13.42 n.a. 17.31 6.02 81.4% n.a. n.a. n.a. -3.89 n.a. Plumber 9.00 14.89 n.a. 20.48 5.89 65.4% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.59 n.a. Laborer 6.07 11.15 n.a. 14.36 5.08 83.7% n.a. n.a. n.a. -3.21 n.a. Steuben Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-32 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 19.59 23.32 16.75 19.33 3.73 19.0% 2.58 Electrician 24.65 31.17 20.09 26.60 6.52 26.5% Laborer (building) 17.02 19.72 17.02 16.89 2.70 Electrician 25.75 31.17 20.09 26.60 Laborer (construction) 16.82 20.12 17.02 Truck driver (tri-axle) 18.58 25.40 Ironworker (structural) 21.50 Laborer (unskilled) Truck driver (tandem) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 15.4% 2.84 3.99 1.15 6.51 32.4% 4.56 4.57 0.01 15.9% -0.13 -0.8% 0.00 2.83 2.83 5.42 21.0% 6.51 32.4% 5.66 4.57 -1.09 16.89 3.30 19.6% -0.13 -0.8% -0.20 3.23 3.43 15.41 15.41 6.82 36.7% 0.00 0.0% 3.17 9.99 6.82 24.85 n.a. n.a. 3.35 15.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 16.82 20.12 17.02 17.29 3.30 19.6% 0.27 1.6% -0.20 2.83 3.03 18.63 25.45 11.97 13.77 6.82 36.6% 1.80 15.0% 6.66 11.68 5.02 Carpenter n.a. 13.42 16.75 19.33 n.a. n.a. 2.58 15.4% n.a. -5.91 n.a. Plumber n.a. 14.89 14.76 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer n.a. 11.15 17.02 16.89 n.a. n.a. -0.13 -0.8% n.a. -5.74 n.a. Sullivan Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-33 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 18.65 21.56 15.33 18.24 2.91 15.6% 2.91 Electrician 23.00 27.33 18.96 20.75 4.33 18.8% Laborer (general) 13.87 16.97 11.16 15.00 3.10 Electrician 23.00 27.33 18.96 20.75 Laborer (concrete) 15.88 20.01 11.16 Truck driver (five axle) 15.01 16.96 Ironworker 21.66 Laborer (asphalt) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 19.0% 3.32 3.32 0.00 1.79 9.4% 4.04 6.58 2.54 22.4% 3.84 34.4% 2.71 1.97 -0.74 4.33 18.8% 1.79 9.4% 4.04 6.58 2.54 15.00 4.13 26.0% 3.84 34.4% 4.72 5.01 0.29 15.18 18.11 1.95 13.0% 2.93 19.3% -0.17 -1.15 -0.98 23.93 17.38 22.42 2.27 10.5% 5.04 29.0% 4.28 1.51 -2.77 15.88 20.01 11.16 15.00 4.13 26.0% 3.84 34.4% 4.72 5.01 0.29 Truck driver (single or double axle dump truck) 14.91 16.86 12.28 13.75 1.95 13.1% 1.47 12.0% 2.63 3.11 0.48 Kentucky Jefferson Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-34 Carpenter 7.59 7.59 15.33 18.24 0.00 0.0% 2.91 19.0% -7.74 -10.65 -2.91 Plumber 9.16 9.16 21.49 24.34 0.00 0.0% 2.85 13.3% -12.33 -15.18 -2.85 Laborer (general) 5.32 5.85 11.16 15.00 0.53 10.0% 3.84 34.4% -3.31 -5.84 -9.15 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 16.52 19.65 14.14 16.91 3.13 18.9% 2.77 Electrician 10.18 10.18 16.52 18.96 0.00 0.0% 7.12 7.12 10.47 13.74 0.00 Electrician 19.70 27.33 16.52 18.96 Laborer (concrete) 15.88 19.86 10.47 Truck driver (five axle) 15.01 16.96 Ironworker 21.66 Laborer (asphalt) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 19.6% 2.38 2.74 0.36 2.44 14.8% -6.34 -8.78 -2.44 0.0% 3.27 31.2% -3.35 -6.62 -3.27 7.63 38.7% 2.44 14.8% 3.18 8.37 5.19 13.74 3.98 25.1% 3.27 31.2% 5.41 6.12 0.71 17.61 19.04 1.95 13.0% 1.43 8.1% -2.60 -2.08 0.52 23.93 n.a. 21.51 2.27 10.5% n.a. n.a. n.a. 2.42 n.a. 15.88 19.86 10.47 13.74 3.98 25.1% 3.27 31.2% 5.41 6.12 0.71 Truck driver (single or double axle dump truck) 14.91 16.86 12.05 14.43 1.95 13.1% 2.38 19.8% 2.86 2.43 -0.43 Clark Building Laborer (unskilled) Heavy Highway Residential CRS-35 Carpenter 5.80 5.85 14.14 16.91 0.05 0.9% 2.77 19.6% -8.34 -11.06 -2.72 Plumber 6.49 6.49 15.77 20.35 0.00 0.0% 4.58 29.0% -9.28 -13.86 -4.58 Laborer (unskilled) 5.15 5.85 10.47 13.74 0.70 13.6% 3.27 31.2% -5.32 -2.57 -7.89 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 18.65 21.56 Electrician 23.00 Laborer (general) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) (10) n.a. 14.00 2.91 15.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.56 n.a. 27.33 n.a. 21.48 4.33 18.8% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.85 n.a. 13.87 16.97 n.a. 12.90 3.10 22.4% n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.07 n.a. Electrician 22.60 22.60 n.a. 21.48 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.12 n.a. Laborer (general) 16.40 16.90 n.a. 12.90 0.50 3.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.00 n.a. Truck driver (over three tons) 17.19 17.69 n.a. 18.35 0.50 2.9% n.a. n.a. n.a. -0.66 n.a. Ironworker (structural) 18.45 18.95 n.a. n.a 0.50 2.7% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (general) 16.40 16.90 n.a. 12.90 0.50 3.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.00 n.a. Truck driver (three tons and under) 16.98 17.48 n.a. 12.18 0.50 2.9% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.30 n.a. Hart Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-36 Carpenter 5.31 5.85 n.a. 14.00 0.54 10.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. -8.15 n.a. Plumber 6.10 6.10 n.a. 16.44 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -10.34 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) 5.15 5.85 n.a. 12.90 0.70 13.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.05 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 10.00 11.03 Electrician 11.10 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) (10) n.a. 14.48 1.03 10.3% n.a. n.a. n.a. -3.45 n.a. 13.86 n.a. 20.07 2.76 24.9% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.21 n.a. 6.25 7.15 n.a. 11.96 0.90 14.4% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.81 n.a. Electrician 19.70 27.33 n.a. 20.07 7.63 38.7% n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.26 n.a. Laborer (concrete) 15.88 19.86 n.a. 11.96 3.98 25.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.90 n.a. Truck driver (five axle) 15.01 16.96 n.a. 15.44 1.95 13.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.52 n.a. Ironworker (structural) 23.20 32.30 n.a. 14.24 9.10 39.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. 18.06 n.a. Laborer (asphalt) 15.88 19.86 n.a. 11.96 3.98 25.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.90 n.a. Truck driver (single or double axle dump truck) 14.91 16.86 n.a. 13.74 1.95 13.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. 3.12 n.a. Bath Building Laborer (unskilled) Heavy Highway Residential CRS-37 Carpenter 6.00 6.00 n.a. 14.48 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -8.48 n.a. Plumber 6.25 6.25 n.a. 14.13 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.88 n.a. Laborer (common) 5.15 5.85 n.a. 11.96 0.70 13.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.11 n.a. State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Carpenter 26.03 27.56 18.78 20.75 1.53 Electrician 28.70 35.65 26.50 29.79 Laborer 20.44 23.12 15.06 Electrician n.a. 35.65 Laborer n.a. Truck driver (dump truck over 60 yards) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (10) 2008 Dollars (15) (11) (12) (13) (14) 5.9% 1.97 10.5% 7.25 6.81 -0.44 6.95 24.2% 3.29 12.4% 2.20 5.86 3.66 16.81 2.68 13.1% 1.75 11.6% 5.38 6.31 0.93 26.50 29.79 n.a. n.a. 3.29 12.4% n.a. 5.86 n.a. 23.12 15.06 16.81 n.a. n.a. 1.75 11.6% n.a. 6.31 n.a. n.a. 27.29 16.42 19.31 n.a. n.a. 2.89 17.6% n.a. 7.98 n.a. Ironworker n.a. 31.65 19.97 26.19 n.a. n.a. 6.22 31.1% n.a. 5.46 n.a. Laborer n.a. 23.12 15.06 16.81 n.a. n.a. 1.75 11.6% n.a. 6.31 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck over 50 yards) n.a. 27.13 13.69 16.27 n.a. n.a. 2.58 18.8% n.a. 10.86 n.a. Carpenter n.a. 15.84 18.78 20.75 n.a. n.a. 1.97 10.5% n.a. -4.91 n.a. Plumber n.a. 24.40 23.56 30.20 n.a. n.a. 6.64 28.2% n.a. -5.80 n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 10.08 15.06 16.81 n.a. n.a. 1.75 11.6% n.a. -6.73 n.a. Oregon Multnomah Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-38 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Carpenter 26.03 27.56 18.78 20.75 1.53 Electrician 28.70 35.65 26.50 29.79 Laborer 20.44 23.12 15.06 Electrician n.a. 35.65 Laborer n.a. Truck driver (dump truck over 60 yards) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (10) 2008 Dollars (15) (11) (12) (13) (14) 5.9% 1.97 10.5% 7.25 6.81 -0.44 6.95 24.2% 3.29 12.4% 2.20 5.86 3.66 16.81 2.68 13.1% 1.75 11.6% 5.38 6.31 0.93 26.50 29.79 n.a. n.a. 3.29 12.4% n.a. 5.86 n.a. 23.12 15.06 16.81 n.a. n.a. 1.75 11.6% n.a. 6.31 n.a. n.a. 27.29 16.42 19.31 n.a. n.a. 2.89 17.6% n.a. 7.98 n.a. Ironworker n.a. 31.65 19.97 26.19 n.a. n.a. 6.22 31.1% n.a. 5.46 n.a. Laborer n.a. 23.12 15.06 16.81 n.a. n.a. 1.75 11.6% n.a. 6.31 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck over 50 yards) n.a. 27.13 13.69 16.27 n.a. n.a. 2.58 18.8% n.a. 10.86 n.a. Carpenter n.a. 15.84 18.78 20.75 n.a. n.a. 1.97 10.5% n.a. -4.91 n.a. Plumber n.a. 24.40 23.56 30.20 n.a. n.a. 6.64 28.2% n.a. -5.80 n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 10.08 15.06 16.81 n.a. n.a. 1.75 11.6% n.a. -6.73 n.a. Yamhill Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-39 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 26.03 27.56 Electrician 28.70 Laborer 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) n.a. 16.62 1.53 5.9% n.a. n.a. n.a. 10.94 n.a. 35.65 n.a. 30.30 6.95 24.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.35 n.a. 20.44 23.12 n.a. 15.29 2.68 13.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.83 n.a. Electrician n.a. 35.65 n.a. 30.30 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.35 n.a. Laborer n.a. 23.12 n.a. 15.29 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.83 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck over 60 yards) n.a. 27.29 n.a. 16.02 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 11.27 n.a. Ironworker n.a. 31.65 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer n.a. 23.12 n.a. 15.29 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.83 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck over 50 yards) n.a. 27.13 n.a. 16.34 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 10.79 n.a. 8.06 8.06 n.a. 16.62 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -8.56 n.a. Plumber 12.50 11.60 n.a. 25.36 -0.90 -7.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. -13.76 n.a. Laborer 5.76 5.85 n.a. 15.29 0.09 1.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Clatsop Building Heavy Highway Residential Carpenter CRS-40 -9.44 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 26.03 27.56 Electrician 27.75 Laborer 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) n.a. 18.43 1.53 5.9% n.a. n.a. n.a. 9.13 n.a. 33.70 n.a. 24.60 5.95 21.4% n.a. n.a. n.a. 9.10 n.a. 20.44 23.12 n.a. 15.81 2.68 13.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.31 n.a. Electrician n.a. 33.70 n.a. 24.60 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 9.10 n.a. Laborer n.a. 23.12 n.a. 15.81 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.31 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck over 60 yards) n.a. 27.29 n.a. 17.67 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 9.62 n.a. Ironworker n.a. 31.65 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer n.a. 23.12 n.a. 15.81 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.31 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck over 50 yards) n.a. 27.13 n.a. 13.75 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 13.38 n.a. 7.07 7.07 n.a. 18.43 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -11.36 n.a. Plumber 14.64 14.64 n.a. 21.22 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.58 n.a. Laborer 5.15 5.85 n.a. 15.81 0.70 13.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. -9.96 n.a. Baker Building Heavy Highway Residential Carpenter CRS-41 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Carpenter 11.90 11.90 11.82 15.38 0.00 Electrician 19.74 25.15 16.38 17.62 7.37 7.37 10.11 16.95 16.95 7.68 Truck driver (tandem) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (10) 2008 Dollars (15) (11) (12) (13) (14) 0.0% 3.56 30.1% 0.08 -3.48 -3.56 5.41 27.4% 1.24 7.6% 3.36 7.53 4.17 12.15 0.00 0.0% 2.04 20.2% -2.74 -4.78 -2.04 16.38 17.62 0.00 0.0% 1.24 7.6% 0.57 -0.67 -1.24 7.68 10.11 12.15 0.00 0.0% 2.04 20.2% -2.43 -4.47 -2.04 10.92 10.92 14.54 17.37 0.00 0.0% 2.83 19.5% -3.62 -6.45 -2.83 Reinforcing steel setter, paving 7.50 7.50 n.a. n.a. 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (common) 6.25 6.25 10.11 12.15 0.00 0.0% 2.04 20.2% -3.86 -5.90 -2.04 Truck driver (tandem and semi-trailer) 7.30 7.30 10.55 12.60 0.00 0.0% 2.05 19.4% -3.25 -5.30 -2.05 Carpenter 8.61 8.61 11.82 15.38 0.00 0.0% 3.56 30.1% -3.21 -6.77 -3.56 Plumber 8.96 8.96 18.06 19.42 0.00 0.0% 1.36 7.5% -9.10 -10.46 -1.36 Laborer (general) 5.55 5.85 10.11 12.15 0.30 5.4% 2.04 20.2% -4.56 -1.74 Oklahoma Oklahoma Building Laborer (common) Heavy Electrician Laborer (common) Highway Residential CRS-42 -6.30 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 14.64 14.64 Electrician 18.25 Laborer (common) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) n.a. 14.53 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.11 n.a. 22.13 n.a. 19.38 3.88 21.3% n.a. n.a. n.a. 2.75 n.a. 8.00 8.00 n.a. 12.13 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.13 n.a. Mechanic 9.90 9.90 n.a. 14.69 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.79 n.a. Laborer (common) 6.10 6.10 n.a. 12.13 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.03 n.a. Truck driver 7.25 7.25 n.a. 14.89 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.64 n.a. Reinforcing steel setter, paving 7.50 7.50 n.a. n.a. 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (common) 6.25 6.25 n.a. 12.13 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.88 n.a. Truck driver (multi-rear axle) 7.30 7.30 n.a. 13.92 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.62 n.a. Carpenter 7.57 7.57 n.a. 14.53 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.96 n.a. Plumber 7.81 7.81 n.a. 17.65 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -9.84 n.a. Laborer 5.15 5.85 n.a. 12.13 0.70 13.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.28 n.a. Pittsburg Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-43 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 15.50 15.50 Electrician 20.44 Laborer 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) n.a. 13.55 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.95 n.a. 25.15 n.a. 19.91 4.71 23.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.24 n.a. 7.50 7.50 n.a. 12.75 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.25 n.a. Mechanic 9.90 9.90 n.a. 16.25 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.35 n.a. Laborer (common) 6.10 6.10 n.a. 12.75 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.65 n.a. Truck driver 7.25 7.25 n.a. 16.92 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -9.67 n.a. Reinforcing steel setter, paving 7.50 7.50 n.a. n.a. 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (common) 6.25 6.25 n.a. 12.75 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.50 n.a. Truck driver (multi-rear axle) 7.30 7.30 n.a. 12.57 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.27 n.a. Carpenter 6.69 6.69 n.a. 13.55 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.86 n.a. Plumber 6.50 6.50 n.a. 14.11 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.61 n.a. Laborer 5.15 5.85 n.a. 12.75 0.70 13.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.90 n.a. Beckham Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-44 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 13.40 13.40 Electrician 20.44 Laborer 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) n.a. 14.53 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -1.13 n.a. 25.15 n.a. 19.38 4.71 23.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.77 n.a. 8.00 8.00 n.a. 12.13 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.13 n.a. Mechanic 9.90 9.90 n.a. 14.69 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.79 n.a. Laborer (common) 6.10 6.10 n.a. 12.13 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.03 n.a. Truck driver 7.25 7.25 n.a. 14.89 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.64 n.a. Reinforcing steel setter, paving 7.50 7.50 n.a. n.a. 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (common) 6.25 6.25 n.a. 12.13 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.88 n.a. Truck driver (multi-rear axle) 7.30 7.30 n.a. 13.92 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.62 n.a. Carpenter 6.00 6.00 n.a. 14.53 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -8.53 n.a. Plumber 6.65 6.65 n.a. 17.65 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -11.00 n.a. Laborer 5.15 5.85 n.a. 12.13 0.70 13.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Johnston Building Heavy Highway Residential CRS-45 -6.28 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 19.73 25.27 13.74 15.28 5.54 28.1% 1.54 Electrician 22.26 27.16 18.16 21.04 4.90 22.0% n.a. 12.97 10.47 14.80 n.a. 21.63 27.16 18.16 21.04 Laborer (pipelayer) n.a. 12.39 10.47 Truck driver (dump truck) n.a. 14.17 Carpenter n.a. Laborer (common) Truck driver (dump truck, 16 to 32 yards) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 11.2% 5.99 9.99 4.00 2.88 15.9% 4.10 6.12 2.02 n.a. 4.33 41.4% n.a. -1.83 n.a. 5.53 25.6% 2.88 15.9% 3.47 6.12 2.65 14.80 n.a. n.a. 4.33 41.4% n.a. -2.41 n.a. 14.53 15.08 n.a. n.a. 0.55 3.8% n.a. -0.91 n.a. 25.27 13.74 15.28 n.a. n.a. 1.54 11.2% n.a. 9.99 n.a. n.a. 14.02 10.47 14.80 n.a. n.a. 4.33 41.4% n.a. -0.78 n.a. n.a. 13.00 11.37 12.98 n.a. n.a. 1.61 14.2% n.a. 0.02 n.a. 9.07 9.07 13.74 15.28 0.00 0.0% 1.54 11.2% -4.67 -6.21 -1.54 Plumber 10.82 10.82 20.77 20.60 0.00 0.0% -0.17 -0.8% -9.95 -9.78 0.17 Laborer 5.88 5.88 10.47 14.80 0.00 0.0% 4.33 41.4% -4.59 -8.92 -4.33 Idaho Ada Building Laborer (general) Heavy Electrician Highway Residential Carpenter CRS-46 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) Elmore Building Carpenter n.a. 14.29 n.a. 19.37 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.08 n.a. Electrician 22.26 27.16 n.a. 23.31 4.90 22.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. 3.85 n.a. n.a. 11.73 n.a. 15.56 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -3.83 n.a. 21.63 27.16 n.a. 23.31 5.53 25.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. 3.85 n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 22.13 n.a. 15.56 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.57 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) n.a. 17.82 n.a. 17.65 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.17 n.a. Ironworker (structural) n.a. 23.69 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 22.13 n.a. 15.56 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.57 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck, 16 to 30 yards) n.a. 21.18 n.a. 13.55 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.63 n.a. 9.07 9.07 n.a. 19.37 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -10.30 n.a. Plumber 10.82 10.82 n.a. 12.80 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -1.98 n.a. Laborer 5.88 5.88 n.a. 15.56 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -9.68 n.a. Laborer (general) Heavy Electrician Highway Residential Carpenter CRS-47 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) Fremont Building Carpenter n.a. 14.29 n.a. 13.16 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.13 n.a. Electrician 21.15 26.80 n.a. 20.12 5.65 26.7% n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.68 n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 11.73 n.a. 11.58 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.15 n.a. Electrician n.a. 26.80 n.a. 20.12 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.68 n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 22.13 n.a. 11.58 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 10.55 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) n.a. 17.82 n.a. 16.64 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.18 n.a. Ironworker (structural) n.a. 23.69 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 22.13 n.a. 11.58 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 10.55 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck, 16 to 30 yards) n.a. 21.18 n.a. 13.51 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 7.67 n.a. 7.12 7.12 n.a. 13.16 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.04 n.a. Plumber 11.25 11.25 n.a. 19.38 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -8.13 n.a. Laborer 5.15 5.85 n.a. 11.58 0.70 13.6% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.73 n.a. Heavy Highway Residential Carpenter CRS-48 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (9) (10) 2008 Dollars (15) (11) (12) (13) (14) Boise Building Carpenter n.a. 14.29 13.74 15.28 n.a. n.a. 1.54 11.2% n.a. -0.99 n.a. Electrician 22.26 27.16 18.16 21.04 4.90 22.0% 2.88 15.9% 4.10 6.12 2.02 n.a. 11.73 10.47 14.80 n.a. n.a. 4.33 41.4% n.a. -3.07 n.a. 21.63 27.16 18.16 21.04 5.53 25.6% 2.88 15.9% 3.47 6.12 2.65 Laborer (general) n.a. 22.13 10.47 14.80 n.a. n.a. 4.33 41.4% n.a. 7.33 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) n.a. 17.82 14.53 15.08 n.a. n.a. 0.55 3.8% n.a. 2.74 n.a. Carpenter n.a. 25.27 13.74 15.28 n.a. n.a. 1.54 11.2% n.a. 9.99 n.a. Laborer (common) n.a. 14.02 10.47 14.80 n.a. n.a. 4.33 41.4% n.a. -0.78 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck, 16 to 32 yards) n.a. 13.00 11.37 12.98 n.a. n.a. 1.61 14.2% n.a. 0.02 n.a. 9.07 9.07 13.74 15.28 0.00 0.0% 1.54 11.2% -4.67 -6.21 -1.54 Plumber 10.82 10.82 20.77 20.60 0.00 0.0% -0.17 -0.8% -9.95 -9.78 0.17 Laborer 5.88 5.88 10.47 14.80 0.00 0.0% 4.33 41.4% -4.59 -8.92 -4.33 Laborer (general) Heavy Electrician Highway Residential Carpenter CRS-49 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 14.50 20.20 14.97 18.36 5.70 39.3% 3.39 Electrician 21.17 27.33 17.61 20.67 6.16 29.1% Laborer (general) 10.55 10.55 10.55 14.50 0.00 Electrician 21.17 26.58 17.61 20.67 Laborer (unskilled) 12.43 12.43 10.55 Truck driver (dump truck) 9.50 9.50 11.30 Laborer (unskilled) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 22.6% -0.47 1.84 2.31 3.06 17.4% 3.56 6.66 3.10 0.0% 3.95 37.4% 0.00 -3.95 -3.95 5.41 25.6% 3.06 17.4% 3.56 5.91 2.35 14.50 0.00 0.0% 3.95 37.4% 1.88 -2.07 -3.95 14.61 17.40 0.00 0.0% 2.79 19.1% -5.11 -7.90 -2.79 11.30 14.97 18.36 0.00 0.0% 3.39 22.6% -3.67 -7.06 -3.39 8.69 8.69 10.55 14.50 0.00 0.0% 3.95 37.4% -1.86 -5.81 -3.95 Truck driver (two axle) 9.08 9.08 11.59 15.09 0.00 0.0% 3.50 30.2% -2.51 -6.01 -3.50 Carpenter 9.54 9.54 14.97 18.36 0.00 0.0% 3.39 22.6% -5.43 -8.82 -3.39 Plumber 7.83 7.83 15.65 18.94 0.00 0.0% 3.29 21.0% -7.82 -11.11 -3.29 Laborer (unskilled) 7.32 7.32 10.55 14.50 0.00 0.0% 3.95 37.4% -3.23 -3.95 Maine Cumberland Building Heavy Highway Carpenter Residential CRS-50 -7.18 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 14.75 20.20 12.29 16.40 5.45 36.9% 4.11 Electrician 21.30 26.07 18.25 26.81 4.77 22.4% Laborer (general) 10.55 10.55 9.26 13.53 0.00 Carpenter 10.23 10.23 12.29 16.40 Laborer (unskilled) 8.42 8.42 9.26 Truck driver (dump truck) 9.21 9.21 11.30 Laborer (unskilled) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 33.4% 2.46 3.80 1.34 8.56 46.9% 3.05 -0.74 -3.79 0.0% 4.27 46.1% 1.29 -2.98 -4.27 0.00 0.0% 4.11 33.4% -2.06 -6.17 -4.11 13.53 0.00 0.0% 4.27 46.1% -0.84 -5.11 -4.27 16.03 17.08 0.00 0.0% 1.05 6.6% -6.82 -7.87 -1.05 11.30 12.29 16.40 0.00 0.0% 4.11 33.4% -0.99 -5.10 -4.11 8.69 8.69 9.26 13.53 0.00 0.0% 4.27 46.1% -0.57 -4.84 -4.27 Truck driver (two axle) 9.08 9.08 11.19 13.32 0.00 0.0% 2.13 19.0% -2.11 -4.24 -2.13 Carpenter 9.54 9.54 12.29 16.40 0.00 0.0% 4.11 33.4% -2.75 -6.86 -4.11 Plumber 7.83 7.83 15.56 17.38 0.00 0.0% 1.82 11.7% -7.73 -9.55 -1.82 Laborer (unskilled) 7.32 7.32 9.26 13.53 0.00 0.0% 4.27 46.1% -1.94 -6.21 -4.27 Androscoggin Building Heavy Highway Carpenter Residential CRS-51 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 14.09 14.09 Electrician 21.17 Laborer (general) Electrician 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) n.a. 16.09 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.00 n.a. 27.33 n.a. 21.70 6.16 29.1% n.a. n.a. n.a. 5.63 n.a. 10.59 10.59 n.a. 13.68 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -3.09 n.a. 13.67 13.67 n.a. 21.70 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -8.03 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) 9.80 9.80 n.a. 13.68 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -3.88 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) 9.17 9.17 n.a. 15.20 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.03 n.a. 12.03 12.03 n.a. 18.96 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.93 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) 8.66 8.66 n.a. 13.68 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.02 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) 9.35 9.35 n.a. 14.08 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.73 n.a. Carpenter 9.20 9.20 n.a. 16.09 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.89 n.a. Plumber 8.36 8.36 n.a. 19.50 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -11.14 n.a. Laborer 5.84 6.55 n.a. 13.68 0.71 12.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Somerset Building Heavy Highway Ironworker (structural) Residential CRS-52 -7.13 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) Carpenter 14.09 14.09 Electrician 21.30 Laborer (general) Electrician 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) (8) (9) n.a. 16.09 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.00 n.a. 26.07 n.a. 21.70 4.77 22.4% n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.37 n.a. 10.59 10.59 n.a. 13.68 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -3.09 n.a. 13.67 13.67 n.a. 21.70 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -8.03 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) 9.80 9.80 n.a. 13.68 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -3.88 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) 9.17 9.17 n.a. 15.20 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.03 n.a. 12.03 12.03 n.a. 18.96 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.93 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) 8.66 8.66 n.a. 13.68 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.02 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) 9.35 9.35 n.a. 14.08 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.73 n.a. Carpenter n.a. 9.26 n.a. 16.09 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.83 n.a. Plumber n.a. 9.50 n.a. 19.50 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -10.00 n.a. Laborer n.a. 6.71 n.a. 13.68 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Lincoln Building Heavy Highway Ironworker (structural) Residential CRS-53 -6.97 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Carpenter 13.52 22.17 15.49 22.93 8.65 64.0% 7.44 Electrician 21.20 25.35 17.56 23.01 4.15 19.6% Laborer (general) 10.53 17.14 12.63 15.08 6.61 Carpenter n.a. 19.90 15.49 22.93 Laborer (general) n.a. 14.35 12.63 Truck driver (dump truck) n.a. 14.10 Carpenter n.a. Laborer (general) Truck driver (multi-axle) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) 48.0% -1.97 -0.76 1.21 5.45 31.0% 3.64 2.34 -1.30 62.8% 2.45 19.4% -2.10 2.06 4.16 n.a. n.a. 7.44 48.0% n.a. -3.03 n.a. 15.08 n.a. n.a. 2.45 19.4% n.a. -0.73 n.a. 15.53 18.22 n.a. n.a. 2.69 17.3% n.a. -4.12 n.a. 14.46 15.49 22.93 n.a. n.a. 7.44 48.0% n.a. -8.47 n.a. n.a. 12.98 12.63 15.08 n.a. n.a. 2.45 19.4% n.a. -2.10 n.a. n.a. 15.00 13.79 15.10 n.a. n.a. 1.31 9.5% n.a. -0.10 n.a. Carpenter 11.11 11.11 15.49 22.93 0.00 0.0% 7.44 48.0% -4.38 -11.82 -7.44 Plumber 11.70 11.70 18.14 23.73 0.00 0.0% 5.59 30.8% -6.44 -12.03 -5.59 8.85 8.85 12.63 15.08 0.00 0.0% 2.45 19.4% -3.78 -2.45 New Hampshire Hillsborough Building Heavy Highway Residential Laborer (unskilled) CRS-54 -6.23 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) Merrimack Building Carpenter n.a. 18.94 n.a. 18.84 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.10 n.a. Electrician 21.20 16.06 n.a. 21.93 -5.14 -24.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.87 n.a. Laborer (general) 14.53 12.38 n.a. 14.82 -2.15 -14.8% n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.44 n.a. Carpenter n.a. 17.58 n.a. 18.84 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -1.26 n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 12.13 n.a. 14.82 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.69 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) n.a. 12.00 n.a. 19.46 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.46 n.a. Ironworker (structural) n.a. 13.78 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (unskilled) n.a. 12.79 n.a. 14.82 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.03 n.a. Truck driver (multi-axle) n.a. 13.60 n.a. 16.43 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.83 n.a. Carpenter 10.96 10.96 n.a. 18.84 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.88 n.a. Plumber 12.57 12.57 n.a. 19.68 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.11 n.a. 8.78 8.78 n.a. 14.82 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.04 n.a. Heavy Highway Residential Laborer (unskilled) CRS-55 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) Cheshire Building Carpenter n.a. 14.93 n.a. 19.02 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.09 n.a. Electrician n.a. 15.06 n.a. 17.63 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.57 n.a. Laborer (general) n.a. 13.10 n.a. 13.24 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -0.14 n.a. Carpenter n.a. 17.58 n.a. 19.92 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.34 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) n.a. 11.59 n.a. 13.24 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -1.65 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) n.a. 12.00 n.a. 18.81 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -6.81 n.a. Ironworker (structural) n.a. 13.94 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (common) n.a. 10.90 n.a. 13.24 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.34 n.a. Truck driver (double axle) n.a. 13.73 n.a. 13.51 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.22 n.a. Carpenter 10.96 10.96 n.a. 19.92 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -8.96 n.a. Plumber 12.57 12.57 n.a. 19.81 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.24 n.a. 8.78 8.78 n.a. 13.24 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.46 n.a. Heavy Highway Residential Laborer (unskilled) CRS-56 State County Davis-Bacon construction type (1) (2) (3) Dollar Difference between difference the changes in Changes from between DavisDavis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in Changes from Davis-Bacon Bacon and OES prevailing OES average Davis-Bacon 2000 to 2008 in and OES wages (column 9 hourly wages hourly wages OES wages wages wages minus column 11) Occupation 2000 2008 2000 (4) (5) (6) (7) 2008 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent 2000 (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) 2008 Dollars (13) (14) (15) Carroll Building Carpenter n.a. 16.00 n.a. 18.74 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.74 n.a. Electrician 21.20 16.06 n.a. 20.20 -5.14 -24.2% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.14 n.a. 9.60 11.56 n.a. 13.47 1.96 20.4% n.a. n.a. n.a. -1.91 n.a. Carpenter n.a. 17.58 n.a. 18.74 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -1.16 n.a. Laborer (unskilled) n.a. 11.77 n.a. 13.47 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -1.70 n.a. Truck driver (dump truck) n.a. 12.00 n.a. 16.35 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.35 n.a. Ironworker (structural) n.a. 13.78 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Laborer (unskilled) n.a. 10.83 n.a. 13.47 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -2.64 n.a. Truck driver (multi-axle) n.a. 9.55 n.a. 14.23 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.68 n.a. Carpenter 10.96 10.96 n.a. 18.74 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -7.78 n.a. Plumber 12.57 12.57 n.a. 17.80 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -5.23 n.a. 8.78 8.78 n.a. 13.47 0.00 0.0% n.a. n.a. n.a. -4.69 n.a. Laborer (general) Heavy Highway Residential Laborer (unskilled) Source: Davis-Bacon prevailing wage rates are from the U.S. Department of Labor, Wage Determinations Online.Gov, available at http://www.wdol.gov/sca.aspx#0. OES wage rates are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics, available at http://stats.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcma.htm. Notes: N.A. means that no data are available for that occupation or year. The most recent Davis-Bacon and OES wage rates used in this report are for 2008. Since 2008, many of the Davis-Bacon wage rates may have been revised. CRS-57 The Davis-Bacon Act and Changes in Prevailing Wage Rates, 2000 to 2008 Author Contact Information (name redacted) Analyst in Labor Policy #redacted#@crs.loc.gov, 7-.... Congressional Research Service 58 EveryCRSReport.com The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is a federal legislative branch agency, housed inside the Library of Congress, charged with providing the United States Congress non-partisan advice on issues that may come before Congress. EveryCRSReport.com republishes CRS reports that are available to all Congressional staff. The reports are not classified, and Members of Congress routinely make individual reports available to the public. Prior to our republication, we redacted names, phone numbers and email addresses of analysts who produced the reports. We also added this page to the report. We have not intentionally made any other changes to any report published on EveryCRSReport.com. 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