Persian Gulf and the War Powers Debate: Issue Summary and Review of Events

Order Code IB87207 FSORTHERIY KENTUCKY UNlVERSlTt LIBRARY P E R S I A N GULF A N D T H E WAR P O W E R S DEBATE: I S S U E SUMMARY A N D REVIEW O F E V E N T S Updated O c t o b e r 19, 1 9 8 7 C l y d e R. M a r k F o r e i g n Affairs and l a t i o n a l D e f e n s e D i v i s i o n Congressional R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e SUMMARY ISSUE DEFINITION EACKGROUND AND A N A L Y S I S CHRONOLOGY FOR A D D 1 T I ONAL R E A D 1 NG PERSIAN GULF AND THE WAR POWERS DEBATE: ISSUE SUMMARY AND REVIEW U.S. m i l i t a r y involvement i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf h a s prompted a new d e b a t e i n C o n g r e s s , and between Congress and t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o v e r t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e War Powers R e s o l u t i o n (P.L. 93-148) t o t h e c u r r e n t engagement of U.S. f o r c e s i n t h e a r e a . The U.S. p r e s e n c e h a s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y s i n c e t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s J u l y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e p l a n t o r e f l a g K u w a i t i t a n k e r s t h a t were v u l n e r a b l e i n t h e t a n k e r war between I r a n and I r a q . The c o n g r e s s i o n a l d e b a t e o v e r t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e War Powers R e s o l u t i o n h a s been t r i g g e r e d by a number o f e v e n t s t h a t h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e r i s k s e n t a i l e d i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f U.S. s h i p s and s a i l o r s i n a war zone. The key e v e n t s i n c l u d e : t h e I r a q i a t t a c k on t h e USS S t a r k on May 1 7 , 1987; t h e commencement of U.S. r e f l a g g i n g on J u l y 2 2 , 1987; t h e damage t o t h e r e f l a g g e d B r i d g e t o n from an I r a n i a n mine on J u l y 24, 1987; t h e U.S. m i s s i l e f i r i n g on an I r a n i a n F-4 on Aug. 1 0 , 1987; t h e U.S. a t t a c k on S e p t . 2 1 , 1987, upon a n I r a n i a n l a n d i n g s h i p d i s c o v e r e d w h i l e d r o p p i n g mines i n t h e G u l f , and t h e Oct. 8 , 1987, U.S. s i n k i n g of t h r e e I r a n i a n p a t r o l boats. C o n g r e s s h a s shown i t s c o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e War L e g i s l a t i o n h a s been i n t r o d u c e d Powers R e s o l u t i o n i n a v a r i e t y of ways. t o r e q u i r e r e p o r t s a b o u t t h e r e f l a g g i n g p l a n ; t o r e a f f i r m t h e War Powers r e q u i r e m e n t t o r e p o r t on "imminent h o s t i l i t i e s " ; t o f o r c e d e l a y s i n t h e r e f l a g g i n g p l a n ; t o p r o h i b i t f u n d s t o be u s e d t o implement r e f l a g g i n g a g r e e m e n t s ; and t o t r i g g e r e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e War Powers Act. Some Members o f Congress h a v e a l s o a p p e a l e d t o t h e c o u r t s t o compel War Powers c o m p l i a n c e ; 115 Members f i l e d s u i t on Aug. 7, 1987. Other Members h a v e e x p r e s s e d t h e view t h a t i n l i g h t of t h e d a n g e r o u s s i t u a t i o n i n t h e G u l f , t h e i r key c o n c e r n i s a d e q u a t e c o n s u l t a t i o n s o v e r p o l i c y , w i t h o r w i t h o u t t h e t e c h n i c a l i n v o c a t i o n o f t h e War Powers Act. S t i l l others s u p p o r t t h e Reagan ~ d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s view t h a t t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n d o e s n o t w a r r a n t i n v o c a t i o n of t h e War Powers Act, which t h e y view a s a n i n f r i n g e m e n t on t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s power a s Commander i n C h i e f . T h i s i s s u e b r i e f t r a c k s c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y t h e e v e n t s i n t h e Gulf w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o m a j o r U.S. p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s and a c t i o n s r e l e v a n t I t c a n be u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h CRS t o t h e War Powers R e s o l u t i o n . I s s u e B r i e f 81050, War Powers R e s o l u t i o n : P r e s i d e n t i a l Compliance, which l o o k s a t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e a c t s i n c e i t was a d o p t e d i n 1973 and r e c u r r i n g i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o i t ; and w i t h I s s u e B r i e f 87145, The P e r s i a n Gulf and t h e U.S. Naval P r e s e n c e : I s s u e s f o r Congress. I s s u e B r i e f 87145 e x a m i n e s t h e i s s u e s o f U.S. m i l i t a r y p o l i c y i n t h e G u l f , and i t s g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , and c o s t s . ISSUE DEFINITION -- The c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf h o s t i l i t i e s between I r a n and I r a q i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g U.S. m i l i t a r y p r e s e n c e h a s prompted many i n Congress t o c o n s i d e r t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h e War Powers r e s o l u t i o n (P.L. 93-148). Key q u e s t i o n s a r e : Are r e c e n t e v e n t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e I r a q i a t t a c k on t h e USS S t a r k o r t h e U.S. a t t a c k on an I r a n i a n s h i p d r o p p i n g mines i n t o t h e G u l f , s u f f i c i e n t t o t r i g g e r t h e 1I i m n i n e n t h o s t i l i t i e s " p r o v i s i o n of S e c t i o n 4 ( a ) ( l ) ? Has t h e r e b e e n a d e q u a t e c o n s u l t a t i o n between Congress and t h e P r e s i d e n t on U.S. p o l i c y i n t h e G u l f ? What l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n s h a s Congress t a k e n r e l a t i n g t o War Powers and t h e c u r r e n t Gulf s i t u a t i o n ? -- BACKGEOUM) AND Al!lALYSIS C o n g r e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n o v e r t h e l i n k a g e between t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n and t h e War Powers r e s o l u t i o n c a n be t r a c k e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways. The c h r o n o l o g y s e c t i o n n o t e s major developments i n : ( 1 ) h o s t i l e a c t s i n t h e Gulf a f f e c t i n g U.S. s h i p s and s a i l o r s ( t h e " i w i n e n t h o s t i l i t i e s " i s s u e ) ; ( 2 ) c o n s u l t a t i o n s between Congress and t h e e x e c u t i v e , s u c h a s h e a r i n g s , s p e c i a l m e e t i n g s , and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; ( 3 ) e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h r e s p o n s e s t o c o n g r e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n s , i n c l u d i n g t h r o u g h l e g i s l a t i v e l y mandated r e p o r t s ; ( 4 ) c o u r t a c t i o n s i n i t i a t e d by Congress t o compel c o m p l i a n c e w i t h War Powers; ( 5 ) p e r t i n e n t l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i v i t y ; and ( 6 ) major s t a t e m e n t s and a c t i o n s by U.S. a l l i e s t h a t may have b e a r i n g on U.S. p o l i c y i n t h e a r e a . CHRONOLOGY 10/19/87 --- 10/16/87 --- A n 10/15/87 --- 10/12/87 --- Four U.S. d e s t r o y e r s d e s t r o y e d an i n a c t i v e I r a n i a n o i l p l a t f o r m used a s a b a s e f o r I r a n i a n s p e e d b o a t a t t a c k s a g a i n s t Gulf s h i p s . The U.S. Navy gave t h e I r a n i a n o c c u p a n t s o f t h e o i l p l a t f o r m 20 m i n u t e s t o e v a c u a t e b e f o r e s h e l l i n g t h e p l a t f o r m , which was some 100 m i l e s s o u t h of Lavan I s l a n d . The a t t a c k was i n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r t h e O c t o b e r 16 I r a n i a n Silkworm a t t a c k on a U.S.-flagged t a n k e r o f f Kuwait. I r a n i a n Silkworm m i s s i l e f i r e d from I r a n i a n o c c u p i e d t e r r i t o r y on I r a q ' s Faw p e n i n s u l a h i t t h e Sea I s l e C i t y , a Kuwait-owned, U.S.-flagged o i l t a n k e r a t anchor about 10 m i l e s o f f Kuwait's p o r t of Mina al-Ahmadi. E i g h t e e n seamen, i n c l u d i n g t h e U.S. c a p t a i n , were i n j u r e d . An I r a n i a n Silkworm m i s s i l e , f i r e d from t h e I r a n i a n o c c u p i e d Faw p e n i n s u l a o f I r a q , h i t t h e U.S.-owned, Liberian-flagged o i l t a n k e r S u n g a r i anchored 9 m i l e s o f f ~ u w a i t ' s Mina a l Ahmadi p o r t . T h e r e were no c a s u a l t i e s , b u t t h e s h i p was h e a v i l y damaged from t h e e x p l o s i o n and 5-hour f i r e . According t o t h e Washington P o s t , U.S. Navy o f f i c i a l s i n t h e Gulf a s k e d p e r m i s s i o n from t h e Pentagon t o a t t a c k I r a n i a n s h i p s t h a t a t t a c k e d commercial v e s s e l s i n t h e Gulf r e g a r d l e s s of f l a g . C u r r e n t U.S. p o l i c y i s t o d e f i n e o n l y U.S.-flagged ships. 10/08/87 --- 10/06/87 --- --- T h r e e U.S. m i l i t a r y h e l i c o p t e r s f i r e d upon and s a n k t h r e e I r a n i a n g u n b o a t s a b o u t 15 m i l e s s o u t h w e s t o f F a r s i I s l a n d a f t e r t h e I r a n i a n b o a t s f i r e d a t one of t h e U.S. h e l i c o p t e r s . U.S. s h i p s picked up s i x I r a n i a n s , two of whom l a t e r d i e d . A f o u r t h I r a n i a n boat e s c a p e d . J a p a n announced t h a t i t would c o n t r i b u t e more t o m a i n t a i n i n g U.S. f o r c e s i n J a p a n , would i n c r e a s e i t s a i d t o J o r d a n and Oman, and would d e v e l o p a n a v i g a t i o n s y s t e m f o r s h i p s t r a n s i t i n g t h e P e r s i a n Gulf a s a way t o d e f r a y c o s t s o f t h e West Germany U.S. and a l l i e d e s c o r t s i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf. announced on Oct. 8 t h a t i t would send t h r e e w a r s h i p s t o t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n Sea t o r e p l a c e a l l i e d s h i p s s e n t t o t h e P e r s i a n Gulf t o p r o t e c t Gulf s h i p p i n g . Both J a p a n and West Germany are p r o h i b i t e d by t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n s from s e n d i n g armed forces outside t h e i r countries. T h e S e n a t e amended S. 1394, t h e f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l ( s e e H.R. 17771, w i t h a s t a t e m e n t t h a t I r a n v i o l a t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l law by mining t h e w a t e r s of t h e P e r s i a n G u l f , t h a t t h e U.S. u s e o f f o r c e t o end t h e I r a n i a n mining was j u s t i f i e d , and t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l law p r o v i d e d t h e framework f o r promoting s e c u r i t y and s a f e g u a r d i n g U.S. i n t e r e s t s i n t h e region. The n e x t day t h e S e n a t e v o t e d 95-2 t o add a n o t h e r amendment recommending t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t d e v i s e a p l a n t o s h a r e c o s t s of p r o t e c t i n g P e r s i a n Gulf s h i p p i n g w i t h U.S. a l l i e s . The b i l l passed t h e S e n a t e on O c t o b e r 8 by a v o t e o f 85-8. 10/05/87 --- 10/04/87 --- A 10/03/87 --- 10/02/87 --- NBC r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p l a n n e d t o send U.S. Coast Guard p a t r o l b o a t s and a i r c r a f t t o t h e P e r s i a n Gulf t o a s s i s t i n p r o t e c t i n g U.S. s h i p s a r o u n d B a h r a i n and f o r p a t r o l l i n g coastal waters. U.S. h e l i c o p t e r c r a s h e d under t h e U.S.S. Lasalle, off B a h r a i n , k i l l i n g one crew member and i n j u r i n g t h r e e . The Pentagon s a i d t h e l o s s of t h e h e l i c o p t e r was an a c c i d e n t , n o t related t o "hostile activity." I r a n launched a b o u t 60 armed s p e e d b o a t s a p p a r e n t l y a t t h e S a u d i Arabian o f f s h o r e o i l f i e l d of K h a f j i , and S a u d i A r a b i a sent jets and w a r s h i p s t o i n t e r c e p t them and t u r n them back. Four U.S. w a r s h i p s , p r e v i o u s l y e s c o r t i n g a Kuwaiti t a n k e r , a l s o went t o t h e r e g i o n t o c o n f r o n t t h e I r a n i a n f l o t i l l a . No g u n f i r e was exchanged, and most o f t h e I r a n i a n b o a t s r e t u r n e d t o t h e I r a n i a n s i d e of t h e Gulf by dawn. S. 1748, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e S e n a t e , p r o h i b i t e d i m p o r t s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s from I r a n . The b i l l passed t h e S e n a t e on O c t . 6 by a v o t e of 93-0. 10/01/87 --- ------- 09/29/87 ----- 187 --- 09/26/87 --- 09/23/87 --- T h e S e n a t e c o m p l e t e d a c t i o n on S. 1174, t h e D e f e n s e a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l , w i t h o u t a d o p t i n g a n y o f t h e amendments r e l a t i n g t o war powers. One key amendment d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n t h e Gulf meets t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n s e c t i o n 4 ( a ) ( l ) , r e q u i r e d t h e P r e s i d e n t t o r e p o r t w i t h i n 30 d a y s on t h e o b j e c t i v e s , e s t i m a t e d d u r a t i o n and c o s t of t h e Gulf o p e r a t i o n , and c a l l e d f o r a h a l t t o t h e o p e r a t i o n i n 2-3 months, u n l e s s Congress a u t h o r i z e d i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n . The S e n a t e d i d add a n amendment on September 2 9 t h a t p r o h i b i t e d i m p o r t i n g I r a n i a n p r o d u c t s i n t o t h e United S t a t e s . A State D e p a r t m e n t s p o k e s p e r s o n s a i d t h e t r a d e embargo might undermine U.S. e f f o r t s t o remain n e u t r a l and t o g a i n s u p p o r t f o r t h e arms embargo a g a i n s t I r a n . H.R. 3393, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, c a l l e d f o r a t r a d e embargo a g a i n s t I r a n . The b i l l was r e p o r t e d on O c t o b e r 6 . \ B.R. 3391, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, p r o h i b i t e d i m p o r t s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s from I r a n . The b i l l was r e p o r t e d o n O c t o b e r 5 (H.Rept. 100-345) and p a s s e d t h e House on O c t . 6 by a v o t e o f 407-5. The U.S. Maritime A d m i n i s t r a t i o n announced t h a t i t a g r e e d t o c h a r t e r t h e s u p e r t a n k e r Maryland f o r 2 y e a r s t o a s u b s i d i a r y o f t h e Kuwait O i l Tanker Co., t h e f i r s t K u w a i t i c h a r t e r i n g of a U.S.-owned t a n k e r w i t h an American crew. I n a n i n t e r v i e w on "Good Morning America," Defense S e c r e t a r y be Weinberger s a i d t h a t U.S. military operations " w i l l r e q u i r e d u n t i l t h e I r a n i a n s change t h e i r behavior...". T e s t i f y i n g b e f o r e t h e S e n a t e Armed S e r v i c e s C o r n i t t e e , J o i n t C h i e f s of S t a f f Chairman Adm. William J. Crowe s t a t e d t h a t ways t o draw down U.S. f o r c e s i n t h e r e g i o n " t o a more r e a s o n a b l e l e v e l " were u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n . But h e a s s e r t e d t h a t w i t h d r a w a l o f a l l U.S. f o r c e s from t h e Gulf "would b e a t e r r i b l e e r r o r and an a d m i s s i o n o f i n c a p a b i l i t y . " The t e n t h convoy o f U.S. K u w a i t i t a n k e r s began. Navy w a r s h i p s e s c o r t i n g r e f l a g g e d Omani o f f i c i a l s r e c e i v e d t h e 26 I r a n i a n seaman and b o d i e s of t h r e e o t h e r s t a k e n d u r i n g t h e U.S. a t t a c k on t h e I r a n - A j r . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Red C r o s s o f f i c i a l s a r r a n g e d t h e i r r e t u r n t o Iran. P r e s i d e n t Reagan t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e S p e a k e r of t h e House a r e p o r t on s e l f - d e f e n s e a c t i o n s t a k e n by U.S. f o r c e s i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l w a t e r s of t h e P e r s i a n Gulf on S e p t . 21. The P r e s i d e n t r e f e r r e d t o h i s t o r i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between C o n g r e s s and t h e e x e c u t i v e "with r e s p e c t t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f c e r t a i n of t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e War Powers R e s o l u t i o n . " 09/22/87 --- U.S. Navy SEALS boarded t h e abandoned I r a n i a n l a n d i n g c r a f t , T h e r e were t e n mines on b o a r d I r a n - A j r , and t o o k i t i n tow. t h e Iran-Ajr. U.S. Navy s h i p s picked up 26 I r a n i a n s from l i f e b o a t s i n t h e Gulf w a t e r s . The I r a n i a n crewmen were t a k e n t o t h e La S a l l e , t h e MIDEASTFOR comnand s h i p , and p l a c e d under guard. Four of t h e I r a n i a n s were t r e a t e d f o r wounds. Three I r a n i a n s a i l o r s were k i l l e d i n t h e S e p t . 2 1 a t t a c k , and two I r a n i a n s were m i s s i n g . 09/21/87 --- U.S. h e l i c o p t e r s ( l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d a s U.S. Army Task F o r c e 1 6 0 ) f i r e d a t an I r a n i a n s h i p a f t e r t h e i r c r e w s saw t h e I r a n i a n s h i p d r o p p i n g mines i n t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . The World War I1 amphibious l a n d i n g s h i p , named I r a n - A j r , was a b o u t 50 m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f B a h r a i n i n an a r e a used by t a n k e r s a s a n a n c h o r a g e b e f o r e t h e y moved i n t o o i l l o a d i n g t e r m i n a l s . --- 09/18/87 --- 09/15/87 --- 09/14/87 --- 09/07/87 --- 09/04/87 --- 08/30/87 --- Four H u n t - c l a s s minesweepers j o i n e d t h e o t h e r B r i t i s h s h i p s i n t h e A r m i l l a P a t r o l i n t h e Gulf o f Oman, presumably t o e s c o r t B r i t i s h f l a g s h i p s i n t o t h e P e r s i a n Gulf a s f a r n o r t h a s Bahrain. The same day, an I r a n i a n gunboat f i r e d on t h e G e n t l e Breeze, a B r i t i s h tanker. During d e b a t e on t h e d e f e n s e a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l , S. 1147, t h e S e n a t e v o t e d (50-41) t o t a b l e an amendment, which c a l l e d f o r a p p l y i n g p r o v i s i o n s of t h e War Powers r e s o l u t i o n t o t h e tI imminent d a n g e r zone" d e s i g n a t e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y of D e f e n s e , f o r h a z a r d o u s d u t y pay p u r p o s e s . --- Eight I t a l i a n vessels t h r e e minesweepers, t h r e e f r i g a t e s , and two s u p p o r t s h i p s s e t s a i l f o r t h e P e r s i a n Gulf t o protect I t a l i a n f l a g ships. An I r a n i a n s p e e d b o a t f i r e d on a n I t a l i a n s h i p on September 8. Belgium announced t h a t i t would send two minesweepers and a s u p p l y s h i p on a 4-month m i s s i o n t o t h e P e r s i a n Gulf t o o p e , r a t e s o u t h and e a s t of Q a t a r under B r i t i s h p r o t e c t i o n . The N e t h e r l a n d s Defense M i n i s t r y announced t h a t two Dutch minesweepers would l e a v e f o r t h e P e r s i a n Gulf n e x t week t o j o i n t h e B r i t i s h i n protecting shipping i n t h e Gulf. I r a n f i r e d two Silkworm m i s s i l e s from t h e Faw p e n i n s u l a toward Kuwait. One missile h i t a n u n i n h a b i t e d b e a c h a r e a 2 miles s o u t h of a n o i l l o a d i n g t e r m i n a l , and t h e o t h e r l a n d e d i n t h e sea. Another Silkworm l a n d e d i n t h e w a t e r on September 2. I r a q renewed a t t a c k s on I r a n i a n s h i p s s a i l i n g a l o n g t h e I r a n i a n c o a s t i n t h e Kharg I s l a n d - L a r a k s h u t t l e . I t was t h e f i r s t s u c h I r a q i a t t a c k i n 45 days. 08/27/87 --- 08/26/87 --- 08/24/87 --- The 08/21/87 --- 08/19/87 --- The 08/18/87 --- 08/14/87 --- The 08/12/87 --- A 08/11/87 --- U.S. o f f i c i a l s s a i d two s m a l l minesweepers a r r i v e d i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf a b o a r d t h e USS S t . L o u i s , a n amphibious l a n d i n g c r a f t . According t o r e p o r t s , t h e S t . L o u i s a l s o c a r r i e d f a s t p a t r o l b o a t s used by t h e Navy SEALS, t h e s p e c i a l o p e r a t i o n s unit. Four more s m a l l minesweepers were a b o a r d t h e USS R a l e i g h i n t h e Arabian Sea en r o u t e t o t h e G u l f . The Department of Defense announced t h a t i t would pay "imminent danger" pay t o U.S. m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l s t a t i o n e d i n s i d e t h e P e r s i a n Gulf. USS Kidd f i r e d warning s h o t s a c r o s s t h e bow o f two dhows ( t r a d i t i o n a l s a i l i n g v e s s e l s o f t h e G u l f ) when t h e y a p p r o a c h e d t o o c l o s e t o t h e U.S.-escorted convoy e n t e r i n g t h e The S t r a i t of Hormuz on i t s way o u t of t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . dhows t u r n e d away a f t e r t h e s h o t s . L a t e r , an I r a n i a n w a r s h i p a p p r o a c h e d t h e convoy b u t was d e t e r r e d by t h e f r i g a t e J a r r e t t and h e l i c o p t e r s from t h e G u a d a l c a n a l . Saudi Arabia, according t o "diplomatic sources," agreed t o a l l o w some l a n d i n g and r e f u e l i n g r i g h t s t o U.S. a i r c r a f t i n v o l v e d i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf e s c o r t o p e r a t i o n s . t h i r d U.S.-escorted f o r Kuwait. convoy l e f t t h e Gulf of Oman bound The Miami H e r a l d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s had t e n s h i p s i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf and a n o t h e r 1 7 o u t s i d e t h e Gulf i n There a r e 1 3 F r e n c h s h i p s , n i n e B r i t i s h t h e n e a r b y waters. s h i p s , and s e v e n S o v i e t s h i p s i n t h e same a r e a , t h e H e r a l d reported. U.S. s h i p s i n t h e Gulf were t h e c r u i s e r s Fox, Reeves, and Worden, t h e d e s t r o y e r Kidd, f r i g a t e s C r o w e l i n , F l a t l e y , J a r r e t t , and K l a k r i n g , t h e h e l i c o p t e r c a r r i e r G u a d a l c a n a l , and t h e c o w a n d s h i p La S a l l e . O u t s i d e t h e Gulf w e r e t h e c a r r i e r C o n s t e l l a t i o n , a c r u i s e r , a d e s t r o y e r , two f r i g a t e s , a n ammunition s h i p , and a s u p p l y s h i p , and e n r o u t e were t h e b a t t l e s h i p M i s s o u r i , a c r u i s e r , a d e s t r o y e r , a f r i g a t e , and two s u p p l y s h i p s . T h r e e amphibious a s s a u l t s h i p s were a l s o i n t h e a r e a . h e l i c o p t e r c a r r i e r Guadalcanal, c a r r y i n g Sea S t a l l i o n anti-mine h e l i c o p t e r s , a r r i v e d i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf. S a u d i frogman was k i l l e d and a n o t h e r i n j u r e d when a mine t h e y were a t t e m p t i n g t o d e f u s e e x p l o d e d . The mine was found 180 miles n o r t h w e s t o f Ras Tanurah, t h e main S a u d i o i l t e r m i n a l on t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . T h e U n i t e d Kingdom announced t h a t i t would send f o u r H u n t - c l a s s minesweepers t o t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . Observers a t t r i b u t e d t h e change i n B r i t i s h p o l i c y t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f mines i n t h e Gulf o f Oman, o u t s i d e t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . B r i t a i n h a s two f r i g a t e s and a d e s t r o y e r i n t h e A r m i l l a P a t r o l t h a t o p e r a t e s i n t h e Gulf of W a n and "accompanies1' B r i t i s h - CRS- 7 10-19-87 flagged s h i p s i n t o t h e Persian Gulf. F r a n c e announced i t would s e n d two minesweepers t o t h e a r e a t o j o i n t h e t h r e e French f r i g a t e s o u t s i d e t h e Gulf. 08/10/87 --- The Texaco C a r i b b e a n , u n d e r c h a r t e r t o a U.S. company, h i t a mine o u t s i d e t h e P e r s i a n Gulf n e a r F u j a y r a h . I t was t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e of mines o u t s i d e t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . Over t h e n e x t few d a y s , s e v e r a l more mines were found a r o u n d F u j a y r a h , a n a n c h o r a g e used by many s h i p s w a i t i n g t o e n t e r t h e S t r a i t o f Hormuz . C i t i n g Pentagon s o u r c e s , t h e Washington P o s t r e p o r t e d t h a t f o u r f a s t s p e e d b o a t s of t h e Navy SEALS, t h e u n c o n v e n t i o n a l w a r f a r e s p e c i a l i s t s , and f o u r s u r v e i l l a n c e and a t t a c k Army s p e c i a l f o r c e s u n i t had b e e n h e l i c o p t e r s of a U.S. d i s p a t c h e d t o t h e Gulf. The P o s t a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e Navy was arming S e a s p r i t e a n t i - s u b m a r i n e w a r f a r e h e l i c o p t e r s f o r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s t a t t a c k s on U.S. s h i p s i n t h e G u l f , and t h a t AE-6B P r o w l e r a i r c r a f t from t h e c a r r i e r C o n s t e l l a t i o n h a d b e e n e q u i p p e d w i t h WRM a n t i - r a d a r m i s s i l e s , and w i t h equipment t o jam r a d a r u s e d by t h e Silkworm m i s s i l e s . --- 08/09/87 --- 08/08/87 --- 08/07/87 --- A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o u r c e s announced t h a t a F-14 a i r c r a f t f r o m t h e U.S. c a r r i e r C o n s t e l l a t i o n f i r e d two Sparrow a i r - t o - a i r m i s s i l e s a t a n I r a n i a n F-4 t h a t "was p e r c e i v e d t o be t h r e a t e n i n g " a U.S. P-3 s u r v e i l l a n c e a i r c r a f t . The m i s s i l e s missed t h e t a r g e t . S e c r e t a r y o f Defense Weinberger s a i d on "Face t h e N a t i o n " t h a t mines c l e a r e d n e a r ~ u w a i t ' s h a r b o r were I r a n i a n . P r e v i o u s l y , U.S. o f f i c i a l s would n o t s a y d e f i n i t e l y t h a t I r a n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a c i n g mines i n t h e G u l f . The U.S. f r i g a t e s J a r r e t t and Cromnelin and t h e d e s t r o y e r Kidd l e f t Khur Fakkan o u t s i d e t h e S t r a i t o f Hormuz w i t h t h e r e f l a g g e d t a n k e r s Sea I s l e C i t y , Ocean C i t y , and Gas King e n r o u t e t o Kuwait. A p p a r e n t l y , t h e second U.S. convoy t o e n t e r t h e P e r s i a n Gulf s u r p r i s e d some Pentagon o f f i c i a l s who e x p e c t e d t h e s h i p s t o w a i t f o r t h e G u a d a l c a n a l and i t s mine sweeping h e l i c o p t e r s . The convoy r e a c h e d Kuwait o n August 11. 115 Members o f Congress ( f o u r S e n a t o r s and 111 House Members) f i l e d s u i t i n t h e U.S. D i s t r i c t Court o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f Columbia t o i n v o k e t h e War Powers Act. The s u i t c l a i m e d t h e t h r e e U.S. w a r s h i p s e n t e r i n g t h e Gulf on J u l y 22, 1987, c o n s t i t u t e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f U.S. Armed F o r c e s i n t o h o s t i l i t i e s , and a s k e d t h e Court t o d e c l a r e t h a t a r e p o r t was The r e q u i r e d under S e c t i o n 4 ( a ) ( l ) of t h e War Powers Act. l a w s u i t a s k e d t h e Court t o o r d e r t h e P r e s i d e n t t o f i l e a Section 4 ( a ) ( l ) report, or, a s an alternative, t o cancel t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e f l a g g e d Kuwaiti t a n k e r s on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e Department o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c t e d i l l e g a l l y i n allowing the reflagging. The I r a n i a n R e v o l u t i o n a r y Guards comnander announced t h a t I r a n would l a u n c h i t s f i r s t submarine d u r i n g t h e " ~ a r t ~ r d o m " From l a t e r r e p o r t s , n a v a l e x e r c i s e s t h a t began on August 4. i t a p p e a r e d t h e submarine was a two-man s u b m e r s i b l e v e h i c l e o f a t y p e u s e d by scuba d i v e r s . The USS R a l e i g h l e f t C h a r l e s t o n , SC, bound f o r t h e P e r s i a n Gulf. According t o Pentagon s o u r c e s , t h e R a l e i g h , w i t h i t s 300-man crew, was c a r r y i n g f o u r s m a l l minesweepers and s e v e r a l high-speed p a t r o l b o a t s u s u a l l y manned by Navy SEALS ( S e a - ~ i r - L a n d ) , t h e Navy s p e c i a l o p e r a t i o n s g r o u p . N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y Advisor Frank C a r l u c c i a r r i v e d i n P a r i s o n a t o u r of m a j o r a l l i e d c a p i t a l s t o d i s c u s s a l l i e d minesweeping s u p p o r t f o r t h e U.S. P e r s i a n Gulf e s c o r t operation. S o v i e t F i r s t Deputy F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r Y u l i V o r o n t s o v ended a 3-day v i s i t t o Teheran. The two c o u n t r i e s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r m u t u a l c o n c e r n o v e r t h e U.S. m i l i t a r y f o r c e s i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf, Tass said. The Gas P r i n c e , one of f o u r r e f l a g g e d l i q u i d p e t r o l e u m g a s c a r r i e r s , l e f t Kuwait w i t h t h e U.S. d e s t r o y e r Kidd and U.S. f r i g a t e Cromnelin a s e s c o r t s . Gas P r i n c e had e n t e r e d t h e P e r s i a n Gulf on J u l y 2 2 ' w i t h t h e B r i d g e t o n and t h r e e e s c o r t s . A demonstration, l e d by I r a n i a n s , t u r n e d i n t o a r i o t a t t h e a n n u a l I s l a m i c p i l g r i m a g e ( H a j j t o Mecca i n S a u d i A r a b i a . 402 p e o p l e d i e d , 275 of whom were I r a n i a n s , and o v e r 600 were wounded i n t h e r i o t . Saudi a u t h o r i t i e s blamed I r a n f o r instigating the riot. Iranian officials called f o r the o v e r t h r o w o f t h e S a u d i regime, c o n t e n d i n g i t was u n f i t t o r u l e t h e I s l a m i c h o l y p l a c e s a t Mecca and Medina. The U n i t e d Kingdom r e j e c t e d a U.S. minesweepers t o t h e P e r s i a n Gulf. r e q u e s t t o send B r i t i s h U.S. Navy SH-3G Sea King h e l i c o p t e r c a r r y i n g c a r g o and p a s s e n g e r s c r a s h e d i n t o t h e Gulf w h i l e t r y i n g t o l a n d o n t h e command s h i p La S a l l e . F i v e men were r e s c u e d , b u t f o u r d i e d i n the accident. A D e f e n s e S e c r e t a r y W e i n b e r g e r o r d e r e d e i g h t U.S. Navy minesweeping h e l i c o p t e r s t o t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . The RH-53D Sea S t a l l i o n s would be l o a d e d a b o a r d C-5 c a r g o p l a n e s a n d f l o w n from N o r f o l k t o Diego G a r c i a , where t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e i r 250 f l i g h t and m a i n t e n a n c e crew members w i l l be l o a d e d a b o a r d t h e USS G u a d a l c a n a l , a Marine Amphibious U n i t h e l i c o p t e r carrier. --- 07/28/87 --- 07/24/87 ----- 07/22/87 --- 07/21/87 --- 07/20/87 --- 07/15/87 --- 07/09/87 --- 07/08/87 --- H.R. 3039, i n t r o d u c e d i n o f U.S. f o r c e s from t h e r e f l a g g i n g documentation w e r e h e l d on t h e b i l l on t h e House, c a l l e d f o r t h e w i t h d r a w a l P e r s i a n Gulf and t h e r e v o c a t i o n o f f o r t h e Kuwaiti t a n k e r s . Hearings August 6. H.Con.Res. 1 6 8 , i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, s t a t e d t h a t i t was t h e s e n s e o f t h e Congress t h a t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s f l a g be p l a c e d on s h i p s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf and t h a t U.N. peacekeeping v e s s e l s e s c o r t s h i p s through t h e Gulf. A s i m i l a r r e s o l u t i o n , S.Con.Res. 6 6 , was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e Senate. The B r i d g e t o n , one of t h e r e f l a g g e d Kuwaiti t a n k e r s b e i n g e s c o r t e d i n t o t h e P e r s i a n G u l f , h i t a mine a b o u t 20 miles w e s t of t h e I r a n i a n i s l a n d of F a r s i . S. 1546, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e S e n a t e , c a l l e d f o r t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f any r e f l a g g i n g of Kuwaiti v e s s e l s i n 6 months u n l e s s t h e P r e s i d e n t c e r t i f i e d t o t h e Congress t h a t r e f l a g g i n g was i n U.S. i n t e r e s t s , and u n l e s s t h e C o n g r e s s a p p r o v e d a j o i n t resolution authorizing the reflagging. T h r e e U.S. Navy v e s s e l s e n t e r e d t h e P e r s i a n Gulf e s c o r t i n g two r e f l a g g e d Kuwaiti t a n k e r s , t h e B r i d g e t o n and t h e Gas Prince. The S e n a t e p a s s e d by v o i c e v o t e a n amendment e x p r e s s i n g t h e s e n s e of t h e S e n a t e t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t s h o u l d p u r s u e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e r e f l a g g i n g of Kuwaiti v e s s e l s . The U.N. S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l p a s s e d unanimously R e s o l u t i o n 598 ( 1 9 8 7 ) c a l l i n g f o r a c e a s e - f i r e i n t h e I r a n - I r a q war and c a l l i n g f o r f u r t h e r m e e t i n g s i f t h e two s t a t e s d i d n o t comply with the resolution. Most o b s e r v e r s b e l i e v e d t h e n e x t s t e p s would b e an arms embargo a g a i n s t t h e b e l l i g e r e n t s . The S e n a t e v o t e d 82-16 t o a p p r o v e a n amendment t o S. 1420, Omnibus T r a d e and C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s Act a l l o w i n g t h e P r e s i d e n t t o impose a t o t a l t r a d e embargo a g a i n s t I r a n i f i t u s e s Silkworm m i s s i l e s o r a t t a c k s U.S.vessels, personnel, or f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e Gulf r e g i o n . The S e n a t e f a i l e d t o m u s t e r t h e 6 0 v o t e s needed t o end a t h r e a t e n e d f i l i b u s t e r on a n amendment t o t h e t r a d e b i l l t h a t would h a v e f o r c e d a 90-day d e l a y i n r e f l a g g i n g t h e 11 K u w a i t i tankers. The House p a s s e d amendment no. 326 t o H.R. 2342, t h e C o a s t Guard a u t h o r i z a t i o n , by a v o t e of 222-184 t o p r o h i b i t t h e K u w a i t i r e f l a g g i n g f o r 90 d a y s o r u n t i l S e p t . 30, 1987, w h i c h e v e r o c c u r s f i r s t . The House d i d n o t a d o p t a n amendment t o s t o p r e f l a g g i n g u n l e s s t h e S o v i e t Union r e f l a g g e d s h i p s . The House p a s s e d H.R. 2342 on J u l y 8 , and t h e S e n a t e p a s s e d t h e b i l l on O c t o b e r 13. 07/05/87 --- White 07/02/87 --- U.S. 06/30/87 --- 06/23/87 --- 06/22/87 --- The House Chief o f S t a f f Howard Baker was q u o t e d a s s a y i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s might r e d u c e t h e number o f U.S. w a r s h i p s i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf i f t h e S o v i e t Union withdrew i t s w a r s h i p s The n e x t d a y , White House and S t a t e from t h e G u l f . Department o f f i c i a l s s a i d Mr. Baker had been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . The o f f i c i a l s s a i d t h e United S t a t e s would n o t w i t h d r a w c o m p l e t e l y from t h e Gulf and would r e d u c e i t s p r e s e n c e o n l y when t h e Gulf became s a f e f o r commercial s h i p p i n g . envoy Vernon W a l t e r s began c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h S o v i e t o f f i c i a l s s e e k i n g s u p p o r t f o r a U.S. i n i t i a t i v e t o end t h e I r a q - I r a n war. A f t e r a m e e t i n g between t h e P r e s i d e n t and c o n g r e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s , t h e White House p r e s s spokesman r e a d a s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was g o i n g ahead w i t h r e f l a g g i n g t h e 1 1 Kuwaiti c a n k e r s . The spokesman s a i d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s would be completed by mid-July. H.Con.Res. supported commercial actions t o should be negotiated 145, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, s t a t e d t h a t C o n g r e s s t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s a c t i o n s t o p r o t e c t t h e flow of t r a f f i c t h r o u g h t h e Gulf and t o t a k e n e c e s s a r y p r o t e c t U.S. Armed F o r c e s i n t he G u l f , and t h a t i t U.S. p o l i c y t o support a c e a s e - f i r e and a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e I r a n - I r a q war. Washington P o s t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t u r n e d down a L i b e r i a n r e q u e s t f o r p r o t e c t i o n of L i b e r i a n f l a g s h i p s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . According t o t h e P o s t , a b o u t 8 0 L i b e r i a n f l a g t a n k e r s a r e owned by U.S. companies. Reportedly, t h e United S t a t e s r e c e i v e d s i m i l a r r e q u e s t s f o r e s c o r t t h r o u g h t h e P e r s i a n Gulf from Panama and t h e Bahamas. --- 06/17/87 --- 06/15/87 --- --- S t a t e Department spokeswoman P h y l l i s Oakley s a i d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and S a u d i A r a b i a had a g r e e d i n p r i n c i p l e t o S a u d i AWACS p l a n e s f l y i n g s u r v e i l l a n c e o v e r t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e P e r s i a n Gulf. The S a u d i AWACS p l a n e s would b e p r o t e c t e d by S a u d i F-15 f i g h t e r s . The s o u t h e r n o r b i t would be f l o w n o n l y when U.S. s h i p s were e s c o r t i n g t a n k e r s t h r o u g h t h e a r e a . S e n a t o r s Glenn and Warner r e p o r t e d t o t h e M a j o r i t y L e a d e r on t h e i r t r i p t o t h e P e r s i a n Gulf (S.Rept. 100-38). P r e s i d e n t Reagan s a i d i n a s p e e c h r e p o r t i n g on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e Venice summit t h a t t h e U.S. f a i l u r e t o r e f l a g K u w a i t i t a n k e r s would " a b d i c a t e o u r r o l e a s a n a v a l power" and "open o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e S o v i e t Union" t o move i n t o t h e P e r s i a n Gulf. S e c r e t a r y o f Defense Weinberger s u b m i t t e d C o n g r e s s on s e c u r i t y a r r a n g e m e n t s i n t h e G u l f . a report to 06/11/87 --- --06/10/87 --- ----- H.Res. 1 9 4 , i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, u r g e d t h e P r e s i d e n t t o S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l m e e t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a U.N. s e e k a U.N. peacekeeping f o r c e t o p r o t e c t s h i p p i n g i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf, and urged NATO members t o s u p p o r t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e U.N. peacekeeping f o r c e . H.R. 2680, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, c a l l e d f o r payment o f I' h a z a r d o u s d u t y t ' pay f o r U.S. Armed F o r c e s p e r s o n n e l o p e r a t i n g i n t h e Persian Gulf. H.Con.Res. 1 3 7 , i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, u r g e d European and Japanese a l l i e s t o j o i n w i t h t h e United S t a t e s i n f i n d i n g a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e I r a n - I r a q war and i n p r o t e c t i n g o u r m u t u a l interests. H.R. 2651, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, would, i f p a s s e d and s i g n e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t , f o r b i d r e f l a g g i n g s h i p s from P e r s i a n Gulf c o u n t r i e s . H.R. 2635, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, p r o h i b i t e d r e f l a g g i n g u n l e s s t h e S o v i e t Union r e f l a g g e d Kuwaiti t a n k e r s , and u r g e d S e c u r i t y Council meeting t o t h e P r e s i d e n t t o s e e k a U.N. peacekeeping f o r c e t o p r o t e c t s h i p p i n g i n e s t a b l i s h a U.N. t h e Gulf. An amendment s i m i l a r t o H.R. 2635 was o f f e r e d t o H.R. 3242, t h e C o a s t Guard a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l , b u t t h e amendment f a i l e d t o p a s s on J u l y 8 , 1987. --- H.J.Res. 310, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e u s e o f U.S. Armed F o r c e s t o p r o t e c t P e r s i a n Gulf s h i p p i n g would t r i g g e r S e c t i o n 4 ( a ) ( l ) o f t h e War Powers A c t . --06/09/87 --- 06/05/87 --- 06/04/87 --- H.R. 2645, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, c a l l e d f o r t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e S e c r e t a r y of Defense and t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e p r i o r t o r e f l a g g i n g a n y s h i p s u n d e r U.S. r e g i s t r y . S. 1343, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e S e n a t e , s t a t e d t h a t S e c t i o n 4 ( a ) o f t h e War Powers Act would become o p e r a t i o n a l when U.S. Armed F o r c e s e s c o r t e d a n y r e f l a g g e d s h i p s t h r o u g h t h e P e r s i a n Gulf. The S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s Committee r e p o r t e d t h e b i l l on J u l y 10 (S.Rept. 100-106). I r a n i a n p a r l i a m e n t Speaker R a f s a n j a n i s a i d I r a n w i l l a t t a c k a n y Arab p o r t o r b a s e t h a t h o s t s a n y U.S. armed f o r c e s . The J o u r n a l o f Comnerce r e p o r t e d t h a t o w n e r s h i p o f t h e 11 K u w a i t i t a n k e r s had been t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e Chesapeake S h i p p i n g Company of Delaware. Under U.S. law, v e s s e l s must h a v e U.S. owners t o b e r e g i s t e r e d a s U.S. s h i p s f l y i n g t h e U.S. f l a g . A p p a r e n t l y , a l l t h e s t o c k i n Chesapeake w i l l be owned by t h e Kuwait O i l Tanker Company, which i s a s u b s i d i a r y o f t h e Kuwait P e t r o l e u m Company ( t h e state-owned company t h a t c o n t r o l s K u w a i t ' s o i l i n d u s t r y ) . S. 1327, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e S e n a t e , p r o h i b i t e d r e f l a g g i n g P e r s i a n Gulf s h i p s , and urged t h e P r e s i d e n t t o s e e k a U.N. peacekeeping f o r c e t o p r o t e c t n o n - b e l l i g e r e n t s h i p p i n g i n t h e Gulf. The S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s Committee h e l d h e a r i n g s on t h e b i l l on J u n e 17, and h e l d mark-up s e s s i o n s on J u n e 25 and J u n e 30. The Committee r e p o r t e d t h e b i l l on J u l y 7. S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e S h u l t z , speaking t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l journalists via s a t e l l i t e , said the a l l i e s , particularly Japan, should s h a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of p r o t e c t i n g Gulf s h i p p i n g b e c a u s e t h e y a r e more d e p e n d e n t upon P e r s i a n Gulf o i l t h a n t h e United S t a t e s . H.R. 2579, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, would, i f e n a c t e d law, impose a n import s u r c h a r g e on items i m p o r t e d c o u n t r i e s b e n e f i t i n g from U.S. p r o t e c t i o n of P e r s i a n s h i p p i n g , t h e p r o c e e d s t o b e used t o d e f r a y t h e c o s t of Armed F o r c e s i n t h e G u l f . into from Gulf U.S. H.R. 2571, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, p r o v i d e d t h a t C o n g r e s s would h a v e t o p a s s l e g i s l a t i o n a p p r o v i n g t h e r e f l a g g i n g o f specific vessels. S o v i e t Foreign M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l Alexander Ivanov t o l d t h e K u w a i t i newspaper al-Ray al-Aam t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union would (8 u s e a l l means a v a i l a b l e u n d e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w " t o r e s p o n d t o an a t t a c k on S o v i e t s h i p p i n g i n t h e Gulf. P r e s i d e n t Reagan s a i d t h e U.S. p r e s e n c e was v i t a l t o freedom o f n a v i g a t i o n i n t h e Gulf and was e s s e n t i a l t o p r e v e n t i n g t h e s p r e a d of t h e I r a n - I r a q war. H.R. 2533, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, s t a t e d t h a t t h e S e c r e t a r y of Defense s h o u l d submit a r e p o r t t o t h e C o n g r e s s w i t h i n 7 d a y s o f an enactment o f t h e b i l l t h a t i n c l u d e d a p l a n f o r t h e s e c u r i t y o f U.S. f o r c e s i n t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . H.R. 2533 p a s s e d t h e House by a v o t e of 302-105 o n J u n e 2 , and was s e n t t o t h e S e n a t e on J u n e 3. H.J.Res. 295 and H.J.Res. 296, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, d e c l a r e d t h a t S e c t i o n 4 ( a ) ( l ) o f t h e War Powers Act had been t r i g g e r e d and t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t would h a v e t o w i t h d r a w U.S. Armed F o r c e s w i t h i n 60 days u n l e s s Congress approved t h e i r continued presence. A t t h e end o f t h e 2-day NATO M i n i s t e r s C o n f e r e n c e , o t h e r NATO members t o l d S e c r e t a r y Weinberger t h a t t h e y would n o t j o i n a U.S.-led m i l i t a r y m i s s i o n i n t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . H.R. 2519, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, s t a t e d t h a t t h e S e c r e t a r y o f Defense s h o u l d submit a r e p o r t t o Congress o n s e c u r i t y a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r U.S. f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf p r i o r t o r e f l a g g i n g t h e Kuwaiti t a n k e r s . 05/21/87 --- --05/20/87 --- 05/19/87 --- --05/17/87 --- The S e n a t e p a s s e d , by a v o t e of 9 1 t o 5 , a n amendment t o t h e FY87 Supplemental A p p r o p r i a t i o n s B i l l (H.R. 1827) t h a t r e q u i r e d t h e S e c r e t a r y of Defense t o submit a r e p o r t t o Congress d e s c r i b i n g t h e p l a n f o r U.S. m i l i t a r y p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e r e f l a g g e d Kuwaiti t a n k e r s . The b i l l went t o c o n f e r e n c e on J u n e 9. Kuwait f i l e d t h e f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n f o r U.S. U.S. Coast Guard o f f i c e i n P h i l a d e l p h i a . registry a t the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e George S h u l t z s u b m i t t e d a l e t t e r t o t h e S p e a k e r of t h e House and t o V i c e P r e s i d e n t Bush ( a s t h e P r e s i d e n t of t h e S e n a t e ) d e s c r i b i n g t h e S t a r k i n c i d e n t and s t a t i n g t h a t t h e r e was no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t f u r t h e r h o s t i l e a c t i o n would o c c u r . The S e c r e t a r y s a i d i n t h e l e t t e r t h a t he would keep Congress informed. The l e t t e r d i d n o t mention t h e War Powers R e s o l u t i o n . A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e Murphy a p p e a r e d i n open h e a r i n g s b e f o r e t h e House F o r e i g n A f f a i r s Subcommittee on Europe and t h e Middle E a s t and a p p e a r e d i n c l o s e d s e s s i o n On May b e f o r e t h e S e n a t e Committee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . 21, Murphy b r i e f e d t h e Subcomnittee on Europe and t h e Middle East in closed session. The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n announced t h e d e c i s i o n t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e Kuwaiti t a n k e r r e f l a g g i n g . An I r a q i Mirage F1 f i r e d two Exocet m i s s i l e s a t t h e USS S t a r k , a f r i g a t e a s s i g n e d t o MIDEASTFOR, k i l l i n g 37 U.S. Navy crewmen and wounding 21. U.S. AWACS p l a n e s and t h e S t a r k had s p o t t e d t h e I r a q i p l a n e on r a d a r , and t h e S t a r k i s s u e d w a r n i n g s , but t h e I r a q i p l a n e d i d n o t respond. The S t a r k d i d n o t u s e i t s d e f e n s e s a g a i n s t t h e oncoming p l a n e o r m i s s i l e s . I r a q a p o l o g i z e d f o r t h e i n c i d e n t and s a i d i t would pay damages. --- The M a r s h a l l Chuikov, one of t h e t h r e e S o v i e t t a n k e r s l e a s e d t o Kuwait, s t r u c k a mine i n t h e main c h a n n e l l e a d i n g t o Kuwait's o i l ports. 05/14/87 --- 05/07/87 --- The Department of Defense a u t h o r i z e d a N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e Waiver a l l o w i n g one y e a r f o r t h e Kuwaiti s h i p s t o comply w i t h U.S. s a f e t y r e g u l a t i o n s . The S o v i e t f r e i g h t e r I v a n Korotoyev was a t t a c k e d n e a r Dubai by I r a n i a n R e v o l u t i o n a r y Guards i n a f a s t motorboat f i r i n g s m a l l arms and r o c k e t g r e n a d e s . 05/00/87 --- 04/22/87 --- 04/21/87 --- The f i r s t o f t h r e e S o v i e t s h i p s under c h a r t e r t o Kuwait began o p e r a t i n g i n t h e P e r s i a n G u l f , w i t h a S o v i e t f r i g a t e and two minesweepers a s e s c o r t s . The Kuwait O i l Tanker Company and t h e U.S. C o a s t Guard began d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s i n v o l v e d i n r e f l a g g i n g . I n s p e c t i o n of t h e Kuwaiti s h i p s began May 1 3 , 1987, t h e same day MIDEASTFOR and KOTC o f f i c i a l s met t o d i s c u s s p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e r e f lagged t a n k e r s . Murphy t e s t i f i e d a b o u t t h e r e f l a g g i n g program b e f o r e t h e House F o r e i g n A f f a i r s Subcommittee on Europe and t h e Middle East . 04/01/87 --- Kuwait 03/30/87 --- A s s i s t a n t s i g n e d a n agreement w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union t o l e a s e t h r e e t a n k e r s w i t h an o p t i o n t o l e a s e two more t a n k e r s i f needed. The agreement a l s o s a i d Kuwait c o u l d l e a s e i t s t a n k e r s t o t h e S o v i e t Union, which would o p e r a t e t h e K u w a i t i t a n k e r s under t h e S o v i e t f l a g . S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r Near E a s t e r n and S o u t h A s i a A f f a i r s R i c h a r d Murphy a p p e a r e d i n e x e c u t i v e s e s s i o n w i t h t h e House F o r e i g n A f f a i r s Cornnittee t o d i s c u s s t h e r e f l a g g i n g i s s u e . A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y Murphy a p p e a r e d i n c l o s e d s e s s i o n w i t h t h e S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s Committee t h e n e x t day. --- 03/23/87 --- 03/19/87 --- 03112187--- H.J.Res. 216, i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, s t a t e d t h a t i t s h a l l b e U.S. p o l i c y t o s u p p o r t a c e a s e - f i r e and n e g o t i a t e d s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e I r a n - I r a q war and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r i b u n a l t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e o r i g i n s of t h e c o n f l i c t , and t h a t i t was t h e s e n s e o f t h e Congress t h a t t h e United S t a t e s should support i n t e r n a t i o n a l s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t e i t h e r country i f t h e country rejected t h e cease-fire. H.J.Res. 216 p a s s e d t h e House by v o i c e v o t e on J u l y 1 3 , p a s s e d t h e S e n a t e by a v o t e o f 96-0 on Aug. 7 , and was s i g n e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t on Aug. 1 8 , 1987 (P.L. 100-96). c l a s s i f i e d b r i e f i n g on t h e r e f l a g g i n g i s s u e was g i v e n t o t h e s t a f f s of t h e House and S e n a t e Armed S e r v i c e s Committees. A The New York Times r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s moved t h e c a r r i e r K i t t y Hawk and i t s t a s k f o r c e c l o s e r t o t h e A r a b i a n S e a i n r e s p o n s e t o r e p o r t s t h a t I r a n had emplaced Silkworm The m i s s i l e s a t two l o c a t i o n s a l o n g t h e S t r a i t o f Hormuz. U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e n had s i x s h i p s a s s i g n e d t o MIDEASTFOR i n s i d e t h e P e r s i a n Gulf and a n o t h e r 11 s h i p s , i n c l u d i n g t h e K i t t y Hawk and i t s t a s k f o r c e , i n t h e A r a b i a n Sea r e g i o n . The S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t ' s l e g i s l a t i v e a f f a i r s o f f i c e i n f o r m e d s t a f f d i r e c t o r s o f t h e House and S e n a t e Subcommittees on Europe and t h e Middle E a s t of t h e o f f e r t o Kuwait. The S t a t e Department b r i e f e d t h e s t a f f e r s on March 19. 03/02/87 --- 02/06/87 --- Kuwait r e q u e s t e d t h a t s i x Kuwaiti t a n k e r s be r e f l a g g e d a s U.S. s h i p s . On March 1 7 , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f f e r e d t o r e f l a g 11 Kuwaiti t a n k e r s . Kuwait a c c e p t e d t h e o f f e r on March LO. The United S t a t e s r e a f f i r m e d i t s p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e U.S. Navy w i l l p r o t e c t a l l U.S.-flagged ships t o the degree possible with available assets. Later in February, t h e United S t a t e s l e a r n e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t s a g r e e d t o r e f l a g and p r o t e c t f i v e Kuwai t i s h i p s . 02/00/87 --- Iran test-f the Straic t h e Soviet l b . warhead 01/29/87 --- The U.S. Government r e p l i e d t o t h e Kuwaiti i n q u i r y of J a n u a r y 1 3 t h a t Kuwait can r e f l a g s h i p s under U.S. r e g i s t r y i f a l l The United S t a t e s r e i t e r a t e d i t s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e met. commitment t o keep t h e Gulf open and r e s t a t e d i t s p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e GCC s t a t e s must be t h e f i r s t l i n e of d e f e n s e i n t h e Gulf. 01/13/87 --- 12/23/86 --- 11/01/86 --- 09/00/86 --- The i r e d a ilkwo worm" m i s s i l e a t Qeshm I s l a n d , n e a r of Hormuz. The Silkworm i s a C h i n e s e v a r i a n t o f SS-N-2 Styx c o a s t a l d e f e n s e m i s s i l e w i t h a 1 , 1 0 0 and a r a n g e of 50 n a u t i c a l m i l e s . The government of Kuwait a s k e d t h e U.S. Embassy i f r e f l a g g e d K u w a i t i owned s h i p s w o u l d be e n t i t l e d t o U.S. Navy protection. The U.S. Government l e a r n e d Kuwait had a s i m i l a r o f f e r from S o v i e t s . The government-owned Kuwait O i l Tanker Company (KOTC) informed t h e U.S. Embassy i n Kuwait o f i t s i n t e r e s t i n r e f l a g g i n g Kuwaiti t a n k e r s u n d e r U.S. r e g i s t r y . On Dec. 1 0 , KOTC r e q u e s t e d r e f l a g g i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s from t h e U.S. Coast Guard. The government of Kuwait r a i s e d t h e i s s u e of d a n g e r s s h i p p i n g i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf a t t h e summit m e e t i n g of Gulf C o o p e r a t i o n C o u n c i l . Kuwaiti t a n k e r s and t a n k e r s o t h e r f l a g s c a l l i n g a t Kuwaiti p o r t s had been t a r g e t e d I r a n i a n g u n b o a t s s i n c e August and September 1986. to the of by S o v i e t Union s e n t a f r i g a t e i n t o t h e P e r s i a n Gulf on prolonged p a t r o l , probably i n response t o a n I r a n i a n boarding and s e i z u r e o f a S o v i e t f r e i g h t e r i n August 1986. The S o v i e t f r e i g h t e r was s e a r c h e d and r e l e a s e d a f t e r one day. ( T h i s c h r o n o l o g y was compiled from news c o v e r a g e i n n e w s p a p e r s and from v a r i o u s c o n g r e s s i o n a l documents, C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record and committee r e p o r t s . ) numerous U.S. including the FOR ADDITIONAL REBDING U.S. Congress. House. Democratic S t u d y Group. Special report: t h e P e r s i a n Gulf c o n t r o v e r s y . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1987. 32 p. Contains chronology. U.S. Department of Defense. R e p o r t on s e c u r i t y a r r a n g e m e n t s i n t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1987. 30 p. Contains chronology. /note h o s t i l i t i e s between I r a n and The c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf I r a q i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g U.S. m i l i t a r y p r e s e n c e has prompted many i n Congress t o c o n s i d e r t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h e War Powers r e s o l u t i o n (P.L. 93-148). /mlhd N A T I O N A L D E F E N S E A N D S E C U R I T Y /it r m /prty -- # Isecr # --