Afghanistan: Soviet Invasion and U.S. Response

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan has raised a number of serious issues and choices for the United States. The train of events seem likely to have an important influence on overall American foreign policy in the 1980s. Reassessment of Soviet motives and of U.S. roles in the world are already in progress. Emerging American attitudes, in turn, will shape more specific policy decisions on several issues, which this issue brief discusses.

AZGHANISTAI: S O V I E T I N V A S I O N AND U - S . RESPONSE I S S U E B R I E F NOHBEB I B 8 0 0 0 6 AUTHOR: A f g h a n i s t a n Task Force F o r e i g n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e D i v i s i o n TRE L I B R A R Y OF C O N G R E S S CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH S E R V I C E HAJOB I S S U S SYSTEH DA!E ORIGIEATED Q 2 B 0 / 8 0 DATE U P D A T E D Q 2 / 0 2 / 8 0 FOR A D D I T I O N A L INFORHA!CIOB CALL 287-5700 0506 The S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n bas raised a number of seriars i s s u e s a n d c h o i c e s f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , The t r a i n o f e v e n t s s e e n l i k e l y t o h a v e a n i n p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on o v e r a l l American f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n the 1980s. R e a s s e s s m e n t of S o v i e t m o t i v e s a n d of U,S, r o l e s i n t h e w o r l d a r e a l r e a d y in p r o g r e s s - Emerging American a t t i t u d e s , i n t u r n , w i l l s h a p e more s p e c i f i c p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s on t h e f ollowing issues: (1) w h e t h e r t o c o n t i n u e t h e q u e s t f o r a n e x p a n d e d d e t e n t e with t h e S o v i e t Union i n t h e areas o f a r m s c o n t r o l , trade, a n d p e o p l e - t o - p e o p l e c o n t a c t s ; t2) v h a t m e a s u r e s are needed t o e n h a n c e U,S. s e c u r i t y interests i n t h e P e r s i a n G u l f r e g i o n ; (3) what k i n d of r o l e i f any t h e U , S - s h o u l d p l a y i n s u p p o r t i n g o p p o s i t i o n Afghan forces and t h e g o v e r n m e n t of P a k i s t a n ' s r e q u e s t f o r s e c u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y ; and (4) t o v h a t . e x t e n t a n d i n what ways s h o u l d t h e U , S . enter i n t o cooperative ventures with t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c of C h i n a t h a t a r e d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t Union and its a l l i e s , - -- ARXABISTM: B A S I C FACTS AHD POLITICAL EVOLUTION A f g h a n i s t a n is a l a n d l o c k e d , a r i d , and e c o n o m i c a l l y u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r y o f m o u n t a i n s , deserts, and r i v e r v a l l e y s l o c a t e d i n s o u t h e r n C e n t r a l Asia a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e of t h e Etiddle E a s t and the S o u t h Asian s u b c o n t i n e n t , Unlike n e i g h b o r i n g I r a n , it is a l s o r e l a t i v e l y p o o r i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , About t h e s i z e of Texas, i t s h a r e s b o u n d a r i e s w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union t o t h e n a r t h , I r a n t o t h e s o u t h v e s t , and P a k i s t a n t o t h e east, I t also h a s a v e r y s h o r t b o r d e r w i t h C h i n a i n the reaote Hindu Kush r a n g e t o t h e n o r t h e a s t , With an e t h n i c a l l y d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 1 m i l l i o n c o ~ p r i s i ~ sge v e r a l d i s t i n c t t r i b a l g r o u p s l i v i n g on some 260,000 s q u a r e miles, A f g h a n i s t a n is 99% H u s l i r ; 80% S u n n i s , t h e m a j o r i t y sect crf f s l a a ( u n l i k e n e i g h b a r i n g I r a n v h e r e S h i ' i t e s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t ) , and n e a r l y a l l a r e d e v o u t , some m i g h t s a y , f a n a t i c , a d h e r e n t s of t h e i r f a i t h , A f g h a n i s t a n h a s b e e n i n v a d e d c o n n t l e s s tiaes d u r i n g i t s l o n g h i s t o r y ; its . p r e v i o u s c o n q u e r o r s h a v e i n c l u d e d A l e x a n d e r t h e Great, Genghis Khan, and T a a e r l a n e , The B r i t i s h invaded, it twice d u r i n g t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y a s t h e i r e m p i r e i n I n d i a e x p a n d e d westward and when t h e y s o u g h t t o h a l t t h e s p r e a d af R u s s i a n i n f l u e n c e s o u t h w a r d i n - P e r s i a a n d C e n t r a l A s i a , and toward t b e w a r m w a t e r s of t h e A r a b i a n Sea and I n d i a n Ooean beyond- A l t h o u g h t h e B r i t i s h were defeated by t h e Afghans in t h e first A n g l e A f g h a n v a r (1838-42) , t h e y s u c c e e d e d i n g a i n i n g c o n t r o l of Afghan f o r e i g n relations in 1879, A f g h a n i s t a n t h e r e a f t e r s e r v e d as a buf fer s t a t e b e t w e e n T s a r i s t Russia (and l a t e r t h e S o v i e t Union) a n d t h e B r i t i s h Empire, The B r i t i s h imposed a c c e p t a n c e of a b o u n d a r y l i n e between B f g h a n i s t a n and B r i t i s h I n d i a i n 1893 t h a t d i v i d e d t h e t r i b a l homelands of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l y w a r l i k e P a s h t u n s (Pathans), t h e m a j o r i t y e t h n i c group i n Afghanistan, This so-called " P a s h t n n i s t a n n i s s u e h a s been a c a n s e o f c o n t i n u i n g t e n s i o n betveen t h e Afghans a n d t h e P a k i s t a n i s s i n - t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e and p a r t i t i o n of B r i t i s h I n d i a i n 1947, A t h i r d Anglo-Afghan w a r i n 1919 b r o u g h t a n e n d t o t h e o v e r l o r d s h i p o f A f g h a n i s t a n a n d s i g n a l l e d t h e o n s e t o f a p e r i o d od British fragile CBS- 2 IB80006 UPDATE-05/02/00 i n d e p e n d e n c e and r e l a t i v e n e u t r a l i t y u n d e r a s u c c e s s i o n o f Afghan monarchs t h a t l a s t e d u n t i l 1973, I n t h a t y e a r , t h e l a s t k i n g was d e p o s e d by h i s c o u s i n , former p r e m i e r fiohanmad Daoud, who l e d a r e l a t i v e l y b l o o d l e s s c o u p a n d e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f a s leader of t h e f i r s t Afghan r e p u b l i c , Under Daoud, A f g h a n i s t a n c o n t i n u e d to p u r s u e t h e S o v i e t - l e a n i n g n e u t r a l i s t T h B policy t a c i t l y f o r e i g n p o l i c y f o l l o w e d s i n c e t h e World War 11 p e r i o d . if w a r i l y acknowledged t h e dominant i n f l u e n c e af t h e S o v i e t Union. N e v e r t h e l e s s , A f g h a n i s t a n remained i n d e p e n d e n t and p u r s u e d its own g e n e r a l l y p o l i c i e s domestically Moreover, i t a c c e p t e d i n e f f e c t u a l souo-economic economic a s s i s t a n c e f r o m and a a i n t a i n e d r e l a t i o n s v i t h most o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s m a i n t a i n e d s i z a b l e AID and P e a c e C o r p s programs t h e r e f o r laany y e a r s p r i m t o 1978. [ T o t a l U.S. e c o n o r i c a s s i s t a n c e , PY 1946-78, was $504.2 m i l l i o n , o f which 80% u e r e g r a n t s . ] The S o v i e t Union and E a s t e r n European c o u n t r i e s , however, p r o v i d e d much more s u b s t a n t i a l ecanomic a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a s s i s t a n c e t h a n a n y o t h e r governments and p l a y e d a a a j o r r o l e i n t h e t r a i n i n g and e q u i p m e n t of M g h a n i s t a n s armed f o r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r 1954. -- -- . @ The Daoud r e g i m e , n e v e r more t h a n n a i n a l l y s o c i a l i s t , began i n 1976 t o a o v e i n c r e a s i n g l y t o t h e r i g h t i n b o t h d o m e s t i c and f o r e i g n p o l i c y . The S o v i e t Union viewed w i t h growing d i s p l e a s u r e t h e Shah of I r a n D s a t t e m p t s t o draw A f g h a n i s t a n i n t o a Wester n - o r i e n t e d , T e h r a n - c e n t e r e d r e g i o n a l economic It was d u r i n g t h i s 1974-78 p e r i o d t h a t t h e S o v i e t s t o o k and s e c u r i t y sphere, a new i n t e r e s t i n Afghan C a r m n n i s t a f f a i r s , a n d began t o s u p p o r t t h e g r o w t h of a unified party, The two Afghan Communist f a c t i o n s r e r g e d t o form a s i n g l e Conmunist n P e o p l e D s Democratic'@ p a r t y i n 1997, I t h a s been a l l e g e d t h a t a n u n s u c c e s s f u l p r e e m p t i v e s t r i k e a g a i n s t t h e p a r t y by Daoud i n A p r i l 1978, i n which a key communist l e a d e r was a s s a s s i n a t e d a n d many p a r t y l e a d e r s a r r e s t e d , provoked t h e sfiovdorrn on Apr, 27, 1978, when Depnty A i r F o r c e Commander Baj.Gen. Abdul Q a d e r l e d a b l o o d y a n d a p p a r e n t l y h a s t i l y - o r g a n i z e d c o u p , Two weeks l a t e r a new r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o u n c i l naned Bnr Nohammad T a r a k i a s its c h a i r m a n a n d announced t h e e s t a b l i s b e n t of t h e nDemocratic R e p u b l i c of A f g h a n i ~ t a n , w ~ i t h T a r a k i a s P r i n e H n i s t e r and gpx&a_g (aBanner8@)f a c t i o n leader Babrak Karmal a s h i s d e p u t y , T a r a k i had been C u l t u r a l Officer in t h e Afghan Embassy, Washington, f rolr 1952-53; had s e r v e d v i t h t h e USAID i n Kabul from 1962-63. H e had s u b s e q u e n t l y become S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l of t h e Khalq ( n H a s s e s w ) f a c t i o n of the Communist P a r t y , The i n s t a l l a t i o n of an Afghan Comaunist regime u n d e r T a r a k i was p e r h a p s p r e a a t u r e u n d e r t h e c i r c o m s t a n o e s , y e t p r e s s u r e s from t h e Daoud regime a a y h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e Afghan C o m m n i s t s to s t a g e t h e i r c o u p before t h e y were o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y p r e p a r e d t o g o v e r n t h e c o u n t r y . The s p l i t i n the Communist movement between t h e Khalq f a c t i o n u n d e r T a r a k i and t h e P-hpg f a c t i o n led by Babrak K a r n a l a n d g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be mre d o c t r i n a i r e B a r x i s t , more p r o - S o v i e t , a n d less n a t i o n a l i s t i c t h a n t h e K h a l q u i s , was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d by t h e i r merger. W i t h i n a f e w weeks of t h e coup, t h e T a r a k i f a c t i o n was a b l e t o d o m i n a t e t h e government a n d " e x i l e A a number o f Parcham leaders, i n c l u d i n g K a r m a l , t o a m b a s s a d o r s h i p s a b r o a d , A purge i n August-October 1 9 7 8 r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e m v a l of a number of P a r c h a r l e a d e r s f r o m a n y p u b l i c o f f i c e , a n d many, i n c l u d i n g Babrak Karaal (then Afghan envoy t o C z e c h o s l o v a k i a ) , elected t o remain i n E a s t e r n E u r o p e a s "private citizens The T a r a k i r e g i m e soon set a b o u t i n i t i a t i n g a s e r i e s of c h a n g e s by d e c r e e t h a t f l e w i n t h e face of c o n s e r v a t i v e Afghan t r a d i t i o n . T h e s e i n c l u d e d t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f r u r a l u s u r y , e q n a l r i g h t s f a r women, a n d new r e g u l a t i o n s of dowries, m a r r i a g e , a n d l a n d reform, which was p r o b a b l y i n t e n d e d t o be a CRS- 3 fB80006 UPDATE-05/02/80 These efforts g e n e r a t e d a s e v e r e prelude to S o v i e t - s t y l e coU.ectivism, b a c k l a s h and fueled t h e g r m t h of a n a t i o n a l i s t - H u s l i m g u e r r i l l a movement i n t h e countryside, The T a r a k i g m e r n a e n t a l s o a d o p t e d a new r e d f l a g b a r e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h a t o f t h e U.S.S JI. and s i g n e d a t B o s c o w a 20-year t r e a t y of f r i e n d s h i p and c o o p e r a t i o n , t h e a i l i t a r y p r o v i s i o n s of v h i c h h a v e b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d a s almost a formal a l l i a n c e - ' ' I n t h e s e a n t i m e , O .S,-Afghan r e l a t i a m , which had b e e n r e l a t i v e l y c o r d i a l b e f o r e t h e o v e r t h r o w of King Elohanmad Z a h i r Shah i n 1973, and which c o n t i n u e d t o b e correct d u r i n g t h e Daoud r e g b e , h a d g r o v n i n c r e a s i n g l y strained. The Carter A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d U - S . b i l a t e r a l a s s i s t a n c e t o Afghanistan, a l t h o u g h t h e r e w a s some s e n t i m e n t i n C a n g r e s s f o r t e r m i n a t i n g s u c h p r o g r a m s u n d e r t h e terms o f s e c t i o n 620 (f) of t h e F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e A c t of 196 1 (P-L. 87-195) , which p r o h i b i t e d a s s i s t a n c e t o "any C o a r u n i s t c o u n t r y ,"I n f a c t , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o n s c i o u s l y had r e f r a i n e d froa l a b e l i n g t h e T a r a k i r e g i m e a s Communist, b o t h p u b l i c l y and i n i t s i n t e r n a l a n a l y s e s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t r i g g e r i n g t h e r e s p o n s e mandated u n d e r t h e terms of t h e F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e A c t . The k i d n a p p i n g and s u b s e q u e n t k i l l i n g o-f U-S, Ambassador Adolph Dubs i n a s h o o t o u t b e t v e e n h i s lef t-wing e x t r e m i s t Afghan c a p t o r s and government s e c u r i t y forces a t a Kabul h o t e l o n Feb, 14, 1979, c a s t a p a l l on a l r e a d y worsening U-Soafghan r e l a t i o n s , S o v i e t s e c u r i t y a d v i s e r s a p p e a r e d t o be d i r e c t i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n , andr t h e Afghan government disregarded U,S, s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t a n a t t e n p t t o r e s c u e Dubs by force b e d e l a y e d . T h i s a e a t e d a n a t a o s p h e r e of d i s t r u s t t h a t n e v e r r e a l l y was overcome d u r i n g t h e months t h a t f olloved. S u b s e q n e n t l p , U, S - e c o n o m i c a s s i s t a n c e v a s phased o u t , t h e Peace C o r p s removed, and t h e s i z e of t h e U.S. Embassy s t a f f r e d u c e d . A l t h o u g h t h e A d r i n i s t r a t i o n had announced a s h a r p c u t b a c k i n a i d f o l l o w i n g t h e d e a t h of A a b a s s a d o r Dubs, it was n o t t o t a l l y h a l t e d u n t i l Bug, 1 4 , when t h e P r e s i d e n t s i g n e d P.L. 96-53, t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development C o o p e r a t i o n A c t of 1979, i n t o l a w . Section 505 of t h e A c t p r o h i b i t e d any f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e t o Bfghanistan u n l e s s t h e P r e s i d e n t c e r t i f i e d t o Congress t h a t t h e Afghan g o v e r n ~ e n thad o f f i c i a l l y a p o l o g i z e d a n d a s s n n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d e a t h of Ambassador Dubs and a g r e e d t o p r o v i d e n a i l e q u a t e p r o t e c t i o n " f o r a l l V,S, government p e r s o n n e l i n A f g h a n i s t a n - The P r e s i d e n t d i d h a v e t h e , o p t i o n of o v e r r i d i n g t h i s p r o h i b i t i o n if h e were t o d e t e r m i n e it was in the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t b e c a u s e of substantially changed c i r c u m s t a n c e s , * . T a r a k i was d i s p l a c e d a s P r i m e Minister in l a t e Harch 1979, w i t h o u t v i o l e n c e , a n d named P r e s i d e n t by his ambitions foreign minister, Am e r i c a n - e d u c a t e d K h a l q leader H a f i z u l l a h Asin, The new P r i m e B i n i s t e r r e l e n t l e s s l y pursued t h e s a n e i c o n o c l a s t i c domestic p o l i c i e s , and major u p r i s i n g s began t o o c c u r i n t h e P a s h t u n t r i b a l area o f e a s t e r n A f g h a n i s t a n along t h e Pakistan border. Sporadic r e v o l t s , l a r g e l y uncoordinated, spread t o a l l t h e c o u n t r y 8 s 29 p r o v i n c e s - Major i n c i d e n t s o c c u r r e d between A p r i l a n d J u n e 1979, i n c l u d i n g one i n t h e m a p r n o r t h v e s t e r n c i t y of H e r a t , where rebels k i l l e d an u n d e t e n i n e d number o f R u s s i a n t e c h n i c i a n s , t h e i r w i v e s and c h i l d r e n b e f o r e t h e army c o u l d restore o r d e r , Until t h e Soviet invasion occurred between the b e g a n o n D e c . 24, n o s t of t h e f i g h t i n g has o v e r v h e l n i n g l y c p n s c r i p t Afghan army, w i t h its R u s s i a n a d v i s e r s , and t h e Afghan g u e r r i l l a s , i n c l u d i n g soae P a s h t u n t r i b e s m e n fr m t h e P a k i s t a n i s i d e of t h e border. T h e r e are sore 10 s e p a r a t e r e b e l g r o u p s , d i v i d e d by t r i b a l l o y a l t i e s a n d by i d e o l o g i e s , which r a n g e froa t h e s e c u l a r l e f t i s t t o monarchial r i g h t i s t , M a s t , however, a r e d e v o u t Muslims, and t w o of t h e major leaders a r e well-known r e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s - A s i n g l e leader who c o u l d p r o v i d e o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e s e d i v e r s e f o r c e s h a s n o t y e t emerged, I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e h a v e b e e n r e p o r t s of i n t e r - g r o u p squabbling among t h e v a r i o u s f a c t i o n s , a s a r e s u l t o f b o t h t h e e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y and r i v a l r i e s of A f g h a n i s t a n and a c e r t a i n amount o f o p p o r t u n i s s b y some of t h e combatants, S i x o f t h e l a r g e s t groups, u n d e r p r e s s u r e from t h e I s l a m i c C o n f e r e n c e , have r e p e a t e d l y a t t e a p t e d t o o r g a n i z e a u n i f i e d command, t o b e c a l l e d t h e Islamic A l l i a n c e f o r t h e L i b r a t i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n . While m e of t h e s i x h a s withdrawn f r o m t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s , t h e r e m i a n i n g f i v e a p p e a r t o be i n c h i n g t o v a r d a loose a l l i a n c e , E x p e c t e d b e n e f i t s o f t h e p r o p o s e d a l l i a n c e i n c l u d e n o t o n l y improved o r g a n i z a t i c n and e f f e c t i v e n e s s , b u t a l s o t h e p r o m i s e of m u l t i - m i l l i o n d o l l a r aid from t h e I s l a m i c Conference, Some s k e p t i c a l o b s e r v e r s see less p a t r i o t i s m a n d more s e l f - a g g r a n d i z e m e n t as t h e p r i m a r y m o t i v a t i o n f o r some of t h e r e b e l s , who h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y f o l l o u e d a p r o f e s s i o n of b a n d i t r y , p r e y i n g on t r a v e l e r s a n d c i t y d w e l l e r s Undoubtedly, t h e r e is some t r u t h t o b o t h v i e w s o f t h e Afghan i n s u r g e n t s , - By J a n u a r y 1980, t h e f i g h t i n g a n d g e n e r a l u n r e s t i n s i d e A f g h a n i s t a n had c a u s e d o v e r 400,000 Afghan r e f u g e e s t o cross t h e b o r d e r into n e i g h b o r i n g a r e a s o f P a k i s t a n ; a t l e a s t 30,000 had f l e d to I r a n . R o n F e b r u a r y 1979 on, Radio A f g h a n i s t a n b e g a n a c c u s i n g P a k i s t a n and I r a n o f a i d i n g t h e g u e r r i l l a s , Although P a k i s t a n h a s continued t o deny t h e s e charges, it is p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e P a k i s t a n i s were u n o f f i c i a l l y s u p p o r t i n g t h e Afghan g u e r r i l l a s on a modest s c a l e , They h a v e b e e n h o u s i n g a n d f e e d i n g t h e r e f u g e e s humanitarian g r o u n d s n w i t h U n i t e d N a t i o n s a s s i s t a n c e i n 12 camps s i t u a t e d a l o n g t h e i r b o r d e r from t h e n o r t h e r n m o s t r e a c h e s of t h e c o u n t r y t o B a l u c h i s t a n p r o v i n c e i n the south, T e n s i o n p e r s i s t e d w i t h i n t h e g o v e r n n e n t between P r i n e B i n i s t e r Amin a n d a f a c t i o n l e d by P r e s i d e n t T a r a k i , w h i l e t h e g u e r r i l l a c a m p a i g n s c o n t i n u e d and government p r o q r a n s f l o u n d e r e d , The cmf l i c t case t o a head i n September s h o r t l y a f t e r T a r a k i ' s r e t u r n via Moscar f r o m t h e n o n a l i g n e d c o n f e r e n c e i n Havana, Apparently, T a r a k i had agreed t o a S o v i e t plan t h a t he o u s t t h e s t r o n g - w i l l e d Amin, who h a d rejected S o v i e t u r g i n g t h a t h e b r o a d e n t h e b a s e o f t h e p a r t y and a t l e a s t t e r p c r a r i l y h a l t t h e c o l l e c t i v i s t p o l i c i e s t h a t were e n r a g i n g c o n s e r v a t i v e r u r a l Afghans. I t is t h o u g h t by some American s p e c i a l i s t s t h a t Amin also r e f u s e d Moscougs p r o p o s a l t h a t S o v i e t combat forces b e i n t r o d u c e d t o p u t down t h e t r i b a l r e b e l l i o n s , A t a n y rate, t h e o n s t e r of Brain was f o r e s t a l l e d , a c c o r d i n g to a n a c c o u n t , v h e n T a r a k i was k i l l e d by f o r c e s l o y a l t o Anin i n a s h o o t o u t at t h e p r e s i d e n t i a l p a l a c e o n S e p t , 1 4 or 15, a l t h o u g h h i s d e a t h was n o t o f f i c i a l l y c o n f i r m e d f o r s e v e r a l days. D u r i n g t h e t h r e e months f o l l o w i n g t h e d e a t h of T a r a k i , t h e i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y s i t u a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o worsenBy e a r l y December, o n l y K a b u l , the c a p i t a l , and f i v e o t h e r m a j o r u r b a n c e n t e r s were f i r r l y c o n t r o l l e d by government forces , The l a r g e l y c a n s c r i p t e d Afghan army h a d b e e n weakened by r e b e l l i o n , d e s e r t i o n s , a n d p u r g e s of its s e n i o r r a n k s . fiany u n i t s , compf e t e with S o v i e t - s u p p l i e d weapons, had gone o v e r t o t h e r e b e l s w i t h whom t h e y s y a p a t h i z e d , Over 4,000 S o v i e t u l i t a r y a d v i s e r s had b e e n a s s i g n e d t o t h e army down t o t h e b a t t a l i o n l e v e l ; S o v i e t c i v i l i a n t e c h n i c i a n s w e r e a l s o h e l p i n g t o r u n t h e government- I n t h e weeks f o l l o w i n g the c o u p which toppled Amin, the new S o v i e t - i n s t a l l e d Afghan r e g i r e of Babrak Karmal e s t a b l i s h e d firm c o n t r o l of Kabul, t h e c a p i t a l , a n d o t h e r u r b a n centers, S k i r m i s h e s between t h e r e b e l s , o n t h e o n e hand, a n d both S o v i e t t r o o p s a n d Afghan army c o n t i n g e n t s , on t h e o t h e r , c o n t i n e d t o b e r e p o r t e d by t h e f o r e i g n press. American c o r r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e b a n n e d f r a f u r t h e r a c t i v i t y in A f g h a n i s t a n i n mid-January, f o l l o w i n g a number of d i s p a t c h e s t h a t o b v i o u s l y d i s p l e a s e d t h e Karmal regime. Some p r e s s a c c o u n t s i n d i c a t e d a S o v i e t e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n a s low a p r o f i l e a s p o s s i b l e a n d t o u s e Afghan forces whenever p o s s i b l e have dug i n around t h e c a p i t a l - A t t h e same time, Soviet units I n a n a p p a r e n t a t t e m p t t o s o f t e n c l e a r l y e v i d e n t p o p u l a r Afghan r e s e n t m e n t a t t h e S o v i e t i n f l u x , t h e Bfghan government h a s r e p a r t e d l y t a k e n s e v e r a l F o r example, symbolic s t e p s t o defuse t h e t e n s e p o l i t i c a l atmosphereS o v i e t - s t y l e p o l i t i c a l s l o g a n s a n d p o r t r a i t s o f p a s t and preseat Afghan Communist leaders began t o d i s a p p e a r &OR t h e streets of Kabul i n l a t e J a n u a r y - The Karmal g o v e r m e n t h a s also i n v i t e d p r o p o s a l s f o r a new n a t i o n a l f l a g d e s i g n t o r e p l a c e t h e red S o v i e t - s t y l e b a n n e r a d o p t e d by t h e T a r a k i r e g i m e f o l l o u i n g t h e Communist c o u p i n A p r i l 1 9 7 8 and h a s announced its i n t e n t i o n of c r e a t i n g a c o d s s i o n t o m n s i d e r t h e v a r i o u s p r o p o s a l s - I t is e x p e c t e d t h a t a new f l a g would restore t h e color g r e e n , a symbol of I s l a m , t h a t h a d b e e n e l i m i n a t e d by t h e c o a m u n i s t s . T h e r e h a s a l s o been s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t t h e r e v o l u t i o n a s p " r e f o r m m program of t h e p r e v i o u s Communist governments h a s been t o n e d d o v n , i n l i g h t af t h e f i e r c e r e a c t i o n t o it by t r a d i t i o n a l Afghan l e a d e r s i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , N e a r l y a l l t h e m e r c h a n t s i n t h e c a p i t a l c i t y o f Kabul closed t h e i r s h o p s t o p r o t e s t t h e S o v i e t p r e s e n c e o n F e b , 21, Two d a y s l a t e r , t h e Afghaa g o v e r n m e n t declared m a r t i a l law i n t h e c a p i t a l a f t e r l a r g e a n t i S o v i e t d e a o n s t r a t i o n s and r e c u r r e n t s h o o t i n g s v e r e r e p o r t e d A n n a b e r of Afghan c i v i l i a n s , p o s s i b l e a s many a s 300, v e a t k i l l e d i n t h e s e first major p u b l i c p r o t e s t s s i n c e t h e Afghan Comiannists o v e r t h r e w t h e Daoud g o v e r n m e n t i n 1978, T h e s t r i k e c o n t i n u e d u n t i l P e b - 28 when government forces a r r e s t e d l a r g e numbers of S h i g i t e Hazara t r i b e s m e n f o r t h e i r s n s p e c t e B r o l e in t h e a n t i - S o v i e t r i o t s of t h e p r e v i o u s v e e k s a n d months, p h i l e Kabul r e p o r t e d t h e release of 1,500 of t h e p r o t e s t e r s i n e a r l y A p r i l , many r e m a i n e d i n c u s t o d y a s l a t e a s mid-April-) T h e s e arrests v e r e followed by a r e d u c t i o n i n o v e r t r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e S o v i e t s - On t h e s u r f a c e , l i f e i n t h e c i t y r e g a i n e d a s e ~ b l a n c eof n a r a a l c y - O t h e r c i t i e s r e p o r t e d c o n t i n u e d d e m m s t r a t i o n s of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e Soviets, S t r i k e s p a r a l y z e d many c i t i e s , w i t h Herat b e i n g especially hard-hit I n e a r l y March, t h e S o v i e t - i n s t a l l e d Babrak Karmal government announced p l a n s t o d r a f t a nev c o n s t i t u t i o n Nembodying i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s a n d a l e g a l s y s t e m based on I s l a n i c lawn, as v e l l as a g r e e m e n t by t h e c a b i n e t t o c h a n g e t h e c o n n t r y g s S o v i e t - a p p e a r i n g red n a t i o n a l f l a g - T h i s v a s i n p e f p r e t e d by . some o b s e r v e r s a s an a t t e m p t t o a d o p t a more c o n c i l i a t o r y p o l i c y i n o r d e r t o a i n i r i z e some of t h e p o p u l a r a n t i p a t h y t o t h e new regime- , Russian i n t e r e s t i n Bfghanistan p r e d a t e s Soviet h i s t o r y , r e f l e c t i n g both g e o p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s and t h e e t h n i c ties between t h e Afghans and t h e p e o p l e of S o v i e t C e n t r a l Asia, S i n c e T s a r i s t t i m e s , R u s s i a h a s been a c o m p e t i t o r f o r i n f l u e n c e in t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y n e u t r a l b u f f e r a l o n g its s o u t h e r n b o r d e r . The c r e a t i o n of t h e S o v i e t s t a t e i n 19 17 m a r k e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a closes r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s The S o v i e t government s u p p o r t e d A f g h a n i s t a n i n its w a r f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e f r m G r e a t B r i t a i n i n 1919 , I n 1921, t h e S o v i e t and Afghan governments s i g n e d a n o n a g g r e s s i o n p a c t . The s u p p r e s s i o n by M o s c o w of t h e n u s l i m p o p l a t i o n i n S o v i e t C e n t r a l A s i a l e d A f g h a n i s t a n t o d i s t a n c e i t s e l f f rom t h e S o v i e t Union i n t h e 1930s. By t h e 1950s, r e l a t i o n s h a d begun t o improve, a l t h o u g h u n t i l 1978 A f g h a n i s t a n CBS- 6 IB80006 UPDATE-05/02/80 remained e s s e n t i a l l y a n e u t r a l b u f f e r state, m e n b e f o r e t h e A p r i l 1478 coup whicfi o u s t e d P r e s i d e n t Daoud, t h e S o v i e t Union h a d become A f g h a n i s t a n m s *a jor t r a d i n g p a r t n e r and its p r i m a r y s o u r c e of e c o n o m i c a n d m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e , Between 1954 a n d 1933, t h e S w i e t Union p r o v i d e d 91.3 b i l l i o n in a i d o n terns t h a t w e r e h i g h l y f a v o r a b l e by S o v i e t s t a n d a r d s . A c o o r d i s g t o S o v i e t sources, S o v i e t - b u i l t p l a n t s p r o v i d e d 25% of A f g h a n i s t a n 8 s i n d u s t r i a l o u t p u t i n 1977. There were, by t h a t t i m e , already 1,300 S o v i e t t e c h n i c i a n s i n t h e c o u n t r y . The a a j o r p a r t of A f g h a n i s t a n m s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e t w o r k ( i n c l u d i n g r o a d s and a i r p o r t s ) , a s w e l l as its e l e c t r i c power c a p a c i t y , v e r e hilt w i t h S o v i e t a s s i s t a n c e , The S o v i e t s developed Afghanistan m s n a t u r a l g a s i n d u s t r y , which s u p p l i e s some 3 b i l l i o n c u b i c meters of g a s p e r y e a r t o t h e S o v i e t Union v i a a S o v i e t - b u i l t p i p e l i n e , S o v i e t m i l i t a r y a i d prior t o 1978 was n o less s u b s t a n t i a l . Between 1956 a n d 1977, t h e S o v i e t Union s u p p l i e d 95% of A f g h a n i s t a n m s weapons and m i l i t a r y n e e d s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t r a i n i n g some 3,700 Afghan m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l i n t h e S o v i e t Union, The S o v i e t Union s u p p l i e d o v e r $600 m i l l i o n w o r t h of u e a p o n s including surf ace-to-air-missiles, f i g h t e r planes, helicopter, t a n k s , and arnored vehicles. While t h e r e i s n o c l e a r e v i d e n c e of d i r e c t S o v i e t i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e A p r i l 1978 c o u p which i n s t a l l e d Nur !lohammad T a r a k i , t h e r e is l i t t l e d o u b t of S o v i e t s u p p o r t , The S o v i e t [ m i o n had becolne i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n c e r n e d by P r e s i d e n t Daoudms a p p a r e n t s h i f t t o t h e r i g h t i n d m e s t i c and f o r e i g n p o l i c y , They were aware o f Daoudes p l a n s t o seek l a r g e r scale U-S a i d d u r i n g a p l a n n e d o f f i c i a l v i s i t t o Washington i n S e p t e m b e r 1978 a n d a l s o r e s e n t e d h i s d i s m i s s a l of a number of S o v i e t - t r a i n e d n i l i t a r y officers a n d his p u b l i c d e n u n c i a t i o n of C n b a e s s e l f - p r o c l a b e d n o n a l i g n e d s t a t u s , They a l s o viewed w i t h d i s p l e a s u r e t h e r e v e r s a l a€ Daoud *s 1974-76 p o l i c y of a s s i g n i n g S o v i e t m i l i t a r y a d v i s e r s down t o t h e company l e v e l , The S o v i e t Union was a d e a r b e n e f i c i a r y of t h e A p r i l 1978 c o u p , The new T a r a k i - l e d g o v e r n m e n t , w h i l e n u t r e a l l y i n t h e mold of a S o v i e t p u p p e t r e g i m e , p r o v i d e d a d e f i n i t e p r o - S o v i e t tilt t o Afghan d o m e s t i c and f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s , The S o v i e t Union gave s t r o n g p u b l i c e n d o r s e m e n t t o t h e new g o v e r n m e n t , A 20-year b i l a t e r a l f r i e n d s h i p a n d c o o p e r a t i o n t r e a t y was s i g n e d o n Dec, 5, 1978, It c o n t a i n e d more s p e c i f i c l a n g u a g e r e g a r d i n g m i l i t a r y and s e c u r i t y c o o p e r a t i o n t h a n is n s u a l l y f o u n d i n s i m i l a r S o v i e t t r e a t i e s , D u r i n g 1978, t h e number o f S o v i e t t e c h n i c i a n s and m i l i t a r y a d v i s o r s more t h a n quadrupled - A s I s l a m i c r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e government *s H a r x i s t program mounted, t h e T a r a k i government became i n c r e a s i n g l y d e p e n d e n t o n S o v i e t a s s i s t a n c e i n V i s i t s t o Kabul by h i g h - l e v e l Soviet military fighting the rebels, d e l e g a t i o n s i n A p r i l and August of 1979 s i g n a l e d a more d i r e c t S o v i e t m i l i t a r y i n v o l v e m e n t in t h e Afghan govern sent.^ f i g h t a g a i n s t r e b e l f o r c e s , A t t h e same t i m e , S o v i e t leaders a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y w e r e a p p r e h e n s i v e o v e r t h e Taraki-Anin l e a d e r s h i p a s a w e s t o e l m i n a t e P a r c h a a l e a d e r s i n t h e summer o f 1978, Sote a n a l y s t s a r g u e t h a t Babrak Karmal, who v e n t i n t o e x i l e in E a s t e r n Europe, h a d b e e n t h e S o v i e t c a n d i d a t e f o r p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p , There v e r e a l s o i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union had u n s u c c e s s f u l l y u r g e d Afghan leaders t o b r o a d e n t h e b a s e o f t h e government and t o slow t h e i r r u t h l e s s m o d e r n i z a t i o n program in order t o q u e l l t h e growing i n s u r r e c t i o n l q Islamic rebels- When the more n i l i t a n t a n d d o g m a t i c H a f i z u l l a h A m i n removed T a r a k i a n d assumed f u l l c o n t r o l of t h e government i n S e p t e m b e r 1979, Western a n a l y s t s g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t Amin8s a c t i o n had S o v i e t s u p p o r t and s i g n a l e d , a S o v i e t d e c i s i o n a g a i n s t s e e k i n g a c c o m o d a t i o n v i t h I s l a m i c n a t i o n a l i s t s and a n a l l - o u t effort i n s t e a d t o rush t h e r e b e l l i o n Subsequent analyses c o n c l u d e d t h a t d u r i n g T a r a k i n s v i s i t to Moscow i n l a e d i a t e l y p r i o r to h i s o u s t e r a n d deatb, S o v i e t l e a d e r s had i n f a c t a d v i s e d him t o remove Amin, b u t t h a t t h e e f f o r t backfired The S o v i e t Union, n o n e t h e l e s s , p u b l i c l y backed Amin a f t e r h e t o o k o v e r and s t e p p e d up i t s a i d t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t n s campaign t o c r u s h t h e r e b e l l i o n D e s p i t e S o v i e t s u p p o r t , Asin a p p e a r e d t o b e l o s i n g g r o u n d a g a i n s t rebel forces- A large S o v i e t m i l i t a r y d e l e g a t i o n headed by a Deputy Defense M i n i s t e r , G e n e r a l I v a n Pavlovsky, had been i n A f g h a n i s t a n from August t h r o u g h October t o assess t h e i n s u r g e n q and d e v i s e a p l a n t o c o p e w i t h it. U-So o f f i c i a l s say t h a t P a v l o v s k y d e l i v e r e d a g r i m r e p o r t o n h i s r e t u r n home, a n d t h a t t h i s a s s e s s m e n t u n d o u b t e d l y was a major f a c t o r i n t h e S o v i e t d e c i s i o n t o i n v a d e A f g h a n i s t a n i n December. The S o v i e t s made o n e l a s t e f f o r t t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h Amin i n e a r l y November when a combined Soviet-Afghan a p e r a t i o n was l a u n c h e d i n P a k t i a p r o v i n c e s o u t h of K a b u l , t h e site. of a major g u e r r i l l a c o n c e n t r a t i o n n e a r t h e P a k i s t a n borderThe c a m p a i g n was i n i t i a l l y s a c c e s s f u l , b u t t h e v i c t o r y was s h o r t - l i v e d , since t h e i n s u r g e n t s r e g a i n e d c o n t r o l of t h e area o n c e t h e A f g h a n S o v i e t force r e t u r n e d t o i t s b a s e s , The f i r s t p u b l i c s i g n of S o v i e t d i s p l e a s u r e w i t h Amin and g r o w i n g c o n c e r n f o r its s u b s t a n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t i n A f g h a n i s t a n a p p e a r e d i n Pravda o n D e c , 7, 1979- The p a p e r carried a message from S o v i e t l e a d e r s B r e z h n e v and Kosygin o n t h e a n n i v e r s a r y of t h e s i g n i n g of t h e b i l a t e r a l f r i n d s h i p t r e a t y . The S o v i e t g r e e t i n g t o t h e amin g o v e r n m e n t w a s correct b u t cooler t h a n p a s t S o v i e t messages, It d i d n o t c u n t a i n t h e u s u a l a s s u r a n c e s of c o n t i n u e d S o v i e t a i d and s u p p o r t f o r t h e governlaent, a l t h o u g h S o v i e t s u p p o r t was reaffirmed i n lower l e v e l S o v i e t media c o m a e n t a r y , By e a r l y December, w h i l e t h e I r a n c r i s i s was d o m i n a t i n g p u b l i c and media a t t e n t i o n , t h e U , S , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was c o n c e r n e d o v e r s i g n s t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union m i g h t be p r e p a r i n g t o e s c a l a t e its m i l i t a r y p r e s e n c e i n A f g h a n i s t a n , a s e v i d e n c e d by a m a j o r b u i l d u p of S o v i e t f o r c e s a l o n g t h e Afghan b o r d e r , On D e c , 8 a n d 9, a u n i t of S o v i e t troops w i t h t a n k s a n d h e a v y araor v a s , a i r l i f t e d t o the Soviet-controlled Bagram air f i e l d n o r t h o f Kabul, This force moved n o r t h t o e l i m i n a t e r e b e l t r o o p s a l o n g t h e road between Kabul and t h e S o v i e t b o r d e r ( t h e s u b s e q u e n t i n v a s i o n r o u t e ) , The U -S , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . s t e p p e d up i t s w a r n i n g s t o t h e S o v i e t s a g a i n s t direct i n t e r v e n t i o n , as r e v e a l e d i n a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t b r i e f i n g f o r r e p o r t e r s on D e c . 22, The S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n began on D e c - 2 4 w i t h t h e a i r l i f t i n g of 5,000 S o v i e t a i r b o r n e t r o o p s t o Kabul, U ,So o f f i c i a l s q u o t e d i n t h e press, s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e r e was p r o b a b l y o n e last S o v i e t a t t e m p t o n D e c , 24 t o p e r s u a d e P r e s i d e n t Amin t o r e v i s e h i s p o l i c i e s a l o n g l i n e s mare a c c e p t a b l e t o Hoscow, The S o v i e t ambassador r e p o r t e d l y m e t w i t h Amin t h a t d a y t o u r g e him o n c e more t o p e r m i t , S o v i e t combat forces t o o p e r a t e a g a i n s t the rebel forces i n s i d e A f g h a n i s t a n , a n d p u r s u e less a m b i t i o u s s o c i a l and e c o n o s i c p o l i c i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s a n e o f f i c i a l U - S , s o u r c e s , Anin map h a v e sensed d a n g e r a n d t h e n moved i n a small armored convoy froat t h e p r e s i d e n t i a l p a l a c e i n t h e c e n t e r of Kabul t o D a r u l a n a n p a l a c e 7 miles t o t h e s o u t h w e s t , On Dec, 27, t h e d a y o f t h e c o u p , e l e m e n t s of a 5,000-man S o v i e t a i r b o r n e d i v i s i o n made t h e i r way from t h e Kabnl a i r p o r t i n armored v e h i c l e s a c r o s s t h e c i t y t o t h e Darulaman p a l a c e , Hany were r e p o r t e d l y S o v i e t C e n t r a l A s i a n T a j i k s and. Uzbeks, .embers of e t h n i c g r o u p s a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i n A f g h a n i s t a n . After a CBS- 8 s h o r t v i o l e n t armed c l a s h between President w a s apparently captured, of h i s f a m i l y and r e t i n u e , Amin's IB80006 UPDATE-05/02/80 g u a r d s and t h e Soviets, t h e a n d e x e c u t e d , a l o n g w i t h menbers Soon t h e r e a f t e r , a l t h o u g h i t is n o t c l e a r e x a c t l y when, Amin's a r c h - r i v a l , Babrak Karmal, a n d o t h e r exiled Parcham l e a d e r s were a i r l i f t e d b a c k t o Kabua from E a s t e r n E u r o p e b y t h e R u s s i a n s , P r i o r t o K a r m a l ' s a c t u a l r e t u r n , a r e c o r d e d s t a t e s e n t by him w a s b r o a d c a s t o n what a p p e a r e d t o b e Radio Kabul, b u t t h e s o u r c e w a s l a t e r d e t e r m i n e d t o be a t r a n s m i t t e r in T e r n e z <m t h e S o v i e t s i d e of t h e b o r d e r , u s i n g R a d i o Kabul's a s s i g n e d f r e q u e n c i e s Karmail declared t h a t t h e "bloody a p p a r a t u s of H a f i z u l l a h AminN had been o v e r t h r o w n , W i t h i n a f e v d a y s of t h e i n v a s i o n and Anin's o u s t e r , W e s t e r n a n a l y s t s became c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t m i l i t a r y a c t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d a n a s s i v e and l o n g - t e r m commitment by t h e S o v i e t Union t o c r u s h t h e Musli. r e b e l l i o n a n d t o e n s u r e a n Afghan g o v e r n m e n t f a v o r a b l e to fiascov, By t h e e n d o f December t h e r e were s a i d t o b e a t l e a s t 200 S o v i e t a i r c r a f t i n v o l v e d i n t h e campaign. Bp J a n , 10, t h e i n i t i a l 5,000-nan i n v a s i o n f o r c e had mushroored t o a n estimated 85,000, S o v i e t forces r e p o r t e d l y i n c l u d e d f o u r m o t o r i z e d r i f l e d i v i s i o n s , e a c h c o n s i s t i n g of an e s t i m a t e d 13,000 t r o o p s , 265 t a n k s , 300 armored p e r s o n n e l carriers, s u p p o r t e d by a r t i l l e r y , R fr o g m s o c k e t s , and h e l i c o p t e r s , and t u o a i r b o r n e d i v i s i o n s . By t h e end o f F e b r u a r y , the S o v i e t forces l a u n c h e d a mare d e t e r a i n e d campaign a g a i n s t Afghan g u e r r i l l a s , A d l t i n i s t r a t i o n s p o k e s n e n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t w o more S o v i e t d i v i s i c m s were i n a s t a t e of r e a d i n e s s t o e n t e r A f g h a n i s t a n - In e a r l y A p r i l , Deputy S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e Warren C h r i s t o p h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t S o v i e t t r o o p s t r e n g t h had i n c r e a s e d t o " w e l l o v e r 100,OOO,m b u t Pentagon o f f i c i a l s s t i l l e s t i n a t e 85,000, In late A p r i l , H.N, Kanl, a s e n i o r c o r r e s p o n d e n t f o r t h e Press T r u s t o f I n d i a , r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t s had s o v e d nedium-range b a l l i s t i c missiles i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n armed w i t h b o t h n u c l e a r a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l warheads, There have b e e n r e p e a t e d a l l e g a t i o n s of S w i e t u s e of c h e r i c a l weapons i n a n t i - g u e r r i l l a a c t i o n s , S t a t e r t e n t s by a number of U,S, Gavernment o f f i c i a l s and members of t h e W e s t e r n p r e s s c h a r g e d t h a t napalm, as w e l l a s a n e r v e gas known a s Soman, w e r e used. Soviet o f f i c i a l s c a t e g o r i c a l l y d e n y a l l s u c h r e p o r t s . The S o v i e t a c t i o n n a r k s t h e first d i r e c t S o v i e t m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n a b r o a d s i n c e t h e i n v a s i o n of C z e c h o s l o v a k i a i n 1968; t h e f i r s t l a r g e - s c a l e f i g h t i n g by S o v i e t t r o o p s abroad s i n c e t h e f i g h t i n g w i t h C h i n e s e f o r c e s on t h e U s s u r i R i v e r i n 1969; and t h e f i r s t d i r e c t S o v i e t m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n a c o u n t r y o u t s i d e t h e S o v i e t b l o c s i n c e t h e e n d o f H o r l d War 11, A c e n t r a l i s s u e l i k e l y t o s h a p e f u t u r e U , S , S o v i e t r e l a t i o n s i s why t h e S o v i e t Union now d e c i d e d t o u n d e r t a k e s u c h a n a c t i o n w i t h its e n t a i l e d risks and negative repercussions, The U S , , a s w e l l as o t h e r Western a n d n o n a l i g n e d g o v e r n m e n t s , h a v e rejected t h e S o v i e t e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t it was s i m p l y complying w i t h its t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s t o p r o t e c t A f g h a n i s t a n d r o n f o r e i g n i n t e r f e r e n c e a t t h e u r g e n t r e q u e s t of t h e Afghan g o v e r n a e n t ; many g o v e r n m e n t s have p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the S o v i e t claim is a b s u r d , g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g Afghan g o v e r n s e n t was o u s t e d by t h e S o v i e t s , P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r s t a t e d on Dec, 2 8 t h a t t h e e v e n t had s u b s t a n t i a l l y c h a n g e d h i s view of t h e Soviet Union. I n his s p e e c h t o t h e n a t i o n on J a n , 4 , 1980, P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r e x p r e s s e d t h e view t h a t t h e S o v i e t s m i g h t be s e e k i n g t o u s e A f g h a n i s t a n a s a s t e p i n an e f f o r t to expand t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n S o u t h Asia a n d t h e P e r s i a n G u l f r e g i o n , C u r r e n t Western a s s e s s a e n t s of S o v i e t o b j e c t i v e s follow t w o c o n f l i c t i n g l i n e s , one e m p h a s i z i n g t h e d e f e n s i v e and r e a c t i v e n a t u r e of t h e S o v i e t a c t i o n , l i m i t e d t o p r o t e c t i n g its i n t e r e s t s i n Bf g h a n i s t a n ; t h e o t h e r s t r e s s i n g t h e o f f e n s i v e and o p p o r t u n i s t i c n a t u r e of ' CBS- 9 I380006 UPDATE-05/02/80 t h e move i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n as a n a c t i o n i n s u p p o r t of b r o a d e r S o v i e t ambitions, regional A r g u r e n t s s u p p o r t i n g t h e d e f e n s i v e ag r e a c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e b a s e d on t h e v i e w t h a t the Aain g o v e r n n e n t was c l e a r l y n o t e f f e c t i v e i n i t s campaign t o c r u s h t h e g r o w i n g r e b e l l i o n a n d g a i n c o n t r o l of t h e c o u n t r y - T h e r e was a r e a l d a n g e r f r o a t h e S o v i e t p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t Amin c o u l d f a l l and b e r e p l a c e d b y a n a n t i - s o v i e t Islamic government, S u c h a n outcome would h a v e meant t h e l o s s of t h e s u b s t a n t i a l S o v i e t i n v e s t m n t i n A f g h a n i s t a n and would h a v e r e p r e s e n t e d a major s e t b a c k t o t h e S o v i e t p o s i t i o n i n Asia a n d t h e P e r s i a n Gulf. I t c o u l d h a v e h e i g h t e n e d t h e I s l a a i c f e r v o r s w e e p i n g I r a n and o t h e r c o u n t r ies of t h e r e g i o n , i n t e n s i f y i n g S o v i e t fears of Islamic f u n d a a e n t a l i s a engulfing t h e approxirately 50-sillion E n s l i r i n h a b i t a n t s of the Soviet C e n t r a l Asian R e p u b l i c s , low t h a t some 50'16 of t h e S o v i e t p o p u l a t i o n is non-Russian, t h e S o v i e t l e a d e r s h i p is k e e n l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e d a n g e r of u n r e s t among its n a t i o n a l m i n o r i t i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o some a n a l y s t s , however, S o v i e t l e a d e r s d e c i d e d t o i n t e r v e n e i n A f g h a n i s t a n and replace the i n e f f e c t i v e a n d u n r e l i a b l e Amin o n l y r e l u c t a n t l y and a g a i n s t t h e i r c a u t i o u s i n s t i n c t s i n o r d e r t o eliminate t h e s e t h r e a t s , The a r g u m e n t s f o r o f f e n s i v e o r o p p o r t u n i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s stress t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union f o u n d i t s e l f f a c i n g u n i q u e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n a r e g i o n t h a t h a s b e e n t h e t a r g e t of t r a d i t i o n a l S o v i e t a m b i t i o n s , A t a time of unprecedented S o v i e t m i l i t a r y s t r e n g t h and confidence, a n exploitable s i t u a t i o n of c h a o s a n d t u r m o i l r e i g n e d i n I r a n , h e i g h t e n i n g t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y of t h e P e r s i a n G u l f a n d P a k i s t a n . It was o b v i o u s t o t h e S o v i e t s t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a l r e a d y h o s t a g e t o its I r a n i a n s i t u a t i o n , would n o t be i n a p o s i t i o n t o c h a l l e n g e the S o v i e t move i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n , The S o v i e t s nay a l s o h a v e s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e U,S. v o u l d be l e s s l i k e l y t o r e a c t s i n c e A f g h a n i s t a n h a d l i t t l e d i r e c t strategic i m p o r t a n c e , Some a n a l y s t s a r g u e t h a t S o v i e t c o n f i d e n c e on t h i s score was s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e m i l d U,S. response t o e a r l i e r S o v i e t moves in A f g h a n i s t a n a n d a l s o i n I n d o c h i n a and Africa, Whatever r e t a l i a t o r y a c t i o n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r i g h t t a k e i n t r a d e o r o t h e r a r e a s , t h e Afghan v e n t u r e was c a l c u l a t e d t o b e w o r t h t h e p r i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e p r o s p e c t s f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n of SAIX I1 were a l r e a d y di., a n d NAm had j u s t v o t e d t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e TBF m o d e r n i z a t i o n which Hoscou had s o u g h t s o v i g o r o u s l y t o t h w a r t - Any l o s s of good w i l l from T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s , , a c c o r d i n g t o some a n a l y s t s , would be mace t h a n o f f s e t by n e v r e s p e c t f o r S o v i e t power and Hoscow*s d e m o n s t r a t e d w i l l i n g n e s s t o u s e it. Success i n c r u s h i n g t h e Afghan r e b e l s would l e a v e Moscow i n a n u n p r e c e d e n t e d p o s i t i o n t o . t a k e a d v a n t a g e of I r a n i a n i n s t a b i l i t y and P a k i s t a n ' s weakness t o expand its i n f l u e n c e in t h e I n d i a n Ocean and P e r s i a n Gulf areas a t W e s t e r n e x p e n s e , A f e u a n a l y s t s have s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t a c t i o n reflects t h e a s c e n t of hawks i n t h e S o v i e t l e a d e r s h i p , a s a r e s u l t of P r e s i d e n t B r e z h n e v ' s d e c l i n i n g health, The S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n may n o t h a v e been m o t i v a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y by e i t h e r d e f e n s i v e o r o p p o r t u n i s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , b u t r a t h e r some c o a b i n a t i m of b o t h , B u t w h a t e v e r t h e o r i g i n a l m o t i v a t i o n s , t h e y may b e i n a p o s i t i o n to a c h i e v e b o t h o b j e c t i v e s . U l t i m a t e Soviet s u c c e s s is b y n o means a c e r t a i n t y I n F e b r u a r y a n d March, s i g n s o f w i d e s p r e a d r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e S o v i e t o c c u p a t i o n provoked a d e c l a x a t i o n of martial l a w t o q u e l l d i s t u r b a n c e s , S u b s e q u e n t n a c k d o v n s r e d u c e d o v e r t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s in t h e c a p i t a l , t h o u g h e x t e n s i v e p r o t e s t s c o n t i n u e d i n nany o t h e r a r e a s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y , A long-term o c c u p a t i o n a p p e a r s i n c r e a s i n g l y l i k e l y , a s l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e t r o o p s are b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d , and t h e f a m i l i e s of a number of t h e t r o o p s are a r r i v i n g . I t h a s been r e p o r t e d t h a t S o v i e t c o m m a n d e ~ shave i n f o r r e d t h e i r t r o o p s t h a t t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e i r s t a y i n A f g h a n i s t a n w i l l b e - CBS- 10 t w o years, I n r e s p o n s e t o numerous calls from d h e r c o u n t r i e s f o r a w i t h d r a w a l of S o v i e t forces a n d t h e n e u t r a l i z a t i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n , S o v i e t P r e s i d e n t B r e z h n e v demanded i n a s p e e c h an Feb, 22 t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d 0thg o v e r n n e n t s g u a r a n t e e an end t o s u b v e r s i o n o f t h e S o v i e t - s u p p o r t e d governmenit a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e for Soviet withdraual. P r e s i d e n t C a n e r r e s p o n d e d by p r o p o s i n g t h a t t h e U - S , a n d S o v i e t Union j o i n i n g u a r a n t e e i n g A f g h a n i s t a n % i n d e p e n d e n c e after a w i t h d r a w a l by S o v i e t t r o o p s . This response vas apparently insnf f i c i e n t , a s Soviet t r o o p s t r e n g t h i n Afghanistan has i n c r e a s e d , F u r t h e r s o r e , a l l s i g n s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s o v i e t s e x p e c t t o remain i n t h a t c o u n t r y f o r a n e x t e n d e d l e n g t h of time- T h e A r ~ bWorld T h e S o v i e t m i l i t a r y i n v a s i o n of lYuslim A f g h a n i s t a n h a s b e e n net, in g e n e r a l , w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of c o n d e m n a t i o n from t h e A r a b s t a t e s , Only t h e H a r x i s t regime of t h e P e o p l e ' s Deaocra tie R e p n b l i c o f Yemen (P ,D ,E .Y .) has v o i c e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e S o v i e t a c t i o n , A l g e r i a and S y r i a , however, h a v e t h u s f a r b e e n c o n s p i c u o u s by t h e i r s i l e n c e , A p a r t front i n d i v i d u a l s a n d s p l i n t e r g r o u p s t h a t have d e c l a r e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e S o v i e t s , t h e P a l e s t i n e L i b e r a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n (PLO) h a s s t a t e d its n e u t r a l i t y - The Arab s t a t e s o f t h e P e r s i a n G u E l i t t o r a l , i n c o n c e r t w i t h Saudi A r a b i a , were p a r t i c u l a r l y v o c i f e r o u s i n e x p r e s s i o n s o f c o n c e r n , Saudi F o r e i g n H i n i s t e r Sand i b n F a i s a l c o n f e r r e d on J a n - 4 w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of Arab a n d Islamic c o u n t r i e s i n o r d e r t o s e e k a c l e a r - c u t , u n i t e d fluslim s t a n d S a n d i a n d o t h e r G u l f news media h a v e c a l l e d f o r s e r i o u s m i l i t a r y and m o r a l a c t i o n , s t r e s s i n g t h a t t h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a new s t r a t e g y on t h e p a r t of Hoscow t h a t h a s r e s u l t e d f r o m the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , u n c e r t a i n t i e s a n d weakness o f & m e s i c a n p o l i c y , They r e f e r r e d t o t h e m i n t e r n d l s t r u c t u r e i n t h e Vietnam e x p e r i e n o e and t h e U n i t e d state^,^ which s t i l l s u f f e r e d *om Watergate. They compared S o v i e t j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r its A f g h a n i s t a n a d v e n t u r e w i t h t h o s e a c c o n p a n y i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Hungary and C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , It was a l s o s t a t e d t h a t , f o l l o w i n g b i t e e r S o v i e t f a i l u r e s i n Sudan, S o m a l i a , and C h i l e , t h e S o v h t Union had s h e d its r e s e r v a t i o n s a n d had d e c i d e d t o u n d e r t a k e a p o l i c y of d i r e c t m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e s , T h e S a u d i government o n J a n - 15 u r g e d a l l Cluslia c o u n t r i e s t o s e v e r d i p l o m a t i c ties w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union and i m p o s e e c o n o m i c s a n c t i o n s , a n d i t was t h e f i r s t government t o announce a b o y c o t t of t h e Hoscow Olympics, The S a u d i s a l s o were r e p o r t e d t o have i n f o r m e d B r i t i s h F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y Lord C a r r i n g t o n t h a t t h e y would be p r e p a r e d t o h e l p f i n a n c e t h e p u r c h a s e of a r m s by P a k i s t a n On Jan. 28, t h e C o n f e r e n c e a f I s l a a t i c F o r e i g n B i n i s t e r s met i n I s l a m a b a d , P a k i s t a n , a n d a p p r o v e d a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t condemned S o v i e t m i l i t a r y a g g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t A f g h a n i s t a n , demanded t h e "imn e d i a t e a n d u n c o n d i t i o n a l w i t h d r a w a l n o f a l l S o v i e t t r o o p s , urged " a l l c o u n t r i e s a n d peoplesn to s e c u r e t h e S o v i e t w i t h d r a w a l t h r o u g h a l l p o s s i b l e means, s u s p e n d e d A f g h a n i s t a n from a e m b e r s h i p i n t h e C o n f e r e n c e , c a l l e d on member s t a t e s t o w i t h h o l d r e c o g n i t i o n of and a i d t o t h e K a r n a f r e g i m e , pledged s p p o r t for B f g h a n i s t a n s s n e i g h b o r s I r a n and Pakistan, and called on Muslim countries "to envisionn their m n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n n i n t h e Eloscow O l y n p i c s , - IB8OO06 CBS- 11 UPDATE-05/02/80 I r a q , a major c l i e n t f o r S o v i e t m i l i t a r y h a r d w a r e and t r a i n i n g , r e b u k e d t h e S o v i e t Union o v e r A f g h a n i s t a n , c o m p r i n g i t u n f a v o r a b l y w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n its e n d e a v o r s t o d o m i n a t e smaller c o c n t r i e s , I n B e l g r a d e o n J a n 5 , t h e I r a q i and Yugoslav f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r s called upon n o n a l i g n e d c o u n t r i e s t o resist i n t e r v e n t i o n in t h e H i d d l e E a s t and t h e G u l f , a n d c a l l e d for t h e immediate w i t h d r a w a l of a l l f o r e i g n f o r c e s i n A f g h a n i s t a n The government of Oman, f o l l o w i n g its s t r o n g d e n u n c i a t i o n of t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n , w a s r e p o r t e d t o have g r a n t e d U-S, forces u s e of its n a v a l and a i r f a c i l i t i e s i n acder t o s u p p o r t a s t r e n g t h e n e d American p r e s e n c e in t h e r e g i o n , B o t h Egypt a n d Israel h a v e i s s u e d s t a t e m e n t s o f f e r i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s u s e of m i l i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s t o h e i g h t e n American power i n t h e H i d d l e East, E g y p t i a n P r e s i d e n t a l - S a d a t o n J a n , 4 e m p h a s i z e d t h a t s u c h u s e would n o t be t a n t a m o u n t t o b a s e r i g h t s , S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e E g y p t i a n and U,Sair forces h e l d joint a i r e x e r c i s e s ; a n d E g y p t announced i t h a d s e t u p t r a i n i n g c a r p s f o r Afghan r e b e l s , U-Saaat, on J a n , 2 8 , announced he had o r d e r e d a r e d u c t i o n i n S o v i e t d i p l o m a t i c p e r s o n n e l a n d t h e e x p u l s i o n of a l l r e m a i n i n g technical experts, R e a c t i o n among t h e Gulf Arab s t a t e s t o P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r m s S t a t e of t h e Union s p e e c h was almost u n a n i a o u s l y critical a s h i s p l e d g e t o p r o t e c t Western i n t e r e s t s i n t h e r e g i o n was i n t e r p r e t e d a s a p r e t e x t f cxc U-S , i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e i r i n t e r n a l affairs . T h e E u s l i m mrld League a n d t h e Islamic C o n g r e s s have condemned S o v i e t a g g r e s s i o n i n Muslim A f g h a n i s t a n , A t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , f i v e A r a b s t a t e s E g y p t , S a u d i Arabia, Oman, B a h m i n a n d Horocco j o i n e d Western and o t h e r T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s i n s i g n i n g a l e t t e r r e q u e s t i n g a n u r g e n t m e e t i n g of t h e S e c u r i t y Council t o consider t h e Afghanistan s i t u a t i o n , Eighteen Middle Eastern c o u n t r i e s voted f o r t h e Jan, WON. G e n e r a l Assembly r e s o l u t i o n c a l l i n g f o r t h e i n t n e d i a t e w i t h d r a w a l a€ f o r e i g n t r o o p s from A f g h a n i s t a n , t h r e e a b s t a i n e d a n d two did n o t p a r t i c i p a t e , Only t h e P,D,B,Y, voted a g a i n s t - On Feb. 28, t h e I s l a r i c C o n f e r e n c e g a v e i t s s u p p o r t t o t h e European Community (EC) p r o p o s a l f o r a D n e u t r a l m A f g h a n i s t a n . It v a s a n n o u n e d i n e a r l y H a r c h t h a t I s l a m i c diplopcat* fissions a follow t h e example o f P a k i s t a n a n d d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e t h e i r s t a f f s i n Kabul, - - . A s t a t e m e n t i s s u e d by t h e I r a n i a n g w e r n a e n t on Dec, 29 termed t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n "a h o s t i l e a c t - , , a g a i n s t a l l t h e H u s l i m s aE t h e world,w T h e Kholaeini regime, i n c l u d i n g t h e A y a t o l l a h himself, r e f r a i n e d from a n y f u r t h e r c o n d e a n a t i o n of t h e S o v i e t move u n t i l J a n - 17, when F i n a n c e H i n i s t e r B a n i S a d r , i n t h e first major p u b l i c a t t a c k o n Moscow, a a x s e d t h e S o v i e t Union of s e e k i n g t o seize p a r t s of I r a n i a n t e r r i t o r y i n a n eff art t o r e a c h v a r r - u a t e r p o r t s on the I n d i a n Ocean, F o r e i g n H i n i s t e r Ghotbzadeh s u b s e q u e n t l y c a n d e i n e d t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n , and, on J a n - 28, B a n i Sadr r e i t e r a t e d I r a n ' s d e t e m i n a t i o n m t o resist S o v i e t e x p a n s i o n i s r I r a n was r e p o r t e d t o have s e n t r e i n f o r c e m e n t s t o i t s Afghan border, Over t h e p a s t y e a r , t h e A y a t o l l a h h a d denounaed t h e f o r m e r T a r a k i a n d Amin r e g i n e s f a t h e a n t i - I s l a a i c t o a e s of t h e i r p o l i c i e s and had c a l l e d npan A f g h a n i s t a n ' s armed forces, p o l i c e a n d c i v i l s e r v i c e t o t u r n a g a i n s t t h e " m r r u p t a t h i e s t s m who h a d a t t e m p t e d t o s u b v e r t t h e c o u n t r y m s t r a d i t i o n a l Islamic c u l t u r e , I n t u r n , Kabul i n c r e a s i n g l y h a d a c c u s e d " p r e j u d i c i a l r e l i g i o u s e l e m e n t s n i n I r a n of h a v i n g aided Muslim r e s i s t a n c e rovemen ts i n A f g h a n i s t a n , On Feb, 4, A y a t o l l a h Khomeini f o r t h e first t i m e -- - ---" - --- - -- publicly conderned the CBS- 12 I B 8 0 0 06 UPDATE-0 5/02/30 S o v i e t i n v a s i o n a n d p l e d g e d R u n c o n d i t i m a l s u p p o r t n f o r t h e Muslim i n s u r g e n t s f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t s u p p o r t e d Afghan government. The p r e v i o u s d a y , P r e s i d e n t - e l e c t B a n i Sadr s a i d I r a n would g i v e m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e Afghan rebels b u t v o u l d n o t s e n d t r o o p s ; b u t h e a l s o s t a t e d h e would n o t p r e v e n t I r a n i a n v o l u n t e e r s from f i g h t i n g a t t h e s i d e o f t h e Afghan p e o p l e , S e v e r a l t h o u s a n d Afghans, t o g e t h e r w i t h I r a n i a n s u p p o r t e r s , s t o r m e d t h e S o v i e t embassy i n T e h r a n on J a n , 1, 1980, b u t soon t h e r e a f t e r n e g o t i a t e d a withdrawal with I r a n i a n a u t h o r i t i e s , I n Hashad, some 5,000 Afghans a n d I r a n i a n s d e m o n s t r a t e d o u t s i d e t h e S o v i e t c m s u l a t e . E s t i ~ a t e s v a r y on t h e n u n b e r o f Afghani e x p a t r i a t e s in I r a n , w i t h maximum f i g u r e s g i v e n as 500,000S i n c e A p r i l 1978, a c c o r d i n g t o o f f i c i a l f i g n r e s , a b o u t 30,000 Afghan r e f u g e e s have emigrated t o I r a n The Khomeini r e g i r e ' s prima- p r e o c c u p a t i o n h a s b e e n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t of l e g i t i n a c y f o r a t h e o c r a t i c fcrm o f government a n d i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y , Faced w i t h c o n t i n u i n g p o l i t i c a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n a n d e c o n o m i c c h a o s , i t is h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e t o e v e n t s i n neighboring Afghanistan, A s l o n g a s t h e centrail g o v e r n m e n t i n Tehran and Qom i s u n a b l e t o reimpose i t s a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e s , e t h n i c a l l y based demands 6 o r r e g i o n a l autonomy, and even secession, w i l l continue. If the S o v i e t s are a b l e t o i n s t a l l a r e a s o n a b l y s t a b l e r e g i m e in K a b u l , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r i n c i t i n g and s u p p o r t i n g e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s m i n I r a n i s s n b s t a r e i a l . O f p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n is t h e a w e m e n t f o r a n i n d e p e n d e n t B a l u c h i s t a n ,which A f g h a n i s t a n h i s t o r i c a l l y h a s s u p p o r t e d a s a means o f g a i n i n g access t o t h e I n d i a n Ocean. The Afghan B a r x i s t p a r t i e s h a v e had a close v o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e I r a n i a n Communist Tudeh P a r t y and o t h e r b e d t i s t groupsI r a n i a n r a d i c a l s have undergone training, i n c l u d i n g B a r x i s t i n d o c t r i n a t i o n and g u e r r i l l a t r a i n i n g , a t t w o Afghan S o v i e t - s u p e r v i s e d t r a i n i n g camps a t B a z a r - e - S h a r i f , n e a r t h e S o v i e t bonler, g a k i s t a n and I n d i a The r e c e n t e v e n t s i n A f g h a n i s t a n have c a u s e d great d i s t r e s s i n P a k i s t a n where t h e r e is much c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r S o v i e t - i n s p i r e d and d i r e c t e d s u b v e r s i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y , P a k i s t a n and A f g h a n i s t a n s h a r e a l o n g b o r d e r o v e r which t h e y h a v e been a t odds f o r many y e a r s , Autonomy-ninded t r i b a l g r o u p s i n t h e p r o v i n c e s o f B a l u c h i s t a n and Northwest F r o n t i e r , s t r a d d l i n g t h e b o u n d a r y , have b e e n a m a j o r t h r e a t t o t h e i n t e g r i t y of P a k i s t a n and a c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r i n a t t e m p t s t o r e s o l v e i t s d i s p u t e s w i t h A f g h a n i s t a n - While n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the p r e v i o u s Afghan regimes r e t w i t h l i t t l e or n o success, a t least t h e r e vas t h e f e e l i n g in P a k i s t a n t h a t t h e c o n t e n d i n g p a r t i e s v e r e e q u a l l y matched, S o v i e t c m t r o l of A f g h a n i s t a n a p p e a r s t o make t h e c o u n t r y a p o t e n t i a l l y f a r more f o r m i d a b l e o p p o n e n t , It i s f e a r e d t h a t a S o v i e t - d o m i n a t e d regime w i l l be a g g r e s s i v e i n p u r s u i n g an a c t i v e p o l i c y of s u b v e r s i o n among P a k i s t a n ' s d i s s i d e n t e t h n i c groups ( e s p e c i a l l y B a l u c h i s and P a s h t m s ) , t h e r e b y r a i s i n g t o a much h i g h e r l e v e l t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e r e g i o n ' s b a l k a n i z a t i o n and a n end t o P a k i s t a n a s it e x i s t s t o d a y , Having l o s t t h e e a s t wing of t h e c o u n t r y Bangladesh - less t h a n a decade a g o , t h e P a k i s t a n i s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h i s p r o s p e c t , The P a k i s t a n g o v e r n l ~ e n tis a l s o worried t h a t t h e s p i l l o v e r of Afghan r e f u g e e s ( e s t i m a t e d at over 750,000) , i n c l u d i n g antiSoviet g u e r r i l l a s , i n t o P a k i s t a n t e r r i t o r y might r e s u l t i n d i r e c t S o v i e t m i l i t a r y i n c u r s i o n s into P a k i s t a n , - C o n s e q u e n t l y , P a k i s t a n i o f f i c i a l s a p p e a r e d t o be a n x i o u s for t h e r e t u r n o f l a r g e - s c a l e U S, arms s h i p m e n t s , which h a v e been s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d s i n c e t h e I n d i a - P a k i s t a n War of 1 9 6 5 - The government b e l i e v e s t h a t s e v e r a l b i l l i o n . , d o l l a r s of U - S , a r a s a i d is r e q u i r e d t o m o d e r n i z e t h e armed f o r c e s and s t r e n g t h e n d e f e n s e s a l o n g t h e Afghan b o r d e r , a n d i n d e p e n d e n t experts g e n e r a l l y accept this a s s e s s m e n t , P r e s i d e n t Z i a ul-Haq h a s a l s o stressed P a k i s t a n B s n e e d f o r s u b s t a n t i v e American economic a i d - - The C a r t e r M m i n i s t r a t i o n offerea P a k i s t a n $400 a i l l i o n i n a i d a v e r a 2-year p e r i o d , e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between m i l i t a r y and economic a i d I n Harch 1980, t h e Government o f P a k i s t a n rejected t h e p r o p o s a l It c o n s i d e r e d t h e amount of r i l i t a r y a i d i n a d e q u a t e t o p r o v i d e t h e weaponry needed by t h e P a k i s t a n i armed forces. Given t h i s p e n c e i v e d i n a d e q u a q , P a k i s t a n i l e a d e r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t a c c e p t a n c e of t h e o f f e r would i n c u r t o o many r i s k s and losses, e s p e c i a l l y i n c r e a s e d Soviet a n d I n d i a n h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d s P a k i s t a n . It would a l s o , t h e y f e l t , v e a k e n P a k i s t a n 's s t a n d i n g among n o n a l i g n e d and I s l a m i c nations. These o f f i c i a l s are a l s o critical of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f a r n o t p r o v i d i n g Afghan r e b e l s w i t h a r n s and o t h e r s u p p l i e s However, P a k i s t a n r e m a i n s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e $200 m i l l i o n economic aid p r o p o s a l . It also l o o k s w i t h f a v o r u p o n a Carter A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o p o s a l t o a s k C o n g r e s s t o s t a t e a r e a f f i r m a t i o n of t h e 1959 U.S.-Pakistan Agreement on C o o p e r a t i o n , which s t a t e s a 13-S, i n t e r e s t in s u p p o r t i n g P a k i s t a n ' s s e c u r i t y a g a i n s t Communist a g g r e s s i o n . The S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n p o s e s an i n d i r e c t t h r e a t t o I n d i a , which s h a r e s n o b o r d e r w i t h t h e e m b a t t l e d c e n t r a l A s i a n c o u n t r y . Criticism a n d o p p o s i t i o n h a v e b e e n e x p r e s s e d i n many q u a r t e r s o v e r t h e S o v i e t m i l i t a r y a c t i o n , b u t t h e new government of I n d i r a Gandhi h a s p u b l i c l y a c c e p t e d t h e S o v i e t r a t i o n a l e for t h e i n v a s i o n The government b e l i e v e s t h a t p r i v a t e d i p l o m a c y r a t h e r t h a n open p r e s s u r e i s t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e means of a c h i e v i n g a S o v i e t withdrawal. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e Government o f I n d i a h a s worked t o p r e v e n t t h e e m e r g e n c e of a n a n t i - S o v i e t movement among t h e n o n a l i g n e d nations, The greatest c o n c e r n of I n d i a n l e a d e r s a t t h i s j u n c t u r e r e v o l v e s a r o u n d P a k i s t a n @s response t o t h e intervention a n d its p o s s i b l e i s p l i c a t i o n s . T h e r e is c o n s i d e r a b l e a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t t h e crisis w i l l l e a d t o s t r e n g t h e n e d t i e s b e t w e e n P a k i s t a n and t h e U n i t e d States, w i t h a c o n s e q u e n t r e s u m p t i o n of U,S, d e l i v e r i e s of a i l i t a r y equipment. Such a n i n f l u x of new and s o p h i s t i c a t e d weaponry is s e e n by I n d i a n s as h a v i n g a major d e s t a b i l i z i n g effect on t h e a l w a y s - s e n s i t i v e b a l a n c e of fxxces between I n d i a a n d P a k i s t a a T h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a closer m i l i t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p between C h i n a a n d P a k i s t a n . i s a l s o viewed w i t h c o n c e r n by I n d i a n leadersAfter t h r e e wars w i t h P a k i s t a n , i n which t h e l a t t e r ewployed weapons s u p p l i e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d a f o u r t h war w i t h China, I n d i a is s u s p i c i o u s of any U.S. military a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e r e g i o n designed t o s t r e n g t h e n P a k i s t a n , -- S e p a r a t i s t sentiment is strong i n t h e t u o Pakistani provinces t h a t border A f g h a n i s t a n , B a l u c h i s t a n and t h e l o r t h w e s t F r o n t i e r . Both p r o v i n c e s are p o o r a n d u n d e r d e v e l o p e d , even by P a k i s t a n i s t a n d a r d s , a n d p r o v i n c i a l o p p o n e n t s o f t h e c e n t r a l government have l o n g complained t h a t t h e y have n o t r e c e i v e d t h e i r f a i r s h a r e of e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t r e s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n e d u c a t i o n , w a t e r s u p p l y , a n d o t h e r s u c h areasI n b o t h cases, t h e 87-year-old British-drawn border t h a t P a k i s t a n s h a r e s w i t h A f g h a n i s t a n a n d I r a n nade no a l l o w a n c e s f o r t h e fact t h a t it v a s s p l i t t i n g up tro e t h n i c g r o u p s , some 5 m i l l i o n B a l u c h i s in t h e s o u t h and a b o u t 1 4 a i l l i o n P a s h t n n s (or P a t h a n s ) i n t h e n o r t h . T h e r e a r e B a l u c h i and opposition p o l i t i c a l P a s h t u n f a c t i o n s of o n e o f t h e l e a d i n g - and banned p a r t i e s i n P a k i s t a n , t h e N a t i o n a l A w a m i P a r t y . The l e a d e r of t h a t p a r t y , -- -. Khan Abdul R a l i Khan, is a p r o m i n e n t P a t h a n w i t h a f r i c t i o n , first w i t h t h e ~ r i t i s h a u t h a r i t i e s and t h e n government, f a m i l y h i s t o r y of with t h e P a k i s t e n B a l a c h i s t a n h a s a b l e a k 7 5 0 - m i l e c o a s t l i n e a l o n g t h e A r a b i a n Sea v i t h o n l y o n e p o r t of a n y p o t e n t i a l , G u a d a r - Sore of its p e o p l e f o u g h t a p r o t r a c t e d g u e r r i l l a campaign a g a i n s t the P a k i s t a n government from 1973 t o 1979, P a k i s t a n i m i l i t a r y e f f o r t s a g a i n s t t h e B a l u c h i i n s u r g e n t s had t h e a c t i v e s u p p o r t of t h e f o r ~ e rShah of I r a n , v h o s u p p l i e d b o t h a r m s a n d f u n d s t o bolster t h e c a r p a i g n , T h e r e has been an u n e a s y t r u c e s i n c e then.. T h e r e is a l s o a B a l u c h i p o p u l a t i o n on t h e I r a n i a n side o f t h e b o r d e r and a s m a l l e r p o c k e t of B a l n c h i s i n t h e c o n t i g u o u s p o r t i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n . Sow Baluchi n a t i o n a l i s t s dream of a nGreater B a l u c h i s t a n m t h a t would u n i t e a l l t h e B a l u c h i tribes u n d e r one f l a g , Any o u t s i d e p o v e r t h a t c o u l d d o m i n a t e t h e new c o u n t r y would have r e a d y n a v a l a c c e s s to t h e P e r s i a n G u l f and a p o s i t i o n of leverage along I r a n B s eastern flankThe Afghans h a v e p e r i o d i c a l l y e n c o u r a g e d t h e movement f o r a new c o u n t q of m L B s h t u n i s t a n n t o b e fo r n e d from P a k i s t a n Bs P a s h t u n - m a j o r i t y area, and i n c l u d i n g t h e P a k i s t a n i p r o v i n c e of B a l u c h i s t a n T h i s i s s u e was e c l i p s e d by t h e Afghan g u e r r i l l a war t h a t h a s been r a g i n g s i n c e 1978, b u t t h e n e v S o v i e t - i n s t a l l e d Babrak Karmal r e g i m e i n Kabul v o i c e d s u p p o r t f o r the c r e a t i o n of P a s h t u n i s t a n s h o r t l y after i t was c r e a t e d i n December 1979. A f ghan-dominated C h i n a s t e a d i l y escalated its c o n d e m n a t i c a o f t h e S o v i e t Union f o l l o w i n g t h e S o v i e t - b a c k e d c o u p in Kabul a n d t h e b u i l d u p of S o v i e t f o r c e s t h r o u g h o u t A f g h a n i s t a n - In a u t h o r i t a t i v e p r e s s and government s t a t e m e n t s , P e k i n g s a i d t h a t t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s p o s e a d i r e c t t h r e a t t o C h i n e s e s e c u r i t y and mark t h e most s e r i o u s e s c a l a t i s n of S o v i e t e x p a n s i o n i s m a b r o a d i n o v e r a decade. P e k i n g h a s y e t t o p l e d g e a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y its s u p p o r t f o r t h e armed r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e S o v i e t s i n A f g h a n i s t a n , a l t h o u g h V i c e P r e m i e r Deng Xiaoping s e e n e d t o core close t o a s t a t e m e n t of o u t r i g h t s u p p o r t when h e u a r x l y p r a i s e d o n J a n . 6 R h e r o i c r e s i s t a n c e m of t h e Afghan p e o p l e , Also, P e k i n g h a s t h u s f a r n o t r e a f f i r m e d backing f o r P a k i s t a n , Afghanis t a n ' s v u l n e r a b l e neighbor and a t r a d i t i o n a l l y close a l l y o f t h e P.R.6. a l t h o u g h C h i n e s e F o r e i g n Binister Hnang Hua r e p o r t e d l y r e a s s u r e d t h e Pakistanis d u r i n g a v i s i t t o P a k i s t a n in m i d J a n , 1980- C h i n e s e comment h a s o f f e r e d g e n e r a l p l e d g e s t o j o i n in w o r l d w i d e e f f o r t s a g a i n s t t h i s and o t h e r i n s t a n c e s of S o v i e t a g g r e s s i o n , g i v i n g s p e c i a l prominence to calls f o r Sino-American " j o i n t c o ~ n t e w e a s n r e s , ~ I t h a s a d v i s e d p o i n t e d l y t h a t 'Cactual s t e p s n must be t a k e n i n o r d e r t o c h e c k t h e S o v i e t a d v a n c e toward " g l o b a l h e g e n o n i ~ a a , ~ and i n t h i s r e g a r d , h a s h i g h l i g h t e d s t a t e m e n t s of U,S, c o u n t e r a c t i o n s by P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r a n d U - S officials - Among t h e o t h e r n o t a b l e f e a t n r e s of C h i n a a s r e a c t i o n , P e k i n g s a i d that: (1) S o v i e t o b j e c t i v e s i n A f g h a n i s t a n r a n g e f a r beyond a d e s i r e t o a o n t r o l t h a t c o u n t r y and r e p r e s e n t a n i m p o r t a n t s t e p i n t h e K r a l i n ' s p l a n t o g a i n direct access t o t h e I n d i a n Ocean and c o n t r o l Western o i l s u p p l i e s in t h e P e r s i a n Gulf r e g i o n - (2) The S o v i e t move came a t this time i n p a r t b e c a u s e t h e S o v i e t Union s a w t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s v a s p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e crisis i n I r a n and had n h e l p l e s s l y taken a defensive p o s i t i o n n i n r i v a l r y w i t h t h e U-S-S-Bin t h e Middle E a s t - (3) The i n v a s i o n s e r v e d a s a v a r n i n g t o o t h e r T h i r d World r u l e r s w i t h close t i e s t o t h e U,S,S,R,, d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t t h e S o v i e t s are u n s c r u p u l o u s c o n s p i r a t o r s " L i k e Hitlerm who w i l l u s e a n d d i s p o s e o f a l l i e s a s t h e y see fit, (4) T h e r e is a clear l i n k b e t i e e n t h e A f g h a n i s t a n invasion and S o v i e t - b a c k e d a g g r e s s i o n by Vietnam i n I n d o c h i n a b e c a u s e t h e l e s s - t h a n - f i r n w o r l d r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Vietnam e n c o u r a c p d t h e S o v i e t s to f e e l free t o i n v a d e Afghanistan- Our European a l l i e s , i n c o n t r a s t to t h e i r somewhat q u a l i f i e d i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s t o t h e crisis i n I r a n , i m m e d i a t e l y j o i n e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n s t r o n g l y condemning t h e Soviet i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g a n i s t a n . The H A T O C o u n c i l was c o n v e n e d i n B r u s s e l s o n H e w Y e a r ' s Day t o d i s c u s s t h e a c t i o n . rJ,S, Deputy S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e Warren C h r i s t o p h e r , who r e p r e s e n t e d t h e U - S , a t t h e s e s s i o n , r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a l l i e s d i s c u s s e d a v a r i e t y of r e t a l i a t o r y m e a s u r e s a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t Union a t t h e s e s s i o n , i n c l u d i n g : (1) b o y c o t t i n g t h e 1980 Olympic G a m e s in floscov; (2) s t o p p i n g w h e a t s a l e s ; (3) b r e a k i n g o f f c u l t u r a l e x c h a n g e s : a n d (4) r e f u s i n g t o renew c a m e r c i a l c r d i t s , A l t h o u g h n o d e c i s i o n s were a d o p t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g , it a p p e a r e d t h e r e was a g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s t h a t w h a t e v e r a c t i o n s a r e t a k e n s h o u l d b e "firm, c o n v i n c i n g a n d c r e d i b l e , L 8 One HATO a m b a s s a d o r s t a t e d : n H e d a r e n o t t a k e a c t i o n s w e c a n n o t r e a l l y d e l i v e r on b e c a u s e o u r c r e d i b i l i t y w i l l s u f f e r e n A t the J a n , 1, NATO m e e t i n g and i n p r e l i m i n a r y t a l k s c o n d u c t e d by S e c r e t a r y C h r i s t o p h e r with r a n k i n g R e s t European d i p l o r a t s i n Lmdon, t h e U,S, f o u n d a c a a o n f r o n t w i t h t h e E u r o p e a n a l l i e s , They e x p r e s s e d m u t u a l c o n c e r n o v e r t h e "extreme s e r i a n s n e s s n of t h e S o v i e t a g g r e s s i o n , and t h e need f o r t h e Western A l l i a n c e t o r e s p o n d f o r c e f a l l y HAT0 S e c r e t a r y Luns c a l l e d t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n "a f l a g r a n t v i o l a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w and a t h r e a t t o world p e a c e - ' I n o t h e r a l l i e d r e a c t i o n s , B r i t a i n and s e v e r a l o t h e r BAT0 .embers i n s t r u c t e d t h e i r a m b a s s a d o r s t o a v o i d c o n t a c t w i t h the new S o v i e t - b a c k e d government in Kabul, On Jan, 4, s e v e r a l West European r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a l o n g w i t h US,, P a k i s t a n i , and o t h e r A s i a n d i p l o m a t s , p r e s e n t e d a r e q u e s t t o t h e U.B. S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l for a formal d e b a t e on t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n . On J a n , 6 , however, F r a n c e d e v i a t e d from t h e s o l i d a r i - e x p r e s s e d b y its West European a l l i e s , and r e f n s e d t o l i n e u p b e h i n d P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r ' s program of e c o n o a i c c o u n t e r r e a s u r e s a g a i n s t t h e Suwiet Union, French Foreign ~ i n i s t e r Jean Francois-Poncet argued t h a t France, as the n w i t n e s s n and o r i g i n a t o r o f East-West d e t e n t e 15 y e a r s a g o , i s duty-bound n d to act hastily, F r a n c o i s - P o n c e t a d d e d t h a t it would b e a g r a v e e r r o r t o n H e s t e r n i z e t h e A f g h a n i s t a n a f f a i r m s i n e it a p p e a r s p r i m a r i l y a c o n f l i c t between t h e S o v i e t s a n d t h e I s l a m i c world r a t h e r t h a n a n East-West c o n f r o n t a t i o n , On J a n - 6 , t h e Comaan Market a n d Canada s u s p e n d e d new e x p o r t l i c e n s e s f o r wheat, c o r n , s o y b e a n s , and o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s i n r e s p o n s e t o P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r ' s announcement t h a t t h e U ,S, w i l l refuse t o s e l l 17 m i l l i o n metric t o n s o f a d d i t i o n a l g n i n t o t h e S o v i e t U n i o n The A u s t r a l i a n CRS- I6 g o v e r n r e n t l a t e r s u p p o r t e d I?-S , m e a s u r e s b y p r o m i s i n g n o t t o increase s a l e s t o t h e S o v i e t Union t o offset t h e g r z i n s t h e U.S. is d e n y i n g t h e S w i e t s , F i n a l l y , t h e Common Market s u s p e n d e d e x p o r t s u b s i d i e s a n d t h e g r a n t i n g of l i c e n s e s f o r g r a i n a n d d a i r y p r o d u c t e x p o r t s t o t h e S o v i e t Onion, The A f g h a n i s t a n i n c i d e n t i s l i k e l y to c o n t r i b u t e t o a f u r t h e r c o o l i n g of r e l a t i o n s between NATO c o u n t r i e s and t h e S o v i e t Union, a l r e a d y s t r a i n e d by t h e A t l a n t i c A l l i a n c e a s d e d s i m i n December 1979 t o p r o d u c e a n d d e p l o y a new g e n e r a t i o n o f American i n t e r s e d i a t e - r a n g e b a l l i s t i c missiles c a p a b l e of s t r i k i n g t h e S w i e t Union, I t a l s o a p p e a r s l i k e l y t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and i t s European a l l i e s c'ould be drawn closer t o g e t h e r a s a r e s u l t of t h e S o v i e t m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n d e s i g n e d t o t i e A f g h a n i s t a n more f i r m l y i n t o t h e S o v i e t s p h e r e of i n f l u e n c e , It v o u l d n o t b e s u r p r i s i n g , however, if t h e a l l i e s p r e f e r t o s t r u c t u r e t h e W e s t e r n r e s p o n s e a l o n g t h e l i n e s i n d i c a t e d by R a n c e , so t h a t , w h i l e s t r o n g l y condemning t h e S o v i e t a c t i o n , t h e way would b e l e f t o p e n t o a f u t u r e c o n s t r n c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Moscow, To d a t e , n e i t h e r t h e EEC n o r 1Am have t a k e n f u r t h e r p u n i t i v e a c t i o n s e x c e p t t o agree n o t t o u n d e r c u t a n y r e t a l i a t o r y a c t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t s t a k e n by a n o t h e r member s t a t e , The o o n t i n e n t a l Suropeans, n o t eager t o j e o p a r d i z e d e t e n t e b e c a u s e o f arms l i m i t a t i o n n e g o t i a t i o n s , p r o g r e s s an t h e i n t r a - G e m a n t a l k s , trade, and o t h e r r e a s o n s , have t h u s g e a r e d t h e i r r e s p o n s e around: (1) L a r g e l y , s y m b o l i c and lirited d i p l o m a t i c g e s t u r e s , s u c h a s r e c a l l i n g t h e i r a m b a s s a d o r s f r o m Kabul, c u t t i n g development a i d t o Afghanistan, l i m i t i n g government t r i p s t o Hoscou a n d c u r t a i l i n g c u l t u r a l e x c h a n g e s ; a n d (2) Announcing i n c r e a s e d e c o n o u c s u p p o r t t o P a k i s t a n , I n d i a , Turkey and a h e r n o n a l i g n e d s t a t e s i n t h e r e g i o n , a t t e m p t i n g to use t h e Soviet i n c u r s i o n i n t o Afghanistan a s t h e b a s i s t o woo t h e South Asian and I s l a a i c P e r s i a n Gulf s t a t e s closer t o t h e B e s t , B r i t a i n is t h e n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n t o t h e European p o s i t i o n , s i d i n g v i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada i n f a m r of e a o n o n i c s a n c t i o n s , s u c h a s c a n a l l i n g c o n m e r c i a l credits, a n d i n c a l l i n g f o r t h e b o y c o t t i n g or moving o f t h e summer Boscov Olympic Games, D e s p i t e p r e s s u r e s f r o m o t h e r European t r a d e p a r t n e r s , o n J a n - 22 B r i t a i n ' s Prime Ninister X a r g a r e t T h a t c h e r followed P r e s i d e n t Carter's lead and a s k e d t h e c o u n t r y a s m t i o n a l Olympic C o m m i t t e e n o t t o t a k e p a r t i n the G a m e s , A s t h e A f g h a n i s t a n crisis mwed i n t o i t s t h i r d month, t h e United S t a t e s h a s i n c r e a s i n g l y v o i c e d its d i s a p p o i n t s e n t v i t h t h e European r e s p o n s e , N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s o r Zbigniew B r z e z i n s k i u r g e d t h e E u r o p e a n s and t h e J a p a n e s e t o t a k e more " t a n g i b l e a c t i o n s " a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t Onion, s a y i n g t h a t a p o l i c y of u r h e t o r i c a l u n i t y a n d s u b s t a n t i v e p a s s i v i t y H is n o t a c c e p t a b l e , B r e z e z i n s k i d i d n o t e l a b o r a t e on what s t e p s E u r o p e s h o u l d t a k e , b u t t h e proposed b o y c o t t & the s u a s e r Olympic Games i n Hoscow a n d a t i g h t e n i n g of East-West e c o n o m i c t r a d e a r e a a o n g t h e a o s t d i s c u s s e d o p t i o n s i n o f f i c i a l circles, B r e z e z i n s k i g a v e l i t t l e c r e d e n c e t o the European (Lord C a r r i n g t o n ) p r a p o s a l t h a t t h e S o v i e t s be o f f e r e d a m n e u t r a l i z e d w A f g h a n i s t a n a s the i n d u c e m e n t f o r t h e i r v i t h d r a v a l of forces - The Buropean n a t i o n s a n d J a p a n , however, a r e b a l k i n g a t t h e i d e a of t a k i n g further steps either individually o r collectively, T h e r e i s n o comaon *Westernn r e s p o n s e , a n d t h e E C c o u n t r i e s r e s a i n d i v i d e d a b o u t t h e correct l i n e to take, J a p a n is f e a r f u l t h a t s t r o n g e r m e a s u r e s c o u l d i n c r e a s e CBS- 17 U , s . - ~ o v i e t c o n f r o n t a t i o n in E a s t Asia ' . J a p a n h a s reacted w i t h somewhat more c a u t i o n t h a n the B e s t European a l l i e s , a l t h o u g h t h e government h a s i s s u e d p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t s d o m e s t i c a l l y and a t t h e U,N, s t r o n g l y condemning t h e Soviet i n v a s i o n s . J a p a n a l s o announced t h a t it would ref u s e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e n e v S o v i e t - i n s t a l l e d government i n K a b u l a n d wonld c o n t i n u e t o w i t h h o l d e c o n o m i c a i d , whict. it ceased in t h e f a l l of 1979 b e c a u s e of i n t e r n a l i n s t a b i l i t y i n A f g h a n i s t a n . The Japanese g o v e r n s e n t is r e p o r t e d l y c o n s i d e r i n g a nulrber of a d d i t i o n a l s t e p s , b u t i t a p p e a r s h e s i t a n t t o go a l o n g w i t h U S, e c o n o a i c c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s b e c a u s e o f f i c i a l s b e l i e v e trade s a n c t i o n s n i g h t e n d u p h u r t i n g Japan e c o n o m i c a l l y more t h a n t h e S o v i e t Union, I n 1978, J a p a n e x p o r t e d $2.8 b i l l i o n w o r t h of p r o d u c t s t o t h e S o v i e t Union, w h i l e i t i m p a r t e d o n l y a b o u t $ 1 - 8 b i l l i o n w o r t h of g o o d s d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d . The J a p a n e s e g o v e r n m e n t h a s e n d o r s e d a b o y c o t t of t h e Hoscor Olympics. I n s u c c e s s i v e g o v e r n s e n t s s i n c e t h e e n d o f t h e Cold War, J a p a n e s e p r i m e m i n i s t e r s h a v e s o u g h t t o s t r e n g t h e n t i e s w i t h t h e S o v i e t a n i o n , and c u r r e n t P r i m e H i n i s t e r O h i r a would p r o b a b l y n u t s u p p o r t a n y m e a s u r e s t h a t would s e r i o u s l y u n d e r n i n e t h a t a l r e a d y cool r e l a t i o n s h i p . H a r e o v e r , J a p a n i s v e r y a w a r e of a s i z a b l e b u i l d - u p o f S o v i e t t r o o p s and f a c i l i t i e s on t h e K u r i l e I s l a n d s ( t a k e n o v e r b y t h e S o v i e t s a t t h e end of w o r l d War 11, b u t s t i l l claimed by t h e J a p a n e s e ) a s w e l l a s growing S o v i e t m i l i t a r y power i n N o r t h e a s t Asia a n d t h e Western P a c i f i c , I n snnmary, J a p a n may c o n s i d e r a d o p t i n g s t r o n g e r m e a s u r e s a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t Union, such a s p o s t p o n i n g l o a n aom m i t m e n t s f o r j o i n t S o v i e t - J a p a n e s e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s ; b u t is u n l i k e l y to impose any s a n c t i o n s t h a t would s e v e r e l y d i s r u p t its l u c r a t i v e t r a d e w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union or a n g e r t h e Soviets politically, U S . POLICY IHPLICATI06S The S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n a p p e a r s t o h a v e t r i g g e r e d a major r e a s s e s s m e n t of t h e role o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s in the w o r l d , This r e a s s e s s m e n t c o u l d mean a r e v e r s a l o f r e t r e n c h m e n t i n world a f f a i r s b r o u g h t o n by t h e so-called nVietnarr syndromen a n d t h e r e a s s e r t i o n of a f o r w a r d p o l i c y of q u a l i f i e d g lobalisaa - Ever s i n c e its s e t b a c k i n t h e Vietnam w a r , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s been c a u g h t u p i n a n a t i o n a l mood of w i t h d r a w a l from g l o b a l i s m , and t h e l a i l i t a q i m p l i c a t i o n s of s u c h a r o l e A n a l y s t s have p o p u l a r l y r e f e r r e d t o t h i s phenomenon a s t h e V i e t n a x s y n d r o ~ e ,meaning ~ %ever againn w i l l t h e United S t a t e s become i n v o l v e d in a f o r e i g n v a r o v e r less t h a n v i t a l i n t e r e s t s , A c c o r d i n g l y , g l o b a l c o n m i t ~ ~ were t s r e d u c e d u n d e r t h e Wixon d o c t r i n e , which emphasized t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of 0. S , a l l i e s t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r own s e c u r i t y and r e g i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p r o v i d i n g s e c u r i t y . T h i s tendency Adainistrations, The Carter c o n t i n u e d t h r o n g h t h e Ford a n d C a r t e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a s emphasized a p o l i c y o f a v o i d i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n b y m i l i t a r y means o v e r s e a s - CRS- I8 IB8OO06 DPDATE-O5/82/80 D e t e n t e w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t , Agreements were r e a c h e d w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union i n which t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a t t e m p t e d t o s t a b i l i z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a m u t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s t r a t e g i c b a l a n c e and w i t h f o r m a l l y agreed W r u l e so f t h e game" f o r g o v e r n i n g t h e i r r i v a l r y , n o t a b l y i n t h e T h i r d World. I n some m s p e c t s t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t conformed t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g mood o f t h e American p e o p l e : i t seemed t o be t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r g l o b a l r e t r e n c h m e n t w h i l e a c h i e v i n g some f cxn of s t r a t e g i c s t a b i l i t y w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union, B u t t h e S o v i e t Union had i t s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c o e x i s t e n c e upon w h i c h this r e l a t i o n s hip was b a s e d . c o n t r a s t e d s h a r p l y w i t h t h a t of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , detente o r peaceful This interpretation Brezhnev argued t h a t d e t e n t e d i d n o t preclude S o v i e t s u p p o r t far t h e " B a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n Hovementsm i n t h e T h i r d World, O s t e n s i b l y d o c t r i n e b u t p e r c e i v e d S o v i e t g e o p o l i t i o a l i n t e r e s C s as w e l l c a l l e d f o r such support. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e S o v i e t Union p u r s u e d a n i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t p o l i c y i n t h e ~ h i r dWorld, s p e c i f i c a l l y i n Angola, t h e Horn of A f r i c a , an6 I n d o c h i n a I t d i d s o against t h e p r o t e s t s of t h e United S t a t e s t h a t s u c h b e h a v i o r v i o l a t e d d e t e n t e and t h a t t h e p u r s u i t of e x p a n s i o n i s t g o a l s i n t h e T h i r d World w a s d e s t a b i l i z i n g . An ambiguous r e l a t i o n s h i p r e s u l t e d : accommodation was r e a c h e d t h r o u g h t h e SALT p r o c e s s , oa t h e a s s u m p t i o n h e l d b y b o t h g o v e r n m e n t s t h a t SALT was i n t b e i n t e r e s t s of b o t h n a t i o n s , fieanwhile, t h e S o v i e t s c o n t i n u e d a s t e a d y e x p a n s i o n o f t h e i r m i l i t a r y c a p a b i l i t i e s , and t h e T h i r d Itorla became t h e major a r e a of c o n t e n t i o n and p o t e n t i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n , - - Developments i n t h e tliddbe E a s t and i n S o u t h Asia i n 1979 h i g h l i g h t e d U,S, losses a n d v u l n e r a b i l i t i e s i n t h e T h i r d P o r l d , The f a l l of t h e S h a h i n e a r l y 1979 and t h e s u b s e q u e n t i n s t a b i l i t y in t h e P e r s i a n G n l f r e g i o n exposed t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f t h e Middle E a s t o i l r e s o u r c e s v i t a l t o t h e Western world and underscmed geopolitical s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e U , S , r e t r e n c h m e n t p o l i c y . It compelled a reassessment of U ,So s t r a t e g i c i n t e r e s t s i n t h e a r e a Q u a l i fi e d f oreigc p o l i c y o b s e r v e r s s p o k e c o n f i d e n t l y o f a s u b s t a n t i a l weakening of t h e "Vietnam syndromen as p l a n s g o t underway f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e U - S o p o s i t i o n i n t h e Middle E a s t . Some c o n c r e t e n i l i t a r p n e a s u r e s were u n d e r t a k e n i n E u r o p e and w i t h r e g a r d to t h e BX missile, The s e i z u r e of t h e American h o s t a g e s i n Tehran d u r i n g t h e f a l l of 1979 q u i c k e n e d t h e p a c e of t h i s a p p a r e n t r e v e r s a l of p o l i c y , - The i n v a s i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n accelerated t h e p r o c e s s of r e v e r s a l front r e t r e n c h m e n t t a r a r d s r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f some form of q u a l i f i e d g l o b a l i s m . The i n v a s i o n a p p e a r e d t o c h a l l e n g e t h e United States t o create a p o l i c y b a s e d on a new n a t i o n a l c o n s e n s u s , me t h a t r e q u i r e s t h e n e c e s s a r y u l i t a r y power t o s u p p o r t w h a t e v e r r o l e it d e t e r m i n e s t o p l a y , The f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d s d e f i n i n g t h i s r o l e w a s t a k e n i n P r e s i d e n t Carterms S t a t e - o f - t b e - U n i m message of J a n 24 when h e d e c l a r e d : "An a t t e m p t by an]! o u t s i d e force t o g a i n c o n t r o l of t h e P e r s i a n Gnlf r e g i o n w i l l be r e g a r d e d a s a n a s s a u l t on t h e v i t a l i n t e r e s t s of t h e l l n i t e d States. I t w i l l b e r e p e l l e d b y any means n e c e s s a r y , i n c l u d i n g m i l i t a r y force The S o v i e t i n v a s i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n h a s p r o f o u n d l y s h a k e n t h e p o l i c y of d e t e n t e w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union and, f o r some, h a s r a i s e d l a r g e r q u e s t i o n s of w h a t d e s t i n y the U n i t e d States sees f o r i t s e l f a s a l e a d i n g a d v o c a t e of world democracy i n t h e d e c a d e s a h e a d , More s p e c i f i c a l l y , it h a s c o m p e l l e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s to f a c e np t o t h e a m b i g u i t y of d e t e n t e i t s e l f w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e Third Porld, CSS- 19 IB80006 UP~ATE-05/02/80 The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a s a l r e a d y pledged c o n t i n u e d a d h e r e n c e t o t h e .SALT I a n d SALT I1 a g r e e m e n t s so l o n g a s t h e S o v i e t s do. The S o v i e t r e p l y , in t h e form of a P r a v d a e d i t o r i a l of J a n , 29, was ambiguous, I t s a i d : "The S o v i e t Onion, of c o u r s e , is for r a t i f i c a t i o n uf t h e SALT I1 t r e a t y , I t is a l w a y s t r u e t o its word and b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e o t h e r s i d e must a b i d e b y t h e d o a a m e n t s it s i g n e d - " One i n d i c a t o r of S o v i e t e x p e c t a t i o n s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p for t h e f u t u r e , therefore, would seem t o l i e i n w h e t h e r t h e y u i l l s i m i l a r l y a b i d e by SALT, w e n t h o u g h r a t i f i c a t i o n h a s been t e m p o r a r i l y s h e l v e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , The S o v i e t r e s p o n s e c o u l d do much t o c l a r i f y v h e t h e r d e t e n t e h a s i n d e e d b e e n abandoned in Hoscou fak a r e n e w a l of the "cold warow The S o v i e t s g a v e what c o u l d be a s i g n of i t s i n t e n t i o n s t o a b i d e b y SALT o n Apr. 4 , it g a v e a d v a n c e v a r n i n g t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s of new missile f l i g h t tests. l o t i f i c a t i o n of s u c h t e s t s v e r e r e q u i r e d u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s of SALT I1 O f f i c i a l s v e r e r e l u c t a n t , however, t o draw t o o a a n y c o n c l u s i o n s a t t h i s j a n c t u r e , .since n o t i f i c a t i o n was j u s t g i v e n t o t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t , But o n e s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s a i d t h a t t h i s w a s " t h e first good newsw a b o u t SALT i n a l o n g time, I1 when, . R_ecriona&IggllzLcations: A f a h a n i s t a p U,S, o p t i o n s f o r i n f l u e n c i n g e v e n t s i n A f g h a n i s t a n are l i m i t e d t o p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e Afghan g u e r r i l l a f o r c e s and r e f u g e e s , a n d t o s u p p o r t i n g t h e regime o f R e s i d e n t Z i a a 1 Haq i n n e i g h b o r i n g P a k i s t a n - I n b o t h cases, t h e o p t i o n s would a p p e a r t o r e q u i r e working t h r o u g h t h e g o v e r n r e n t of P a k i s t a n , s i n c e t h a t c o u n t q is t h e o n l y haven the Afghan i n s u r g e n t s t o which t h e U .So h a s access, O p p o s i t i o n forces o p e r a t e from w i t h i n b o t h t h e B a l u c h i s t a n and N o r t h v e s t F r o n t i e r p r o v i n c e s of P a k i s t a n , Given t h e s t a t e of U,S , - I r a n i a n r e l a t i o n s , it seers u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e United S t a t e s could channel any a i d through Iran. g e q i o n a & J g ~ l i o t i a s : P a k i s t a n and I n d i a I n r e c e n t y e a r s , n,S, p o l i c y h a s s h i f t e d away from P a k i s t a n and t o w a r d I n d i a , D e t e n t e a n d r e d u c e d 0,s. involvement i n South Asia reduced the i m p o r t a n c e of P a k i s t a n as a k e y l i n k i n t h e U.S. s e c u r i t y network created t o . c o n t a i n t h e Soviet Union, A l s o , t h e s e c e s s i o n of B a n g l a d e s h (3ast P a k i s t a n ) i n 1971 r e i n f o r c e d I n d i a ' s c l a i m t h a t i t was, by v i r t u e of its s i z e , r e s o u r c e s , a n d l o c a t i o n , t h e d a i n a n t power o f t h e s u b a m t i n e n t One effect of t h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i m i n A f g h a n i s t a n , however, will a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y b e t o r e v e r s e t h e t r e n d of a d e c l i n i n g U,S. i n t e r e s t i n P a k i s t a n a t l e a s t f o r a p e r i o d of tine. B e c a u s e i t s h a r e s a l o n g , d i f f i c u l t - t o - d e f e n d border w i t h A f g h a n i s t a n , P a k i s t a n a g a i n i s l i k e l y t o assume a n i m p o r t a n t s t r a t e g i c d i m e n s i o n i n t h e v i e w of U.S. p o l i q r a k e r s , It v i l l b e t h e t a s k of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o b a l a n c e its r e q u i r e m e n t t o p r o t e c t i t s s e c n r i t y i n t e r e s t i n this p a r t o f t h e world vith t h e n e e d t o r e a s s u r e I n d i a t h a t its a c t i o n s w i l l n a t u p s e t t h e e x i s t i n g b a l a n c e of power on t h e s u b c o n t i n e n t , T h i s problem i s c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e r e t u r n t o power of I n d i r a Gandhi, whose p r e v i o u s governments have been q n p a t h e t i c t o S o v i e t f o r e i g n p o l i c y objectlives. W h i l e t h e e v e n t s i n A f g h a n i s t a n t e n d t o draw t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and P a k i s t a n t o g e t h e r , c o o p e r a t i o n v i l l be h i n d e r e d by s e v e r a l e v e n t s and f a c t o r s , among t h e n b e i n g : (1) t h e U - S , d e c i s i o n i n e a r l y 1979 (required bp a p r o v i s i o n of t h e F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e Act o f 1961, a s amended) t o s u s p e n d a i d t o P a k i s t a n b e c a u s e of i t s c o v e r t d e v e l o p m e n t of n u c l e a r weapons; and (2) t h e b u r n i n g of t h e American Embassy in I s l a m a b a d i n l a t e 1999 b y a n a n g r y crowd o f Muslim d e a o n s t r a t o s s who vere r e a c t i n g t o f a l s e rnsaors of American c o m p l i c i t y in t h e t a k e o v e r of t h e mosque i n Mecca; (3) P a k i s t a n ' s d i s t r u s t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , which h a s grown s i n c e t h e 1960s; ( 4 ) t h e f a i l u r e of the U - S . a n 4 P a k i s t a n g w e r n m e n t s i n January-Harch 1980 t o a g r e e on a n arns a i d package; (5) P a k i s t a n ' s new s t a t u s a s a member the n o n a l i g n e d b l o c ; and (6) t h e i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l i m p a c t i n P a k i s t a n of m i l i t a n t I s l a m - I n a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l i s s u e s map map b e a d d r e s s e d : (1) w h e t h e r t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h P a k i s t a n i n a i d i n g t h e Afghan r e b e l s ; (2) t h e (3) d e f i n i n g e x t e n t of c o n m c n a l i t p w i t h C h i n a i n p o l i c y t o w a r d P a k i s t a n ; n e e d s ( m i l i t a r y , economic, and p o l i t i c a l ) f o r g r e a t e r r e s i l i e n c y P a k i s t a n @s s u p p o r t o f Afghan i n t h e new s i t u a t i o n ; (4) how to r e s p o n d i f U,S.-Pakistani rebels t r i g g e r s Afghan-Soviet a i l i t a r y c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s a g a i n s t P a k i s t a n ; and (5) how U - S o p o l i c y s h o u l d r e l a t e t o P a k i s t a n o s i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l . s i t u a t i o n , which many o b s e r v e r s b e l i e v e i s u n s t a b l e - The H i d d l e E a s t h a s b e e n a n d r e m a i n s o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s e c u r i t y interests a n d economic well-being o f t h e United S t a t e s and its a l l i e s - U-S, d i c t a t e t h a t t h e r e g i o n c a n n o t be p e r m i t t e d t o f a l l under t h e predominant i n f l u e n c e or c o n t r o l of a hostile pover- S i n c e Middle E a s t o i l i s , a n d w i l l b e f o r some tie t o come, n e c e s s a r y t o t h e w o r l d economy, the U n i t e d S t a t e s The a n d o t h e r consuming c o u n t r i e s need t o be a s s u r e d of its a v a i l a b i l i t y p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n of d e p e n d e n c e upon Middle East o i l is o n e of d a n g e r o u s v u l n e r a b i l i t y b e c a u s e d e c i s i o n s b o t h o n a c c e s s and on p r i c e are n o t i n a l l i e d h a n d s - The r e l a t i o n s h i p h a s engendered s u b s t a n t i a l d i s t r u s t between t h e p r o d u c i n g and consulring n a t i o n s The S o v i e t Onion i s aware t h a t t h e R e s t e r n powers h a v e v i t a l i n t e r e s t s i n t h e Middle E a s t , S o v i e t efforts t o expand i t s i n f l u e n c e in t h e Horn of Africa, the P , D I R , Y , (South Yemen) and A f g h a n i s t a n , however, i n d i c a t e S o v i e t d e t e r m i n a t i o n bo v e n t u r e in the region, w h i l e e s t i a a t i n g t h e w i l l and c a p a c i t y of the U e s t t o respond. S e v e r a l Arab s t a t e s p e r c e i v e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as h a v i n g b e e n u n a b l e or u n w i l l i n g t o r e s p o n d t o S o v i e t n o v e s i n Africa o r t h e H i d d l e E a s t , a n d t h e y have p o i n t e d t o Q -So r e f u s a l t o s u p p o r t its r e g i o n a l a l l i e s , a s demonstrated by a r r s embargoes a g a i n s t Turkey and P a k i s t a n and t h e l a c k of U - S , action It i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s e Arab p e r c e p t i o n s of d u r i n g t h e fall of t h e Shah. S o v i e t s u p e r i o r i t y i n t h e Horn, s o u t h e r n Brabia a n d A f g h a n i s t a n , c o u p l e d w i t h increased regional i n s t a b i l i t y following t h e Iranian revolution, could induce t h e g o v e r n i n g e l i t e s of t h e Arab G u l f states t o r e o r i e n t t h e i r f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h e i r i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y a n d s u r v i v a l u n l e s s the 'Jnited States n a n i f e s t s a c r e d i b l e commitaent t o t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n The q u e s t i o n of a n i n c r e a s e d American p r e s e n c e in o r n e a r t h e G u l f r e g i o n r e m a i n s a s e n s i t i v e o n e , The b t e r v e n t i o n i s t t h r e a t s of former S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e K i s s i n g e r ant3 D e f e n s e S e c r e t a r y S c h l e s i n g e r in t h e nid-1970s appeared h o l l o w a n d c a u s e d a d v e r s e r e a c t i o n anong t h e Gulf s t a t e s , I n 1979, t h e y r e j e c t e d a n Omani p r o p o s a l t o i n v i t e Western participation in the ~ d m i n i s t r a t i o nof Gulf s e c u r i t y , The C a r t e r A d a i n i s t r a t i o n , however, has announced p l a n s t o o r g a n i z e a w o r l d v i d e f o r w a r d d e p l o y a e n t force which, r e s u n a b l y , would be used i n t h e G u l f r e g i o n i n t h e e v e n t of a t h r e a t t o Iestern o i l supplies. I n t h e face of S o v i e t r o v e s i n t h e m g i o a , i n c l u d i n g t h e a i l i t a r y i n v a s i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n , a key q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s how w e l l t h e v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e r e g i o n can m a i n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l of t h e i r p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y , t h e sea l a n e s t h r o u g h t h e S t r a i t of Rorauz , a n d t h e i r i n t e r n a l s e c n r i t yo The S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n had an immediate c h i l l i n g e f f e c t on U,S.-Soviet r e l a t i o n s , I t b r o u g h t on s h a r p r h e t o r i c between t h e s u p e r p o w e r s a n d l e d t o U,S- decisiclars a f f e c t i n g SAW, d i p l o m a t i c , t r a d e , a n d c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union, The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a s announced t h a t it is c o n s i d e r i n g other c o u n t e r a c t i o n s i n r e s p o n s e t o S o v i e t moves i n A f g h a n i s t a n , Whether t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n in U ,S ,-Soviet r e l a t i o n s is m e r e l y a s h o r t - t e r m phenomenon, a s it was a f t e r t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of C z e c h o s l o v a k i a in 1968, or a more l o n g - t e r n s h i f t r e m a i n s t o b e s e e n . But t h e new p r o b l e m s i n b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s stemming frcx t h e Afghan crisis o n l y add t o the growing d i f f i c u l t i e s between t h e t u o c m n t r i e s t h a t were a l r e a d y e v i d e n t . . Na j o r U,S d e c i s i o n s t o i n c r e a - s e t h e d e f e n s e b u d g e t a n d improve t h e a i l i t a r y b a l a n a were a l r e a d y in p r o g r e s s b e f o r e t h e i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n , T h e d e c i s i o n by NATO c o u n t r i e s t o i n t r o d u c e new t h e a t e r n u c l e a r w e a p m s in E u r o p e h a d a l s o b e e n nade, T h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n is l i k e l y t o s t r e n g t h e n s u p p o r t f o r t h e s e Roves i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d o t h e r NATO c o u n t r i e s , The f i r s t U - S , r e s p o n s e t o tfre S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n came i n t h e f m a of s t r o n g u n i l a t e r a l p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e move and a n announced campaign t o b r i n g world p r e s s u r e t o bear against t h e S o v i e t Union. On D e c - 28, P r e s i d e n t Carter t o l d r e p o r t e r s t h a t t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n r e p r e s e n t e d a *grave t h r e a t t o p e a c e n a n d a b l a t a n t v i o l a t i o n of i n t e r n a t b n a l law, The f o l l o w i n g d a y , t h e P r e s i d e n t s e n t a message t o S o v i e t l e a d e r B r e z h n e v o v e r t h e h o t - l i n e , demanding t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union remove i t s t r o o p s from A f g h a n i s t a n o r f a c e g r a v e c o n s e q u e n c e s , H e warned t h a t t h e S o v i e t a c t i o n would " s e v e r e l y and a d v e r s e l y " a f f e c t U , S ,-Soviet r e l a t i o n s "naw a n d i n t h e f u t u r e I n h i s r e p l y t o t h e C a r t e r message, S o v i e t P r e s i d e n t Brezhnev d e f e n d e d t h e S o v i e t move a s a legitimate r e s p o n s e t o a r e q u e s t by t h e Afghan government, ' I n a t e l e v i s e d i n t e r v i e w on D e e 31, P z s i d e n t C a r t e r r e j e c t e d t h e S o v i e t r e p l y , s a y i n g t h a t t h e S o v i e t leader had n o t t o l d t h e t r u t h . H e stated t h a t . t h e S o v i e t a c t i o n had changed Itis o p i n i o n of t h e R u s s i a n s more d r a m a t i c a l l y t h a n any o t h e r e v e n t during h i s Adainistration. The S o v i e t Union p u b l i c l y r e s p o n d e d t o t h e C a r t e r s t a t e m e n t s w i t h some h a r s h p e r s o n a l a t t a c k s on t h e R e s i d e n t , a c c u s i n g him of p r o p a g a n d a " b r e a k i n g a l l r e c o r d s f u r h y p r o c r i q and lies-'g Tho S o v i e t p r e s s c h a r a c t e r i z e d P r e s i d e n t Carter as nwicked a n d m a l i c i c m s A and a c c u s e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s of c o m p l i c i t y i n m i n g and t r a i n i n g t h e Afghan rebels. A f u r t h e r U S , r e s p o n s e t o t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n was in t h e form o f joint a c t i o n w i t h European and T h i r d World n a t i o n s t o b r i n g t h e m a t t e r of t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n before the U n i t e d N a t i o n s S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , The C o u n c i l began i t s debate o n A f g h a n i s t a n on J a n , 5 a t t h e r e q u e s t o f 50 U,N, aember n a t i o n s , On Jan. 7, t h e S o v i e t Union v e t o e d a S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l r e s o l u t i o n condemning t h e i n v a s i o n and demanding t h a t S o v i e t f o r c e s b e withdrawn. F o l l o w i n g t h e S o v i e t v e t o , t h e q u e s t i o n w a s b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e U-B, G e n e r a l Assembly, where t h e S o v i e t Union h a s no v e t o On Jan. 14, t h e General Assembly v o t e d 104-18, w i t h 18 a b s t e n t i o n s and 8 a b s e n t e e s , t o condemn t h e i n v a s i o n and call f o r t h e removal of a l l f a r e i g n t r o o p s from A f g h a n i s t a n . The U.S.. b r i e f l y r e d l e d Ambassador Thomas Watson from Hoscov on Jan. 2. On t h e same d a y i t w a s announced t h a t the C a r t e r a d s i n i s t r a t i o n had d e c i d e d t o a s k t h e S e n a t e t o d e l a y its c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e SALT T r e a t y . The B d m i n s t r a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was t a k i n g t h i s s t e p r e l u c t a n t l y b e c a u s e SALT I1 was s t i l l v i e w e d a s b e i n g i n t h e U . S . interest. The President s u b s e q u e n t l y said t h a t the U.S. would m n t i n u e t o a b i d e by t h e terms o f SALT I , and v o n l d n o t v i o l a t e t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f SALT I1 a s l o n g as t h e S o v i e t Union d i d t h e same. S p e c i f i c U-S. r e s p o n s e s t o S o v i e t a c t i o n s i n A f g h a n i s t a n v e r e announced in P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r ' s m e s s a g e t o M e n a t i o n on J a n . 4. The U .S seasures included : . (1) B l o c k i n g g r a i n sales t o t h e S o v i e t Union beyond t h e 8 n i l l i o n metric tons already caitracted. T h i s a.eans w i t h h o l d i n g an a d d i t i o n a l 17 m i l l i o n metric t o n s which t h e S o v i e t s have a l r e a d y o r d e r e d . (2) S t o p p i n g t h e s a l e of h i g h t e c h n o l o g y and s t r a t e g i c i t e n s t o t h e S o v i e t Union, i n c l u d i n g c o m p u t e r s and o i l d r i l l i n g equipment. (3) C u r b i n g S o v i e t f i s h i n g p r i v i l e g e s i n U.S. waters. The c a t c h a l l o w e d S o v i e t f i s h i n g f l e e t s i n 1980 would be r e d u c e d from 350,000 t o n s t o 75,000 t o n s , r e s u l t i n g i n a n estimated S o v i e t e c o n o m i c l o s s o f $55 a i l l i o n to $60 million. (4) D e l a y i n g t h e o p e n i n g of a new S w i e t c o n s u l a t e American c o n s u l a t e i n Kiev. ( 5 ) P o s t p o n i n g new c u l t u r a l and c o u n t r i e s , now u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . economic in exchanges lev York between and the an two (6) H o l d i n g open t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s might n o t p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e Hoscov summer O l y m p b of 1980. The f i n a l d e c i s i o n by t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o s e e k a U.S. Olympic b o y c o t t was made on Feb. 20. moves A d r i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c i a l s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e c o u l d b e o t h e r U .S. According t o p r e s s r e p o r t s an J a n . i n r e t a l i a t i o n for t h e Soviet aqgressian. 6 , p o s s i b l e f u r t h e r a c t i o n s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n c l u d e a cutback i n s t a f f s of t h e S o v i e t Embassy i n Washington a n d t h e U.S. Embassy i n Uoscov, r e d u c t i o n of t h e staff of t h e U . S . and o t h e r Western e m b a s s i e s i n Kabul, and m u l t i l a t e r a l Western e f f o r t s t o c u r t a i l Western bank c r e d i t s f o r Moscow l o n e of t h e s e n e a s u r e s h a v e b e e n i n p l e m e t e d t h u s far. . The S o v i e t Union d i s m i s s e d t h e s e c h a l l e n g e s i n i t s f i r s t h i g h - l e v e l o f f i c i a l r e s p o n s e , carried by t h e S o v i e t news agency T a s s on J a n . 6. The a u t h o r i t a t i v e T a s s s t a t e m e n t warned t h a t t h e U.S. a c t i o n s v o u l d be a t l e a s t a s h a r m f u l t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s a s t o t h e S o v i e t Union a n d s t r e s s e d t h a t any a t t e r p t t o i n f l u e n c e S o v i e t f o m i g n p o l i c y t h r o u g h s u c h m e a s u r e s was doomed t o f a i l . P r e s i d e n t Carter was s a i d t o h a v e f a i l e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e r e a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n l o v e r e s t i m a t i n g t h e " p o t e n t i a l i t i e s " of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d u n d e r e s t i m a t x n g t h e W p o t e n t i a l i t i e s wof t h e c o u n t r y b e i n g t a r g e t e d f o r r e p r i s a l s , I t uarned t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s h o u l d n o t d o u b t t h e S o v i e t a b i l i t y t o defend its i n t e r e s t s , The s t a t e m e n t concluOsd w i t h t h e e x p r e s s e d hope t h a t a "sane, fa r - s i g h t e d a p p r o a c h n t o S o v i e t -American r e l a t i o n s v o n l d e v e n t u a l l y p r e v a i l i n t h e U n i t e d States. S u b s e q u e n t S o v i e t commentary stressed t h e S o v i e t w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n t i n u e t h e d e t e n t e r e l a t i o n s h i p v i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Western Europe, i n c l u d i n g t h e arms c o n t r o l d i a l o g u e , The q u e s t i o n now i s w h a t t h e i m p a c t v i l l b e o f t h e measures announced by P r e s i d e n t Carter, While t h e s e moves s e r v e t o u n d e r l i n e U-So d i s p l e a s u r e o v e r S o v i e t b e h a v i o r i n A f g h a n i s t a n , there is a g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s t h a t t h e y a r e n o t l i k e l y t o compel t h e S o v i e t s t o reverse t h e i r p o l i c i e s i n A f g h a n i s t a n S o v i e t leaders p r o b a b l y t o o k t h e possibility of s u c h S o r e p r i s a l s i n t o a c c o a n t , a s p o s s i b l e c o n s e q u e n a e s of t h e i r move i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n , and d e c i d e d t h a t t h e y were a p r i c e worth p a p i n g - in a d d i t i o n , saee o f t h e r e p r i s a l s c l e a r l y have a n a d v e r s e i m p a c t o n t h e United S t a t e s a s w e l l a s on t h e S o v i e t Union, On t h e i s s u e of SALT, t h e S o v i e t s may w e l l have c o n c l u d e d , p r i o r t o t h e i r move i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n , t h a t t h e r e was no l i k e l i h o o d of f a v o r a b l e U S . Senate a c t i o n , The s h o r t - t e r m p r o s p e c t s f o r SALT and o t h e r a r m s c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s h a v e c l e a r l y been dimmed by t h e c u r r e n t crisis, A ma jar q u e s t i o n now is what t h e long-term p r o s p e c t s a r e f o r b o t h t h e SALT p r o c e s s a n d f o r u t h e r a r m s c o n t r o l d i s c u s s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e Vienna F o r c e R e d u c t i o n T a l k s @BPB) and a n t i c i p a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s on l i a t i t i n g t h e a t e r n u c l e a r weapons in EuropeP r e s i d e n t C a r t e r k e p t t h e d o u r open t o an e v e n t u a l SALT a g r e e m e n t by u n d e r l i n i n g h i s c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t f o r it a n d by o f f e r i n g t o c o n t i n u e t o a b i d e b y t h e terms of t h e SALT I1 a c c o r d , T k S o v i e t r e s p o n s e t h u s f a r s u g g e s t s t h a t Hoscou is s t i l l committed t o the SALT p r o c e s s a l t h o u g h S o v i e t l e a d e r s h a v e n o t e x p l i c i t l y a g r e e d t o P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r *s o f f e r , A P r a v d a e d i t o r i a l o n J a n - 29, a s w e l l a s a TASS s t a t e m e n t i n Harch, d i d n o t remove t h e a n b i g u i t i e s , R a v d a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union still hoped f o r SALT r a t i f i c a t i o n , b u t TASS warned t h a t t h e t r e a t y c o u l d o n l y c o m e i n t o f o r c e a f t e r r a t i f i c a t i o n by b o t h s i d e s , The e c o n o m i c s a n c t i o n s announced by P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r are bound t o s h a r p l y r e d u c e t h e a l r e a d y a o d e s t U , S , - S o v i e t t r a d e volume, The o v e r a l l i m p a c t on t h e U,S, economy will be LimitedOnly U - S o farmers v i l l feel any s i g n i f i c a n t pinch, a l t h o u g h t h e Administration h a s pledged t o c u s h i o n t h a t i m p a c t t h r o a g h a number of d o m e s t i c m e a s u r e s , The e x t e n t of t h e i a p a c t of t h e s e e c o n o m i c r e p r i s a l s o n t h e S o v i e t economy v i l l depend i n l a r g e measure on w h e t h e r t h e S o v i e t s c a n f i n d a l t e r n a t e Western s u p p l i e r s f o r t h e g o o d s it w i l l n o l o n g e r r e c e i v e from t h e U.S. Tb make t h e s a n c t i o n s e f f e c t i v e , the U n i t e d States w i l l n e e d t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f its n a j o r a l l i e s , 0,s. National S e c u r i t y A d v i s o r Zbigniew B r z e z i n s k i , a t a news c o n f e r e n c e o n Uar, 1 2 , u r g e d Western Europe a n d J a p a n t o t a k e more % a n g i b l e n a c t i o n s w a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t . UnionThe g r a i n c u t o f f could c a u s e t h e S o v i e t s t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l h a d s h i p T h e S o v i e t Union n e e d s t o i m p o r t l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of f e e d g r a i n t o e n s u r e a d e s i r e d s u p p l y of m e a t f o r i t s p o p l l a t i o n , Any S o v i e t m e a t s h o r t a g e r e s u l t i n g from U - S , a c t i o n c o u l d i n c r e a s e d o m e s t i c p r e s s u r e on t h e S o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t , The S o v i e t Union m u l i t r e p l a c e much of t h e l o s t U.S, g r a i n w i t h i m p o r t s from c o u n t r i e s such a s A u s t r a l i a , Canada, and A r g e n t i n a i f t h e y were willing t o cooperate, The s u p p o r t some c o u n t r i e s f o r t h e p r o p o s e d e c o n o m i c s a n c t i o n s is q u e s t i o n s b l e S i m i l a r factors a p p l y i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e i m p a c t of the U-S , decision t o b l o c k h i g h - t e c h n o l o g y e x p o r t s t o t h e S o r r i e t Union, T h e r e are f e w items on t h e S o v i e t s h o p p i n g list t h a t c o u l d n o t b e b o u g h t f r o m o t h e r Western i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s , It is hoped t h a t U - S a l l i e s w i l l support t h e U - S o d e c i s i o n by r e f u s i n g t o s e l l s o p h i s t i c a t e d e q u i p m e n t t o Hoscov, In any e v e n t , a n i n t e r r u p t i o n of h i g h - t e c h n o l o g y i m p o r t s is n o t l i k e l y t o have the same d r a r a t i c s h o r t - t e r n i m p a c t on t h e S o v i e t Union as the g r a i n c u t o f f , ' a l t h o u g h t h e l o n g - t e r m impact on t h e S o v i e t economy of embargo on h i g h - t e c h n o l o g y items c o u l d b e more s e r i o u s , a total Western The c u r t a i l s e n t o f S o v i e t f b h i n g r i g h t s i n U ,S , w a t e r s w i l l mean some l o s s f o r t h e S o v i e t f i s h i n g i n d n s t r y ht n o t of a m a g n i t u d e t h a t would s e r i o u s l y d i s r u p t t h e S o v i e t emnomy, The d e c i s i c m t o d e l a y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f new c u l t u r a l a n d econoaic c o o p e r a t i o n a g r e e m e n t s and t o p o s t p o n e t h e o p e n i n g o f new c o n s u l a t e s , w i l l n o t p u n i s h t h e S o v i e t Union t o a n y s i g a i f i c a n t e x t e n t , The i d e a o f b o y c o t t i n g the 1980 fioscow Olympics o r moving them t o a n o t h e r c o u n t r y h a s been e n d o r s e d by b o t h t h e House and S e n a t e and is r e a i v i n g w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c s u p p o r t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , A g r o w i n g number o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y may j o i n t h e b o y c o t t , Such a move would be l a r g e l y s y m b o l i c , b u t c o u l d b e a s e r i o u s e a b a r a s s a e n t t o M e S o v i e t g o v e r n a e n t which h a s i n v e s t e d h e a v i l y i n t h e games a n d a t t a c h e s c o n s i d e r a b l e importance t o t h e f a v o r a b l e worldwide p u b l i c i t y they a r e expected t o b r i n g t o a o s C o ~ , S o v i e t l e a d e r s m i g h t b e h a r d - p r e s s e d t o e x p l a i n t h e a b s e n c e of f o r e i g n t e a m s to its own p o p u l a t i o n i n w a y s t h a t would n o t d a a a g e government prestige, The U n i t e d S t a t e s c a n and nap t a k e o t h e r r e t a l i a t o r y a c t i o n s , In t h e e c o n o m i c s p h e r e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r m e a s u r e s are l i m i t e d . The S o v i e t Union u a s a l r e a d y b a r r e d f r o m Export-Import Bank c r e d i t s and n o s t - f a v o r e d - n a t i o n s t a t u s u n d e r t h e Jackson-Vanik amendment t o t h e T r a d e Act of 1974, T h e s e b a r r i e r s t o t r a d e a r e n o t now l i k e l y t o b e r e s c i n d e d , a l t h o u g h t h e r e h a d b e e n some movement in t h a t d i r e c t i o n p r i s t o t h e A f g h a n i s t a n crisis, Grain sales and h i g h - t e c h n o l o g p exports, t h e main i t e s s i n U , S , - S o v i e t t r a d e , have a l r e a d y b e e n s u s p e n d e d , O t h e r p o s s i b l e U,S, r e p r i s a l s h a v e been s u g g e s t e d , T h e r e a r e a number o f b i l a t e r a l c o o p e r a t i o n a g r e e m e n t s s t i l l i n force which m u l d b e c a n c e l l e d or n o t renewed when t h e y e x p i r e , The 0-S. c o u l d abandon p a r l i a m e n t a r y a n d o t h e r h i g h - l e v e l e x c h a n g e s between t h e two a o u n t r i e s , The U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u l d r e f u s e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e 1980 H a d r i d C o n f e r e n c e on S e c u r i t y and C o o p e r a t i o n i n E u r o p e , a l t h o u g h t h a t C o n f e r e n c e c o u l d also b e used t o r a i s e q u e s t i o n s of S o v i e t i n t e r n a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r , s p e c i f i c a l l y some of t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s for E u r o p e F u r t h e r a c t i o n s of this n a t u r e would, h o v e v e r , r a i s e s o n e basic q u e s t i o n s , Beyond d r a m a t i z i n g U - S o c o n c e r n o v e r S w i e t b e h a v i o r , how would t h e s e a c t i o n s p r o m o t e major U,S, i n t e r e s t s ? Given t k f a c t t h a t s u c h r o v e s are n o t s e e n a s l i k e l y t o r e v e r s e t h e ccmrse o n which t h e S o v i e t Union h a s embarked i n A f g h a n i s t a n , w i l l t h e y be s e e n a s d e m o n s t r a t i o n s of American s t r e n g t h and h e l p l e s s n e s s in the r e s o l v e o r sill t h e y i n s t e a d b e s e e n a s e v i d e n c e of U.S. face of a s e r i o u s S o v i e t c h a l l e n g e ? D o s u c h a c t i o n s by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a d d r e s s t h e real i s s u e s i n A f g h a n i s t a n o r d o t h e y i n s t e a d s e r v e mure t o detract from them? F i n a l l y , i f t h e U , S , and t h e S o v i e t Union are e n t e r i n g a period of heightened tensions, a s all s i g n s i n d i c a t e , and i f t h e U-S. is d e t e r m i n e d t o face t h e l o n g - t e r n S o v i e t c h a l l e n g e d i r e c t l y through defense m e a s u r e s , r e g i o n a l a l l i a n c e s , etc, is i t p r u d e n t t o s h a r p l y c u r t a i l t h e l i n e s of communication and e x p o s u r e b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s ? -- -- On Has, 3, 1 9 8 0 , S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e Vance reaffirmed the U.S. A d r i n i s t r a t i o n % commitment t o t h e s a n c t i o n s f o r a s l o n g a s S o v i e t forces r e a a i n i n Afghanistan, H e a g a i n c a l l e d o n U - S o a l l i e s t o j o i n i n a tough stand against the Soviet action- The S o v i e t a c t i o n i n Afghanistan h a s r a i s e d c o n c e r n s i n Washingtan and o t h e r U e s t e r n c a p i t a l s o v e r p o s s i b l e S o v i e t a o v e s i n E a s t e r n Europe. Two c o u n t r i e s s e e m i n g l y v u l n e r a b l e t o h e i g h t e n e d S o v i e t p r e s s u r e are Romania, a r e l a t i v e l y autonomous member of t h e Warsaw P a c t , a n d Y u g o s l a v i a , a n o n a l i g n e d n a t i o n - The s e r i o u s illness of t h e 87-year-old Y u g o s l a v P r e s i d e n t Tito, s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e u n c e r t a i n Y u g o s l a v s u c c e s s i o n p e r i o d h a s begun. If r i v a l r i e s among t h e n a t i o n ' s e t h n i c g r o u p s a n d p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s were t o b r i n g a p e r i o d of i n s t a b i l i t y , t h e S o v i e t Union could b e t e m p t e d t o e x e r t p r e s s u r e t o r e t u r n Y u g o s l a v i a to its s p h e r e of i n f l u s n c e . One g r o u p of U e s t e r n o b s e r v e r s sees t h e r i s k of S o v i e t Roves i n Y u g o s l a v i a a s g r e a t e r i n t h e a f t e r n a t h of t h e i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n This group a r g u e s t h a t Soviet l e a d e r s , h a v i n g a l r e a d y s u f f e r e d world c o n d e a n a t i o n , n i g h t f e e l t h a t t h e y h a v e l i t t l e more t o l o s e i n t e r n s of world o p i n i o n . They see t h e e x i l e of Arrdrei S a k h a r a v , t h e p r o m i n e n t S o v i e t s c i e n t i s t and human r i g h t s a c t i v i s t , on Jan, 22, as e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e S o v i e t s a r e now p r e p a r e d t o t a k e a c t i o n s from which t h e y were p r e v i o u s l y r e s t r a i n e d by c o n c e r n f o r t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l image, A l a r g e r g r o u p of U e s t e r n a n a l y s t s d i s c a u n t s the d a n g e r of d i r e c t Soviet i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Y u g o s l a v i a , The knowledge t h a t Y u g o s l a v i a , w i t h Uestern s n p p o r t , would f i e r c e l y resist any S o v i e t i n c u r s i o n is a s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r r e n t f o r t h e S o v i e t s , e s p e c i a l l y a t a time when t h e y are a l r e a d y h e a v i l y engaged i n A f g h a n i s t a n , a c c o r d i n g t o this group. China's s t r o n g response to t h e Soviet invasion s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e i n p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and f o r U,S .-Chinese-Soviet relations : (1) I t s h o v s t h a t C h i n a f e e l s t h a t it is u n d e r i n c r e a s i n g S o v i e t s t r a t e g i c p r e s s u r e a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t P e k i n g may have a n e v e n k e e n e r i n t e r e s t i n p u r s u i n g claser s t r a t e g i c c o o p e r a t i a n w i t h t h e U n i t e d States t h a n in t h e past a n i n t e r e s t t h a t was r e f l e c t e d d u r i n g C h i n e s e d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h D e f e n s e S e c r e t a r y Brown i n P e k i n g in J a n u a r y 1980, Conversely, because of t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n a n d China * s s t r o n g r e s p o n s e , U ,So p o l i c y m a k e r s h a v e been n o r e i n c l i n e d t o t a k e s t e p s t o r e a s s u r e C h i n a of U ,S. s u p p o r t -- i n c l u d i n g t h e s a l e of s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n o l o g y and p e r h a p s , e v e n t u a l l y , arms, e v e n . t h o u g h s u c h sales would r e p r e s e n t a s e r i o u s d e p a r t u r e from w h a t had been s e e n i n t h e p a s t a s t h e U,S, policy of "evenhandedness* t o u a r d t h e S i n o S o v i e t powers, -- (2) I t d e m o n s t r a t e s a clear C h i n e s e d e s i r e t o see t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a d o p t s t r o n g c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s a g a i n s t S o v i e t a g g r e s s i o n , a n d it i m p l i e s t h a t P e k i n g wonld l i k e to see t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s remedy w h a t China v i a s as Aaericaes c u r r e n t l y n h e l p l e s s " p o s i t i o n i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e U.S.S,B, f x i n f l u e n c e in t h e H i d d l e E a s t - P e r s i a n Gulf regionC h i n a was r e p a r t e d l p unhappy o v e r t h e b r e a k d w n in 0-S, e f f o r t s t o i n i t i a t e a new program of arms s a l e s to P a k i s t a n , a n d it now a p p e a r s t o be more r e l u c t a n t t o c o o p e r a t e c l o s e l y w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n s u p p o r t i n g P a k i s t a n - (3) It s h o w s r e i n f o r c e d C h i n e s e s u s p i c i o n of S o v i e t a o t i v e s i n international affairs a d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t could b e e x p e c t e d t o r e d u c e w h a t e v e r i n t e r e s t C h i n a may h a v e had i n s e e k i n g some sort of accomnodation w i t h t h e U , S , S , B - i n t h e S i n o - S o v i e t t a l k s which b e g a n o n C h i n a B s i n i t i a t i v e l a s t fall, ( P e k i n g announced its s u s p e n s i o n of t h o s e t a l k s on J a n , 20, - 1980,) Such a r e d u c t i o n o f i n t e r e s t , if p e r c e i v e d c l e a r l y by the U n i t e d S t a t e s , would s e r v e t o c o u n t e r t h e a r g u m e n t s of t h o s e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s who o p p o s e t h e t r a n s f e r of t e c h n o l o g y and aras t o C h i n a f o r fear t h a t P e k i n g n i g h t r e v e r s e amrse, move c l o s e r t o t h e U 3 - S -a,, a n d u s e t h o s e American s u p p l i e s i n ways c o n t r a r y t o U - S o i n t e r e s t s , I t would a l s o affect t h e a r g u a e n t s o f t h o s e Americans who j u d g e t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s h o u l d s t r i v e t o e n c o u r a g e a n e a s i n g of S i n o - S o v i e t t e n s i o n s i n t h e interest o f p e a c e a n d s t a b i l i t y i n Asia and e l s e w h e r e (4) It d e m o n s t r a t e s a m n t i n u i n g h a r d C h i n e s e l i n e c o n c e r n i n g t h e S o v i e t Union and Vietnam i n I n d o c f h a , a s w e l l a s s t r o n g C h i n e s e i r r i t a t i o n w i t h t h e leaders i n c o u n t r i e s l i k e I n d i a , J a p a n , G r e a t B r i t a i n , and p e r h a p s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , which have been l e s s t h a n f i r m i n China's eyes Fn m a i n t a i n i n g p r e s s u r e on V i e t n a r and its S o v i e t b a c k e r t o w i t h d r a v from C a r b o d i a and t o s t o p i n t e r f e r e n c e in o t h e r a r e a s o f S o u t h e a s t A s i a , ft i m p l i e s t h a t C h i n a mould l i k e t o see a s t r e n g t h e n i n g of U S , - C h i n e s e c o o p e r a t i o n t o c o u n t e r t h e e x p a n s i o n of S o v i e t - b a c k e d forces i n t h i s r e g i o n - - U,S- -- - Congress S e n a t e - C o m m i t t e e on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , R e s t r i c t i o n s on a p p o i n t e m e n t o f a n Ambassador t o A f g h a n i s t a n ; r e p o r t t o accompany S ,Beso 106 , [ Washington, U - S , Govt, P r i n t , O f f -,19793 5 p. ( 9 6 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n , S e n a t e , R e p o r t n o , 96-127) 05/01/80 - Agence 04/29/80 - The 04/27/80 - From 04/25/80 - Soviet France P r e s s e , c i t i n g t r a v e l l e r s froa Afghanistan, r e p o r t e d f r o a New D e l h i t h a t a t l e a s t 26 s t u d e n t s , h a l f of t h e n g i r l s , and a school p r i n c i p l e w e r e k i l l e d i n Kabul between Apr- 2 7 and 2 9 d u r i n g d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e r e g h e - The t r a v e l l e r s s a i d a t l e a s t 3 , 0 0 0 t o 5,000 s t u d e n t s t o o k p a r t i n t h e street de~onstrations, Washington P o s t , c i t i n g r e p o r t s from N e w D e l h i , s a i d a b o u t 200 Afghan h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s a n d women c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e d on Apr, 27 i n Kabul a g a i n s t t h e Soviet-backed regime, There w e r e a d d i t i o n a l r e p o r t s t h a t s t u d e n t s a t a boys' s c h o o l i n Kabul had been k i l l e d w h i l e p r o t e s t i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t 's c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e s e c o n d a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e B a r x i s t coup, Kabul, H - N o Kaul, a n e v s c o r r e s p o n d e n t P r e s s T r u s t of India, reported t h a t *highly s o u r c e s a s a i d t h e S o v i e t Union h a s d e p l o y e d A f g h a n i s t a n medium-range b a l l i s t i c missiles o f c a r r y i n g n u c l e a r war b e a d s - of t h e place5 in capable F o r e i g n e n i s t e r A n d r e i Grornyko ended a v i s i t t o Paris, d u r i n g which t i m e h e met w i t h F r e n c h P r e s i d e n t G i s c a r d d ' E s t a i n g and F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r F r a n c o i s - P o n c e t o n t h e A f g h a n i s t a n crisis. F r e n c h o f f i c i a l s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e 2-day a g r e e m e n t on issnes 04/23/80 -- West 04/18/80 -- f l e e t i n g 04/17/80 -- T a s s , - I B 8 0 0 06 UPDA TE -0 5/02/80 G e m a n C h a n c e l l o r Relmut Schmidt announced i n P a r l i a m e n t t h a t h i s government had d e c i d e d t o j o i n t h e U ,S .-backed Q l y n p i c b o y c o t t , in Zimbabwe t o h e l p celebrate t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e farmer B r i t i s h c d i o n y , P r e s i d e n t Z i a ul-Haq of P a k i s t a n a s k e d P r i m e H i n i s t e r I n d i r a G h a n d i of I n d i a t o t r y t o p e r s u a d e t h e S o v i e t Union t o w i t h d r a w its t r o o p s from A f g h a n i s t a n . A spokesnan f o r firs, Gandhi s a i d t h e " t u o l e a d e r s agreed t h a t a l l o f u s s h o u l d c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s in which t h e S o v i e t Union c a n withdraw," b u t h e a d d e d t h a t I n d i a was s t i l l opposed t o American arms s u p p l i e s t o P a k i s t a n . t h e S o v i e t news a g e n c y , r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e o f t h e r u l i n g P e o p l e @D se~ocratic P a r t y i n A f g h a n i s t a n c a l l e d f o r t a l k s w i t h I r a n and P a k i s t a n a s p a r t of a f i v e - p o i n t p l a n t o e n s u r e p e a s e and s t a b i l i t y i n the r e g i o n - The p r o p o s a l s i n c l u d e d b i l a t e r a l t a l k s w i t h I r a n and P a k i s t a n t o d i s c u s s n o r m a l i z i n g r e l a t i o n s and also called f o r a regional conference w i t h o u t conditions. -- S t a t e D e p a r t r e n t spokesman Hodding C a r t e r s a i d t h e S o v i e t Union h a d s u f f e r e d a b o u t 8,000 c a s u a l t i e s s i n c e t h e start of t h e i n v a s i o n i n December. He added t h e United S t a t e s c o u l d n o t e s t i m a t e t h e number of d e a t h s , -In S a l i s b u r y , Zimbabwe, P a k i s t a n i P r e s i d e n t a t t a c l c e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s far n o t p l a y i n g "a much more s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e o v e r t h e S o v i e t interventionN i n response t o t h e Soviet invasion of A f g h a n i s t a n . Z i a ul-Haq 04/15/80 -- J a p a n e s e 04/14/80 - The 04/13/80 - The F o r e i g n Minister Saburo Okita, i n a s t a t e m e n t w i d e l y r e g a r d e d a s s t r o n g enough t o a s s u r e J a p a n e s e a t h l e t e s * b o y c o t t o f t h e Olympics, e x p r e s s e d h i s g o v e r n s e n t @s s u p p o r t o f a b o y c o t t . West G e m a n government announced t h a t i t would recommend t h a t its n a t i o n a l Olympic committee v o t e t o b o y c o t t t h e Hoscou G a m e s , o f f i c i a l S o v i e t news a g e n c y , T a s s , a c c u s e d P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r of % n p r e c e d e n t e d p r e s s u r e and b l a c k m a i l m i n p e r s u a d i n g t h e U.S, Olympic C o m m i t t e e t o b o y c o t t t h e Olympics, a d d i n g t h a t t h e White House * a c t e d i n t h e s p i r i t o f t h e worst times o f M ~ C a r t h y i s n - ~ ~ - On ABC T e l e v i s i o n v s "Issues and B n s ~ e r s ,Deputy ~ S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e Warren C h r i s t o p h e r s a i d t h e S o v i e t Union was * p o u r i n g a d d i t i o n a l t r o o p s m i n A f g h a n i s t a n a n d h a s n u e l l o v e r 100,000, p r o b a b l y 1 1 0 , 0 0 0 nen t h e r e o n H e a d d e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t s were h a v i n g "a g r e a t d e a l o f d i f f i m l t y i n A f g h a n i s t a n . * 04/12/80 -- I n 04/91/88 -In 04/10/80 -- EI nd iat osrps e, ePc hr e tsoi d the American S o c i e t y o f Sewspaper e n t C a r t e r s a i d he was p r e p a r e d t o C o l o r a d o S p r i n g s , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Olympic Committee v o t e d by a 2-to-1 m a r g i n t o a c c e p t P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r ' s c a l l f o r a b o y c o t t of t h e Hoscov summer G a m e s - The 1,604-to-797 v o t e by t h e USOCas cane a f t e r V i c e ETesident Hondale House of Delega*s a d d r e s s e d t h e m e e t i n g u r g i n g its s u p p o r t f o r t h e President's decisiona s i g n e d a r t i c l e i n t h e S o v i e t Communist P a r t y n e w s p a p e r , P r a v d a , Gen- Aleksei Yepishev, chief o f t h e P o l i t i c a l Department of t h e S o v i e t armed f o r c e s , s a i d o t h e r members of t h e Harsaw P a c t a i l i t a r p a l l i a n c e were r e a d y t o g u a r a n t e e t h e s s c u r i t y o f the H a r x i s t Afghan regime against rrimperialist a t t a c k s take l e g a l a c t i o n t o p r e v e n t American a t h l e t e s f r o r a t t e n d i n g t h e M o s c o w O l y n p i c Ganes. -- The Soviet-backed Afghan r e g i m e c h a r g e d t h a t U - S - a a d e c h e m i c a l g r e n a d e s h a v e been u s e d by H u s l i r rebels i n Afghanistan- 04/09/80 - Pakistani f o r e i g n a f f a i z s a d v i s e r Agha S h a h i s a i d t h e number of Afghan r e f u g e e i n P a k i s t a n h a s i n c r e a s e d t o 700,000 since t h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n - - Carter A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c i a l s d i s c l o s e d t h e y were i n v o k i n g emergency economic p o v e r s t o p r e v e n t a n a t t e m p t by any a t h l e t e s t o t r a v e l t o Hoscow f o r t h e Olympics, S u c h a c t i o n would i n v o l v e amendments t o t h e Amateur S p o r t s Act of 1978, v h i c h o f f i c i a l l y a u t h o r i z e s t h e U.S. Olympic Connuittee t o f i e l d teams a t Olympic e v e n t s , 04/08/80 -- Cuban Foreign Hbister B i d o r o Halmierca m e t w i t h I n d i a n Prime H i n i s t e r I n d i r a Gandhi r e p o r t e d l y t o d i s c u s s an i n i t i a t i v e s p o n s o r e d by Cuba t o a r r a n g e a a e e t i n g between P a k i s - n i and A f g h a n i l e a d e r s , -- 04/07/80 A t a m e e t i n g v i t h 28 s p o r t s a f f i c i a l s , S e c r e t a r y of State C p r u s Vance, W h i t e House comsel Lloyd C u t l e r and Gen. D a v i d J o n e s , c h a i r m a n of t h e Joint C h i e f s of S t a f f , made a n o t h e r a p p e a l f o r a p r o - b o y c o t t d e c i s i o n by t h e U - S o Olympic Committee- I n a r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t USOC E x e m t i v e D i r e c t o r F, Don H i l l e r s a i d t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n had raised t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of r e v o k i n g t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s t a x exempt s t a t u s - -- R a d i o P a k i s t a n r e p o r t e d t h a t Afghan r e b e l s s h o t down a S o v i e t h e l i c o p t e r l a s t week, k i l l i n g t u o S o v i e t generals, - UPI, c i t i n g Afghan r e b e l s o u r c e s , r e p o r t e O a %ajar o f f e n s i v e * by S o v i e t t r o o p s i n A f g h a n i s t a n ' s L a g h r a n p r o v i n c e n o r t h e a s t of Kabu 1 - - Cuban F o r e i g n Minister b l a i e r c a , u h o a r r i v e d i n A f g h a n i s t a n on A p r i l 5, m e t f o r t h e s e c o n d day i n a row w i t h P r e s i d e n t Babrak K a w a l i n Kabul- - The Uashingtm m s t r e p a s t e d t h a t t h e prime m i n i s t e r of Vietnam, t h e f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r of Cuba, I s i d o r o Malmierca, and t h e d e p u t y f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r of t h e S o v i e t Union, I .Po F i r y u b i n , a r r i v e d i n N e w D e l h i f o r t a l k s w i t h t h e I n d i a n government. There w a s specualtion t h a t t h e officials intended t o pressure I n d i a i n t o greater s u p p a s t for the S o v i e t s ' i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n . -A - 17-me-r c o n g r e s s i o n a l B e l e g a t i o n l e d by Rep M e l v i n Price (I)-Ill.) a r r i v e d i n I s l a m a b a d , P a k i s t a n - 04/04/80 -- T a s s , 04/03/80 -- D e f e n s e t h e S o v i e t p r e s s agency, announced t h a t t h e Suprene S o v i e t R e s i d i u m r a t i f i e d t h e t r e a t y between A f g h a n i s t a n a n d t h e S o v i e t Union Won t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e t e m p w a r y s t a y o f a l i m i t e d c o n t i n g e n t of S o v i e t forces in A f g h a n i s t a n t e r r i t o r y Afghanistan's r u l i n g R e v o l u t i a n a r y C o u n c i l and t h e C o u n c i l o f H i n i s t e r s a l s o a p p r o v e d the a g r e e m e n t . The new t r e a t y was a p p a r e n t l y s i g n e d d u r i n g Afghan F o r e i g n H i n i s t e r Mohaased D o s t a s Bar. 13-14 visit t o B o s c o w . Secretaq H a r o l d Brown, Deputy S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e Warren C h r i s t o p h e r , a n d White House C o u n s e l Lloyd C u t l e r m e t w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n i n g bodies of t h e 32 Olympic s p o r t s a t t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t i n order t o p r e s e n t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s p o s i t i o n o n t h e O l ~ l n p i cb o y c o t t . - The S o v i e t news a g e n c y , T a s s , r e p o r t e d t h a t a n American, R o b e r t L e e , who was a r r e s t e d i n Kabul i n F e b r u a r y a n d a c c u s e d of b e i n g a CIA a g e n t , a p p e a r e d on Afghan t e l e v i s i o n t o tell v i e o e r s t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of W e s t e r n c o u n t r i e s a n d C h i n a were a t t e m p t i n g t o % a b o t a g e m t h e Afghan g w e r n m e n t . On A p i l 2 a man i d e n t i f i e d as L e e was i n t e r v i e w e d o n S o v i e t t e l e v i s i o n . -- Rebel sources i n Peshawar, P a k i s t a n r e p o r t e d a m a j o r d r i v e b y S o v i e t a n d Afghan government forces a g a i n s t Muslim i n s u r g e n t s i n Nangahar p r o v i n c e n e a r t h e town of J a l a l a b a d close t o t h e P a k i s t a n i f r o n t i e r - 03/31/80 - The 03/29/80 -- S o v e t s k a y a Canadian O l p p i c Association accepted a n i n v i t a t i o n t o t h e B o s c a v Olympics. B o s s i y a , t h e o f f i c i a l n e w s p a p e r af t h e R u s s i a n R e p u b l i c : c a l l e d t h e C a r t e r administration*^ a l l e g a t i o n s of S o v i e t u s e of p o i s o n g a s i n A f g h a n i s t a n lander.^ - The Washington Post, c i t i n g t r a v e l e r s f m a Kabul, r e p o r t e d t h a t t b e Karma1 regime h a s begun r e t u r n i n g p r o p e r t y c o n f i s c a t e d i n p a s t l a n d r e f o r m programs a s p a r t of an a p p a r e n t a t t e a p t t o win s u p p o r t from t h e Afghan p e o p l e , -In H e w elh hi, P a l e s t i n i a n l e a d e r Y a s e r A r a f a t s a i d he was a s k e d by K a h l l e a d e r s to h e l p m e d i a t e A f g h a n i s t a n ' s d i s p u t e with I r a n - 03/28/88 -- P r e s i d e n t Carter o r d e r e d t h e S e c r e t a r y of C o m m e r c e t o d e n y l i c e n s e s fop Anerioan g o o d s a n d t e c h n o l o g y i n t e n d e d f o r t h e Moscow O l p m p i c s , a n d t o r e v o k e e x p o r t licenses f o r items t h a t h a v e n o t y e t b e e n s h i p p e d , The P r e s i d e n t a l s o p r o h i b i t e d t r a n s a c t i o n s a n d payments a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e G a m e s , i n c l u d i n g NBCes p a y w e n t of r e m a i n i n g i n s t a l l m e n t s o f t h e $87 m i l l i o n i n r i g h t s and f a c i l i t i e s , - House I n a s t a t e a e n t r e l a t e d to t h e e x p o r t b a n , t h e W h i t e c a l l e d t h e S o v i e t o c c u p a t i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n " a n u n u s u a l and e x t r a o r d i n a r y t h r e a t t o t h e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , f o r e i g n p o l i c y a n d economy of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s -- D e p u t y S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e Warren C h r i s t o p h e r , i n a allies l u n c h e o n a e e t i n g w i t h r e p o r t e r s , s a i d t h a t U.S a u s t c o n f r o n t t h e v i o l e n c e c a r r i e d o u t by S o v i e t f o r c e s i n A f g h a n i s t a n , i n c l u d i n g t h e u s e o f napalm a n d p o i s o n g a s , a n d 50 e x e c n t i o n s d a i l y , 03/26/80 . - Renters reported t h a t t h e Pakistani Foreign Ministry h a d a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t Cuban l e a d e r F i d e l C a s t r o , c u r r e n t c h a i r m a n o f t h e non - a l i g n e d m o v e r e n t , has s e n t a l e t t e r t o P r e s i d e n t Zia ul-Haq o f f e r i n g % o s e r v e t h e cause o f peace a n d c o n t r i b u t e toward a p o l i t i c a l s o l u t i o n w of the problems i n t h e a r e a , The m e s s a g e v a s d e l i v e r e d b y Cuban F o r e i g n P I i n i s t e r I s i d o r o H a l m i e s c a who a r r i v e d f m a Kabul Har, 2 5 , -A t a press conference i n P a r i s , Bichael B a r q , I n t e r n a t i o n a l H m a n R i g k s F e d e r a t i o n envoy t o t h e P a k i s t a n i - A f g h a n b o r d e r , m c c m f i r a e d t h a t S o v i e t fo r e s i n A f g h a n i s t a n were u s i n g napalm and p o i s o n gas, 03/25/80 - B ej e c t i n g 03/22/80 -- T a s s , 03/31/80 -- M e e t i n g w i t h t h e p l e a s o f Prilae H i n i s t e r H a r g a r e t T h a t c h e r , t h e B r i t i s h Olympic A s s o c i a t i o n v o t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e Hoscw Olympics, After t h e v o t e t h e Foreign O f f i c e appealed t o a l l B r i t i s h a t h l e t e s t o d e c i d e on t h e i r ovn t o s t a y away from Hoscou. t h e S o v i e t news a g e n c y , r e p o r t e d t h a t P r e s i d e n t Karma1 had r e j e c t e d a W e s t e r n d i p l o m a t i c e f f o r t t o g u a r a n t e e A f g h a n i s t a n e s n e u t r a l i t y in e x c h a n g e f o r a r i t h d r a v a l of S u v i e t t r a r p s , a g r o u p of p a s t a n d p r o s p e c t i v e O l p p i c a t h l e t e s a t t h e W h i t e House, P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r r e p e a t e d t h e A d n t i n i s t r a t i o n B s p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e United S t a t e s " w i l l n o t g o m t o t h e Moscow Olympics. -In a N e w Y e a r e s s p e e c h , A y a t o l l a h Khomeini demanded t h a t t h e Soviet Union w i t h d r a w from A f g h a n i s t a n , A t 03/20/80 - t h e saae r a l l y , I r a n i a n P r e s i d e n t Abol Hassan B a n i S a d r a l s o condemned t h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n , w a r n i n g w i l l n o t t o l e r a t e y o u r m i l i t a r y p r e s e n c e i n o u r area. In a Kabul radio b r o a d c a s t , P r e s i d e n t K a r m a 1 said S o v i e t troops v m l d s t a y i n h i s country " a s l o n g as t h e r e is t h e smallest s i g n ad p r o v o c a t i o n , i n t e r f e r e n c e o r e x t e r n a l a g g r e s s i o n against A f g h a n i s t a n . Citing bad weather, t h e Afghan g o v e r n m e n t c a n c e l l e d B u s l i a New Year c e l e b r a t i o n s . - In m e e t i n g s between C h i n e s e F o r e i g n H i n i s t e r Zhang Wen j i n and V i c e P r e s i d e n t Uondale, t h e m o p l e e s R e p u b l i c of C h i n a a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s agreed t o pursue s e p a r a t e b u t mrrutually r e i n f o r c i n g n e f f o r t s t o c o u n t e r t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n - However, t h e C h i n e s e r e p o r t e d l y e x p r e s s e d t h e i r hope t h a t n o r e c o n c r e t e U,S. a c t i o n would be t a k e n . 03/19/80 -- The S o v i e t - b a c k e d regime o f Babrak K a r a a l announced its new $790 m i l l i o n b u d g e t f o r t h e n e x t f i s c a l y e a r , l a r g e l y f i n a n c e d b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y $200 m i l l i o n in l o a n s a n d g r a n t s from the S o v i e t Union. The S o v i e t Union was r e p o r t e d t o be p r o v i d i n g a n a d d i t i o n a l $40 m i l l i o n d o n a t e d in c o n s m e r goods, i n c l u d i n g w h e a t , s u g a r , t e x t i l e s , and c o o k i n g o i l s , -- Bbdnr R a s o o l S a p a f , a n Is1a a i c s c h o l a r r e l e a s e d from p r i s o n by P r e s i d e n t K a r a a l in J a n u a r y , was elected l e a d e r of t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y C o u n c i l of t h e I s l a m i c A l l i a n c e f o r t h e L i b e r a t i o n o f Afghanistan. S a y a f was v i c e p r e s i d e n t uf A f g h a n i s t a n 8 s J a m i a t I s l a m i P a r t y b e f o r e b e i n g j a i l e d i n 1974 by P r e s i d e n t Daoud, 03/17 80 -- Twelve 03/15/80 - The 03/14/80 -- Romania n a t i o n s met in Geneva, S w i t z e r l a n d , t o d i s c u s s a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e noscow Olympic G a m e s . S u g g e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d a W o r l d - c l a s s gamesn t o b e h e l d a f t e r t h e scow G a m e s . The a e e t i n g , o r g a n i z e d b y t h e United S t a t e s , A u s t r a l i a and Great B r i t a i n , was a t t e n d e d by Kenya, C o s t a Rica, S a u d i A r a b i a , P o r t u g a l , t h e Darainican R e p u b l i c , t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , C a n a d a , t h e Sudan, and t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , 21-m-ber a d m i n i s t r a t i v e committee of t h e U S , O l y m p i c C o n n i t t e e recommended t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n on s e n d i n g American a t h l e t e s t o t h e Moscow G a m e s b e d e l a y e d as l o n g a s p o s s i b l e . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e committee passed a r e s o l u t i o n urging a decision b e made b a s e d on world c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n mid-Hay, j u s t b e f o r e t h e Ray 24 d e a d l i n e f o r f i l i n g e n t r i e s t o t h e sumrer Games. issued a j o i n t s t a t e n e n t with Great B r i t a i n i m p l i c i t l y denouncing t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n , The s t a t e m e n t , f o l l o w i n g a two-day v i s i t t o B u c h a r e s t by B r i t i s h F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y L o r d C a r r i n g t o n , c a l l e d upon t h e S o v i e t Union t o n e g o t i a t e a p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n of t h e crisis and resume t h e p o l i c y of d e t e n t e t h r o u g h o u t t h e v ~ r l d - ~ - would F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r A n d r e i Gronyko s a i d t h e S o v i e t Union reject a n y p l a n fas a p o l i t i c a l s e t t l e m e n t i n A f g h a n i s t a n which a f f e c t e d t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e Afghan g o v e r n n e n t 03/13/80 -- Afghan 03/12/80 -- P r e s i d e n t spokesmen s a i d i n P a k i s t a n t h a t a l e a d i n g g u e r r i l l a commander had b e e n k i l l e d by S o v i e t t r o o p s on Mar, 11, G u l a i S h a e r , chief o f t h e Hashwani t r i b e , had led i n s u r g e n t d r i v e s a g a i n s t t h e c e n t r a l Afghan government s i n c e t h e 1978 M a r x i s t coup. C a r t e r asked all U-S- companies scheduled t o s u p p l y a e r c h a n d i s e t o t h e summer O l y s p i c s t o v o l u n t a r i l y s t o p s h i p p i n g t h e i r g o o d s t o t h e Moscov G a m e s - T h i s a c t i o n is expecbed t o a f f e c t between $ 1 5 a n d 920 x i l l i o n i n merchandise, - Chancellor H e l m u t Schmidt o f West Germany r e v e a l e d he had r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r f mm S o v i e t P r e s i d e n t Leonid B r e z h n e v o n Har, 4, t h e d a y M r . S c h m i d t a r r i v e d i n Washington t o c o n f e r w i t h P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r , w a r n i n g him a g a i n s t s u p p o r t i n g U-S - s p o n s o r e d a n t i - S o v i e t s a n c t i o n s , H r - Schmidt a l s o a v o i d e d q u e s t i o n s a t a news c o n f e r e n c e o n whether Bonn w i l l b o y c o t t t h e O l y m p i c Games- H e s a i d h e d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h e b o y c o t t a key i s s u e i n t h e West 's r e s p o n s e t o t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n , - In a n e v s c o n f e r e n c e a t t h e N a t i o n a l P r e s s Club, Ha t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s a r Z bigniew B r z e z i n s k i u r g e d W e s t e r n Europe and J a p a n t o t a k e more A t a n g i b l e a c t i o n s " a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t Union's i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n , a d d i n g t h a t a p o l i c y of g l r h e t o r i c a l u n i t y and s u b s t a n t i v e p a s s i v i t y R is rick s u f f i c i e n t - Br, B r z e z i n s k i a l s o a p p e a r e d t o g i v e l i t t l e enccmragement t o European p r o p o s a l s t h a t t h e S o v i e t s be o f f e r e d a n e u t r a l A f g h a n i s t a n i n exchange f o r a w i t h d r a w a l of t h e i r t r o o p s , b u t added t h a t t h e United S t a t e s is w i l l i n g t o e x p l o r e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s - 03/08/80 - The Afghan government of B a b r a k Karral h a s i s s u e d a d r a f t call r e q u i r i n g a l l e l i g i b l e men a b o v e a g e 2 1 t o r e g i s t e r by Bar. 15 ir order t o s t r e n g t h e n its d w i n d l i n g armed forces in a n a p p a r e n t a t t e m p t t o p r e p a r e f o r a n e x p e c t e d s p r i n g odf e n s i v e a g a i n s t a n t i - g o v e r n m e n t rebels, 03/09/80 - Soviet s o l d i e r s a g a i n p a t r o l l e d t h e streets o f Kabul a n d S o v i e t f i g h t e r jets a n d h e l i c o p t e r g u n s h i p s b u z z e d t h e c i t y a s o p p o n e n t s of t h e government i n d i c a t e d t h e y were p r e p a r i n g a n o t h e r round of s t r i k e s - - In K u a l a L u a p u r , H a l a p s i a , t h e f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r s of t h e Buropean Common Market and t h e A s s o c i a t i o n of S o u t h e a s t Asian N a t i o n s (A S E A N ) condemned t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n - CBS- 33 03/06/80 - The 03/05/80 -Pakistan's IE80006 UPDATE-05/02/80 C a r t e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n announced t h e s u s p e n s i o n & p l a n s t o s e e k c o n g r e s s i o n a l a p p r o v a l f o r a $400 m i l l i o n e c o n o m i c a n d m i l i t a r y a i d program f o r P a k i s t a n . F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r , Agha S h a h i , announced h i s c o u n t r y e s i n t e n t i o n t o reject a $400 m i l l i o n U , S - a i d p a c k a g e , s t a t i n g it would harm r a t h e r t h a n h e l p P a k i s t a n ' s s e c u r i t y . U ,So o f f i c i a l s said t h e r e j e c t i o n a p p e a r e d n o t to rule o u t American a i d a l t o g e t h e r , o n l y t h e amount o f f e r e d b y t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n - Chancellor Schmidt of V e s t Germany, i n a m e e t i n g w i t h P r e s i d e n t Carter, d e c l a r e d his n a t i o n *ss o l i d a r i t y w i t h t h e U n i t e d States on t h e i s s u e of t h e S w i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n and s a i d r e c e n t e v e n t s t h e r e "made b u s i n e s s a s usual [ p i t h t h e S o v i e t s ] i m p ~ s s i b l e . ~ ~ 03/04/80 - Afghan r e b e l s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r f o r c e s had s u f f e r e d a d e f e a t a t t h e h a n d s o f S o v i e t and Afghan government t r o o p s i n Kunar p r o v i n c e . - Hizbe I s l a m i , t h e s i n g l s largest i n s u r g e n t group, a n n o u n c e d its w i t h C r a v a l f r a t h e I s l a m i c A l l i a n c e f o r t h e L i b e r a t i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n , c i t i n g t h e i n s u f f i c i e n t number of seats t o be a l l o t t e d t o i t i n t h e newly created r e v o l u t b n a r y c o u n c i l which w i l l be comprised of t h e f i v e l a r g e s t r e b e l groups- - Chancellor Helmut Schmidt a r r i v e d i n Washington f o r t a l k s w i t h P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r on B f g h a n i s t a n , 03/03/80 -- R e p o r t s from A f g h a n i s t a n clail~edt h a t S o v i e t a n d Afghan government forces were m a i n t a i n i n g a n o f f e n s i v e i n e a s t e r n Afghanistan d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t r e b e l insurgents. A rebel s t a t e m e n t i s s u e d i n Peshawar, P a k i s t a n , s a i d t h e S o v i e t s had s e n t a l m o s t 200 t a n k s , 36 h e l i c o p t e r g u n s h i p s , and a n u n d e t e r m i n e d number of M I G - 2 1 and HIG-23 f i g h - k r s i n t o t h e a t t a c k s - -- I n a s p e e c h t o t h e C o u n c i l on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s i n C h i c a g o , S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e C y r u s Vance e x p r e s s e d d i s a p p o i n t m e n t wer t h e r e l u c t a n c e of F r a n c e a n d o t h e r Western a l l i e s t o t a k e t o u g h e r m e a s u r e s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n Fie a d d e d t h a t a r e s p o n s e h a d t o b e b a l a n c e d b e t w e e n f i r m n e s s a n d a n a v o i d a n = of n t h e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f e a r l i e r tineson B e a l s o v o i c e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e a l l i e d p l a n on n e u t r a l i t y f o r A f g h a n i s t a n b u t d o u b t e d t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e . M r . Vance r e a f f i r m e d t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 's c o u i t u m t t o n u c l e a r a r m s c o n t r o l a g r e e n e n t s and SALT 11- 03/02/80 - The I s l a m i c A l l i a n c e f o r t h e L i b e r a t i o n o f Afghanistan r e p o r t e d t h a t S o v i e t a n d Afghan government t r o o p s had begun a t t a c k i n g rebel s t r o n g h o l d s i n t h e n o r t h e a s t p r o v i n c e o f Kunar- The spokesman s a i d the t r o o p s were b a c k e d by armored v e h i c l e s , r o c k e t - f i r i n g h e l i c o p t e r s - and fighter-bombers, -- The P e o p l e ' s D a i l y , t h e o f f i c i a l newspaper of t h e C h i n e s e Comrunist P a r t y , p u b l i s h e d an e d i t o r i a l r e j e c t i n g p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e f o r r a t i o n of a n e u t r a l Afghanistan. V h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l community c a n compel t h e S o v i e t a g g r e s s o r s t o comply w i t h t h e G e n e r a l Assembly r e s o l u t i o n ( f o r t h e w i t h d r a w a l of S o v i e t t r o o p s ) o n l y by e n f o r c i n g laore r i g o r o u s s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t Union," t h e a r t i c l e s a i d . 02/29/80 - Britain p r e s e n t e d t o t h e S o v i e t Union a p r o p o s a l f o r t h e n e u t r a l i z a t i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n . -- S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e C y r u s Vance c o n f e r r e d w i t h S o v i e t . Ambassador AnatoiLi Dobrynin There v e r e r e p o r t e d l y n o s i g n s of a n y l a o v e s e n t t o w a r d a r e s o l u t i o n of t h e A f g h a n i s t a n crisis. -State D e p a r t m e n t spokesman Hodding C a r t e r 111 s a i d t h a t t h e number o f S w i e t t r o o p s i n A f g h a n i s t a n had r i s e n by 5,000 t o a l e v e l o f 75,000; i n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e 25,000 t r o o p s o n t h e S o v i e t s i d e o f t h e b o r d e r , h e s a i d . 8/80 -- Spokesman Hodding C a s t e r 111, r e s p o n d i n g t o v a r i o u s s i g n a l s from o s w w s u g g e s t i n g a p o s s i b l e S o v i e t w i b l i n g n e s s t o n e g o t i a t e a s o l u t i o n o f t h e Afghan crisis, s a i d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s v a s s k e p t i c a l of S o v i e t i n t e n t i o n s , b u t would velcome e f f o r t s by o t h e r s t o see w h e t h e r floscow w s i n t e r n s t e a . i n w i t h d r a w i n g i t s t r o o p s i n r e t u r n f o r g u a r a n t e e s o f afghani st an*^ neutrality. - Renters r e p o r t e d t h a t mast s h o p s i n Kabul re-opened f o r b u s i n e s s toiiay. S t r i k i n g c i v i l s e r v a n t s were a l s o r e p o r t e d t o be beck on t h e job. 02/27/80 - The A s s o c i a t e d Press r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e 7-day-long a n t i - S o v i e t s t r i k e by s h o p k e e p e r s i n Kabul was c r i p p l i n g t h e e c o n a i e l i f e of t h e c i t y . -- A c c o r d i n g t o h o s p i t a l s m r c e s i n Kabul, a t l e a s t 300 c i v i l i a n s and a n u n d e t e r m i n e d number of S o v i e t and Afghan t r o o p s v e r e k i l l e d i n t h e f i g h t i n g t h a t l e d t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n of martial law. - The F o r e i g n N i n i s t e r s o f I n d i a and A l g e r i a u r g e d t h e N o n a l i g n e d Movement n o t t o c o n v e r t i t s e l f " i n t o a n a n t i - S o v i e t moveaent." They c a l l e d f o r c o n f i n i n g t h e p r e s e n t crisis .to A f g h a n i s t a n and p e r r i t t i n g t h e Afghan p e o p l e t o d e t e r m i n e the f a t e of their c o u n t r y by t h e m s e l v e s . - Soviet l e a d e r L e o n i d B r ~ h n e vr e p o r t e d l y t o l d American i n d u s t r i a l i s t Armand Hammer t h a t S o v i e t t r o o p s c o u l d b e withdrawn frola A f g h a n i s t a n nif t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e c o u n t r i e s s u r r o u n d i n g A f g h a n i s t a n would g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e y would u s e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e t o see t h e r e was n o i n t e r f e r e n c e ,,,in Afghanistan 02/26/80 t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of - Ar ecpcoorrtdei dn gl y t made o t h e associated Press, massive a r r e s t s i n Kabul a u t h o r i t i e s an e f f o r t t o e n d a n t i - S o v i e t s t r i k e s by s h o p k e e p e r s and c i v i l s e r v a n t s , The o f f i c i a l s r e p o r t e d l y l o o k e d upon t h e S h i ' i t e s of t h e Eazara e t h n i c g r m p as t h e l e a d e r s of t h e p r o t e s t , S h i ' i t e s c o m p r i s e 10-20% of A f g h a n i s t a n *s p o p u l a t i o n . The d o m i n a n t e t h n i c g r o u p i s P a s h t o o n o r P a t h a n , which is S u n n i H u s l i a . - ~ d r i n i s t r a t i o ns o u r c e s disclosed t h a t P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r , responding to P r e s i d e n t T i t o o s appeal fur t h e " w i d e s t ef f omsmt o s a l v a g e S o v i e t - American d e t e n t e , d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was w i l l i n g t o j o i n w i t h t h e n e i g h b u r s of A f g h a n i s t a n , i n c l u d i n g t h e S o v i e t Union, to g u a r a n t e e t h e n e u t r a l i t y of A f g h a n i s t a n if S o v i e t t r o o p s a r e withdrawn. -- L e o n i d m y a t i n , a n o f f i c i a l of t h e S o v i e t C o n i u n i s t P a r t y e s C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e , c a l l e d an P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r t o s t o p s u p p l y i n g arms and a i d t o n a e r c e n a r i e s ' * f i g h t i n g t h e Soviet-backed g o v e r m a e n t i n A f g h a n i s t a n , B e added t h a t t h e O.S, vas " e n c o u r a g i n g ,.,the a m b i t i o n s of t h e Peking leaders-rn 02/25/80 -- The 02/24/80 - Pravda, Associated Ress r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e government of B a b r a k Karma1 w a s v i r t u a l l y p a r a l y z e d a s c i v i l s e r v a n t s and office v o r k e r s continued t h e i r s t r i k e , S o v i e t and Afghan t r o o p s a p p a r e n t l y were p l a c e d u n d e r a j o i n t command w i t h government a u t h o r i t y r e p o r t e d l y i n t h e h a n d s of t h e S o v i e t m i l i t a r y commander, f o r t h e f i r s t time s i n c e the Soviet i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Afghanistan, r e p o r t e d widespread u n r e s t and blamed f o r e i g n - s u p p o r t e d "counter-r evolu t i o n a r i e s . - Beuters, q u o t i n g r e f u g e e sources, r e p o r t e d t h a t Bf g h a n i s t a n 8 s Deputy Prhe M i n i s t e r , S u l t a n A l i K i s h t n a n d , d i e d from b u l l e t wounds s u f f e r e d d u r i n g a c l a s h within t h e country *S r u l i n g Revolutionary Council, 02/23/80 - Afghan 02/22/80 - The army u n i t s closed o f f t h e main o v e r l a n d a c c e s s r o u t e t o Kabul on t h e s e c o n d d a y o f a n t i - S o v i e t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , H a r t i a l l a w remained i n e f f e c t i n t h e capital, A s s o c i a t e d Press r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e government o f A f g h a n i s t a n p r o c l a i m e d m a r t i a l l a w i n Kabul i n an e f f o r t t o s t e m p o p u l a r r i o t i n g i n which s e v e r a l p e r s o n s were k i l l e d , A n t i - S o v i e t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s r e p o r t e d l y s p r e a d t o o t h e r Afghan c i t i e s a s veil- - Tass, t h e S o v i e t p r e s s agency, s a i d t h e Afghan g o v e r n n e n t a t t e a r p t e d t o c u r b a wave of H p l u n d e r i n g and a r s o n m i n s t i g a t e d b y nf a e i g n a g e n t s a n d m e r c e n a r i e s - r n - The N e w York Times, q u o t i n g d i p l o m a t i c s o u r c e s and Afghan i n s u r g e n t g r o u p s , r e p o r t e d t h a t S o v i e t g r o u n d forces have begun t o r e i n f o r c e g a r r i s o n s in t h r e e e a s t e r n provinces near the Ughan-Pakistani border R e p o r t e d l y , n e i t h e r S o v i e t n o r Afghan armored p a t r o l s h a v e b e e n able t o s e c u r e t h e r a i n highway between Kabul and Jalalabad. - Leonid Erezhnev s a i d t h a t i f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and A f g h a n i s t a n B s n e i g h b o r i n g c o u n t r i e s would g u a r a n t e e an end t o o u t s i d e i n t e r f e r e n c e t h e r e , t h e need f o r S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n would " c e a s e t o e x i s t o n The S o v i e t l e a d e r c h a r g e d t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was u n d e r m i n i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a S o v i e t w i t h d r a w a l by s t e p p i n g up military support t o the insurgents in collusion with P a k i s t a n a n d China. - State Department spokesman Thomas R e s t o n , i n r e s p o n s e t o B r e z h n e v m s s t a t e m e n t , s a i d : n T h e r e is o n e n a s s i v e f a c t sf o u t s i d e i n t e r f e r e n c e a n d t h a t i s t h e B e d Army i n A f g h a n i s t a n . T h a t i s w h a t w e s e e k t o remove." 02/21/80 -A g e n e r a l s t r i k e o f s h o p k e e p e r s i n Kabul b r o u g h t t h e c o a a e r c i a l l i f e o f t h e c a p i t a l t o a h a l t - The p r o t e s t was s t a g e d f o l l o w i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of l e a f l e t s b y anti-communist r e b e l s t b a t urged t h e s h o p k e e p e r s t o show t h e i r nunanimous condemnationm of t h e S w i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n . - Seereta- of S t a t e Vance acknowledged t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s p e r s i s t e d between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d f o u r European a l l i e s on t h e p r o p e r r e s p o n s e t o t h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Afghanistan- - Administration a f f i c i a l s s a i d t h a t S o v i e t effoqts t o c o n t r o l A f g h a n i s t ~ nhad so far t u r n e d i n t o a d e b a c l e f o r t h e n , and t h a t as many as 400,000 more t r o o p s may be n e e d e d i f Hoscov d e c i d e d t o c r u s h t h e Afghan i n s n r g e n t movement . 02/20/80 - The 02/19/80 - In 02/18/80 - Representatives A s s o c i a t e d Ress r e p o r t e d t h a t a n t i - c o m n u n i s t r e b e l s w e r e a p p a r e n t l y in c o n t r o l of a l l a p p r o a c h e s t o J a l a l a b a d , A f g h a n i s t a n Bs f o u r t h l a r g e s t c i t y R o m e , t h e F o r e i g n flinisters of t h e n i n e European Common B a s k e t c m n t r i e s p r o p o s e d t h a t A f g h a n i s t a n b e d e c l a r e d a n e u t r a l n a t i a n under i n t e r n a t i o n a l g u a r a n t e e s if t h e S o v i e t Union v i t h d r a w s i t s t r o o p s The m i n i s t e r s , however, d i d n o t e n d o r s e P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r ' s c a l l f u r a b o y c o t t o f t h e summer Olympic G a m e s . of Afghan rebel f o r c e s r e p o r t e d a new S o v i e t offensive i n s o u t h e a s t e r n Afghanistan. D e s p i t e s u f f e r i n q heavy casualties, t h e i n s u r g e n t s c l a i s t h e y have c a p t u r e d s e v e r a l towns in Lahnan province and an a i r f i e l d i n Faizabad i n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e o f Badakhshan. 02/15/80 -- The 02/14/80 - The W h i t e Rouse r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b e g a n s u p p l y i n g l i g h t i n f a n t r y weapons t o Afghan i n s u r g e n t The m i s s i o n t o d e l i v e r t h e l a r g a y groups i n rid-January. Soviet-made weapons was b e i n g carried o u t b y t h e C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency. The weapons were s h i p p e d t o t h e rebels t h r o u g h P a k i s t a n a c r o s s t h e r u g g e d f r o n t i e r w i t h Afghanistan. U , S , O l y m p i c C o m m i t t e e said it would " a c c e p t a n y d e c i s i o n t h e P r e s i d e n t makesm o n n o t s e n d i n g American a t h l e t e s t o t h e Moscov Olympics- -- T h e I n d i a n government s a i d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s is o b s t r u c t i n g a t t e r a p t s t o g e t t h e S o v i e t Union t o w i t h d r a w its t r o o p s from A f g h a n i s t a n b y s e n a n g a d d i t i o n a l U.S. w a r s h i p s i n t o t h e I n d i a n Ocean and e s t a b l i s h i n g m i l i t a r y facilities i n t h e r e g i o n B i n i s t r y of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s spokesman, J ,No D i x i t , reiterated t h e I n d i a n pcrsition t h a t b o t h superpowers a r e t o blame f o r t h e e s c a l a t i o n of t e n s i o n s i n the area. . 02/13/80 -A t h i s news c o n f e r e n c e , P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r reiterated a c a l l t o t h e S o v i e t Union t o w i t h d r a w i t s t r o o p s from A f g h a r i s t a n a n d i n d i c a t e d t h e U ,So d e s i r e t o see a "neutral c o u n t r p there. - The N e w York T i m e s r e p o r t e d t h a t E g y p t i a n d e f e n s e m i n i s t e r K a a a l Rassan A l i d i s c l o s e d t h a t Egypt was t r a i n i n g Afghan i n s u r g e n t s i n g u e r r i l l a w a r f a r e . 02/12/80 - The 02/10/80 - AP I n t e r n a t i o n a l Olympic C a m i t t e e ( I O C ) unanimously r e a f f i r m e d U o s c c r a a s t h e site of t h e summer Olympics. I t rejected a U , S , Olympic C o m m i t t e e r e s o l u t i o n t h a t c a l l e d far p o s t p o n e n e n t , c a n c e l l a t i o n o r r e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s i t e b e c a u s e of t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of Afghanistan. Hmever, lard Killanin, president o f t h e I O C , s a i d h e would "keep a l l p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s open" b e t w e e n now a n d Hay 24, t h e d e a d l i n e f o r f i n a l a c c e p t a n c e s or r e f u s a l s by n a t i o n a l Olympic committees t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n Hoscow. r e p o r t e d t h a t S t a t e Department s p o k e s a a n Hodding C a r t e r t o l d r e p a r t e r s t h e r e were now 95,000 S o v i e t t r o o p s in Afghanistan, A s e n i o r Administration o f f i c i a l r e p o r t e d l y t o l d r e p o r t e r s a t a P h i t e House b r i e f i n g t h a t a acosaetie r e d u c t i o n of S o v i e t t r o o p s i n A f g h a n i s t a n nay b e imminent. -- The N e w York T i l a e s r e p o r t e d t h a t S o v i e t d i p l o m a t s , in p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n s v i t h V.N. o f f i c i a l s and o t h e r s , h i n t e d t h a t Moscov m i g h t s o o n r e d u c e t h e number o f its t r o o p s in A f g h a n i s t a n . - The London Times r e p o r t e d t h a t the Afghan g o v e r n m e n t announced a n a m n e s t y f o r t h e t h o u s a n d s of c o n s c r i p t s who h a d l e f t t h e i r p o s t s o r r e f u s e d t o r e p o r t f o r d u t y i n r e c e n t weeks, 02/09/80 -In a s p e e c h t o M e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Olympic C o n i t t e e , S e k r e t a q of S t a t e C y r u s Vance s a i d t h e U .So w i l l o p p o s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y i t s a t h l e t e s i f t h e G a m e s are n o t moved frorr mscw , Mr. Vance u r g e d t h e I06 t o p o s t p o n e or c a n c e l t h e G a m e s , i f S o v i e t t r o o p s a r e n o t removed from A f g h a n i s t a n by F e b , 2 0 , - The N e w York T i m e s r e p o r t e d t h a t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s were s t u d y i n g a new S o v i e t i d e o l o g i c a l s t a t e n e n t which, a c c o r d i n g t o some a n a l y s t s , was a d e - f a c t o e x t e n s i o n of t h e so-called W r e z h n e v d o c t r i n e m t o j u s t i f y m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n s u & a s t h e o n e i n Afghanistan, - Reuters reported increased fighting i n eastern A f g h a n i s t a n - I t a l s o q u o t e d t h e l e a d e r of H e z b i I s l a m i , the l a r g e s t g u e r r i l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n , who p r e d i c t e d a f u l l - s c a l e o f f e n s i v e w i t h i n 6 u e e k s , after t h e worst o f t h e w i n t e r snows had a e l t e d . 02/08/80 - The l e v York T i m e s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e F r e n c h government s a i d i t would n o t a t t e n d a meeting of f o r e i g n r i n i s t e r s r e q u e s t e d 3 y S e c r e t a r y Vance t o a s s e s s t h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n , The F r e n c h government s t a t e d it "is r e a d y t o p u r s u e c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h i t s p a r t n e r s on various a s p e c t s of t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , " b u t t h a t " i t i s opposed t o t h e h o l d i n g o f a j o i n t m e e t i n g which i s n o t o f a n a t u r e t o r e d u c e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t m s i o n ," -- The . p a p e r r e p o r t e d t h a t O. S o f f i c i a l s uere p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s a p p o i n t e d by t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e a l l i e d ~ e e t i n g , s i n c e i t n i g h t i n d i c a t e t o t h e S o v i e t s greater d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e W e s t e r n a l l i a n c e t h a n may a c t u a l l y exist. 62/07/80 - The l e u York Times r e p o r t e d that t h e Soviet Ambassador t o E a s t G e r a a a y , P y o t r A. Abrasimov, t o l d West German t e l e v i s i o n t h a t a t h e n o n s e n s i c a l American i n s i n u a t i o n of a n impending S o v i e t l e a p toward t h e P e r s i a n Gulf w i l l s o o n b e unmasked-n Abrasimov warned West E u r o p e a n s " n o t t o a c t in s l a v i s h o b e d i e n c e n t o P r e s i d e n t Carter. - The H e w York T i m e s r e p o r t e d t h a t W i k o l a i P o r t u g a l o v , a n o f f i c i a l of t h e S o v i e t Communist Party I n f o r m a t i o n D e p a r t ~ e n t , warned HAT0 c o u n t r i e s t h a t a b o y c o t t of t h e M o s c o w O l y n p i c s a n d c e s s a t i o n of c a n t a c t s w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union would n-jeopardize t h e d e s t i n i e s o f d e t e n t e in E ~ r o p e . ~ end to c l a s s S a y i n g that d e t e n t e d o e s n o t imply s t r u g g l e on t h e g l o b a l scale," Hr- P o r t u g a l o v added t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union n r e ~ a i n sl o y a l t o p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and class s o l i d a r i t y It .will continue t o give support t o t h e anti-imperialist struggle a n d t o n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n movements a l l o v e r t h e world - - India's ,. F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y B ,Dm S a t h e , f o l l o v i n g a 4-day v i s i t t o Pakistan, described h i s t a l k s with P a k i s t a n i l e a d e r s as added t h a t m e e t i n g of historical " f r i e n d l y , f r a n k , cordial a n d u s e f u l o n H e it mould b e too much t o e x p e c t a c o m p l e t e t h e minds a f t e r a s i n g l e a e e t i n g b e t w e e n rivals, -Saudi Brabi.aas Oil M i n i s t e r , S h e i k Ahmed Z a k i Yamani, t o l d a a e e t i n g of European b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s t h a t impending o i l s h o r t a g e s i n t h e Soviet b l o c prompted H o s c o w B s i n v a s i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n as a way t o a p p r o a c h t h e Middle E a s t e r n o i l fields. 02/06/80 - State D e p a r t m e n t spokesman Bodding C a r t e r s a i d t h e r e were now a b o u t 90,000 S o v i e t t r o o p s i n Afghanistan., - TASS c h a r g e d t h a t C h i n e s e a d v i s e r s a i d e d B f ghan r e b e l s i n s t a g i n g % a n d i t r a i d s " a g a i n s t Afghan government f o r c e s ; i t s a i d t h a t C h i n a and the U - S o were " t r a i n i n g , e q u i p p i n g a n d a r m i n g N r e b e l s a t more t h a n 70 bases i n P a k i s t a n . - India's F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y BIDI S a t h e a s s u r e d P a k i s t a n ' s P r e s i d e n t Z i a t h a t h e would t r y t o p e r s u a d e S o v i e t F o r e i g n B ' i n i s t e r Andrei G r o q k o , d u r i n g t h e latter's upcoaing v i s i t t o N e w D e l h i , t h a t Hoscov s h o u l d v i t h d r a w its t r o o p s from A f g h a n i s t a n . - The N e w York Times r e p o r t e d t h a t Afghan rebel a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t S o v i e t and government t r o o p s i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e l a s t f e w d a y s ; however, it r e m a i n e d d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e e x t e n t of r e b e l resistance, According t o a n a l y s t s , t h e rebels w e r e hampered by a s h o r t a g e of ammunition, 02/05/80 - French P r e s i d e n t V a l e r y G i s c a r d d g E s t a i n g a n d West German C h a n c e l l a r Helmut S c h m i d t i s s u e d a j o i n t s t a t e m e n t c a l l i n g for S o v i e t w i t h d r a w a l N v i t h o u t delaym from A f g h a n i s t a n . Beaf f i r m i n g t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r t h e A t l a n t i c A l l i a n e , P r e s i d e n t G i s c a r d d a g s t a i n g and C h a n c e l l o r Schaid t s a i d t h a t - t h e S o v i e t m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i s u n a c c e p t a b l e and c r e a t e s g r a v e d a n g e r s f o r t h e s t a b i l i t p o f t h e r e g i o n and f o r peace.* - The Bew York T i m e s , q u o t i n g o f f i c i a l s t r a v e l i n g w i t h R a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s m Z bigniew B r z e z i n s k i , r e p o r t e d t h a t S a u d i l e a d e r s i n f o r m e d t h e U-S. t h a t t h e y are nov w i l l i n g t o consider c l o s e r a i l i t a r y c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h Washington in the P e r s i a Gulf r e g i o n to o f f s e t t h e i m p a c t of t h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n , S a u d i Arabia's a t t i t u d e was d e s c r i b e d a s much more c o o p e r a t i v e now t h a n i t was l a s t Harch when following t h e signing of t h e E g y p t i a n - I s r a e l i p e a c e t r e a t y -- M r . B r z e z i n s k i R e p o r t e d l y , however, the S a u d i s v i s i t e d Riyadh r e m a i n e d r e l u c t a n t t o a l l o v t h e U S u s e of m i l i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s on their t e r r i t o r y , - - The -- S o v i e t p r e s s a g e n c y TASS denounced r e p o r t s i n s e v e r a l U , S , news p u b l i c a t i o n s a b o u t a massacre -- i n A p r i l 197'3 of more t h a n 1,000 Afghan men a n d b o y s by S o v i e t and regular Afghan t r o o p s , -- -Italy's F o r e i g n B i n i s t e r A t t i l i o Ruff i n i announced t h a t h e and his European E c o n o a i c Community c o l l e a g u e s a g r e e d t h a t n t h e S o v i e t Union has d e s t r o y e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s which o u g h t t o p r e v a i l n f o r t h e suamer O b y a p i c g a r e s , However, t h e n i n e r e p o r t e d b y were s t i l l a t " d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s n i n the* p o l i t i c a l assessment. - Associated Press r e p o r t e d t h a t Western d i p l o m a t s r e c e i v e d i n f o r r a t i o n of r e c u r r i n g a t t a c k s a g a i n s t S o v i e t t r o o p s in n o r t h e a s t A f g h a n i s t a n by fluslim i n s u r g e n t s . TASS c o n f i r a e d t h e r e h a d b e e n a r e c e n t u p s u r g e of a t t a c k s i n several northeast prwinces, -- The American S o c i e t y of Nevspaper E d i t o r s c a n c e l l e d a s c h e d u l e d e x c h a n g e of v i s i t s w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union, c i t i n g t h e i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n - 02/04/80 -- N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s c s Z b i g n i e v B s z e z i n s k i and Deputy Secretary of S t a t s Warren C h r i s t o p h e r a r r i v e d i n S a u d i A r a b i a t o h o l d t a l k s w i t h P r i n c e Saud, t h e F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r , and Cmm P r i n c e Fahd, t h e Deputy P r i n e M i n i s t e r , on t h e s e c u r i t y s i t u a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n i n t h e wake o f t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n - - The C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e H a i t o r r e p o r t e d t h a t on Apr. 20, 1979, some 1,170 unarmed Afghan r a l e s were m a s s a c r e d i n t h e town of Kerala by 200 Afghan s o l d i e r s and p o l i c e m e n t o g e t h e r with 2 0 Soviet a d v i s e r s a c t i n g under Soviet orders - - The S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t announced t h a t 0,s- i n t e l l i g e n c e i n f o r a a t i o n i n d i c a t e d 2 ,50 0 0 S o v i e t s o l d i e r s h a d b e e n k i l l e d or wounded s i n c e t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n b e g a n - - Ayatollah K h o n e i n i condeatned f o r t h e f i r s t time t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n and promised w v . n c o n d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t m f o r t h e Muslim i n s u r g e n t s f i g h t i n g t h e Kabul regh e - - Huhamaad A l i c o n t i n u e d his f i v e - n a t i o n A f r i c a n t o u r t o p r o m o t e t h e b o y c o t t o f t h e Boscow Olympic games, b u t s a i d h i s p r i a a r y aim was t o a v e r t a war between t h e U , S , a n d t h e S o v i e t Union. -- A e r o f l o t , t h e S o v i e t n a t i o n a l a i r l i n e , agreed t o suspend i t s f l i g h t s i n t o Nev Y o r k g s Kennedy A i r p o r t u n t i l i t c o u l d a r r a n g e f o r b a s i c ground s e r v i c e s f o r its a i r c r a f t , A s a result o f t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n , u n i o n i z e d baggage h a n d l e r s and o t k r a i r p o r t employees r e f u s e d t o s e r v i c e Aeroflot f l i g h t s - 02/03/80 -- Z b i g n i e v Brzezinski reportedly assured Wkistan t h a t American f o r c e s would b e d e p l o y e d t h e r e i n t h e e v e n t of a l a r g e - s c a l e S o v i e t or S o v i e t s u p p o r t ed a t t a c k a g a i n s t P a k i s t a n . Be a l s o v i s i t e d P a k i s t a n i d e f e n s e forces a t t h e s t r a t e g i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t Khyber P a s s on t h e Afghan b o r d e r and m e t w i t h a number o f Afghan i n s u r g e n t s - - The S o v i e t Union announoed the s t a r t of o p e r a t i o n s on a new n a t u r a l gas f i e l d i n n o r t h e r n A f g h a n i s t a n , -- Kenya announoed t h a t it would b o y c o t t t h e 1980 O l y a p i c summer gaaes a s a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n , - Muhammad A l i b e g a n an A f r i c a n m i s s i o n t o drum u p s u p p o r t f o r P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r a s call f o r a b o y c o t t of t h e Hoscou Olympics, 02/02/80 -President Zia and U , S , P r e s i d e n t i a l a d v i s e r Z b i g n i e w B r z e z i n s k i h e l d 8 h o u r s o f talks on t h e s t a t e of 13 S , - P a k i s t a n i relations, - - Greek Prime M i n i s t e r C o n s t a n t i n e Karaaanlis announced t h a t h e had o f f i c i a l l y proposed t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l O l p p i c Committee t h a t Olympia be a c c e p t e d as t h e p e r m a n e n t holre af t h e summer Olympic games, 02/01/80 - The P e o p l e a s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a announced t h a t i t would n o t a t t e n d t h e Moscow Olympics, w h i l e t h e J a p a n e s e g o v e r n r e n t s t a t e d t h a t a b o y c o t t was n d e s i r a b l e , t g -- U , S , envoy C l a r k C l i f f o r d announced i n N e w D e l h i t h a t t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was w i l l i n g t o c o n s i d e r t h e s a l e o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d e l e c t r o n i c m i l i t a q equipment t o I n d i a . -A h i g h - l e v e l A a e r i c a n d e l e g a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of P r e s i d e n t i a l a d v i s e r Z b i g n i e v B r z e z i n s k i and Deputy S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e Warren C h r i s t o p h e r a r r i v e d i n P a k i s t a n f o r t a l k s w i t h President Zia. 01/31/00 -- A t t e r m e e t i n g w i t h I n d i a n P r i m e f l i n i s t e r I n d i r a Gandhi, P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r ' s s p e c i a l envoy, C l a r k C l i f f o r d , announced t h a t fie Indian g w e r n r e n t s h a r e s t h e U , S , g o a l o f a S o v i e t p u l l o u t from A f g h a n i s t a n , a l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t o v e r t h e p r o p e r amount of American i n v o l v e n e n t i n the crisis, The A d a i n i s t r a t i o n r e p o r t e d l y i n f o r l a e d key c o n g r e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s t h a t i t i n t e n d s t o e n t e r i n t o a long-term m i l i t a r y s u p p o r t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h P a k i s t a n and s e e k a r e p e a l of t h e b a n on a i d tn P a k i s t a n . This r e p r e s e n t s a n a l t e r a t i o n o f U , S , p o l i c y t h a t i n i t i a l l y c a l l e d f o r a none-timen e x e m p t i o n f o r P a k i s t a n so t h a t i t c o u l d r e c e i v e t h e $400 m i l l i o n a i d package b u t s t i l l b e s u b j e c t t o a g e n e r a l ban, 01/28/80 - In I s l a m a b a d , t h e f o r e i g n ministers o f 34 Islamic n a t i o n s condemned S o v i e t n m i l i t a r y a g g r e s s i o n n a g a i n s t A f g h a n i s t a n , c a l l i n g i t a m f l a g r a n t v i o l a t i o n N of i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w , The d e l e g a t e s t o t h e Islaaic C o n f e r e n c e a l s o s u s p e n d e d A f g h a n i s t a n membership i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d urged a l l I s l a r i c s t a t e s t o w i t h h o l d d i p l o m a t i c r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e n i l l e g a l N r e g i m e , U n l i k e t h e U - N , r e s o l u t i o n , t h e Islaaic CBS- 42 I880006 UPDATE-05/02/80 d e l e g a t e s n e n t i a n e d t h e S o v i e t Union by name, The r e s o l u t i o n also c a l l e d f o r w n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n " i n t h e Yoscov O l y ~ p i c s - -In a s p e e c h t o t h e E g y p t i a n P e o p l e ' s Assembly, P r e s i d e n t Anwar a l - S a d a t s t a t e d t h a t * a l l t h e l e a d e r s of t h e P e r s i a n Gulf s h a u l d know v e r y w e l l t h a t t h e s o u r c e a€ t h e i r d e f e n s e is i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o w H e announced h e would g i v e f u l l f a c i l i t i e s t o t h e O - S . i f a n y G u l f o r Arab s t a t e faces a t h r e a t f r o a B a n o r the S o v i e t Union, In a d d i t i o n , t h e S o v i e t Embassy in C a i r o v a s o r d e r e d t o r e d u c e its d i p l o m a t i c p e r s o n n e l f r o m 50 t o 7 v h i l e a l l r e m a i n i n g S o v i e t t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s were e x p e l l e d , 01/27/80 -- A t t h e opening od t h e C m f e r e n c e of Islamic F o r e i g n H i n i s t e r s i n I s l a m a b a d , P r e s i d e n t Z i a of P a k i s t a n u r g e d all I s l a m i c n a t i o n s t o demand t h e w i t h d r a v a l o f S o v i e t t r o o p s f r o a A f g h a n i s t a n and a s k e d f o r a * 8 c o l l e c t i v edef e n s e n a r r a n g e s e n t t o d i s c o u r a g e f u t n r e i n v a s i o n s of Muslin n a t i o n s , - The l e a d e r s of s i x Afghan r e b e l g r o u p s announced t h e formation of t h e I s l a n i c Alliance for t h e Liberation o f A f g h a n i s t a n to r e p r e s e n t s e v e r a l d o z e n g u e r r i l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n s f i g h t i n g the S o v i e t s and the p r e s e n t Kabul regime- -- I n a n e f f o r t t o a p p e a s e p o p u l a r criticisa o f A f g h a n i s t a n ' s H a r x i s t p o l i c i e s , gover m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s ordered t h e r e m o v a l of p o l i t i c a l s l o g a n s a n d p o r t r a i t s of p a s t and p r e s e n t Afghan l e a d e r s from Kabul s t r e e t s - I t is r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e red f l a g i n t r o d u c e d by forser P r e s i d e n t T a r a k i v i l l b e r e p l a c e d by o n e i n c l u d i n g g r e e n , t h e c o l o r of Islam. - The 0 . S - Olympic C o m m i t t e e s e x e c u t i v e b o a r d announced i t would s t u d y the p o s s i b i l i t y of h o l d i n g a n a t i o n a l s p o r t s festival i n t h e e v e n t U . S . a t h l e t e s do n o t c o m p e t e in Noscaw, White House c o u n s e l Lloyd C u t l e r s a i d t h e A d s h i s t r a t i o n would a s k f o r a b i l l i n C o n g r e s s p a y i n g for t h e cost of e i t h e r moving t h e G a m e s or o f h o l d i n g a " F r e e Worldn Olympics t o b e a t t e n d e d by n a t i o n s b o y c o t t i n g t h e Hoscw O l y m p i c s - - The U S O C a s e x e c u t i v e board v o t e d u n a n i m o u s l y t o p r e s e n t t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l O l y m p i c C o m m i t t e e (IOC) P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r ' s r e q u e s t t h a t t h e Olympic games b e moved from Moscow, postponed o r c a n c e l e d , T h e USOC, h w e v e r , d e f e r r e d d e c i s i o n on t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s f u r t h e r r e q u e s t t h a t Baericgn a t h l e t e s b o y c o t t t h e Hoscw G a n t e s u n l e s s S o v i e t t r o o p s a r e withdrawn from A f g h a n i s t a n by F e b , 2 0 - - C a n a d i a n Prime H i n i s t e r Joe C l a r k s t a t e d t h a t h i s c o u n t r y w i l l n o t s e n d a team t o Hoscow if S o v i e t f o r c e s a r e n o t o u t o f A f g h a n i s t a n by Feb. 20, 01/25/80 -- P e r s i a n Gulf s t a t e s c r i t i c i z e d P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r 's IB8OO06 CRS- 43 UPDATE-05/02/80 w a r n i n g t h a t t h e U - S - would u s e f o r c e a g a i n s t f o r e i g n i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e r e g i a n , a c c u s i n g Carter o f j u s t i f y i n g f u t u r e U-So military i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e y v e r e c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e i r o m security, 01/24/80 -- The U n i t e d S t a t e s , in a m a j o r p o l i c y s h i f t r e l a t e d t o t h e A f g h a n i s t a n crisis, annaunced its r e a d i n e s s t o s e l l m i l i t a r y e q u i p m e n t t o China- The D e f e n s e D e p a r t n e n t s a i d t h e s e sales would be l i a i t e d a t f i r s t t o b a s i c s u p p o r t equipment, s u c h a s t s u c k s , c o a n u n i c a t i o n s g e a r , and e a r l y w a r n i n g r a d a r , -- I n P e k i n g , C h i n a a n d t h e U n i t e d States s i g n e d a meaorandum of u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o v i d i n g for t h e b u i l d i n g o f a n e a r t h s t a t i o n whi& would e n a b l e China t o r e c e i v e satellite data. - The House and t h e S e n a t e a p p r o v e d m o s t - f a v o r e d - n a t i o n s t a t u s f o r China. - The House v o t e d 386-12 t o s u p p o r t t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n n s request t h a t t h e U-S- press f o r transfer, cancellation, o r b o y c o t t of t h e ffoscow Olympics. - B r i t a i n ns F o r e i g n Secretasy L o r d C a r r i n g t o n announced cancellation o f scheduld S w i e t ministerial visits, c u l t u r a l e v e n t s , and n a v a l exchange v i s i t s , and c h a r a c t e r i z e d s u c h c o n t a c t s a s " n o t s u i t a b l e N for t h e i n d e f i n i t e f u t u r e - The F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y a d d e d t h a t B r i t a i n was s t i l l " s t u d y i n g H w i t h its a l l i e s t i g h t e r r u l e s f o r t h e t r a n s f e r of s e n s i t i v e t e c h n o l o g y t o t h e S o v i e t Union, a n d was p r e s s i n g far a n e n d t o t h e s u b s i d i z e d s a l e by t h e Common Harltet o f b u t t e r , s u g a r , and meat, A n d r e i Ezkharov a n d h i s w i f e , i n e x i l e , r e p o r t e d l y j o i n e d e i g h t o t h e r hanan r i g h t s a c t i v i s t s i n a s t a t e m e n t condemning t h e S o v i e t g w e r n m e n t f o r " s u p p r e s s i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e of A f g h a n i s t a n o w -Dr. 01/23/80 - President 01/22/80 -- The message C a r t e r , i n t h e state-of-the-union t o t h e C o n g r e s s , c a l l e d t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n a " g r a v e t h r e a t n t o t h e H i d d l e E a s t o i l f i e l d s and warned t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s v o u l d u s e "any means n e c e s s a r y , i n c l u d i n g m i l i t a r y f o r c e " t o repel an a t t a c k on t h e P e r s i a n Gulf, l e v York T i r e s r e p o r t e d t h a t , since Nov- 25, 1979, a S o v i e t n a v a l vessel t h e 6,450-ton Taman has b e e n a n c h o r e d a t t h e e a s t e r n e n d of t h e S t r a i t of Horruz - - The -- -- - l e u York T i m e s , q u o t i n g U - S o f f i c i a l s and m i l i t a r y a n a l y s t s i n U e s t e r n Europe, r e p o r t e d t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o a n e s t i m a t e d 85,000 s o l d i e r s a n d a i r m e n , t h e S o v i e t Union h a s a l s o s e n t i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n a b o u t 4,000 a d z u i n i s t r a t o r s , i n c l u d i n g a l a r g e number o f KGB s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r s , t o r e o r g a n i z e a n d man t h e g o v e r n n e n t bureaucracy, 01/21/80 - Beuters r e p o r t e d t h a t F a r e i g n ~ i n i s t e rSadegh Ghotbzadeh s a i d Iran c o u l d n o t remain s i l e n t i n t h e face of t h e t h r e a t t o its s o u t h e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e o f B a l n c h i s t a n - S i s t a n by t h e p r e s e n c e of S o v i e t t r o o p s i n A f g h a n i s t a n , o n l y 18 a i l e s from t h e border, A c c o r d i n g t o t h e same r e p o r t , I r a n ' s F i n a n c e H i n i s t e r , A b d o l h a s s a n B a n i Sadr -- a f r o n t - r u n n e r i n t h e p r e s i d e n t i a l race s u g g e s t e d t h a t B a n n i g h t b o y c o t t t h e Hoscow O l y m p i c s if h e is elected i n t h e J a n - 25 e l e c t i o n , -- - The C o m m e r c e D e p a r t m e n t announced i t h a d r e v o k e d a l l l i c e n s e s f o r t h e e x p o r t of computer s p a r e p a r t s f o r t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a s Raaa R i v e r t r u c k p l a n t , b u i l t w i t h t h e h e l p of U . S , t e c h n o l o g y , Commerce S e c r e t a r y P h i l i p K l u t z w i c k s a i d t b a c t i o n w a s t a k e n b e c a u s e of i n d i c a t i o n s that sore o f t h e Kana t r u c k s h a d been u s e d i n Afghanistan, 01/20/80 -A 0 1/19/80 -- I r a n ' s C h i n e s e F o r e i g n M i n i s t r y spokesman announced t h a t C h i n a had d e c i d e d t o cancel t h e S i n o - S o v i e t t a l k s resumed i n S e p t - 1979, b e c a u s e of t h e t h r e a t t o n v o r l d p e a c e and C h i n a g s s e c u r i t y m posed by t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n , F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r Sadegh Ghotbzadeh , i n t e r v i e v e d i n L e F i g a r o , denounced t h e S o v i e t Union's o c c u p a t i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n and s a i d : a r e v e r y w o r r i e d and v e r y a l a n e d o v e r t h e p r e s e n a e of S o v i e t t a n k s some k i l o m e t e r s from o u r b o r d e r w i t h A f g h a n i s t a n , W e a r e g o i n g t o d o e v e r y t h i n g t o compel t h e S o v i e t s t o vithdrau," Asked t o e l a b o r a t e , Ghotbzadeh said I r a n is c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t ] ! of h e l p i n g the 50,000 Afghan r e f u g e e s w i t h i n its b o r d e r s t o wage g u e r r i l l a warfare a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t o c c u p a t i o n t r o o p s , .. - 01/18/80 -- S t a t e Department spokesman Hodding C a r t e r said t h e United S t a t e s had r e j e c t e d P r e s i d e n t Zia's c a l l f o r t r a n s f orming P a k i s t a n ' s 1959 d e f e n s e a g r e e m e n t w i t h the U,S, i n t o a p e r m a n e n t t r e a t y , However, h e added t h a t , on J a n - 12, S e c r e t a r y Vance a s s u r e d Z i a g s e n v o y -- Agha Shahi t h a t t h e U ,So was v i l l i n g t o r e a f f i r m " i n t h e s t r a n g e s t t e r m s N t h e 1959 a g r e e m e n t - -- -- T h e Washington Fost r e p o r t e d t h a t U S , D e f e n s e o f f i c i a l s s a i d S o v i e t m o u n t a i n e e r a n d c o u n t e r - g u e r r i l l a u n i t s were b e i n g s e n t into A f g h a n i s t a n Some U - S - m i l i t a r y a n a l y s t s i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s a s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e Swiets c a n n o t d e p e n d on t h e A e h a n army t o c o r b a t t h e r e b e l s - -- AP r e p o r t e d t h a t C h i n a ' s F o r e i g n I l i n i s t e r , Huang Hua, a r r i v e d in I s l a m a b a d f o r t a l k s w i t h ~ a k i s t a n io f f i c i a l s c o n c e r n i n g t h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n and its i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s e c u r i t y o f b o t h c o u n t r i e s , 01/17/00 - Pakistan% P r e s i d e n t Z i a said h e v a s d i s a p p o i n t e d CBS- 45 I880006 UPDATE-0 5/02/80 by t h e $400 a i l l i o n U - S , a i d o f f e r , which h e aismissed as "peanuts President Z i a called for transforming t h e 1 9 5 9 d e f e n s e a g r e e m e n t between P a k i s t a n a n d t h e U,S. into good t r e a t y of f r i e n d s h i p and, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s , e c m o m i c and m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e .H 01/13/80 -- P a k i s t a n ' s P r e s i d e n t Zia condemned t h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n , d e n i e d a l l e g a t i o n s of P a k i s t a n i m i l i t a r y a i d t o Afghan r e s i s t a n c e f o r c e s and a p p e a l e d f o r h u m a n i t a r i a n a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e U.Iespecially t h e Islamic c o u n t r i e s f o r Afghan r e f u g e e s , -- -- - PLO P o l i t i c a l D e p a r t a e n t Chairman F a r u q Q a d d u s i e x p r e s s e d s u p p o r t f o r S w i e t a c t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n and condemned t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s 01/12/80 . - A fghanistanes Hinistry af F o r e i g n A f f a i r s r e p o r t e d a message from G e n e r a l - S e c r e t a r y and P r e m i e r Babrak K a r n a l u a s t e l e g r a p h e d to A y a t o l l a h Khomeini. The t e l e g r a m e x p r e s s e d t h e desire f o r " f r i e n d s h i p n and nclose tiesa i n t h e c o n t e x t o f mAfghan-Xranian I s l a m i c b r o t h e r h o o d ,n and l i k e n e d t h e d e p o s e d P r e s i d e n t H a f i z u l l a h Amin t o " P a h l a v i n a n d o t h e r e x e c u t i o n e r s - - President Zia s a i d he would w e l c o m e m i l i t a r y s u p p l i e s from t h e V e s t t o s t r e n g t h e n P a k i s t a n ' s d e f e n s e a g a i n s t S o v i e t t h r e a t s , w h i l e a P a k i s t a n i e n v o y was i n Washington t o d i s c u s s t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e Vance- - Grain-producing c o u n t r i e s , including Argentina, agreed t o e ~ b a r g og r a i n s h i p m e n t s t o t h e S o v i e t Union, f o l l o w i n g a meeting a t t h e S t a t e Department- -- I r a q ' s P r e s i d e n t Saddam E u s s e i n r e p o r t e d l y condemned t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n o f Rfghanistan. 01/13/80 -- AFP, q u o t i n g a P a k i s t a n i newspaper, r e p o r t e d t h a t Deputy S o v i e t I n t e r i o r liinister V i k t o r S, P a p u t i n was among 250 R t r s s i a n s k i l l e d i n Kabul i n f i g h t i n g b e t w e e n S o v i e t t r o o p s and M u s l i m rebels joined by d e s e r t i n g Afghan s o l d i e r s f o l l o w h g the i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e new regime, The s l a i n S o v i e t minister was i n c h a r g e of Afghan p o l i c e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e c o u p - -- -- -- AFP r e p o r t e d a t l e a s t two p e r s o n s were k i l l e d a s r i o t i n g crovds, s h o u t i n g "Dmn w i t h t h e R ~ s s i a n s , ~ t r i e d t o o b t a i n t h e release o f a d d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s h e l d a t t h e PC&-e-Charki p r i s o n , n e a r K a b u l - - French Communist Party S e c r e t a r y George H a r c h a i s d e f e n d e d Hoscov 's i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n , a f t e r r e t u r n i n g from a v i s i t t o t h e S o v i e t Union, -- Oman's mister f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s condemned t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n and a f f i m e d t h e g o v e r n n e n t v s i n t e n t i o n to p r o t e c t t h e s e c u r i t y of t h e S t r a i t of Harauz, 'What w e n e e d is e q u i p m e n t and training, r a t h e r than fcseign troops, t o protect our sec~rity,~ 01/10/80 -- The R e v o l u t i o n a r y C o u n c i l of t h e Democratic R e p u b l i c o f A f g h a n i s t a n approved t h e new c a b i n e t ; Radio Kabul a n n o u n c e d t h e n a n e s of llrembers o f t h e p r i n c i p a l p a r t y organizations, -- The BBC q u o t e d P e s t e r n d i p l o m a t s in Kabul who s a i d that t h e R u s s i a n s now c o n t r o l A f g h a n i s t a n a s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a n d h a v e t h e i r awn men i n s i d e a l l t h e a i n i s t r i e s . -- AFP r e p o r t e d bloody f i g h t i n g i n n o r t h e r n Afghanistan's P a k t i a p r o v i n c e between S o v i e t t r o o p s and fluslim rebels, I n Kabul, s e v e r a l S o v i e t s o l d i e r s a n d c i v i l i a n s r e p o r t e d l y were k i l l e d i n t h e downtown a r e a - J a p a n e s e r e p o r t e r s were t o l d by S o v i e t s o l d i e r s , who b r i e f l y d e t a i n e d t h e n , t h a t t h e y h a d core t o A f g h a n i s t a n t o "free t h e c o u n t r p f s o n e x t e r n a l o p p r e s ~ i o n , ~ -- TANJUG r e p o r t e d o n l y u n i t s of t h e S o v i e t a i r b o r n e d i v i s i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e D e c - 27, 1979, c o u p ; p r a c t i c a l l y no Afghan t r o o p s were i n Kabul d u r i n g t h e c o u p , Soviet u n i t s set o u t d i r e c t l y t o w a r d s t h e former r o y a l s-er r e s i d e n c e w h e r e H a f i z u l l a h Amin was a t t h e time, O b s e r v e r s of t h e c o u p i n Kabul s a i d t h e e n t i r e o p e r a t i o n against Alrin a p p e a r e d t o h a v e b e e n p l a n n e d p r e c i s e l y and i n d e t a i l . - AFP, q u o t i n g Afghan r e f u g e e s on t h e P a k i s t a n i - A f g h a n b o r d e r , r e p o r t e d mass d e s e r t i o n by Afghan s o l d i e r s , -- I n h i s first p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e , Afghan P r e m i e r B a b r a k Karma1 d e c l a r e d t h a t S o v i e t t r o o p s were i n v i t e d t o c o m e t o A f g h a n i s t a n due t o a t h r e a t af o u t s i d e i n v a s i o n ; A f g h a n i s t a n , s a i d K a r a a l , h a s e n t e r e d a new p h a s e of g e n u i n e n o n a l i g n m e n t owing t o t h e material and moral s u p p o r t of t h e S o v i e t Union H e said t h e S o v i e t Union e x t e n d e d its a s s i s t a n c e t o A f g h a n i s t a n u n d e r t h e terms of t h e t r e a t y of f r i e n d s h i p a n d good n e i g h b o r l i n e s s af D e c - 5, 1978. T h i s a s s i s t a n c e , h e added, was i n t e n d e d t o t h w a r t t h e p l a n s of American i m p e r i a l i s m u h i c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h China, P a k i s t a n , and Egypt, posed a t h r e a t t o A f g h a n i s t a n 8 s s o v e r e i g n t y , i n d e p e n d e n c e , and territorial i n t e g r i t y , - 01/09/80 -Soviet troops r e p o r t e d 1 y a d v a n c e d s o u t h w a r d i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n *s B a l u c h i r e g i o n , a l o n g t h e P a k i s t a n b o r d e r , - The U.H, S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l voted t o c o n v e n e a s p e c i a l G e n e r a l Assembly s e s s i o n t o d e b a t e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n . -- The Afghan government d e c l a r e d amnesty f o r n e a r l y a l l p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s ; p r w i n c i a l g o v e r n o r s were named f a r 2 5 o f 28 p r o v i n c e s . -- The West German p r e s s , q u o t i n g W e l l - i n f o r m e d circles," r e p o r t e d t h a t Brezhnev had opposed t h e l ? o l i t b u r o D s i n v a s i o n CBS- 47 IB80006 UPDATE-05/02/80 decision, 01/08/80 -- The U.S. d e c l a r e d its r e a d i n e s s t o s e l l P e k i n g a ground s a t e l l i t e s t a t i o n which h a s m i l i t a r y a p p l i c a t i o n s , -- E g y p t announced a t r a i n i n g program f o r Afghan r e b e l s - - State Department s p o k e s a a n Eodding C a s t e r s t a t e d t h a t S o v i e t t r o o p s t r e n g t h i n A f g h a n i s t a n may have r e a c h e d a s n a n y as 85,000 and t h a t t h e S o v i e t s a p p e a r e d t o be e s t a b l i s h i n g a permanent m i l i t a r y p r e s e n c e i n t h e c o u n t r y , -- The Associated Ress r e p o r t e d from K a b u l t h a t t h e new S o v i e t - b a c k e d Afghan government v a s s e c r e t l y c o n t i n u i n g the e x e c u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s , 01/07/80 - President C a r t e r d e c l a r d t h a t t h e U - S . w i l l form a c o n s o r t i u m w i t h P e s t e r n a n d Middle E a s t c o u n t r i e s t o s u p p l y m i l i t a r y a n d economic a s s i s t a n c e t o P a k i s t a n , -- T h e S o v i e t Union v e t o e d t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l ' s r e s o l u t i o n demanding v i t h d r a v a l of f o r e i g n t r o o p s f rom A f g h a n i s t a n ( t h e v o t e w a s 13-2) . 01/@6/80 -- D e f e n s e S e c r e t a r y Brown, v i s i t i n g P e k i n g , called f o r *complementary a c t i o n s " be tween t h e U -S a n d C h i n a t o counter Soviet expansion, I - The S o v i e t s accnsed P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r of s c u t t l i n g d e t e n t e and e x p l o i t i n g t h e c u r r e n t crisis t o renew t h e %old w a r o m 01/05/80 -- The 01/04/80 - President 01/02/80 - Babrak IJ-B, S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l opened d e b a t e on t h e S o v i e t n i n v a s i o n n of A*hanistan, S p e a k i n g f o r more t h a n 50 n a t i o n s t h a t f o r m a l l y p r o t e s t e d Hoscw 's a c t i o n s , Bglppt and P a k i s t a n l e d the d e b a t e , A d r a f t p r o p o s a l drawn up by s e v e r a l Third World n a t i o n s c a l l e d f o r a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t would n o t name t h e S o v i e t rJnion s p e c i f i d l y b u t condemned Y o r e i g n f o r e s in A f g h a n i s t a n C a r t e r announced a s h a r p r e d u c t i o n i n s h i p m e n t s of American g r i l i n t o t h e U ,S, S ,R, a t e m p o r a r y ban on sale of " h i g h t e c h n o l o g p items, a s e v e r e c u r t a i l m e n t o f S o v i e t f i s h i n g r i g h t s i n A a e r i c a n waters, and t h e d e f e r r a l o f most S o v i e t -American c u l t u r a l e x c h a n g e programs, These a c t i o n s w e r e i n response t o v h a t C a r t e r termed a * c a l l o u s v i o l a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w n b y t h e S o v i e t ' s i n v a s i a n of A f g h a n i s t a n , K a r m a l , the new Afghan p r e s i d e n t i n s t a l l e d b y t h e S o v i e t Union, r e q u e s t e d more d e f e n s e a i d from Moscow, V i e t n a m and Cuba t o r o o t enemies" cd h i s government- -- The 12/29/79 U,S, -- S o v i e t r e c a l l e d its Ambassador t o t h e S o v i e t Union, inf a n t s y d i v i s i o n s r w e d i n t o Afghanistan, i n c r e a s i n g t h e t o t a l number o f combat t r o o p s t o n e a r l y 3O,OOO. -- P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r informed S o v i e t l e a d e r Brezhnev t h a t c o n t i n u a t i a n o f t h e S o v i e t d r i v e would h a v e s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r U S--Soviet r e l a t i o n s - - 12/28/79 -- The 12/27/79 - President 12/26/79 - The 12/13/79 - U,S- 09/12/79 - President 08/09/79 -- A a i n 08/01/79 -- The 05/18/79 - Amnesty 04/10/79 -- The S o v i e t s r e p l i e d t o t h e U - S , O4/00/79 -- The 03/24/79 - S o v i e t Union c o n f i r m e d t h a t its t r o o p s were o p e r a t i n g i n s u p p o r t of t h e nev Afghan g o v e r n m e n t , S o v i e t n e v s a g e n c y T a s s j u s t i f i e d t h e i n v o l v e m e n t u n d e r t h e t e r n s of t h e D e c - 5 , 1978, f r i e n d s h i p t r e a t y w i t h A f g h a n i s t a n . - s u m r a r i l y o v e r t h r o w n by S o v i e t forces Amin m s s u a m a r i l y fa n d g u i l t y by a r e v o l u t i o n a r y t r i b u n a l of crimes a g a i n s t the Afghan p e o p l e a n d was e x e c u t e d R a d i o Kabul r e p a r t e d t h a t n m o r a l , f i n a n c i a l , a n d m i l i t a r y help1* in t h e canp came from t h e S o v i e t UnianS t a t e Department a c c u s e d t h e S o v i e t Union of " b l a t a n t m i l i t a r y i n t e r f a r e n c e n i n Afghanistan, c i t i n g a 150-plane a i r l i f t af t r o o p s a n d f i e l d e q u i p m e n t , which i t s a i d q u a d r u p l e d t h e number of S o v i e t combat t r o o p s f r a 1,500 t o 6,000, concern abaut a g r w i n g Soviet r o l e i n Afghanistan was e x p r e s s e d t o S o v i e t C h a r g e d e A f f a i r e s Vasev by A c t i n g S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e Warren C h r i s t o p h e r Hohaalnad T a r a k i was r e p l a c e d by P r i m H i n i s t e r Anin, T a r a k i ' s d e a t h was l a t e r a n n o u n c e d - acknowledged t h a t up t o 1,600 S o v i e t a d v i s o r s were s t a t i o n e d i n t h e c a u n t q t o h e l p C i r e c t t h e w a r a g a i n s t Huslia r e b e l s , S o v i e t Union n r u e d P r e s i d e n t Taraki t o broaden h i s p o l i t i c a l b a s e i n a n e f f o r t t o combat o p p o s i t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l Cbslia r e l i g i o u s groups, was announced b y t h e Amin g o v e r n r e n t f u r an e s t i a a t e d 40,000 t o 50,000 Afghans who had gone t o n e i g h b o r i n g P a k i s t a n when t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y regime t o o k power i n A p r i l 1978, i n k i n d i n Pravda, p r i n t i n g a warning of u n s p e c i f i e d d i r e w n s e q u e n c e s i f P a k i s t a n , a i d e d by t h e I r a n i a n s , Americans, C h i n e s e and E g y p t i a n s , c o n t i n u e d t o a s s i s t H u s l i n r e b e l s i n s i d e A-hanistan. Afghan government acknowledged t r o u b l e w i t h " r e a c t i o n a r y c o m t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s and i m p e r i a l i s t l a c k e ~ s ,and ~ began a c c u s i n g I r a n and P a k i s t a n of a i d i n g t h e r e b e l s , F i g h t i n g was r e p o r t e d i n 2 3 of t h e c o u n t r y ' s 28 provinces- - 03/28/79 The S o v i e t Union i n t e n s i f i e d its a r a s b u i l d u p The C a r t e r A d m i n i s t r a t i m c a u t i o n e d t h e S o v i e t s a g a i n s t i n t e r f e r i n g m i l i t a r i l y i n t h e c i v i l strife i n Afghanistan. 03/27/79 -- F o r e i g n 02/22/79 -- T h e 02/14/79 -- U.S, 12/05/?8 -- The 05/14/78 - An 04/27/78 - H i n i s t e r Blain was nanted p r i m e n i n i s t e r , T a r a k i r e m a i n e d p r e s i d e n t and d e f e n s e m i n i s t e r , U n i t e d S t a t e s c u t aid t o A f g h a n i s t a n f o r FY79 and 1980, A n b a s s a d o r Adolph Dnbs was m u r d e r e d i n Kabul,, S o v i e t and Afghan g o v e r n m e n t s s i g n e d a 20-year t r e a t y of V r i e n d s h i p , Good N e i g h b o r l i n e s s and C o o p e r a t i ~ n . ~Each p a r t y a g r e e d n o t t o j o i n a n y a l l i a n c e d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r , and t o c o n s u l t e a c h o t h e r an a l l %a j o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e s m a f f e c t i n g t h e i r interest.. interim constitution k e p t t h e existing l e g a l system i n t a c t , but a m i l i t a r y c o u r t u a s found " t o t r y p e r s o n s who h a v e committed o f f e n s e s a g a i n s t the Bevol~tion,~ - 04/28/78 A b l o o d y r e v o l u t i o n b r o u g h t to power a S o v i e t - s u p p a r t e d B a r x i s t r e g i n e h e a d e d by B u r Mohannad Taraki, ADDITION& --------------REFERENCE SOURCES -----Afghanistan: e x p a n d i n g r o l e f o r Moscow, S e p t , 27, 1979: 1-4, S o v i e t a n a l y s t , v. LRS79-12280 8, - B a l d u s , Rolf D , S t a r t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t i n A f g h a n i s t a n , I n t e r n a t i o n a l e s A s i e n f = u s , v, 1 0 , no, 1-2, 1979 : 39-51 LRS79-12882 A g r e a t new p o v e r game i n A f g h a n i s t a n Borders, William, N e w York t i r e s s a g a z i n e , J u n e 4, :978: 28, 4 6 , 48, 50, 52, 75-76, 78, 80-87, LRS79-12882 C i g a r , Noraan, Government and p o l i t i c s o f t h e " N o r t h e r n T i e r a : T u r k e y , I r a n , and g f g h a n i s t a n , H o n t i c e l l o , I l l , , Vance 9 p, ( P n b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n series: b i b l i o g r a p h i e s , 1979. b i b l i o g r a p h y P-195) LRS78-5437 Dupree, L o u i s , A f g h a n i s t a n u n d e r t h e Khalq, P r o b l e m s of c o r a n n i s m , v , 28, J u l y - A n g , 1979: 34-50LRS79-12679 E l i o t , Theodore Lo! Jr. A f g h a n i s t a n a f t e r t h e 1978 r e v o l u t i o n . S t r a t e g i c r e v l e v , v, 7 , s p r i n g 1979: 57-62. LBS79-5720 Afghanistan: Fraser-Tytler, Sir Kerr, i n C e n t r a l A s i a , ,2d ed, Londm, - a s t u d y of p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s Oxford U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , 1958, H a l l i d a y , Fred. Afghanistan a r e v o l u t i o n consumes i t s e l f N a t i o n , v , 2 2 9 , Mov. 13, 1979: 492-495, CRS- 50 K a k a r , Hasan. The f a l l of the Afghan monarchy in 1933I n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l of f l i d d l e E a s t s t u d i e s , v- 9 , Bay 1978: ?u5-214, LBS78-9872 Klass, R.T. The g r e a t gane r e v i s i t e d , V- 31, O c t - 2 6 , 1979: 1366-1368. -- The t r a g e d y of A f g h a n i s t a n Sept,-Oct, 1979: l-7, National review, LBS79-13250 Asian a f f a i r s , v , 7, LRS79-15026 t h e b e g i n n i n g of Hironov, L-, a n d G I Polyakov- Afghanistan: a new l i f e , I n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s (Hoscow), N o , 3, Bar, 1979: 46-54, LRS79-11631 The Afghan c o u p of A p r i l 1978: r e v o l u t i o n a n d H e g a r a n , Hannah, i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , O r b i s , v - 23, s p r i n g 1979: 93-1'13LRS 79-5 03 O Nenaann, R o b e r t G o A f g h a n i s t a n , Washington r e v i e w o f s t r a t e g i c a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s , v , 1, J u l y 1979: 115-118. LBS78-11349 B e v e l l , B i c h a r d S o R e v o l u t i o n and r e v o l t i n A f g h a n i s t a n World t o d a y , v - 3 5 , Nov- 1979: 432-442LBS79-14190 - Sikoyev, Ruslan, Afghanistan: r e v a l n t i o n i n t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h e w o r k i n g p e o p l e - P o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s , v - 58, J a n 1979: LRS79-1243 10-16- A new g r e a t game? C o n s e q u e n c e s of the c o u p in S t o c k w i n , Harvey, Kabul, Round t a b l e , no, 271, J u l y 1978: 242-252, LRS78-12109 Tahir-Kheli, Shirin. The s a u t h e r n f l a n k of t h e U,S,S.R ,: Afghanistan, I r a n , and P a k i s t a n , Naval War C o l l e g e r e v i e w , v, 31, w i n t e r 1979: 30-40. LBS79-1678