FY2007 Appropriations for State and Local Homeland Security

Order Code RS22383 Updated March 12, 2007 FY2007 Appropriations for State and Local Homeland Security Shawn Reese Analyst in American National Government Government and Finance Division Summary The FY2007 Department of Homeland Security appropriations (P.L. 109-295) provides approximately $3.0 billion for state and local homeland security assistance programs — $41 million more than Congress appropriated for these programs in FY2006. P.L. 109-295 does not modify or alter the distribution method that allocates funding from the programs to states and localities. The Administration had proposed approximately $2.6 billion for these programs and proposed to consolidate the infrastructure security grant programs into the Targeted Infrastructure Protection Program. Additionally, the Administration had proposed to change the current distribution method used to allocate State Homeland Security Grant Program funds to states and did not request funding for the Law Enforcement Terrorism Prevention Program. The House had proposed approximately $2.8 billion for these programs, and the Senate had proposed approximately $2.9 billion. Neither the House or Senate versions of H.R. 5441, nor P.L. 109-295 include appropriations for a consolidated Targeted Infrastructure Protection Program. This report will not be updated. This report is an overview of the FY2007 Department of Homeland Security (DHS) appropriations (P.L. 109-295); the Administration’s budget request, and the House- and Senate-passed versions of H.R. 5441 (FY2007 DHS appropriations) for the following seven homeland security programs designed to provide assistance to state and local first responders — firefighters, emergency medical personnel, emergency managers, and law enforcement officers: ! ! ! ! ! ! State Homeland Security Grant Program (SHSGP); Targeted Infrastructure Protection Program (TIPP) — initially proposed in FY2006, but not given budget authority for that fiscal year; Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI); Law Enforcement Terrorism Prevention Program (LETPP); Assistance to Firefighters (FIRE); Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG); and CRS-2 ! Citizen Corps (CCP).1 The seven programs, which are intended to help state and local recipients enhance their preparedness for terrorist attacks and catastrophic events, are administered by the Office of Grant Programs (formerly the Office of Grants and Training) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).2 FY2007 Budget Request. The Administration proposed approximately $2.57 billion for state and local homeland security assistance programs for FY2007 — $395 million less than Congress appropriated for the programs in FY2006. This was a 13.3% reduction in aggregate budget authority. House-Passed H.R. 5441. In the 109th Congress, the House passed H.R. 5441 which proposed approximately $2.84 billion for state and local homeland security assistance programs for FY2007 — $129 million less than appropriated in FY2006. This was a 4.4% reduction in aggregate budget authority. Senate-Passed H.R. 5441. The Senate-reported version proposed approximately $2.94 billion for state and local homeland security assistance programs for FY2007 — $23 million less than appropriated in FY2006. This was a 0.7% reduction in aggregate budget authority. P.L. 109-295. The FY2007 DHS appropriation provides approximately $3 billion for state and local homeland security assistance programs for FY2007 — $41 million more than appropriated in FY2006. This is a 1.3% increase in aggregate budget authority. Table 1, on the following page, compares the proposed and actual appropriations for these programs. 1 Citizen Corps programs are now administered by the Office of Citizen Corps within the Federal Emergency Management Office. 2 Programs not covered include general assistance programs that are authorized for a broad range of public safety activities, such as the Justice Assistance Grants and Community-Oriented Policing Services. Nor does this report track appropriations for bioterrorism preparedness and National Guard funding. CRS-3 Table 1. State and Local Homeland Security Assistance Programs: FY2006 Appropriations, Budget Authority Request, House- and Senate-passed Appropriations, and Appropriations for FY2007 (amounts in millions) FY2006 Approp. FY2007 Request HousePassed SenatePassed P.L. 109-295 State Homeland Security Grant Program $550 $633 $545 $500 $525 Urban Area Security Initiative $740 $838 $750 $745 $770 Urban Area Security Initiative Infrastructure Sub-grants $415 — $415 $427 $459 Port Security $175 — $200 $210 $210 Rail Security $150 — $150 $150 $175 $5 — $5 $5 $12 Intercity Bus Security $10 — $10 $12 $12 Non-Governmental Organizations Security $25 — — — —3 Buffer Zone Protection $50 — $50 $50 $50 — $600 — — — Law Enforcement Terrorism Prevention Program $400 — $400 $350 $375 Assistance to Firefighters Program $655 $293 $540 $680 $662 Emergency Management Performance Grants $185 $170 $186 $220 $200 Citizen Corps Programs $20 $35 — $20 $15 $2,965 $2,570 $2,836 $2,942 $3,006 Programs Trucking Industry Security Targeted Infrastructure Protection Program Total Source: P.L. 109-90 (FY2006 DHS appropriations); U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Fiscal Year 2007 Budget of the United States Government (Washington: GPO, Feb. 2006), Appendix, pp. 507-509; H.R. 5441 (passed by the House and Senate); and P.L. 109-295 (FY2007 DHS appropriations). * The Targeted Infrastructure Protection Program was given no budget authority for FY2006, although six infrastructure security programs, which the Administration proposes to consolidate into the Targeted Infrastructure Protection Program, had aggregate budget authority of $415 million for FY2006. The percentage change of 44.6% is relative to $415 million. 3 P.L. 109-295 does not allocate a specific amount for non-governmental organization security, instead it directs the DHS Secretary to provide any remaining funding, following the allocation of UASI grants, to these organizations at the Secretary’s discretion. CRS-4 The President’s budget also included structural proposals for these programs. First, the Administration proposed to consolidate six infrastructure security grants into the Targeted Infrastructure Protection Program (TIPP).4 The consolidation was initially proposed in the FY2006 budget request, but Congress chose to fund those programs as part of the budget authority for the Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grants. TIPP allocations would have been at the discretion of the DHS Secretary. Second, the Administration proposed to change the current distribution formula used to allocate State Homeland Security Grant Program (SHSGP) funds to states. The Administration would have reduced the guaranteed amount to each state from 0.75% to 0.25% of total SHSGP appropriations.5 DHS would have allocated the remaining appropriations for SHSGP on the basis of risk, threat, vulnerability, and unmet capabilities; and UASI funding would have also been allocated based on risk, threat, vulnerability, and unmet capabilities, as determined by the DHS Secretary. P.L. 109-295 does not change the distribution method for the programs. In the 109th Congress, the House and Senate passed versions of H.R. 5441 which did not propose funding for a consolidated Targeted Infrastructure Protection Program. The House and Senate versions of H.R. 5441 proposed separate appropriations for port, rail, intercity bus, trucking industry, and buffer zone protection security programs. P.L. 109295 does not consolidate the separate programs into a consolidated TIPP. In the conference report accompanying P.L. 109-295 (H.Rept. 109-699), the conferees stated they were disturbed by the delay in issuing the final National Preparedness Goal,6 and absent the final version of the Goal, national preparedness lacks clear direction and grant funds cannot be most efficiently allocated to states and localities. Additionally, the conference report directs DHS to distribute grant funding in the same manner as FY2006. DHS is to ensure that terrorism-focused program funding is not to be directed to all-hazard activities, and DHS is to continue to evaluate SHSGP, LETPP, and UASI applications based on risk and on how effectively these grants will address identified state and local homeland security needs.7 Congress directs the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to report on the validity, relevance, reliability, timeliness, and availability of the risk factors, and the application of those factors in the allocation of UASI, and the six infrastructure security programs to the Committees on Appropriations no later than 45 days after enactment of P.L. 109-295.8 4 The six UASI sub-grants include port, rail, trucking industry, intercity bus, non-governmental organizations, and buffer zone protection security programs. 5 P.L. 109-90 (FY2006 DHS appropriations), Title III, provides a guaranteed amount of 0.75%. 6 For more information on the National Preparedness Goal, see CRS Report RL33583, Homeland Security Grants: Evolution of Program Guidance and Grant Allocation Methods, by Shawn Reese. 7 H.Rept. 109-699. 8 Ibid. CRS-5 For additional homeland security assistance programs not shown in Table 1, Congress appropriated the following: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 9 Ibid. Commercial Equipment Direct Assistance Program — $50 million; National Domestic Preparedness Consortium — $145 million; National Exercise Program — $49 million; Metropolitan Medical Response System — $33 million; Technical Assistance — $18 million; Demonstration Training Grants — $30 million; Continuing Training Grants — $31 million; Evaluations and Assessments — $19 million; and Rural Domestic Preparedness Consortium — $12 million.9