Pakistan's primary education system ranks among the world's least effective. The Bush Administration, Congress, and the 9/11 Commission each have identified this issue as relevant to U.S. interests in South Asia. Legislation passed by the 108th Congress called for U.S. support to "improve and expand access to education for all [Pakistani] citizens" and required the Secretary of State to report on Pakistan's education reform strategy and the U.S. strategy to provide relevant assistance. This report reviews education reform efforts in Pakistan and U.S. assistance, and includes discussion of current policy. This report will be updated.