K-12 Education Programs: Appropriations Summary

This report summarizes the amount of federal appropriations for K-12 education, including total elementary and secondary funding, recent increases, and the major components counted in the K-12 total. K-12 components include: the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLBA), P.L. 107-110; the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998; and the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA).

Order Code RS21947 Updated February 14, 2005 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web K-12 Education Programs: Appropriations Summary Paul M. Irwin Specialist in Social Legislation Domestic Social Policy Division Summary Questions continue to be asked about federal appropriations for K-12 education, including total elementary and secondary funding, recent increases, and the major components counted in the K-12 total. K-12 components include: the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLBA), P.L. 107-110; the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998; and the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA). For ESEA and IDEA, issues extend to how much was “promised,” how much was provided, and the “shortfall.” This report describes these amounts; it will be updated as appropriations are enacted. Key Components and Tables Most K-12 education programs are authorized under four acts, including: ! ! ! ! Programs authorized by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA); Special education programs authorized by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); Vocational education programs authorized by Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998; and Adult education programs authorized by the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA). Four tables summarize recent appropriations for K-12 education programs: ! ! ! ! Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Total K-12 Education Appropriations Since FY2000; K-12 Education Appropriations by Major Component; ESEA Appropriations by Major Component; and Comparison of ESEA Authorizations and Appropriations. Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS-2 Table 1. Total K-12 Education Appropriations Since FY2000 (dollars in billions) FY President’s request Appropriation 2000 $22.3 $23.1 2001 26.4 27.9 2002 29.3 32.7 2003 33.7 35.7 2004 34.9 37.6 2005 38.7 38.1 2006 37.8 not yet enacted Source: Department of Education Budget Service table of Feb. 7, 2005. The FY2005 appropriation reflects the 0.80% reduction required of many FY2005 discretionary appropriations. Table 1 shows the aggregate funding for K-12 education programs since FY2000. Both the budget request and the appropriations enacted increase annually, with one exception; the FY2006 request is for less than the FY2005 request. Federal K-12 education programs include those authorized by ESEA, as well as several non-ESEA programs such as special, vocational, and adult education. The Department of Education (ED) administers these programs. Table 2. K-12 Education Appropriations by Major Component (dollars in millions) Appropriation year FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 request $18,442 $21,954 $23,610 $24,295 $24,352 $25,327 Special education 7,440 8,673 9,957 11,161 11,674 12,126 Vocational education 1,243 1,321 1,326 1,328 1,326 0 Adult education 561 591 587 590 585 216 Other K-12 programs 197 158 244 184 205 178 Total K-12 funding $27,883 $32,697 $35,724 $37,558 $38,142 $37,847 Major component ESEA programs Source: ED Budget Service tables: for FY2001, Jan. 3, 2002; for FY2002, Feb. 20, 2003; for FY2003, Aug. 27, 2004; for FY2004, Dec. 9, 2004, and for FY2005 and the FY2006 request, Feb. 7, 2005. FY2005 funding reflects the required 0.80% reductions. Table 2 shows the funding for major components of K-12 education since FY2001, which was the last full year of funding for ESEA programs before they were amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, enacted January 8, 2002. The table shows that ESEA programs receive the majority of K-12 education funds. For example, ESEA programs are funded at $24.4 billion in FY2005, or 64% of the total K-12 CRS-3 appropriation of $38.1 billion. Significant amounts also are appropriated for non-ESEA programs, such as $11.7 billion for special education programs authorized under IDEA for FY2005. Additional funds are allocated for vocational and adult education programs. A few K-12 programs, such as education for homeless children and youth, receive funding as well. Appropriations have increased for each year shown for both ESEA and special education programs, and for K-12 funding in the aggregate. Under the FY2006 request, funding for ESEA and special education would be increased; vocational education would be eliminated; and adult education and the total for K-12 would be reduced. Table 3. ESEA Appropriations by Major Component (dollars in millions) Appropriation year Major component Title I, Part A Grants to LEAs Reading First State Grants FY2006 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 request $8,763 $10,350 $11,689 $12,342 $12,740 $13,342 0 900 994 1,024 1,042 1,042 993 1,144 1,188 1,230 1,244 1,241 Teacher Quality State Grants 0 2,850 2,931 2,930 2,917 2,917 Education Technology State Grants 0 701 696 692 496 0 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21CCLC) 846 1,000 999 999 991 991 Innovative Programs State Grants (Education Block Grant) 385 385 382 297 198 100 State Assessments 0 387 384 390 412 412 Rural Education 0 163 168 168 171 171 Fund for the Improvement of Education (FIE) 717 833 810 770 675 1,976 Safe and Drug-Free Schools State Grants 439 472 469 441 437 0 English Language Acquisition 296 664 684 681 676 676 6,003 2,105 2,216 2,331 2,353 2,459 Impact Aid Other ESEA programs ESEA total $18,442 $21,954 $23,610 $24,295 $24,352 $25,327 Source: ED Budget Service tables: for FY2001, Jan. 3, 2002; for FY2002, Feb. 20, 2003; for FY2003, Aug. 27, 2004; for FY2004, Dec. 9, 2004; and for FY2005 and the FY2006 request, Feb. 7, 2005. FY2005 funding reflects required 0.80% reductions. LEAs = Local Educational Agencies. Table 3 shows the appropriations for 12 of the ESEA programs with the highest funding levels since FY2001. It shows that approximately 50% of all ESEA appropriations are allocated to the Title I, Part A Grants to local educational agencies (LEAs) program for the education of disadvantaged children, which is funded at $12.7 billion in FY2005. Also in FY2005, Reading First State Grants, Impact Aid, and Teacher Quality State Grants are each funded at more than $1 billion; the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21CCLC) program is funded at just under $1 billion. Most programs CRS-4 shown in this table require appropriated funds to be distributed by formula. Most of the remaining ESEA programs — shown as “Other ESEA programs” in the table — require the distribution of funds by discretionary grants through competition among eligible applicants. A few ESEA programs specify the distribution of funds to a single recipient. Table 4. Comparison of Authorizations Specified by ESEA and Appropriations (dollars in millions) FY2006 Programs, with ESEA section reference Title I, Part A Grants to LEAs, §1002 Authorization Request Appropriation Difference: App - Req. $22,750 $13,342 NA -$9,408 2,250 991 NA -1,259 Education Block Grant, §5146 550 100 NA -450 Voluntary Public School Choice, §5248 100 27 NA -73 FIE, §5401 650 1,976 NA +1,326 $26,300 $16,436 NA $9,864 21CCLC, §4206 FY2006 specified total Request Appropriation Difference: App - Auth $20,500 $13,342 $12,740 -$7,760 2,000 999 991 -1,009 Education Block Grant 525 297 198 -327 School Choice 100 27 27 -73 FIE 625 264 675 +50 $23,750 $14,929 $14,631 -$9,119 Request Appropriation FY2005 Programs Title I, Part A Grants to LEAs 21CCLC FY2005 specified total FY2004 Programs Title I, Part A Grants to LEAs Authorization Authorization Difference: App - Auth -$6,158 $18,500 $12,350 $12,342 1,750 600 999 -751 Education Block Grant 500 385 297 -203 School Choice 100 25 27 -73 FIE 600 169 770 +170 $21,450 $13,529 $14,435 -$7,015 21CCLC FY2004 specified total CRS-5 FY2003 Programs Title I, Part A Grants to LEAs Authorization Request Appropriation Difference: App - Auth $16,000 $11,353 $11,689 -$4,311 1,500 1,000 994 -506 Education Block Grant 475 385 382 -93 School Choice 100 25 26 -74 FIE 575 134 810 +235 $18,650 $12,897 $13,901 -$4,749 21CCLC FY2003 specified total FY2002 Programs Title I, Part A Grants to LEAs Authorization Request Appropriation Difference: App - Auth $13,500 $9,061 $10,350 -$3,150 1,250 846 1,000 -250 Education Block Grant 450 472 385 -65 School Choice 100 0 25 -75 FIE 550 25 833 +283 15,850 10,404 12,593 -3,257 10,497 6,977 7,410 -3,087 $26,347 $17,381 $20,003 -$6,344 21CCLC Five program subtotal 24 other specified programs FY2002 specified total Source: ED Budget Service tables of Jan. 3, 2002, Feb. 20, 2003, Jan. 28, 2004, Aug. 27, 2004, Dec. 9, 2004, and Feb. 7, 2005. FY2002 authorizations and appropriations are based on CRS Report RL32244, K-12 Education Funding: Authorizations and Appropriations for FY2002. Authorization levels for all years are based on ESEA, as amended by NCLBA. FY2005 funding reflects the required 0.80% reductions. NA = not available. Table 4 shows the annual funding amounts authorized, requested, and appropriated for those programs with specified authorizations of appropriations under ESEA, as amended by NCLBA. All together, the ESEA includes provisions for 45 program authorizations for the six-year period FY2002-FY2007, as follows. ! ! ! Five of the 45 ESEA programs have specific amounts authorized to be appropriated for all six fiscal years; these programs are highlighted in Table 4. Another 24 programs have specific amounts authorized only for FY2002; funding for these programs is given in aggregate only in the FY2002 segment of Table 4. For FY2003 through FY2007, such sums as may be necessary are authorized for these programs. The remaining 16 ESEA programs have no specific amount authorized; that is, such sums as may be necessary are authorized for each program for each year during the period FY2002 through FY2007. Table 4 does not include any funding information for these programs. Many recent authorizations of education programs have not specified exact authorization levels, especially for the years following the first year of authorization or reauthorization. Instead, such sums as may be necessary are authorized to be appropriated. Authorization CRS-6 provisions for each of the 45 ESEA programs are listed in CRS Report RL31244, K-12 Education Funding: Authorizations and Appropriations for FY2002. Table 4 shows that the President’s budget request is less than the authorized amount for each program for each year with two exceptions: the FY2002 Education Block Grant and the FY2006 FIE. Also for each year, the appropriation is less than the authorized amount, with the exception of FIE appropriations, which are higher than the authorized amount in each year. The FIE is a single authorization that includes 20 specific activities, as well as more general activities related to the improvement of K-12 education. For instance, appropriations are provided for general FIE activities and 17 separately specified activities within FIE in FY2005 (Table 4 shows FIE funding only in the aggregate). ESEA Funding Shortfall? Since the enactment of NCLBA in 2002, there has been a continuing discussion regarding the appropriations “promised” and the resulting “shortfall” when the enacted appropriations are compared to authorization levels. Some would contend that the ESEA authorizations of appropriations, as amended by NCLBA, represent a funding commitment that was promised in return for legislative support for the new administrative requirements made of state and local educational systems. They would contend that the authorized levels are needed for implementing the new requirements, and that the differences between promised and actual funding levels, as shown in Table 4, represent a shortfall of billions of dollars — $9.1 billion for FY2005. Others would contend that the authorized funding levels represent no more than appropriations ceilings, and as such are no different from authorizations for most education programs. That is, when the authorization amount is specified, it represents only a maximum amount, with the actual funding level to be determined during the regular annual appropriations process. In the past, education programs with specified levels of authorization generally have been funded at lower levels; few have been funded at levels equal to or higher than the specified authorization amount. IDEA Funding Shortfall? From 1975 to 2004, the IDEA Part B Grants to States program authorized state payments up to a maximum amount of 40% of the national average per-pupil expenditure (APPE) times the number of children with disabilities ages 3 and above that each state serves. Appropriations have never been sufficient to reach the 40% level. In 2004, the Congress addressed the authorization issue in P.L. 108-446, which specified authorization ceilings for Part B Grants to States for FY2005 through FY2011. The Part B Grants to States authorization is $12,358,376,571 for FY2005 and $14,648,647,143 for FY2006. The FY2005 appropriation is $10,589,746,000, or $1,768,630,571 less than the authorization. The FY2006 budget request is $11,097,746,000, or $3,550,901,143 less than the authorization. As with ESEA, some view these differences as funding shortfalls, while others see the maximum federal share and the specified authorizations as nothing more than appropriation ceilings. For additional information, please see CRS Report RL32085, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Current Funding Trends.