Diamond-Related African Conflicts: A Fact Sheet

Order Code RS20800 January 30, 2001 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Diamond-Related African Conflicts: A Fact Sheet Nicolas Cook Analyst in African Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division Jessica Merrow Research Associate Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division Summary This fact sheet summarizes major demographic and spending trends that characterize the on-going conflicts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Sierra Leone, and Angola.1 In each of these conflicts, contention over the control of mineral wealth – particularly diamonds – and other natural resources is regarded as a significant factor fueling hostilities. This fact sheet presents data on refugees; internally displaced persons (IDPs); deaths; child soldiers; approximate percentage of territory held by anti-government rebels; military spending; and international humanitarian spending. This report will be updated as events warrant. General Caveat on Conflict-related Statistics in Africa In general, conflict-related statistics – including those contained in this fact sheet – should be treated as rough estimates. This is particularly true for conflicts in Africa, where many governments lack adequate resources to undertake statistical profiling, even in peaceful settings. Many conflict-related figures are derived from statistical projections based on aging data sets (past censuses, etc.), small rapid assessment survey samples, and variable assumptions about demographic profiles resulting from "normal" levels of poverty, disease, access to healthcare, and the like. In many cases, it is nearly impossible to definitively differentiate between the effects of conflict, natural disaster, disease, and general poverty. The figures below are derived from multiple information sources and from 1 For background on the relation between diamonds and conflict in Africa, see CRS Report RL30751, Diamonds and Conflict: Policy Proposals and Background. Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS-2 studies employing a wide variety of research methodologies. With the above qualifications, the following facts, figures and data sources relating to the three current diamond-related African conflicts are given: Sierra Leone Refugees. Approximately 490,000 as of September 2000 (mostly in Guinea, Liberia and Ivory Coast).2 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). 500,000 to over one million. 300,000 additional displacements due to May 2000 upsurge in fighting.3 Deaths. Estimates for total deaths related to conflict since 1991 range between 20,000 and 50,000.4 Child Soldiers. 5,000 to 5,400, in direct combat roles. 5,000 or more used in combat support roles.5 Approximate Rebel-held Territory. One third to one half of the national territory (multiple press accounts). Military Spending. $11 million (1999); $46 million (FY1996/1997);6 $476.7 million appropriated by U.N. General Assembly for the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), June 30, 2001 through July 1, 2001.7 Humanitarian Spending. $79 million estimated need for 2001.8 2 U.S. Agency For International Development (USAID), Sierra Leone - Complex Emergency Fact Sheet #2, September 13, 2000. 3 Ibid. 4 USAID, Sierra Leone - Fact Sheet #2 and Project Ploughshare, Armed Conflicts Report 2000 [http://www.ploughshares.ca/content/ACR/ACR00/ACR00.html]. Systematic and repeated incidents involving the mutilation, abduction, rape, and other human rights abuses of civilians have been documented by international human rights groups and United Nations (U.N.) agencies. Aggregate totals for such atrocities, however, are not available. 5 Amnesty International, Sierra Leone: Childhood - A Casualty of Conflict, August 31, 2000 [http://www.amnesty.ca/library/afr5106900.htm]; and World Bank Administered Multi-Donor Trust Fund for the Sierra Leone Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Program Progress Report #3, June 30, 2000 , also available on the Internet and the World Bank's web site [http://www.worldbank.org/afr/afth2/crrp/crrp_mdtfreport3.html]. 6 International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2000-2001; Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2000 [http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook]. 7 Eighth report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone [S/2000/1199], December 15, 2000, page 9. 8 UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), UN Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Sierra Leone 2001, November 14, 2000. In 2000, a Consolidated (continued...) CRS-3 Angola Refugees. Over 340,000 in neighboring countries (November 2000 estimate).9 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). 1999: Approximately 1 million newly displaced. 2000: Approximately 338,000 newly displaced; 2.7 million total displaced as of late July 2000.10 Deaths. Minimum of 650,000 conflict-related deaths, 1974 through 1999.11 Child Soldiers. 5,000-7,000 estimated as of 1997; figure could be substantially higher (various sources). Approximate Rebel-held Territory. Varies. UNITA guerrilla tactics make much of the country insecure; UNITA has been active in most parts of Angola during the past year, and is believed to effectively control a large area adjacent to the Zambian border. Military Spending. (FY1997/1998).12 $1.005 billion in 1999, estimated; $1.2 billion Humanitarian Spending. $202 million estimated need for 2001.13 Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Refugees. 162,000 in Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia (January 2001); estimated 310,000 in these and other neighboring states (November 2000); the DRC hosts 335,800 refugees from neighboring countries (December 2000).14 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). 1.8 million (November 2000; see footnote 11). 8 (...continued) Inter-Agency Appeal for $71 million yielded a 65.4% donor response. 9 Norwegian Refugee Council Global IDP Database Angola: Profile Summary. 10 OCHA, UN Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Angola 2001, November 9, 2000 and Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Office in Angola (S/2000/977), October 10, 2000. 11 Heidelberg Institute of International Conflict Research, Database KOSIMO 1945-1999; Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Country Analysis Briefs, Angola. 12 International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2000-2001; Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2000 [http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook]. 13 OCHA, UN Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Angola 2001, November 9, 2000. In 2000, a Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for $260.6 million yielded a 52.5% donor response. 14 U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Democratic Republic of the Congo in Short, [2001 Global Appeal], December 2000; UNHCR, DR Congo: The Impact on Refugees, January 2001. CRS-4 Deaths. In eastern DRC: 200,000 due directly to acts of violence; a total of 1.7 million direct and indirect war-related deaths were estimated. This estimate covers August 1998 through May 2000.15 Child Soldiers. Concise figures not available; child recruitment is frequently reported as being common and widespread; 10,000 child soldiers were estimated to have fought on behalf of the Alliance of Democratic Forces for Liberation in 1997.16 Approximate Rebel-held Territory. 50 to 60% (multiple press accounts). Military Spending. $400 million (1999, estimated); $250 million (FY1997);17 Commitment authority of U.N. Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC): $141.3 million gross July 2000 through June 2001.18 Humanitarian Spending. $139.4 million estimated need for 2001.19 15 International Rescue Committee, Mortality Study, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, May 2000, [http://www.theirc.org/mortality.cfm]. 16 International Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, The Use of Children as Soldiers in Africa: A Country Analysis of Child Recruitment and Participation in Armed Conflict, August 14, 2000. 17 International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2000-2001; Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2000 [http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook]. 18 U.N., Democratic Republic of the Congo - MONUC Facts and Figures; available online at [http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/monuc/monucF.htm]. 19 OCHA, U.N. Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Democratic Republic of the Congo 2001, November 8, 2000. In 2000, a Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal yielded $77 million in donor assistance.