Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings, 1979-2009

This report analyzes the real weekly earnings from 1979 to 2009 of U.S. workers, including worker pay and fringe benefits, such as employer contributions for health insurance or to a retirement plan.

Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings, 1979-2009 Gerald Mayer Analyst in Labor Policy July 6, 2011 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL33835 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Summary Worker pay and fringe benefits, such as employer contributions for health insurance or to a retirement plan, are indicators of a nation’s economic well-being. An analysis of real weekly earnings (i.e., actual earnings adjusted for inflation) of all part-time and full-time and part-year and year-round workers shows that, from 1979 to 2009, real earnings increased by 24.4%, to $893 a week. During the same period, the real weekly earnings of workers employed full-time, year-round increased by 16.9%, to $1,098 a week. Although real earnings increased for workers at all earnings levels, the largest increase was for workers at the 95th percentile (i.e., workers with the highest earnings). From 1979 to 2009, the real weekly earnings of women increased more than the earnings of men. Thus, the earnings gap between men and women narrowed over the period. The distribution of weekly earnings became more unequal from 1979 to 2009. Inequality increased among both men and women. Most of the increase in inequality occurred during the 1980s. Inequality increased mainly because the share of total earnings received by the top 5% of earners increased, while the share received by workers at the lowest four quintiles declined. From 1979 to 2009, at the 20th percentile, the real weekly earnings of men employed full-time, year-round fell by 6.4%, while the real earnings of women increased by 16.8%. At the 40th percentile, the real earnings of men were relatively unchanged (up 0.1%), but the real earnings of women increased by 18.6%. From 1987 to 2009, the percentage of workers employed full-time, year-round who had employment-based health insurance coverage fell by 7.9%. The decline was greater among workers with lower earnings, and greater among men (9.3%) than women (6.3%). The percentage of full-time, year-round workers who participated in an employer- or unionprovided pension plan fell from 59.0% in 1979 to 51.5% in 2009, a decrease of 7.5%. The decline was greater among men (10.4%) than women (2.9%). Among men, the largest reductions were among middle-wage workers (i.e., men at the second, third, and fourth quintiles). From 1979 to 2009, at the 20th and 40th percentiles, the real weekly earnings of men employed full-time, year-round either declined or were unchanged. Men at the lowest and second quintiles were more likely than other men to have lost health insurance coverage. At the lowest quintile, although the percentage of men who participated in an employer- or union-provided pension plan fell by 8.6%, the decline in participation was greater for middle-wage men. Among women employed full-time, year-round, real weekly earnings increased at all earnings levels from 1979 to 2009. The smallest increases were for women at the 20th and 40th percentiles. The decline in health insurance coverage was greatest for women at the lowest and second quintiles. At the lowest quintile, from 1979 to 2009, the percentage of women who participated in an employment-based pension plan fell by 4.4%. At other quintiles, participation either fell or was unchanged. Congressional Research Service Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................1 Organization of Report..........................................................................................................2 The Definition of Earnings ..........................................................................................................2 Summary of Findings..................................................................................................................4 Real Earnings........................................................................................................................4 All Workers.....................................................................................................................4 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers......................................................................................5 Health Insurance Coverage....................................................................................................5 All Workers.....................................................................................................................5 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers......................................................................................6 Pension Coverage .................................................................................................................6 All Workers.....................................................................................................................6 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers......................................................................................6 The Distribution of Earnings .................................................................................................7 All Workers.....................................................................................................................7 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers......................................................................................7 Policies to Increase Real Earnings or Reduce Inequality ..............................................................8 Real Earnings........................................................................................................................8 Productivity ....................................................................................................................8 Economic Efficiency.......................................................................................................8 Inequality..............................................................................................................................8 Indirect Policies ..............................................................................................................9 Direct Policies.................................................................................................................9 Tradeoff with Economic Efficiency .................................................................................9 Macroeconomic Policies .................................................................................................9 The Trend in Real Weekly Earnings ............................................................................................9 Topcoding..................................................................................................................... 10 All Workers......................................................................................................................... 10 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers.......................................................................................... 13 Fringe Benefits ......................................................................................................................... 15 Employment-Based Health Insurance.................................................................................. 16 All Workers................................................................................................................... 16 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers.................................................................................... 17 Employer- or Union-Provided Pension Plans ....................................................................... 18 All Workers................................................................................................................... 18 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers.................................................................................... 20 The Distribution of Weekly Earnings......................................................................................... 21 Gini Coefficient .................................................................................................................. 21 All Workers................................................................................................................... 21 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers.................................................................................... 22 The Share of Total Weekly Earnings by Quintile ................................................................. 23 All Workers................................................................................................................... 23 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers.................................................................................... 24 Reasons for Changes in the Share of Total Weekly Earnings by Quintile........................ 26 Congressional Research Service Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Figures Figure 1. Full-Time Workers and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009 ............................4 Figure 2. Real Weekly Earnings, All Workers, 1979-2009.......................................................... 11 Figure 3. Real Weekly Earnings, All Male Workers, 1979-2009................................................. 12 Figure 4. Real Weekly Earnings, All Female Workers, 1979-2009 ............................................. 12 Figure 5. Real Weekly Earnings, Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009........................... 14 Figure 6. Real Weekly Earnings, Male Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009 .................. 14 Figure 7. Real Weekly Earnings, Female Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009............... 15 Figure 8. Employment-Based Health Insurance Coverage, All Workers, By Quintile, 1987-2009.......................................................................................................... 17 Figure 9. Employment-Based Health Insurance Coverage, Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, By Quintile, 1987-2009........................................................................ 18 Figure 10. Participation in an Employer- or Union-Provided Pension Plan, All Workers, By Quintile, 1979-2009.......................................................................................................... 19 Figure 11. Participation in an Employer- or Union-Provided Pension Plan, Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, By Quintile, 1979-2009....................................................... 20 Figure 12. Gini Coefficient, All Workers, 1979-2009................................................................. 22 Figure 13. Gini Coefficient, Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009.................................. 23 Figure 14. Share of Total Weekly Earnings by Quintile, All Workers, 1979-2009....................... 24 Figure 15. Share of Total Weekly Earnings by Quintile, Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009.............................................................................................................................. 25 Figure A-1. Illustration of Gini Coefficient Using Lorenz Curves .............................................. 28 Tables Table A-1. The Trend in Real Weekly Earnings: All Workers, 1979-2009 (in 2009 dollars) ........ 32 Table A-2. The Trend in Real Weekly Earnings: Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, 19792009 (in 2009 dollars) ............................................................................................................ 34 Table A-3. Employment-Based Health Insurance Coverage, All Workers by Quintile, 1987-2009.............................................................................................................................. 36 Table A-4. Employment-Based Health Insurance Coverage, Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, by Quintile, 1987-2009............................................................................................ 38 Table A-5. Employer- or Union-Provided Pension Coverage, All Workers, by Quintile, 1979-2009.............................................................................................................................. 40 Table A-6. Employer- or Union-Provided Pension Coverage, Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, by Quintile, 1979-2009............................................................................................ 42 Table A-7. Gini Coefficients for All Workers and for Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009............................................................................................ 44 Congressional Research Service Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Table A-8. Share of Total Weekly Earnings by Quintile, All Workers, 1979-2009....................... 46 Table A-9. Share of Total Weekly Earnings by Quintile, Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009.............................................................................................................................. 48 Appendixes Appendix. Measures of Inequality, Data, and Methodology ....................................................... 27 Contacts Author Contact Information ...................................................................................................... 50 Congressional Research Service Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Introduction Worker compensation consists of employee pay and fringe benefits. Benefits may include employer contributions to a health insurance plan or to a retirement plan. Worker compensation is an indicator of a nation’s economic well-being. The trend in real earnings (i.e., actual earnings adjusted for inflation) shows how the buying power of different workers rises or falls over time. Changes in the distribution of earnings show how the relative buying power of different workers changes over time. The level and distribution of worker pay are issues for Congress. When wages rise with productivity, increased earnings can expand the Social Security taxable wage base, which can help pay for Social Security benefits. Higher earnings can also help pay for Medicare benefits. Conversely, lower earnings can make it more difficult to finance the Social Security and Medicare programs. The level of real earnings can affect the national poverty rate and, therefore, federal spending on welfare and assistance for food, housing, healthcare, and energy. The federal minimum wage can affect the real earnings of lower-wage workers, as well as the overall distribution of earnings. In part, real earnings depend on the amount of investment per worker—in the form of both human capital (e.g., education and healthcare) and physical capital (e.g., computers and other equipment). Investment depends on personal, business, and government saving. Federal budget deficits or surpluses can affect the national saving rate and the amount of investment per worker. Government spending and tax policy can also affect earnings. Federal support for research and development can affect real earnings through the development of new goods and services and more productive technologies. Tax policy can affect decisions to save and invest, as well as the after-tax distribution of earnings. Policies that affect personal saving and the availability of private pension benefits can impact retirement income. Policies that influence the availability of private health insurance can affect federal spending on healthcare. Immigration policy can affect both real earnings and the distribution of earnings. An increased supply of unskilled foreign workers can lower the wages of less-skilled U.S. workers and increase inequality. Conversely, an increased supply of skilled foreign workers can lower the wages of skilled American workers and reduce inequality. Similarly, trade policy can affect both real earnings and the distribution of earnings. Increased imports from low-wage countries can raise the living standards of U.S. households but affect the wages of domestic workers who produce competing goods and services. Increased exports of goods produced by skilled workers in the United States can raise the wages of American workers. Finally, differences in earnings among racial or ethnic groups or extremes in inequality can affect public support for social, political, and economic institutions. Congressional Research Service 1 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Organization of Report This report examines the trends in real weekly earnings and the distribution of weekly earnings in the United States from 1979 to 2009. The report provides separate analyses for men and women.1 The discussion begins with a definition of earnings and a summary of findings. Next, the report discusses broad policies to increase real earnings or reduce inequality. The final section provides a detailed summary of the findings. The report analyzes individual earnings. A study of individual income or family earnings or income may reach different conclusions. 2 The report does not review research on the causes of changes in real earnings or inequality. The Definition of Earnings The results of an analysis of real earnings and the distribution of earnings are affected by the definition of earnings, whose earnings are studied (e.g., all workers, full-time workers, prime-age workers, or others), the measure of inequality, and the time period studied. Earnings are payments that individuals receive for their labor services. Individuals may be paid for a period of time worked (e.g., an hourly wage or weekly salary) or the quantity of goods or services produced (e.g., a piece rate). Earnings may be defined as cash wages or as total compensation. The latter consists of cash wages plus fringe benefits such as employer-provided health insurance, employer contributions to a retirement plan, and paid sick leave and vacations. The results of an analysis of individual earnings would differ from a study of individual compensation or individual income or of family earnings or income. 3 Many individuals and families receive cash or in-kind benefits from sources other than work (e.g., interest, dividends, rent, cash welfare assistance, refundable tax credits, or in-kind benefits such as food, housing, healthcare, or energy assistance).4 Some families have more wage earners than other families. This report analyzes individual weekly earnings, where earnings consist of cash wages before taxes or other deductions. Individual earnings consist of total annual earnings from all jobs divided by the number of weeks worked. The analysis includes wage and salary workers and self- 1 In addition to real earnings and the distribution of earnings, economists also study earnings mobility, or how the earnings of a given sample of workers change over time. Because of mobility, the distribution of lifetime earnings may differ from the distribution of annual or weekly earnings. 2 Earnings account for the largest share of individual and family income. 3 The distribution of earnings may change even though the distribution of total compensation does not change; e.g., if workers choose to receive a greater or smaller share of compensation as wages or if employers raise or lower their contributions for health insurance or retirement benefits. For analyses of the distribution of household income, see CRS Report RS20811, The Distribution of Household Income and the Middle Class, by Linda Levine; and the U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, P60-238, September 2010, available at http://www.census.gov/prod/2010pubs/p60-238.pdf. 4 The results of an analysis of the distribution of earnings would differ from an analysis of the distribution of income if income from transfer payments or from savings and investments rise or fall. In addition, a change in nonlabor income may affect earnings (i.e., decisions to work or how much to work). Congressional Research Service 2 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings employed workers ages 16 and older. Because there are differences in the labor market characteristics of men and women, the earnings of men and women are analyzed separately. 5 The analysis uses data from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a household survey conducted by the Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The annual supplement asks workers how much they earned during the previous year. Thus, the 2010 supplement collected earnings information for 2009. The Appendix includes a fuller explanation of the data and methodology used in this report. Finally, the report analyzes the earnings of two groups of workers: all workers and workers employed full-time, year-round. All workers include persons employed either full-time or parttime and workers who work either part of the year or year-round. Full-time workers are persons who work 35 or more hours a week. A person who works 35 or more hours a week may have more than one job. Year-round workers are persons who work 50 or more weeks a year. A yearround worker may work for more than one employer during the year. Analyzing the earnings of full-time, year-round workers helps control for changes in hours worked per week, temporary and seasonal employment, and spells of unemployment. From 1979 to 2009, the percentage of workers employed full-time, year-round increased from 56.4% in 1979 to 68.6% in 2007. (See Figure 1.) During a recession, both the percentage of workers employed full-time and the percentage of workers employed full-time, year-round tend to fall. From 1979 to 2009, there were five recessions in the United States: January to July 1980 (six months), July 1981 to November 1982 (16 months), July 1990 to March 1991 (eight months), March to November 2001 (eight months), 6 and December 2007 to June 2009 (18 months). From 2007 to 2009, the percentage of workers employed full-time fell from 81.1% to 78.5%, while the percentage of workers employed fulltime, year-round fell from 68.6% to 64.2%. 5 In general, women tend to work fewer hours per week than men, spend less time in the labor force, and enter and leave the labor force more often than men. The distribution of women by occupation and industry also differs from men. See CRS Report 98-278, The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?, by Linda Levine. 6 The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is the official arbiter of turning points in the business cycle. National Bureau of Economic Research, U.S. Business Cycle Expansions and Contractions, available at http://www.nber.org/cycles.html. Congressional Research Service 3 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Figure 1. Full-Time Workers and Full-Time,Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Full-time, year-round 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 50% Full-tim e Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Summary of Findings Real Earnings All Workers • From 1979 to 2009, the average real weekly earnings (i.e., earnings adjusted for inflation) of all workers increased by 24.4%, to $893 a week. Earnings increased for workers at all percentiles. 7 But, the largest increase, 36.2%, was for workers at the 95th percentile, whose earnings increased to $2,308 a week. • At all earnings levels, from 1979 to 2009, men earned more than women. Over the period, however, the real earnings of women increased more than the real earnings of men. Thus, the earnings gap between men and women narrowed. • From 1979 to 2009, the increase in real weekly earnings among lower- and middle-wage workers (i.e., workers at the 20th, 40th, and 60th percentiles) was due mostly to higher earnings among women. The real earnings of men at these percentiles increased slightly or were relatively unchanged (up by 1.8%, 0.1%, and 5.5%, respectively). The real earnings of women at these percentiles increased by 36.2%, 33.5%, and 40.1%, respectively. 7 If workers are ranked from lowest to highest paid, workers at the 20th percentile earn more than 20% of workers, workers at the 40th percentile earn more than 40% of workers, and so on. Congressional Research Service 4 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Full-Time, Year-Round Workers • The real weekly earnings of full-time, year-round workers are higher than the earnings of all workers. Nevertheless, from 1979 to 2009, the average earnings of workers employed full-time, year-round increased less than the earnings of all workers (16.9% compared to 24.4%). The average weekly earnings of workers employed full-time, year-round increased to $1,098 a week. • From 1979 to 2009, the real weekly earnings of full-time, year-round workers increased at all earnings levels. The largest increase occurred among workers at the 95th percentile (29.0%, to $2,500 a week). • At all earnings levels, the real earnings of women working full-time, year-round increased more than the real earnings of men. Thus, as was the case with all workers, the gap between the earnings of men and women employed full-time, year-round narrowed. • At the 20th percentile, the real weekly earnings of men employed full-time, year round were 6.4% lower in 2009 than in 1979. For men at the 40th and 60th percentiles, real earnings in 2009 were 0.1% and 6.7% higher, respectively, than in 1979. On the other hand, from 1979 to 2009, the real earnings of women at the 20th, 40th, and 60th percentiles increased by 16.8%, 18.6%, and 35.3%, respectively. Health Insurance Coverage All Workers • The CPS has consistent information on health insurance coverage from 1987 to the present. Workers with higher earnings are more likely to have employmentbased health insurance coverage. In 2009, 84.6% of the top 5% of earners had employment-based health insurance coverage, compared to 41.8% of workers at the lowest quintile • From 1987 to 2009, the percentage of workers with health insurance coverage fell by 8.8 points. Coverage fell for workers at all earnings levels.8 • The decline in health insurance coverage from 1987 to 2009 was greater among workers with lower earnings. Although coverage declined among both men and women, the reduction was greater among men (10.4%) than women (7.0%). • During the 22-year period from 1987 to 2009, health insurance coverage generally fell from 1987 to the early 1990s, increased from the mid-1990s to about 2000, and then declined again from about 2000 to 2009. 8 If workers are ranked from lowest to highest paid and then divided into five equal-size groups, each group is a quintile. Congressional Research Service 5 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Full-Time, Year-Round Workers • Workers employed full-time, year-round are more likely than all workers to have employment-based health insurance coverage (in 2009, 76.8% for workers employed full-time, year-round compared to 67.5% for all workers). • During the 22-year period from 1987 to 2009, the percentage of full-time, yearround workers with employment-based health insurance fell by 7.9 points. Coverage fell at all earnings levels but was greater among workers with lower earnings. • The decline in insurance coverage was greater for men than women (9.3% and 6.3%, respectively). • From 1987 to 2009, the decline in coverage was greater at both the beginning and the end of the period than it was in the middle. Pension Coverage All Workers • Workers with higher earnings are more likely than workers with lower earnings to participate in an employer- or union-provided pension plan. In 2009, 61.8% of the top 5% of earners were covered by such a plan, compared to 8.7% of workers in the lowest quintile. • From 1979 to 2009, participation in an employment-based pension plan fell by 2.6%. This decline was due to the lower participation of men. Participation among men fell by 8.0%, but increased by 4.1% among women. • Among men, participation fell more at the third and fourth quintiles (10.0% and 13.8%, respectively) than at the lowest and second quintiles (1.0% and 8.0%, respectively). Participation increased among women at each of these four quintiles. • Employment-based pension coverage fell in the 1980s, but the decline was due to lower participation among men. From 1993 to 2001, participation increased among both men and women. From 2001 to 2009, participation fell among both men and women, but the reduction was greater among men than among women. Full-Time, Year-Round Workers • From 1979 to 2009, the decline in participation in employment-based pension plans was greater among full-time, year-round workers than among all workers (7.5% versus 2.6%). • Participation declined among both men and women (10.4% and 2.9%, respectively) from 1979 to 2009. Among men, the largest reductions were among workers in the three middle quintiles. Among women, the decline in participation was greater at the lowest and top quintiles. Congressional Research Service 6 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings • Among full-time, year-round workers, participation fell in the 1980s, increased in the 1990s, and fell again from 2001 to 2009. In the 1980s, participation fell among both men and women. The Distribution of Earnings All Workers • As measured by the Gini coefficient, inequality in the distribution of weekly earnings increased among all workers from 1979 to 2009. • Earnings inequality is greater among men than women. But, from 1979 to 2009, inequality increased among both men and women. • When the earnings of men and women are analyzed separately, inequality increased more than when the earnings of men and women are analyzed together. One explanation may be that as the earnings gap between men and women narrowed, the distribution of earnings among women became more similar to the distribution of earnings among men. • The increase in inequality occurred mainly during the 1980s. From 1993 to 2001, there was a slight increase in inequality, while the change in the Gini coefficient from 2001 to 2009 was not statistically significant. • The rise in inequality from 1979 to 2009 was due mainly to the growth in the share of total weekly earnings received by the top 5% of earners. From 1979 to 2009, the share of earnings received by the top 5% of earners increased by 2.4%, while the share of earnings received by the lowest four quintiles fell by 2.7%. Full-Time, Year-Round Workers • The distribution of earnings among workers employed full-time, year-round is more equal than the distribution of earnings among all workers. Nevertheless, from 1979 to 2009, inequality increased more among full-time, year-round workers than among all workers. • Inequality among workers employed full-time, year-round is greater among men than women. But, inequality increased among both men and women. • When the earnings of men and women are analyzed separately, inequality increased more than when the earnings of men and women are analyzed together. • The largest increase in inequality among full-time, year-round workers occurred during the 1980s. Inequality also increased from 1993 to 2001. From 2001 to 2009, there was a small decline in inequality. • Over the period from 1979 to 2009, inequality increased because the top quintile of earners received a larger share of total weekly earnings, while the first four quintiles received a smaller share. From 1979 to 2009, the share of earnings received by the top 5% of earners increased by 2.5%, but the share received by the lowest four quintiles fell by 3.7%. Congressional Research Service 7 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Policies to Increase Real Earnings or Reduce Inequality A variety of broad policies are available to increase real earnings or reduce earnings inequality. Policies to increase real earnings may differ from policies to reduce inequality. In some cases, the policies may conflict. Some policies may have mainly short-term effects. Other policies may require a longer-term commitment. Real Earnings Productivity Real earnings rise with increased productivity. Policies to increase productivity may include efforts to raise both private and public saving, increase capital investment per worker, expand investment in human capital (e.g., education, training, and healthcare), and encourage the development of technology. Technological innovation may include improvements in equipment, the introduction of new products, or better methods of production, transportation, or communication. 9 Economic Efficiency Another way to increase real earnings is to improve economic efficiency. According to standard economic theory, competitive markets generally result in the most efficient allocation of resources, where resources consist of individuals with different skills, capital goods (e.g., computers, machinery, and buildings), and natural resources. A more efficient allocation of resources generally results in greater total output, which can raise real average earnings. Economic efficiency can be improved through policies that provide consumers with greater access to goods and services (e.g., improved infrastructure to exchange goods and services and expanded trade) and a better allocation of labor and capital (e.g., neutral tax policies, migration, or the deregulation of labor, product, or other markets). Inequality Inequality may be reduced using either direct or indirect policies. Direct policies include income transfer programs. Indirect policies may consist of programs to improve the income-producing human capital of lower-skilled workers (e.g., education, training, or healthcare). Programs to reduce inequality may involve tradeoffs, however, with proposals to improve economic efficiency. 9 Improved technology may allow for greater outsourcing of both manufacturing and service jobs, which may or may not affect the distribution of domestic earnings. See CRS Report RL32292, Offshoring (or Offshore Outsourcing) and Job Loss Among U.S. Workers, by Linda Levineand CRS Report RL32484, Foreign Outsourcing: Economic Implications and Policy Responses, by Craig K. Elwell. Congressional Research Service 8 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Indirect Policies Inequality can be reduced with policies that reduce the relative supply of less-skilled labor, increase the relative supply of skilled labor, or both. Such policies may include improved investment in preschool, grade school, and high school education, better adult education, and improved access to healthcare for lower income workers. Inequality may also be reduced by increasing the relative supply of college-educated workers; for example, programs that lower the cost of higher education or increase educational assistance to lower income students. Some programs may be more cost effective than others. Immigration policies that allow more skilled workers, fewer unskilled workers, or both, into the country can also reduce inequality. Direct Policies Income inequality may also be reduced through income redistribution programs. These programs include policies such as progressive taxation—including refundable tax credits like the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC). They also include in-kind transfers of food, housing, healthcare, and energy assistance. Tradeoff with Economic Efficiency Competitive markets may allocate resources efficiently, but, for some policymakers, they may result in an unacceptable distribution of earnings. Thus, programs that reduce inequality may involve tradeoffs with policies to improve economic efficiency. Some economists argue that a higher minimum wage, easier union organizing rules, or more restrictive trade policies may reduce inequality. Other economists maintain that these policies may reduce total economic output and may not have a significant impact on inequality. Similarly, some economists argue that high marginal tax rates and income redistribution programs may harm economic efficiency. For example, high tax rates may discourage saving and investment. Transfer payments or other forms of nonlabor income may reduce the supply of labor (i.e., they may affect decisions to work or how much to work). Macroeconomic Policies Fiscal and monetary policies that reduce or maintain low unemployment may also affect the distribution of earnings. During an economic expansion, an increase in the number of hours worked or the hourly wages of lower-wage workers may improve the relative earnings and lower inequality. Fiscal policies consist of government spending and tax revenues. Monetary policy consists of actions by the Federal Reserve Bank that affect the money supply and interest rates.10 The Trend in Real Weekly Earnings The remainder of this report provides a detailed description of the findings summarized above. This section examines the trend in real weekly earnings from 1979 to 2009. Nominal, or actual, earnings are adjusted for inflation using the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers, 10 Fiscal policy (i.e., budget surpluses or deficits) may also impact interest rates. Congressional Research Service 9 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings adjusted to take into account the current methods for measuring changes in prices (CPI-U-RS). An explanation of this index is provided in the Appendix. This section shows the trend in real weekly earnings for workers at the 20th, 40th, 60th, 80th, and 95th percentiles. If workers are ranked from lowest to highest paid, workers at the 20th percentile earn more than 20% of workers, workers at the 40th percentile earn more than 40% of workers, and so on. All of the results in this section are shown using graphs. The data displayed in the graphs are provided in the Appendix. Topcoding To protect the confidentiality of survey participants, the CPS data available for public use have an earnings amount assigned to higher-earning workers. Their actual earnings are not reported, but are topcoded. Because of a change in topcoding in 1993, changes in earnings from 1992 to 1993 cannot be separated into the effects of the change in topcoding and the actual change in earnings. Therefore, this section does not discuss how much average weekly earnings changed from 1979 to 2009. Changes in the amount of earnings over periods that do not include 1992 to 1993 are discussed. In addition, the percentage changes in average earnings from 1979 to 2009 are the sum of changes from 1979 to 1992 and from 1993 to 2009. (See the discussion of “Topcoded Earnings” in the Appendix.) All Workers From 1979 to 2009, the average real weekly earnings of all employed persons increased by 24.4%, to $893 a week. Earnings increased for workers at all percentiles. The increase was greatest for workers at the 95th percentile. The real earnings of workers at the 20th percentile increased by 17.0% (to $288), while the earnings of workers at the 95th percentile increased by 36.2% (to $2,308). (See Figure 2 and Table A-1.) Figure 3 and Figure 4 show two differences in the real weekly earnings of men and women. First, at each percentile, the earnings of men are greater than the earnings of women. In 2009, men at the 20th percentile earned $360 a week, compared to $247 a week for women. At the 60th percentile, men and women earned $923 and $654 a week, respectively. At the 95th percentile, men earned $2,750 a week, compared to $1,788 a week for women. Second, from 1979 to 2009, at all earnings levels, real weekly earnings increased more for women than men. At the 20th, 40th, and 60th percentiles, the real earnings of men were either unchanged or increased slightly (up by 1.8%, 0.1%, and 5.5%, respectively). But, the earnings of women at these percentiles increased by 36.2%, 33.5%, and 40.1%, respectively. Thus, the increase in real earnings of workers at the 20th, 40th, and 60th percentiles was due mostly to higher earnings among women. Congressional Research Service 10 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Figure 2. Real Weekly Earnings, All Workers, 1979-2009 $3,000 $2,500 $2,000 $1,500 $1,000 $500 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 $0 All w orkers 20th percentile 40th percentile 60th percentile 80th percentile 95th percentile Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Real weekly earnings increased more in the 1980s and 1990s than in the 2000s. From 1980 to 1989, real earnings increased by 11.5% (from $666 to $743). But, the increase was mainly among women and higher-wage men. The real earnings of men at the 20th percentile fell by 4.9%. The earnings of men at the 40th percentile were relatively unchanged (down by 0.4%), but they increased by 2.3% at the 60th percentile. From 1993 to 2001, real weekly earnings among all workers increased by 18.9% (from $758 to $902).11 Real earnings increased among both men (16.8%) and women (23.5%). 11 Because of the change in topcoding in the CPS in 1993, the calculations for the decade of the 1990s begin with 1993. At the end of the decade, the peak year in real earnings varies by percentile. This report uses 2001 as the peak year. Congressional Research Service 11 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Figure 3. Real Weekly Earnings, All Male Workers, 1979-2009 $3,000 $2,500 $2,000 $1,500 $1,000 $500 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 $0 All w orkers 20th percentile 40th percentile 60th percentile 80th percentile 95th percentile Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Figure 4. Real Weekly Earnings, All Female Workers, 1979-2009 $3,000 $2,500 $2,000 $1,500 $1,000 $500 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 $0 All w orkers 20th percentile 40th percentile 60th percentile 80th percentile 95th percentile Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Congressional Research Service 12 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings From 2001 to 2009, real weekly earnings fell by 0.9% (from $902 to $893). The decline was due to lower real earnings among men. Overall, the earnings of men fell by 2.7%, but the earnings of women increased by 2.3%. Among men, earnings fell at the 20th, 40th, and 60th percentiles but increased at the 80th and 95th percentiles. The narrowing of the earnings gap between men and women may have been caused by a number of factors. The relative hourly wages of women may have increased. Women may have worked more hours. More women may have entered traditionally male occupations. Gains in educational attainment and work experience may also have narrowed the earnings gap between men and women. 12 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers The real weekly earnings of full-time, year-round workers are higher than the earnings of all workers. (Compare Figure 2 and Figure 5.) Nevertheless, from 1979 to 2009, the real earnings of workers employed full-time, year-round increased less than the earnings of all workers. The average weekly earnings of full-time, year-round workers increased by 16.9%, compared to 24.4% for all workers. The average weekly earnings of workers employed full-time, year-round increased to $1,098 in 2009. Among workers employed full-time, year-round, earnings increased at all percentiles. The largest increase (29.0%, to $2,500 a week) occurred among workers at the 95th percentile. At the 20th percentile, earnings increased by 6.6%, to $462 a week. (See Table A-2.) As was the case with all workers, the average real weekly earnings of women employed full-time, year-round increased more than the earnings of men (41.1% and 13.6%, respectively). The earnings of women increased more than the earnings of men at all percentiles. At the 20th percentile, the earnings of men fell by 6.4%, while the earnings of women increased by 16.8%. The earnings of men at the 40th percentile were relatively unchanged (up by 0.1%), while the earnings of women increased by 18.6%. At the 60th percentile, the earnings of men rose by 6.7%, but the earnings of women rose by 35.3%. (Compare Figure 6 and Figure 7.) The real weekly earnings of workers employed full-time, year-round increased more in the 1980s and 1990s than in the 2000s (8.8%, 12.6%, and 0.8%, respectively). Among men at the 20th percentile, real earnings fell during the 1980s (by 2.9%), increased from 1993 to 2001 (by 7.3%), and fell again from 2001 to 2009 (by 2.5%). The earnings of women at the 20th percentile increased in each period (5.1%, 14.8%, and 0.9%, respectively) 12 For more discussion on the reasons for the narrowing of the wage gap between men and women, see CRS Report 98278, The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?, by Linda Levine. Congressional Research Service 13 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Figure 5. Real Weekly Earnings, Full-Time,Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009 $3,000 $2,500 $2,000 $1,500 $1,000 $500 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 $0 All w orkers 20th percentile 40th percentile 60th percentile 80th percentile 95th percentile Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Figure 6. Real Weekly Earnings, Male Full-Time,Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009 $3,000 $2,500 $2,000 $1,500 $1,000 $500 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 $0 All w orkers 20th percentile 40th percentile 60th percentile 80th percentile 95th percentile Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Congressional Research Service 14 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Figure 7. Real Weekly Earnings, Female Full-Time,Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009 $3,000 $2,500 $2,000 $1,500 $1,000 $500 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 $0 All w orkers 20th percentile 40th percentile 60th percentile 80th percentile 95th percentile Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Fringe Benefits Total compensation consists of wages and fringe benefits. This section examines the trends in employment-based health insurance and pension coverage. Employment-based health insurance consists of employer contributions to a health insurance plan. Workers who are not covered by an employment-based insurance plan may purchase insurance from a private insurance company or they may be covered by a public insurance program (e.g., Medicaid or Medicare).13 An employment-based pension plan is an employer- or union-provided retirement plan. Instead of (or in addition to) an employment-based retirement plan workers may save for retirement through an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). 14 13 The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (P.L. 111-148, PPACA), as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-152), increases access to health insurance. PPACA does not require employers to provide employees with health insurance. Beginning in 2014, however, it does impose requirements on certain employers. Employers with at least 50 full-time equivalent (FTE) employees may be required to pay a penalty if they do not provide insurance and at least one employee receives a premium credit (an advanceable, refundable tax credit for the purchase of health insurance through a health insurance exchange). Employers with at least 50 FTEs who do provide coverage may be subject to a penalty if their plans do not meet certain requirements. For more information on the employer and individual requirements of PPACA, see CRS Report R40942, Private Health Insurance Provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), by Hinda Chaikind, Bernadette Fernandez, and Mark Newsom. 14 For information on the types of IRAs, see CRS Report RL31770, Individual Retirement Accounts and 401(k) Plans: Early Withdrawals and Required Distributions, by John J. Topoleski. Congressional Research Service 15 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings This report does not analyze the employer or employee cost of health insurance. The report does not examine the amount of employer or employee contributions to employee retirement plans. For the analysis in this section, workers are divided into quintiles. Workers are first ranked from lowest to highest paid. Workers are then divided into five equal-size groups, or quintiles. Workers in the top, or highest paid, quintile are further divided into two groups: the top 5% of earners and the top 81% to 95% of earners. Employment-Based Health Insurance The CPS has consistent information on employment-based health insurance coverage from 1987 to the present. Because of changes in the survey, however, current data are not fully comparable to data from earlier years. In 1994, for example, the health insurance questions in the CPS were redesigned. 15 These changes resulted in higher estimates of the number of persons with employment-based health insurance. The reported change in health insurance coverage between 1993 to 1994 cannot be separated into the effects of the change in the survey questions and the actual change in coverage. Therefore, in Figure 8 and Figure 9, the period from 1987 to 2009 is separated into two periods: 1987 to 1993 and 1994 to 2009. Also, in this section of the report and in Table A-3 and Table A-4, the changes in health insurance coverage from 1987 to 2009 are the sum of the percentage point changes over each of the two subperiods (i.e., the sum of the change from 1987 to 1993 and the change from 1994 to 2009).16 All Workers Five features characterize the trend in employment-based health insurance coverage from 1987 to 2009.17 • Workers with higher earnings are more likely to have employment-based health insurance. In 2009, 84.6% of the top 5% of earners had coverage, compared to 41.8% of workers in the lowest quintile. (See Figure 8 and Table A-3.) • From 1987 to 2009, the percentage of workers with health insurance coverage fell by 8.8 points. 15 U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States, 2009, Current Population Reports, P60-238, GPO, September 2010, available at http://www.census.gov/prod/2010pubs/p60-238.pdf, p. 71. 16 Other changes in the CPS may affect the comparability of health insurance data over time. The Census Bureau has released revised data on health insurance coverage for the years 1996 to 2005. Because of these revisions, the estimated number of persons with employment-based health insurance increased slightly. This report does not take these revisions into account. Also, in 2000 the CPS added questions to verify that people who answered no to all questions about specific types of insurance were actually uninsured. This change also increased slightly the estimated number of persons with employment-based health insurance. Cheryl Hill Lee and Sharon M. Stern, Health Insurance Estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau: Background for a New Historical Series, U.S. Census Bureau, June 2007, pp. 8, 16, http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/usernote/revhlth_paper.pdf. 17 The analysis in this report is of employment-based health insurance coverage only. It does not include coverage of self-employed persons. The self-employed may have private health insurance if they purchase an individual policy or they are covered under someone else’s policy. For more information on health insurance coverage, see CRS Report R41665, Characteristics of Individuals With and Without Health Insurance, 2009, by Carol Rapaport. Congressional Research Service 16 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings • Health insurance coverage fell at all earnings levels from 1987 to 2009, but the decline was greatest among lower-wage workers. At the lowest quintile, the percentage of workers with health insurance coverage fell by 14.5 points, compared to a 5.2-point decline for the top 5% of earners. • Health insurance coverage fell among both men and women, but the decline was greater among men (10.4%) than women (7.0%).18 • From 1987 to 2009, health insurance coverage fell from 1987 to the early 1990s, increased from the mid-1990s to about 2000, and then declined again from about 2000 to 2009. In Figure 8, see the line for “All workers,” which shows the percentage of all workers who had employment-based health insurance coverage. Figure 8. Employment-Based Health Insurance Coverage, All Workers, By Quintile, 1987-2009 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% All w orkers Third quintile Top 5% Low est quintile Fourth quintile 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 87 40% Second quintile 81%-95% Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Because of changes in the design of the health insurance questions in 1994, the percentage of workers with employment-based health insurance is separated into two subperiods: 1987-1993 and 1994-2009. Full-Time, Year-Round Workers Workers employed full-time, year-round are more likely than all workers to have employerprovided health insurance. In 2009, 76.8% of workers employed full-time, year-round had health insurance coverage, compared to 67.5% of all workers. (See Table A-3 and Table A-4.) Nevertheless, during the 22-year period from 1987 to 2009, the pattern of coverage for full-time, 18 Unless stated otherwise, the comparisons of percentage differences or changes discussed in this report are significant at the 90% confidence level or better. See the Appendix for an explanation of confidence levels. Congressional Research Service 17 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings year-round workers was similar to that of all workers. First, workers with higher earnings are more likely to be covered by employment-based health insurance. Second, from 1987 to 2009, the percentage of full-time, year-round workers with employment-based health insurance fell by 7.9 points. Third, coverage declined at all earnings levels, and the decrease was greater among workers with lower earnings. Fourth, the drop in coverage was greater for men (9.3%) than women (6.3%). Finally, from 1987 to 2009, the decline in coverage was greater at both the beginning and the end of the period than it was in the middle. (See Figure 9.) Figure 9. Employment-Based Health Insurance Coverage, Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, By Quintile, 1987-2009 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% All w orkers Third quintile Top 5% Low est quintile Fourth quintile 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 87 40% Second quintile 81%-95% Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Because of changes in the design of the health insurance questions in 1994, the percentage of workers with employment-based health insurance is separated into two subperiods: 1987-1993 and 1994-2009. Employer- or Union-Provided Pension Plans All Workers Workers with higher earnings are more likely to participate in an employer- or union-provided pension plan.19 In 2009, 61.8% of the top 5% of earners were covered by such a plan, compared to 8.7% of workers in the lowest quintile. 20 (See Figure 10 and Table A-5.) 19 The CPS questionnaire asks respondents, “Other than Social Security did [any] employer or union that [you] worked for [last year] have a pension or other type of retirement plan for any of its employees?” This question is followed up with a question about whether the employee participated in an employer- or a union-provided plan. 20 The analysis in this section includes wage and salary workers in both the private and public sectors as well as self(continued...) Congressional Research Service 18 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings From 1979 to 2009, participation in an employment-based pension plan fell by 2.6%. But, this decrease was due to the decline in participation among men. While participation among men fell by 8.0%, it increased among women by 4.1%. Among men at the lowest and second quintiles, participation fell by 1.0% and 8.0%, respectively. The decline in participation was greater among men at the third and fourth quintiles (10.0% and 13.8%, respectively). Among women at these four quintiles, participation increased from 1979 to 2009. Employment-based pension coverage declined in the 1980s, increased in the 1990s, and fell again in the 2000s.21 The decline in participation in the 1980s was due to a decrease in participation among men (down by 5.2%, but unchanged among women). From 1993 to 2001, participation increased among both men and women (3.7% and 3.9%, respectively). In the 2000s, participation fell among both men and women, but the drop was greater among men than women (5.2% and 1.8%, respectively). Figure 10. Participation in an Employer- or Union-Provided Pension Plan, All Workers, By Quintile, 1979-2009 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% All w orkers Low est quintile Second quintile Fourth quintile 81%-95% Top 5% 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 0% Third quintile Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). (...continued) employed workers. Public sector and self-employed workers are not covered by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA, P.L. 93-406), which is the federal law that governs employer-provided pension plans. For more information on pension plan coverage, see CRS Report RL30122, Pension Sponsorship and Participation: Summary of Recent Trends, by John J. Topoleski. 21 The years used in this section to compare the decades of the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s are the same as those used for the analysis of earnings. See the section on “The Trend in Real Weekly Earnings.” Congressional Research Service 19 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Full-Time, Year-Round Workers The decline in participation in employment-based pension plans has been greater among fulltime, year-round workers than among all workers. From 1979 to 2009, pension plan participation fell by 7.5% among full-time, year-round workers, compared to a 2.6% decline among all workers. (See Table A-5 and Table A-6.) Except for the top 5% of earners (where participation was unchanged), participation among workers employed full-time, year-round declined at all quintiles from 1979 to 2009. (See Figure 11 and Table A-6.) From 1979 to 2009, participation fell by 10.4% among men and 2.9% among women. Among men, the decline was greatest for men at the second, third, and fourth quintiles (13.2%, 14.7%, and 10.3%, respectively). Among women, participation fell more at the lowest and top quintiles than at the middle three quintiles. Among full-time, year-round workers, participation in an employer- or union-provided pension plan fell in the 1980s, increased in the 1990s, and fell again from 2001 to 2009. In the 1980s, participation fell among both men (6.7%) and women (3.0%). Figure 11. Participation in an Employer- or Union-Provided Pension Plan, Full-Time,Year-Round Workers, By Quintile, 1979-2009 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% All w orkers Low est quintile Second quintile Fourth quintile 81%-95% Top 5% 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 0% Third quintile Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Congressional Research Service 20 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings The Distribution of Weekly Earnings This section examines the distribution of weekly earnings from 1979 to 2009. Different measures of inequality provide different information and can lead to different conclusions. Most measures identify whether inequality has changed over time or whether inequality is greater among some groups of workers than among others. But some measures may not show how inequality has changed over time or differs among groups. This report uses two measures of inequality: the Gini coefficient and the share of total weekly earnings received by each quintile of workers. Together, the two measures identify whether the distribution of earnings has changed and, if so, how it has changed. Both of these measures are described in detail in the Appendix. Gini Coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of earnings equality that ranges from 0 to 1. If the earnings of all individuals are the same, the Gini coefficient is equal to 0, representing complete equality. If one worker receives all of the earnings and all other workers receive zero earnings, the Gini coefficient is equal to 1. Thus, a larger coefficient indicates a greater degree of inequality. Because of the change in topcoding in 1993, the graphical representations of the Gini coefficient are separated into two periods: 1979 to 1992 and 1993 to 2009. The analysis of changes from 1979 to 2009 in the Gini coefficient are the sum of changes over these two periods. All Workers Inequality increased among all workers from 1979 to 2009. For most years from 1979 to 2009, inequality was greater among men than women. (See Figure 12 and Table A-7.) From 1979 to 2009, the Gini coefficient for all workers increased by 0.023 points. Inequality increased more among men and women when their earnings are analyzed separately than when their earnings are analyzed together. The Gini coefficient increased by 0.054 points among men and 0.049 points among women. One explanation for the greater increase in inequality among men and women when their earnings are analyzed separately is that, at the same time that overall inequality increased, the distribution of earnings among women became more similar to the distribution of earnings among men—as reflected in the narrowing of the earnings gap between men and women. From 1979 to 2009, the largest increase in inequality occurred during the 1980s. Compared to the 0.023 point increase in the Gini coefficient from 1979 to 2009, the coefficient increased by 0.029 points from 1980 to 1989. From 1993 to 2001, there was a slight increase in inequality; the Gini coefficient rose by 0.008 points. The 0.004 point decline in the coefficient from 2001 to 2009 was not statistically significant. Congressional Research Service 21 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Figure 12. Gini Coefficient, All Workers, 1979-2009 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 All w orkers Line 4 Men Line 5 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 0.20 Wom en Line 6 Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Because of changes in topcoding in 1993, the Gini coefficient is separated into two subperiods: 1979-1992 and 1993-2009. Full-Time, Year-Round Workers The distribution of earnings among workers employed full-time, year-round is more equal than the distribution of earnings among all workers. Nevertheless, inequality increased more among workers employed full-time, year-round than among all workers (0.041 points versus 0.023 points). Otherwise, the pattern of inequality among full-time, year-round workers was similar to that for all workers. Inequality is greater among men than women. When the earnings of men and women employed full-time, year-round are analyzed separately, inequality increased more than when their earnings are analyzed together. The largest increase in inequality occurred during the 1980s. Inequality also increased from 1993 to 2001, when the Gini coefficient increased by 0.021 points. The small, 0.005, decline in the coefficient from 2001 to 2009 was statistically significant at the 90% level. (See Figure 13 and Table A-7.) Congressional Research Service 22 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Figure 13. Gini Coefficient, Full-Time,Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 All w orkers Line 4 Men Line 5 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 0.20 Wom en Line 6 Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Because of changes in topcoding in 1993, the Gini coefficient is separated into two subperiods: 1979-1992 and 1993-2009. The Share of Total Weekly Earnings by Quintile The Gini coefficient shows that inequality increased from 1979 to 2009. But, the coefficient does not show how the distribution changed. To analyze where the earnings distribution changed, this section examines the share of total weekly earnings received by each quintile of workers. Because of the change in topcoding in 1993, the share of earnings received by the top 5% of workers is separated into two periods: 1979 to 1992 and 1993 to 2009. All Workers An analysis of the share of total weekly earnings by quintile shows that inequality increased because the share of total earnings received by the top quintile of earners increased, while the share of earnings received by workers with lower earnings decreased. From 1979 to 2009, the share of earnings received by the top 5% of earners increased by 2.4 percentage points. The share of earnings received by each of the four lowest quintiles either fell or was unchanged. (See Figure 14 and Table A-8.) Congressional Research Service 23 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Figure 14. Share of Total Weekly Earnings by Quintile, All Workers, 1979-2009 30% 20% 10% Low est quintile Third quintile 81%-95% 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 0% Second quintile Fourth quintile Top 5% Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Because of changes in topcoding from 1992 to 1993, the share of earnings received by the top 5% of earners is separated into two subperiods: 1979-1992 and 1993-2009. The Gini coefficient showed that inequality is greater among men than women. Nevertheless, when inequality among men or women increased, it was because the highest paid workers received a larger share of total earnings. From 1979 to 2009, when inequality increased it was generally because the top 5% of earners received a larger share of total earnings, while other workers received a smaller share. From 1980 to 1989, the share of earnings received by the top 5% of workers increased by 2.7 percentage points. From 1993 to 2001, their share increased by 1.8 points and, from 2001 to 2009, their share fell by 1.0 point. Full-Time, Year-Round Workers The Gini coefficient showed that, from 1979 to 2009, inequality increased more among full-time, year-round workers than among all workers. An analysis of the share of earnings by quintile shows that the main reason is that workers at the lowest two quintiles lost a greater share of earnings. It was not because the top 5% of full-time, year-round workers gained a greater share of earnings. From 1979 to 2009, the difference in the share of total earnings received by the top 5% of all workers (2.4 percentage points) and the share received by the top 5% of full-time, year-round workers (2.5 percentage points) was not statistically significant. On the other hand, at the lowest quintile, the share of earnings received by all workers was unchanged (up a statistically insignificant 0.1 points), while the share received by full-time, year-round workers fell by 0.7 points. Similarly, at the second lowest quintile, the share of earnings received by all workers fell Congressional Research Service 24 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings by 0.6 points, but the share received by full-time, year-round workers fell by 1.1 points. (See Table A-8 and Table A-9). One explanation for the decline in the share of earnings received by full-time, year-round workers at the lowest and second quintiles is that their hourly wage fell relative to the hourly wages of other workers. On the other hand, among all workers, those with the lowest earnings may have worked more hours (but did not work full-time, year-round), which kept their share of earnings from falling or falling more than it did. Although the real weekly earnings of women increased at all percentiles from 1979 to 2009, the share of total earnings received by women at the first four quintiles fell. The real weekly earnings of men at the 20th and 40th percentiles either fell or were unchanged over the 32-year period. But, the share of total earnings received by men at the first four quintiles fell. Among full-time, year-round workers, the share of earnings received by the top 5% of workers increased by 2.6 percentage points from 1980 to 1989 and by 1.8 points from 1993 to 2001. From 2001 to 2009, the share of earnings received by the top 5% of earners fell by 1.0 percentage point. (See Figure 15 and Table A-9) Figure 15. Share of Total Weekly Earnings by Quintile, Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009 30% 20% 10% Low est quintile Third quintile 81%-95% Line 7 20 09 20 05 20 00 19 95 19 90 19 85 19 79 0% Second quintile Fourth quintile Top 5% Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Because of changes in topcoding from 1992 to 1993, the share of earnings received by the top 5% of earners is separated into two subperiods: 1979-1992 and 1993-2009. Congressional Research Service 25 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Reasons for Changes in the Share of Total Weekly Earnings by Quintile The share of earnings received by workers at each quintile may change for many reasons. The relative number of hours worked may change and relative hourly wages may change. As discussed at the beginning of this report, both the percentage of workers employed full-time and the percentage of workers employed full-time, year-round tend to fall during recessions. During an economic expansion, as the demand for labor increases, both hours worked and earnings per hour often rise, especially among lower-wage workers.22 For example, the data on real weekly earnings in Table A-1 in the Appendix show that, when inequality fell from 1995 to 1999, the real weekly earnings for workers at the 20th percentile increased by 12.3%, compared to a 12.6% increase for workers at the 95th percentile. Conversely, when inequality increased from 1980 to 1989, earnings at the 20th percentile rose by 1.1%, but increased 13.4% at the 95th percentile. Several other factors may also affect relative earnings. The supply of and demand for workers with different skills may change. Changes in consumer tastes or technology may affect the demand for labor. Social and demographic changes may affect the supply of labor. Changes in wages may affect both the demand for and the supply of labor. Congress may enact policies that affect earnings. For example, during the period from 1979 to 2009, Congress passed four laws that raised the basic federal minimum wage. 23 Following welfare reform in 1996, the employment of single mothers increased significantly. 24 Regulatory changes or changes in trade policy may affect earnings. U.S. firms may engage in greater outsourcing. Foreign companies may increase investment in the United States. Each of these changes may affect the distribution of workers in different occupations and industries. For example, the decline in manufacturing employment in the United States since 1979 (when employment peaked at 19.4 million) may have affected both wages and fringe benefits.25 Union membership in the United States, which also peaked in 1979 (at 21.0 million), may also have affected earnings and fringe benefits.26 Separating the effect of each of these (and other) factors on earnings and fringe benefits is difficult, however. In addition, economists may not agree on the effects of each factor. 22 During an economic expansion, in order to hire more workers, employers may offer higher wages. Employers may also ask workers to work, or require, more overtime. Both of these changes would increase total weekly earnings. 23 The first law (P.L. 95-151) raised the minimum wage in January 1979, January 1980, and January 1981. The second law (P.L. 101-157) raised the wage in April 1990 and April 1991. The third law (P.L. 104-188) raised the wage in October 1996 and September 1997. In 2007, Congress enacted P.L. 110-28, which raised the minimum wage, in steps, from $5.15 to $7.25 an hour. The minimum wage rose to $5.85 in July 2007, to $6.55 in July 2008, and to $7.25 an hour in July 2009. CRS Report RL33754, Minimum Wage in the 110th Congress, by William G. Whittaker. 24 Among other things, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-193) set a time limit on cash welfare assistance and imposed greater work requirements on welfare recipients. CRS Report RL32760, The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions, by Gene Falk. 25 From 1979 to 2009, employment in manufacturing in the United States fell from 19.4 million to 11.5 million, a decrease from 21.6% to 8.9% of total nonfarm employment. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment, Hours, and Earnings from the Current Employment Statistics Survey, available at stats.bls.gov/ces/ home.htm. 26 Research has generally concluded that union workers generally earn more than nonunion workers. CRS Report RL32553, Union Membership Trends in the United States, by Gerald Mayer. Congressional Research Service 26 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Appendix. Measures of Inequality, Data, and Methodology This appendix explains the measures of inequality, source of data, and the methodology used in this report. Tables A-1 through A-9 provide the data discussed in the text and used in the graphs of the report. Measures of Inequality This report uses two measures of inequality: the Gini coefficient and the share of earnings received by each quintile of workers. Gini Coefficient The Gini coefficient is calculated using the following formula: where fi is the proportion of earners in interval (i) and pi is the proportion of total earnings received by earners in interval 1 and all lower intervals.27 Graphically, the Gini coefficient is illustrated in Figure A-1. The horizontal axis shows the percent of all earners; the vertical axis shows the percent of earnings received by all earners. The diagonal line represents total earnings equality. On the diagonal line, 25% of earners receive 25% of earnings, 50% of earners receive 50% of earnings, and so on. The two dotted lines are called Lorenz curves and illustrate two possible earnings distributions. The Gini coefficient is the ratio of the area between the diagonal line and the Lorenz curve and the total area under the diagonal line. The distribution of earnings for the first group of workers is more equal than the distribution of earnings for the second group. For the first group of workers, the bottom 60% of workers receive half of all earnings; the top 40% receive the other half of earnings. In the second group, the bottom 70% of earners receive half of all earnings and the top 30% receive the other half. 27 U.S. Census Bureau, Studies in the Distribution of Income, Series P60-183, 1992, p. 60. Congressional Research Service 27 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Figure A-1. Illustration of Gini Coefficient Using Lorenz Curves 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Earnings equality 50% 60% 70% Group 1 80% 90% 100% Group 2 Source: Illustration created by CRS. Share of Total Earnings by Quintile To calculate the share of earnings received by each quintile of earners, workers are first ranked from lowest to highest paid. Workers are then divided into five equal-size groups, or quintiles. The total earnings received by each quintile is divided by the total earnings of all workers. If everyone’s earnings were the same, each quintile would receive one-fifth of all earnings. The greater the share of earnings received by the highest paid workers (i.e., the top quintile) or the smaller the share of earnings received by the lowest paid workers (i.e., the lowest quintile) the greater the degree of inequality. In this report, the top quintile of earners is further separated into two groups: the top 5% of earners and the top 81% to 95% of earners. Data Source and Methodology The analysis in this report uses data from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the monthly Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a household survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) of the U.S. Department of Labor. The monthly CPS is the source of the national monthly unemployment rate and other labor force data. The ASEC supplement to the monthly CPS asks questions about individual earnings for the previous year. The sample is representative of the civilian noninstitutional population of the Congressional Research Service 28 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings United States. The sample for the supplement includes members of the Armed Forces living in civilian housing units on a military base or in a household not on a military base. The sample does not include persons living in institutions (such as psychiatric hospitals, nursing homes, or correctional facilities). The 2010 supplement interviewed 77,000 households.28 The ASEC supplement collects earnings information for both wage and salary workers and selfemployed persons. Some workers may have both wage and salary income and self-employment income. In addition, some individuals may have both earnings from work and income or loss from investment in a business where they are self-employed. In reporting their total earnings for the year, some individuals may combine their earnings from work with the income or loss from their business. Since wages cannot be negative, this report uses positive earnings only; that is, it excludes persons who combined their investment loss with their earnings, and their earnings were less than their investment loss. This approach does not exclude individuals who combine their earnings with their investment income or loss and the total of the two sources of income is positive. In Table A-1 and Table A-2, comparisons of real earnings between consecutive years should be made with caution. When answering the CPS question about annual earnings, some respondents may round off their earnings. For example, individuals may report that they earned $50,000 a year, when they actually earned either more or less than $50,000. From one year to the next, this rounding may affect the observed trend in real weekly earnings. CPI-U-RS In this report, nominal weekly earnings were adjusted for inflation using the CPI-U-RS (the Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers Research Series). Over the years, BLS has introduced a number of changes in the way it measures changes in prices. Each improvement is intended to make the CPI-U more accurate. But the historical CPI-U is not adjusted to take the improvements into account. The CPI-U-RS adjusts the historical CPI-U (starting in 1978) to take into account most of the improvements made in measuring price changes. The CPI-U-RS shows what the CPI-U would have been if current methods had been used to measure inflation. Compared to the CPI-U, the CPI-U-RS provides a more consistent measure of inflation.29 Topcoded Earnings In the ASEC Supplement, if an individual’s annual earnings exceed a certain amount their actual earnings are not reported. Instead, their earnings are topcoded. Over time, the CPS has changed the way it treats the earnings of workers who earn more than the topcoded amounts. In the CPS, total annual earnings consist of wages and salaries as well as farm and nonfarm selfemployment income. Wages and salaries are further separated into earnings from a worker’s longest job and “other” wage and salary earnings (e.g., from another or a second job). Before 28 U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2010 Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement, pp. 1-1, 9-3, G-3. 29 Stewart, Kenneth J, and Stephen B. Reed, Consumer Price Index Research Series Using Current Methods, 1978-98, Monthly Labor Review, vol. 122, June 1999, p. 29. Congressional Research Service 29 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings 1996, each source of earnings was topcoded at the same amount. Since 1996, each source of earnings has been given a unique topcode. Before 1996, if earnings were topcoded, reported earnings were the topcoded amount. For example, in 1995, earnings were topcoded at $99,999. For anyone who earned more than $99,999, the CPS reported their earnings as $99,999. Since 1996, for workers with earnings above the topcoded amounts, reported earnings are the average of earnings for workers with similar characteristics. Average earnings are calculated for persons based on gender, race, ethnicity, and whether or not they work full-time, year-round. For 2009, earnings from a person’s longest job were topcoded at $200,000. For white males who worked full-time, year-round and who earned more than $200,000, the CPS reported average earnings of $409,068 (i.e., the average earnings of white, male, full-time, year-round workers who earned more than $200,000).30 The change in 1996 in the way topcoded earnings are reported (i.e., average earnings as opposed to the actual topcode amounts) can affect the observed trend in inequality. For years before 1996, several economists who were given access to internal CPS data, calculated average earnings for persons with earnings above the topcoded levels. Like average earnings above the topcoded amounts reported by the CPS since 1996, the economists calculated average earnings for persons based on gender, race, ethnicity, and whether or not they work full-time, year-round. Their results are reported in a paper published by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). For consistency over the period from 1979 through 2009, this report uses average earnings above the topcoded amounts as reported by the CPS for the years 1996 and later and average earnings as published in the NBER report for the years before 1996.31 Because of continuing concerns about confidentiality and because of questions about the reliability of responses from persons who claim to have high earnings, internal CPS data are also subject to a form of topcoding. In 1985, the cap on annual earnings in the internal CPS was raised from $99,999 to $250,000. In 1993, the cap was raised from $299,999 to $999,999.32 The large increase in 1993 had a significant effect on average earnings for workers whose earnings were topcoded. In turn, the higher cap 1993 affects the observed change in inequality from 1992 to 1993. In this report, topcoding may affect the measures of inequality in two ways. First, because of topcoding, the Gini coefficient may understate the degree of inequality. Topcoding should have less of an effect on the estimates of real weekly earnings or the estimates of the share of total weekly earnings by quintile. Second, because of large increase in the internal topcode in 1993, earnings data for the years 1979 to 1992 may not be comparable to the data for the years 1993 and later. 30 U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2010 Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement, available at http://www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf, p. 5-2. 31 Larrimore, Jeff, Richard V. Burkhauser, Shuaizhang Feng, and Laura Zayatz, Consistent Cell Means for Topcoded Incomes in the Public Use March CPS (1976-2007), National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 13941, April 2008, available at http://www.nber.org/papers/w13941, pp. 29-31, 33-36. 32 Ibid., p. 49. Congressional Research Service 30 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Confidence Levels Estimates based on survey responses from a sample of households have two kinds of error: nonsampling and sampling. Examples of nonsampling error include information that is misreported and errors made in processing collected information. Sampling error occurs because a sample, and not the entire population, of households is surveyed. The difference between an estimate based on a sample of households and the actual population value is known as sampling error. When using sample data, researchers typically construct confidence intervals around population estimates. Confidence intervals provide information about the accuracy of estimated values. With a 90% confidence interval and repeated samples from a population, 90% of intervals will include the average estimate of a population characteristic. Data Used in Text and Graphs The remainder of this appendix provides the data analyzed in the text and used in the graphs of the report. In Table A-1 and Table A-2, the percent changes in real weekly earnings are the sum of the percent changes over the periods 1979 to 1992 and 1993 to 2009. In Table A-8 and Table A-9, the percentage point changes in the share of total earnings received by quintile are also the sum of the changes over the years 1979 to 1992 and 1993 to 2009. The data in Tables A-1 to A-9 are for workers age 16 and over. Because of changes in the CPS health insurance questions in 1994, in Table A-3 and Table A-4 the percentage point changes in health insurance coverage from 1987 to 2009 are sum of changes from 1987 to 1993 and 1994 to 2009 Congressional Research Service 31 Table A-1.The Trend in Real Weekly Earnings: All Workers, 1979-2009 (in 2009 dollars) Earnings 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 All Workers Average Earnings $683 $666 $656 $658 $660 $665 $686 $711 $715 $726 $743 $727 $722 $728 $758 $779 Percentile 253 248 233 230 230 227 234 237 242 240 251 247 248 253 247 253 Percentile 441 430 432 416 411 416 436 431 448 442 452 459 443 449 446 440 60th Percentile 661 648 647 638 632 643 658 682 695 687 701 686 691 691 697 688 80th Percentile 1,006 982 970 985 984 983 1,024 1,058 1,042 1,052 1,071 1,056 1,038 1,050 1,068 1,090 95th Percentile 1,642 1,614 1,578 1,642 1,633 1,691 1,711 1,795 1,737 1,752 1,831 1,805 1,772 1,815 1,837 1,927 Average Earnings 872 845 831 829 829 833 859 897 893 907 926 894 883 884 927 957 20th Percentile 365 351 339 321 315 312 321 331 333 335 334 331 320 317 313 330 40th Percentile 635 602 580 575 571 567 570 592 590 603 600 581 582 576 562 557 60th Percentile 900 867 870 830 827 860 874 898 868 873 887 857 857 864 843 847 80th Percentile 1,218 1,192 1,177 1,195 1,181 1,210 1,243 1,257 1,282 1,273 1,285 1,242 1,240 1,248 1,265 1,293 95th Percentile 1,959 1,906 1,911 1,970 1,968 1,966 2,011 2,154 2,084 2,178 2,248 2,142 2,196 2,160 2,249 2,339 Average Earnings 442 441 437 445 454 464 479 491 508 515 530 532 535 547 565 575 20th Percentile 180 182 174 173 172 174 179 180 181 182 193 191 192 200 197 199 40th Percentile 318 315 310 312 315 314 324 327 344 335 348 349 354 349 351 358 60th Percentile 453 455 444 451 472 465 475 497 514 506 520 520 532 547 548 550 80th Percentile 635 637 653 657 671 681 722 724 757 771 797 786 797 807 826 826 95th Percentile 995 991 1,001 1,026 1,063 1,084 1,097 1,167 1,216 1,223 1,285 1,285 1,300 1,318 1,363 1,376 20th 40th Men Women CRS-32 Earnings 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 % Change 19792009 All Workers Average Earnings $791 $791 $816 $848 $841 $888 $902 $908 $903 $890 $907 $906 $904 $891 $893 24.4%a 20th Percentile 258 262 266 278 290 299 303 298 293 295 304 307 302 287 288 17.0% 40th Percentile 457 471 481 505 495 518 522 527 534 524 528 511 517 499 516 17.8% 60th Percentile 699 707 728 758 744 766 777 798 785 764 769 798 796 766 769 15.0% 80th Percentile 1,075 1,073 1,102 1,137 1,188 1,198 1,188 1,192 1,211 1,201 1,209 1,228 1,194 1,188 1,212 17.8% 95th Percentile 1,935 1,963 2,050 2,072 2,178 2,180 2,305 2,293 2,243 2,184 2,248 2,250 2,288 2,299 2,308 36.2% Average Earnings 969 962 998 1,027 1,022 1,090 1,083 1,104 1,078 1,072 1,091 1,078 1,071 1,062 1,054 14.9% 20th Percentile 323 327 341 356 369 374 366 367 369 369 368 372 378 364 360 1.8% 40th Percentile 564 576 602 632 619 623 630 642 628 633 634 614 617 598 615 0.1% 60th Percentile 860 857 897 910 936 936 932 917 933 917 913 921 931 920 923 5.5% 80th Percentile 1,290 1,309 1,306 1,365 1,411 1,437 1,398 1,431 1,458 1,419 1,428 1,432 1,412 1,418 1,423 15.0% Percentile 2,300 2,356 2,511 2,527 2,575 2,611 2,679 2,751 2,691 2,719 2,747 2,700 2,745 2,777 2,750 32.6% Average Earnings 587 595 610 648 640 661 697 686 706 685 696 711 715 698 713 50.1% 20th Percentile 204 209 213 227 236 240 242 248 244 240 254 245 259 239 247 36.2% 40th Percentile 354 366 384 394 396 425 424 436 443 437 423 426 438 423 435 33.5% 60th Percentile 538 550 566 607 619 623 630 642 650 655 634 635 656 632 654 40.1% 80th Percentile 833 838 871 885 916 958 932 954 972 965 972 997 995 958 1,000 48.0% 95th Percentile 1,398 1,440 1,481 1,524 1,609 1,629 1,696 1,689 1,727 1,703 1,690 1,759 1,759 1,724 1,788 63.6% Men 95th Women Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Estimates are for persons age 16 and over. a. CRS-33 Because of changes in topcoding that affected the change in average weekly earnings between 1992 and 1993, the percent change in earnings from 1979 to 2009 is the sum of changes from 1979 to 1992 and 1993 to 2009. Table A-2.The Trend in Real Weekly Earnings: Full-Time,Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009 (in 2009 dollars) Percentile 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers Average Earnings $868 $844 $834 $839 $836 $847 $867 $892 $896 $899 $918 $889 $884 $898 $932 $945 Percentile 445 438 435 415 417 416 439 431 433 436 445 428 428 432 422 415 Percentile 635 620 609 616 594 605 621 646 625 637 642 612 620 634 618 630 60th Percentile 847 841 827 821 819 832 844 862 868 871 867 857 857 864 843 853 80th Percentile 1,165 1,144 1,131 1,149 1,157 1,134 1,170 1,221 1,216 1,206 1,228 1,209 1,181 1,210 1,209 1,239 95th Percentile 1,853 1,811 1,775 1,847 1,881 1,891 1,864 1,975 1,945 2,010 2,056 1,989 2,008 2,016 2,080 2,133 1,019 990 981 985 980 991 1,015 1,044 1,047 1,049 1,071 1,026 1,021 1,036 1,078 1,091 20th Percentile 551 529 522 509 512 503 512 515 521 503 514 490 491 490 478 473 40th Percentile 794 763 757 739 748 756 731 754 764 771 771 734 738 720 703 706 60th Percentile 1,017 991 984 985 984 983 1,005 1,041 1,042 1,005 1,028 979 1,004 1,008 984 973 80th Percentile 1,324 1,287 1,306 1,313 1,319 1,323 1,353 1,400 1,389 1,380 1,413 1,377 1,372 1,388 1,405 1,376 95th Percentile 2,118 2,049 2,089 2,092 2,086 2,163 2,193 2,330 2,258 2,345 2,409 2,295 2,274 2,304 2,389 2,477 Average Earnings 579 578 574 593 600 610 626 647 659 668 679 676 681 696 716 726 20th Percentile 371 357 348 357 354 359 366 359 365 369 376 367 369 374 365 363 40th Percentile 477 477 465 472 472 486 494 503 521 503 514 520 526 527 534 523 60th Percentile 582 572 587 616 610 618 640 646 660 670 675 673 679 717 703 688 80th Percentile 763 763 778 796 787 832 857 883 872 905 931 918 916 939 975 963 95th Percentile 1,059 1,086 1,088 1,125 1,181 1,174 1,228 1,289 1,303 1,340 1,361 1,377 1,418 1,440 1,406 1,514 20th 40th Men Average Earnings Women CRS-34 Percentile 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 % Change 19792009 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers Average Earnings $936 $957 $974 $994 $990 $1,034 $1,049 $1,049 $1,046 $1,039 $1,041 $1,046 $1,028 $1,036 $1,058 16.9%a 20th Percentile 419 424 436 455 446 455 466 459 449 450 444 450 458 460 462 6.6% 40th Percentile 618 628 641 657 665 671 676 688 673 655 655 655 672 671 673 8.6% 60th Percentile 855 858 892 885 904 910 932 917 910 908 909 921 915 920 962 16.0% 80th Percentile 1,209 1,254 1,281 1,264 1,312 1,317 1,351 1,376 1,346 1,310 1,352 1,330 1,366 1,341 1,365 16.8% 95th Percentile 2,096 2,094 2,178 2,274 2,366 2,395 2,330 2,407 2,467 2,402 2,472 2,455 2,387 2,491 2,500 29.0% 1,086 1,102 1,125 1,141 1,145 1,210 1,207 1,209 1,195 1,187 1,192 1,185 1,163 1,187 1,206 13.6% 20th Percentile 484 494 512 505 505 503 513 504 516 502 507 498 497 498 500 -6.4% 40th Percentile 699 707 743 758 743 747 746 757 763 764 740 716 740 747 769 0.1% 60th Percentile 968 993 1,025 1,011 1,040 1,064 1,048 1,032 1,054 1,048 1,056 1,023 1,015 1,035 1,058 6.7% 80th Percentile 1,382 1,387 1,409 1,483 1,485 1,557 1,514 1,605 1,570 1,529 1,532 1,534 1,520 1,533 1,538 14.3% Percentile 2,473 2,487 2,562 2,527 2,723 2,874 2,796 2,866 2,871 2,839 2,937 2,905 2,805 2,874 2,885 29.5% Average Earnings 714 743 753 778 769 784 826 825 838 830 828 851 841 831 866 41.1% 20th Percentile 376 381 384 379 390 398 419 413 408 415 418 409 398 402 423 16.8% 40th Percentile 535 524 538 556 557 575 582 573 583 568 571 573 597 575 577 18.6% 60th Percentile 693 707 717 758 743 747 769 780 785 764 773 777 796 766 788 35.3% 80th Percentile 968 972 999 1,011 1,030 1,046 1,052 1,091 1,121 1,092 1,099 1,105 1,094 1,111 1,154 41.4% 95th Percentile 1,505 1,571 1,563 1,643 1,711 1,677 1,747 1,788 1,817 1,834 1,838 1,944 1,890 1,897 1,923 72.8% Men Average Earnings 95th Women Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Estimates are for persons age 16 and over. a. CRS-35 Because of changes in topcoding that affected the change in average weekly earnings between 1992 and 1993, the percent change in earnings from 1979 to 2009 is the sum of changes from 1979 to 1992 and 1993 to 2009. Table A-3. Employment-Based Health Insurance Coverage, All Workers by Quintile, 1987-2009 (percent) Percentile 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 All Workers Total 72.4% 71.8% 71.7% 70.1% 70.0% 68.2% 67.6% 71.5% 71.3% 71.3% 71.3% 71.9% Lowest Quintile 49.2% 48.8% 48.4% 46.5% 45.4% 44.1% 43.6% 50.7% 50.3% 49.7% 49.9% 50.2% Second Quintile 60.0% 58.6% 59.3% 57.3% 57.6% 53.4% 53.9% 57.7% 57.9% 57.6% 58.6% 59.2% Third Quintile 77.6% 76.6% 76.2% 75.1% 75.1% 73.6% 73.8% 75.5% 75.1% 75.4% 74.9% 76.3% Fourth Quintile 85.6% 85.8% 86.5% 84.5% 84.8% 83.3% 82.1% 84.9% 84.9% 85.6% 85.4% 85.3% 81-95% 90.4% 90.3% 89.3% 88.4% 88.2% 88.1% 85.6% 89.8% 89.3% 88.8% 88.8% 89.4% Top 5% 86.3% 86.6% 84.4% 82.7% 83.4% 82.3% 81.9% 85.4% 85.5% 85.5% 84.0% 85.6% Total 72.1% 71.4% 71.2% 69.1% 68.6% 66.5% 66.5% 70.6% 70.4% 70.3% 70.5% 71.4% Lowest Quintile 43.3% 42.5% 42.7% 40.5% 38.4% 36.9% 38.9% 45.3% 45.3% 44.2% 44.1% 44.7% Second Quintile 61.0% 58.0% 58.6% 57.0% 57.1% 52.6% 53.8% 57.4% 56.8% 57.9% 58.5% 60.2% Third Quintile 79.1% 79.4% 79.6% 75.7% 75.3% 73.1% 73.1% 75.4% 76.2% 75.3% 76.6% 77.5% Fourth Quintile 88.2% 87.7% 87.6% 85.8% 85.5% 84.1% 83.0% 86.6% 86.0% 86.5% 86.5% 86.5% 81-95% 89.9% 90.5% 89.0% 88.0% 88.3% 86.7% 84.7% 89.4% 88.6% 88.4% 88.4% 88.7% Top 5% 86.0% 85.9% 83.3% 82.3% 82.1% 83.0% 81.3% 84.3% 85.1% 84.3% 82.5% 85.8% Total 72.7% 72.4% 72.2% 71.2% 71.5% 70.2% 68.9% 72.6% 72.3% 72.4% 72.2% 72.5% Lowest Quintile 52.3% 52.0% 51.1% 49.4% 49.7% 47.4% 45.6% 52.8% 52.4% 52.5% 52.2% 53.0% Second Quintile 57.9% 58.3% 58.6% 56.1% 56.2% 55.3% 54.2% 58.4% 58.3% 57.0% 57.6% 57.9% Third Quintile 76.3% 75.3% 75.3% 76.3% 75.6% 74.2% 73.5% 74.7% 75.5% 76.4% 76.4% 76.7% Fourth Quintile 86.4% 86.4% 86.8% 85.5% 86.6% 85.2% 84.2% 86.8% 84.8% 86.3% 85.5% 85.6% 81-95% 91.2% 91.0% 90.8% 89.4% 90.4% 90.4% 87.9% 90.9% 91.6% 90.6% 89.8% 89.7% Top 5% 88.1% 86.5% 84.7% 87.2% 87.4% 85.3% 84.4% 88.1% 88.1% 87.2% 87.5% 87.5% Men Women CRS-36 Percentile 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 % Change 1987-2009 All Workers Total 72.3% 73.5% 72.8% 71.6% 70.6% 70.9% 70.5% 70.1% 70.2% 69.4% 67.5% -8.8%a Lowest Quintile 50.2% 51.3% 49.6% 48.6% 47.3% 48.2% 47.2% 47.2% 46.8% 44.3% 41.8% -14.5% Second Quintile 60.2% 62.1% 61.5% 60.2% 58.1% 58.5% 58.0% 57.8% 57.4% 56.1% 52.9% -11.0% Third Quintile 76.7% 78.8% 78.0% 76.4% 75.8% 75.4% 75.5% 75.1% 76.2% 75.3% 73.6% -5.7% Fourth Quintile 86.3% 86.7% 86.6% 85.4% 84.7% 84.8% 84.8% 83.8% 83.8% 84.0% 82.7% -5.7% 81-95% 88.7% 89.2% 89.0% 88.4% 88.1% 88.1% 87.4% 87.5% 87.5% 88.3% 86.9% -7.6% Top 5% 85.8% 86.7% 85.4% 83.8% 84.3% 85.9% 86.4% 84.6% 84.7% 83.8% 84.6% -5.2% Total 72.1% 73.0% 72.0% 70.6% 69.8% 69.4% 69.1% 68.5% 68.7% 67.9% 65.8% -10.4% Lowest Quintile 46.6% 46.8% 44.9% 44.1% 43.5% 43.4% 42.7% 41.6% 41.7% 38.8% 36.4% -13.3% Second Quintile 60.4% 63.0% 62.0% 58.9% 58.1% 57.0% 55.9% 56.4% 56.2% 56.0% 52.8% -11.7% Third Quintile 79.0% 79.3% 79.3% 77.7% 75.8% 74.5% 75.6% 75.2% 75.3% 74.6% 72.6% -8.9% Fourth Quintile 86.7% 87.6% 85.9% 85.4% 85.3% 85.7% 84.3% 83.5% 83.5% 83.7% 82.5% -9.3% 81-95% 88.8% 88.7% 88.9% 88.1% 86.9% 87.1% 87.2% 86.5% 87.4% 87.1% 85.0% -9.6% Top 5% 84.2% 86.9% 84.8% 82.5% 84.0% 84.9% 85.6% 82.9% 84.4% 82.6% 83.6% -5.5% Total 72.6% 74.1% 73.7% 72.7% 71.6% 72.5% 72.2% 72.0% 71.9% 71.1% 69.3% -7.0% Lowest Quintile 51.3% 53.2% 52.1% 50.3% 49.2% 50.8% 49.9% 49.3% 49.5% 47.5% 44.0% -15.4% Second Quintile 58.3% 60.9% 60.7% 60.1% 57.5% 58.0% 58.8% 59.0% 58.6% 56.6% 54.2% -7.9% Third Quintile 77.4% 79.6% 78.0% 77.8% 75.9% 76.5% 77.0% 76.2% 76.3% 75.4% 73.7% -3.8% Fourth Quintile 86.4% 86.9% 87.5% 86.8% 86.2% 87.6% 86.4% 85.8% 87.1% 86.8% 85.4% -3.7% 81-95% 90.1% 90.4% 91.3% 88.8% 89.5% 89.9% 89.8% 90.1% 88.8% 89.9% 89.9% -4.2% 87.3% 87.8% 86.4% 87.1% 88.1% 88.5% 87.1% 88.0% 86.1% 86.5% 87.8% -4.0% Men Women Top 5% Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Notes: Estimates are for persons age 16 and over. a. Because of changes in the CPS health insurance questions in 1994, the change shown from 1987 to 2009 is the sum of the change from 1987 to 1993 and from 1994 to 2009. CRS-37 Table A-4. Employment-Based Health Insurance Coverage, Full-Time,Year-Round Workers, by Quintile, 1987-2009 (percent) Percentile 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers Total 82.4% 81.8% 81.4% 79.8% 80.1% 78.9% 77.6% 80.0% 79.2% 79.5% 79.1% 78.9% Lowest Quintile 59.2% 58.9% 58.4% 55.8% 56.8% 53.4% 53.3% 55.4% 55.4% 55.8% 55.0% 54.3% Second Quintile 82.2% 80.1% 80.7% 78.5% 77.4% 77.5% 76.1% 77.8% 76.4% 77.6% 76.3% 76.4% Third Quintile 87.6% 87.0% 86.7% 85.4% 86.6% 85.3% 83.8% 84.6% 83.5% 84.1% 84.8% 84.5% Fourth Quintile 91.4% 90.9% 91.1% 89.6% 90.2% 89.2% 87.6% 90.7% 90.0% 90.0% 89.7% 89.0% 81-95% 92.4% 93.1% 91.1% 90.9% 90.9% 90.5% 88.1% 92.1% 91.3% 90.7% 90.5% 90.9% Top 5% 88.8% 89.5% 86.4% 86.7% 85.6% 85.7% 85.0% 88.9% 88.1% 88.8% 87.5% 88.5% Total 81.5% 80.7% 80.4% 78.1% 78.3% 77.0% 75.6% 78.1% 77.7% 77.9% 77.7% 77.6% Lowest Quintile 55.4% 53.5% 53.9% 50.2% 51.4% 48.4% 48.2% 50.1% 52.1% 51.1% 51.0% 50.1% Second Quintile 80.7% 78.7% 79.9% 76.1% 76.2% 74.8% 73.4% 74.4% 73.4% 73.8% 73.4% 73.8% Third Quintile 88.4% 87.7% 87.1% 85.1% 84.9% 84.8% 82.7% 84.8% 83.3% 85.1% 85.2% 84.8% Fourth Quintile 92.2% 91.7% 91.8% 90.0% 90.1% 89.0% 87.5% 90.5% 89.7% 89.7% 89.6% 89.8% 81-95% 91.8% 92.9% 90.1% 90.0% 90.0% 88.6% 86.8% 91.6% 90.4% 90.6% 90.0% 89.9% Top 5% 88.2% 89.7% 86.4% 86.7% 86.5% 86.6% 84.2% 88.0% 88.3% 88.5% 86.3% 88.7% Total 83.7% 83.5% 82.9% 82.5% 82.7% 81.7% 80.6% 82.7% 81.4% 81.9% 81.2% 80.7% Lowest Quintile 60.3% 60.8% 60.7% 58.8% 59.9% 56.4% 56.8% 59.2% 57.7% 58.5% 57.5% 57.6% Second Quintile 83.9% 82.8% 81.1% 82.6% 81.4% 81.2% 79.3% 80.9% 79.9% 81.1% 79.8% 79.3% Third Quintile 89.2% 88.6% 88.6% 88.7% 88.1% 87.5% 87.9% 88.7% 84.5% 86.8% 86.3% 86.0% Fourth Quintile 91.8% 92.0% 91.9% 90.7% 92.3% 91.3% 89.6% 91.7% 91.1% 90.9% 90.9% 89.2% 81-95% 94.0% 94.5% 93.2% 92.0% 92.8% 93.1% 90.0% 93.6% 94.4% 92.8% 91.7% 92.1% Top 5% 91.6% 89.0% 89.4% 90.5% 89.7% 88.9% 88.6% 92.2% 91.1% 89.8% 91.7% 90.4% Men Women CRS-38 Percentile 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 % Change 1987-2009 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers Total 79.6% 80.3% 79.8% 78.6% 77.8% 77.8% 77.3% 76.7% 77.1% 77.9% 76.8% -7.9%a Lowest Quintile 55.5% 55.9% 55.9% 55.2% 52.0% 52.5% 50.9% 50.6% 51.6% 52.1% 49.9% -11.5% Second Quintile 76.6% 78.3% 76.5% 74.4% 74.7% 74.0% 73.8% 72.7% 73.3% 74.4% 73.7% -10.1% Third Quintile 85.9% 86.1% 86.5% 85.4% 83.9% 83.7% 84.1% 83.4% 83.6% 84.8% 83.4% -4.9% Fourth Quintile 89.4% 90.2% 89.9% 88.7% 89.0% 89.0% 88.4% 87.7% 88.0% 88.5% 88.1% -6.4% 81-95% 91.2% 91.4% 91.0% 89.9% 90.0% 90.1% 89.9% 89.6% 89.5% 90.6% 89.4% -7.0% Top 5% 88.7% 89.7% 88.4% 86.7% 88.1% 88.2% 88.7% 87.1% 88.0% 86.8% 88.0% -4.7% Total 78.4% 78.9% 78.3% 76.8% 76.1% 75.5% 75.1% 74.3% 74.9% 75.8% 74.8% -9.3% Lowest Quintile 51.1% 51.3% 51.5% 49.3% 47.7% 47.6% 46.1% 45.0% 46.6% 46.5% 44.9% -12.3% Second Quintile 75.0% 76.9% 74.8% 72.5% 73.3% 70.8% 70.6% 69.9% 70.3% 72.2% 71.7% -10.0% Third Quintile 86.3% 85.8% 85.9% 84.9% 82.9% 82.1% 82.4% 82.2% 81.4% 82.7% 81.1% -9.4% Fourth Quintile 89.4% 90.2% 89.3% 88.7% 88.0% 88.0% 87.5% 86.8% 87.4% 89.1% 88.1% -7.1% 81-95% 90.8% 91.1% 90.7% 89.2% 88.9% 89.4% 89.0% 88.3% 89.6% 89.5% 88.5% -8.1% Top 5% 87.7% 89.0% 87.7% 85.8% 88.1% 87.5% 88.1% 86.1% 86.7% 85.8% 86.3% -5.7% Total 81.3% 82.2% 82.0% 81.1% 80.2% 81.0% 80.5% 80.0% 80.2% 80.7% 79.5% -6.3% Lowest Quintile 56.1% 58.0% 58.0% 57.5% 54.5% 55.7% 55.7% 55.5% 55.7% 55.8% 53.4% -9.3% Second Quintile 80.9% 81.9% 79.1% 79.6% 77.7% 77.9% 77.6% 76.2% 76.8% 77.4% 75.3% -10.2% Third Quintile 87.4% 86.5% 87.8% 86.6% 85.8% 88.5% 86.6% 86.6% 86.9% 86.7% 85.8% -4.2% Fourth Quintile 90.0% 91.4% 92.3% 91.0% 91.6% 91.7% 90.7% 89.5% 90.2% 92.0% 91.0% -2.9% 81-95% 93.0% 93.6% 93.8% 91.5% 91.9% 91.6% 92.9% 92.8% 91.8% 92.1% 92.5% -5.1% 90.0% 92.2% 89.5% 89.1% 90.3% 90.3% 89.6% 89.8% 89.9% 89.4% 90.4% -4.8% Men Women Top 5% Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Notes: Estimates are for persons age 16 and over. a. Because of changes in the CPS health insurance questions in 1994, the change shown from 1987 to 2009 is the sum of the change from 1987 to 1993 and from 1994 to 2009. CRS-39 Table A-5. Employer- or Union-Provided Pension Coverage, All Workers, by Quintile, 1979-2009 (percent) Percentile 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 42.6% 42.6% 42.0% 41.3% 41.0% 40.1% 40.5% 40.3% 38.3% 38.7% 39.7% 40.0% 40.7% 40.5% 39.7% 41.8% Lowest Quintile 7.4% 7.0% 6.2% 5.9% 5.8% 5.6% 5.9% 6.1% 5.5% 5.9% 6.3% 6.8% 6.6% 6.3% 6.3% 7.6% Second Quintile 24.4% 24.2% 23.2% 23.1% 21.4% 21.2% 21.1% 21.2% 20.6% 21.0% 22.2% 22.1% 22.2% 21.6% 21.2% 23.2% Third Quintile 46.2% 46.6% 45.7% 44.3% 45.0% 43.4% 43.3% 43.5% 41.4% 41.3% 42.3% 43.2% 44.2% 43.8% 43.3% 45.1% Fourth Quintile 63.4% 63.9% 63.0% 63.0% 63.0% 60.6% 61.8% 62.0% 57.2% 57.4% 60.1% 60.1% 60.8% 60.8% 59.9% 62.5% 81-95% 73.7% 73.0% 73.4% 71.9% 71.4% 71.5% 72.3% 70.5% 68.8% 69.2% 69.8% 70.1% 71.3% 71.5% 69.7% 72.1% Top 5% 64.9% 66.2% 66.9% 65.6% 65.0% 64.0% 65.4% 64.3% 61.6% 63.5% 61.7% 61.7% 63.4% 64.7% 62.4% 65.6% 47.9% 47.7% 46.8% 45.4% 44.8% 43.9% 44.3% 43.8% 41.7% 41.9% 42.4% 42.8% 43.1% 42.2% 41.4% 44.0% Lowest Quintile 9.0% 9.1% 7.9% 7.2% 6.7% 7.1% 6.7% 6.8% 6.6% 7.4% 7.5% 7.9% 6.9% 6.2% 6.6% 7.9% Second Quintile 32.9% 31.8% 30.3% 28.4% 27.7% 25.2% 25.6% 26.0% 24.7% 24.5% 24.4% 27.0% 26.3% 24.3% 23.3% 26.8% Third Quintile 55.5% 56.0% 54.5% 52.1% 51.7% 50.4% 51.7% 51.2% 46.7% 45.6% 48.1% 47.6% 47.9% 46.9% 46.7% 48.9% Fourth Quintile 72.0% 70.5% 69.8% 69.2% 68.5% 66.8% 67.2% 66.1% 63.2% 64.4% 64.6% 63.6% 65.1% 64.9% 63.6% 66.0% 81-95% 73.1% 73.3% 73.9% 72.1% 71.9% 71.8% 72.3% 71.2% 69.7% 69.7% 70.0% 70.8% 71.9% 69.9% 68.8% 72.5% Top 5% 62.1% 63.9% 64.1% 63.6% 62.8% 63.8% 65.4% 62.5% 60.3% 62.1% 60.0% 60.4% 61.7% 64.3% 60.9% 64.9% 35.8% 36.2% 36.0% 36.3% 36.3% 35.7% 36.0% 36.2% 34.4% 34.9% 36.6% 36.7% 37.8% 38.5% 37.8% 39.2% Lowest Quintile 5.3% 5.2% 4.7% 4.4% 4.5% 3.8% 3.9% 5.3% 4.4% 4.3% 5.3% 5.3% 5.7% 5.9% 5.4% 6.3% Second Quintile 18.0% 16.0% 16.8% 15.7% 14.9% 15.3% 16.0% 14.9% 14.9% 16.6% 17.0% 17.0% 18.3% 18.2% 18.5% 19.3% Third Quintile 33.0% 34.6% 34.7% 35.5% 35.2% 35.8% 34.7% 34.8% 34.7% 33.7% 36.8% 36.9% 38.0% 38.4% 38.5% 39.7% Fourth Quintile 53.6% 56.0% 53.7% 55.8% 57.4% 55.3% 55.6% 55.8% 51.9% 54.0% 56.4% 56.6% 57.8% 59.6% 58.3% 60.5% 81-95% 68.0% 69.3% 70.0% 70.5% 69.3% 68.5% 70.3% 70.2% 66.4% 66.4% 68.5% 68.6% 69.6% 70.2% 68.9% 71.0% Top 5% 71.9% 69.3% 70.0% 69.5% 69.3% 66.8% 67.6% 69.9% 65.7% 64.3% 64.8% 65.7% 68.1% 70.8% 66.1% 68.1% All Workers Total Men Total Women Total CRS-40 Percentile % Change 1979-2009 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 41.5% 42.2% 42.4% 44.2% 44.4% 44.9% 43.5% 42.3% 42.5% 42.4% 41.3% 40.0% 41.9% 40.8% 39.9% -2.6% Lowest Quintile 7.8% 7.9% 7.9% 9.4% 9.7% 10.4% 9.7% 9.2% 9.1% 9.1% 9.1% 9.7% 9.8% 8.8% 8.7% 1.3% Second Quintile 22.9% 24.2% 25.7% 27.2% 27.0% 28.8% 27.5% 26.7% 26.0% 26.9% 25.6% 25.6% 26.2% 25.2% 23.8% -0.7% Third Quintile 44.9% 45.4% 46.0% 49.0% 49.2% 50.4% 47.7% 46.7% 47.3% 46.5% 45.9% 43.8% 47.5% 46.0% 45.0% -1.2% Fourth Quintile 62.1% 62.8% 63.2% 64.3% 64.9% 64.1% 63.7% 61.3% 61.3% 61.4% 60.4% 57.1% 60.0% 58.8% 57.7% -5.6% 81-95% 70.5% 72.2% 70.1% 72.2% 71.9% 71.7% 70.6% 68.9% 70.2% 68.5% 66.3% 64.6% 67.0% 66.0% 65.5% -8.2% Top 5% 66.9% 65.5% 65.8% 67.6% 68.7% 67.7% 64.4% 63.3% 64.6% 65.9% 64.2% 60.9% 62.9% 62.7% 61.8% -3.1% 43.5% 44.1% 44.3% 46.3% 46.4% 46.5% 45.1% 43.3% 43.4% 43.1% 41.9% 40.3% 42.1% 41.0% 40.0% -8.0% Lowest Quintile 8.4% 8.7% 8.7% 10.0% 10.0% 10.8% 9.8% 9.3% 8.9% 9.3% 9.3% 9.5% 9.3% 8.6% 8.0% -1.0% Second Quintile 25.5% 27.0% 27.6% 30.3% 30.7% 31.0% 30.2% 28.1% 28.2% 27.7% 27.3% 26.2% 28.1% 26.4% 24.9% -8.0% Third Quintile 49.5% 48.3% 50.1% 53.6% 53.6% 52.1% 51.7% 49.7% 47.7% 47.5% 46.7% 44.7% 47.2% 46.9% 45.5% -10.0% Fourth Quintile 64.2% 66.6% 65.2% 66.6% 66.9% 68.0% 65.2% 63.0% 64.1% 63.4% 60.6% 58.2% 60.2% 59.0% 58.2% -13.8% 81-95% 71.0% 71.4% 71.4% 72.5% 71.6% 71.7% 69.9% 67.6% 69.7% 67.8% 67.0% 64.1% 67.0% 65.3% 64.0% -9.0% Top 5% 66.1% 65.1% 65.1% 66.8% 68.8% 68.0% 65.4% 63.0% 62.7% 66.7% 61.7% 59.4% 60.7% 61.7% 61.2% -1.0% 39.1% 40.0% 40.2% 41.8% 42.1% 43.1% 41.7% 41.1% 41.5% 41.5% 40.7% 39.6% 41.7% 40.5% 39.9% 4.1% Lowest Quintile 6.5% 6.8% 6.9% 8.2% 9.2% 9.5% 8.3% 8.1% 8.6% 8.4% 7.8% 8.8% 8.7% 8.2% 7.8% 2.6% Second Quintile 18.6% 20.5% 21.1% 23.0% 22.0% 24.8% 24.0% 24.6% 23.2% 23.5% 24.0% 22.1% 24.8% 22.6% 22.2% 4.3% Third Quintile 40.5% 41.5% 42.0% 44.4% 45.0% 48.2% 44.7% 44.0% 44.6% 45.2% 43.1% 42.8% 44.5% 44.1% 43.3% 10.3% Fourth Quintile 59.4% 60.1% 61.4% 62.3% 62.3% 62.2% 61.5% 59.9% 60.9% 61.5% 60.3% 58.5% 62.5% 60.4% 59.1% 5.4% 81-95% 71.4% 72.4% 71.0% 72.3% 73.1% 71.3% 71.9% 69.3% 71.2% 69.3% 68.4% 66.7% 68.7% 67.4% 68.0% 0.0% Top 5% 68.4% 67.9% 65.5% 68.1% 68.4% 68.4% 64.5% 68.2% 68.1% 68.7% 68.0% 63.7% 65.6% 66.1% 64.7% -7.1% All Workers Total Men Total Women Total Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Estimates are for persons age 16 and over. CRS-41 Table A-6. Employer- or Union-Provided Pension Coverage, Full-Time,Year-Round Workers, by Quintile, 1979-2009 (percent) Percentile 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers Total 59.0% 59.1% 58.8% 58.1% 57.3% 56.2% 56.5% 55.5% 52.9% 52.9% 53.7% 54.1% 55.1% 55.4% 53.7% 55.9% Lowest Quintile 29.5% 29.1% 28.1% 28.3% 26.3% 25.5% 25.3% 24.0% 22.7% 23.2% 24.0% 23.6% 23.3% 23.6% 22.2% 23.7% Second Quintile 53.1% 53.4% 53.2% 51.6% 51.3% 49.3% 48.3% 48.6% 45.4% 44.5% 46.0% 45.7% 46.4% 46.9% 45.0% 48.4% Third Quintile 64.0% 65.6% 65.4% 64.7% 64.1% 62.6% 63.8% 62.3% 58.1% 57.4% 59.2% 59.8% 62.4% 62.2% 60.4% 61.2% Fourth Quintile 74.7% 73.8% 73.1% 72.4% 72.9% 70.8% 71.3% 70.6% 68.2% 68.7% 69.3% 69.2% 70.7% 70.4% 69.7% 71.7% 81-95% 76.2% 75.4% 76.1% 75.4% 73.8% 75.4% 75.2% 74.0% 71.9% 72.8% 72.6% 74.2% 75.2% 75.3% 73.3% 75.8% Top 5% 65.9% 67.6% 68.6% 67.5% 65.4% 65.8% 69.4% 66.3% 64.4% 65.1% 62.1% 65.9% 66.0% 69.9% 65.7% 69.8% Total 60.4% 60.4% 60.0% 58.7% 57.9% 56.8% 57.2% 56.0% 53.5% 53.4% 53.7% 54.3% 55.5% 54.9% 53.0% 55.5% Lowest Quintile 28.7% 29.6% 28.3% 27.3% 25.8% 24.0% 23.1% 22.4% 22.6% 22.3% 21.7% 23.0% 22.5% 21.5% 19.6% 22.4% Second Quintile 56.2% 54.5% 55.1% 52.8% 52.3% 50.9% 50.5% 49.7% 45.6% 43.9% 46.2% 45.5% 47.8% 46.0% 43.7% 46.1% Third Quintile 69.5% 69.2% 68.1% 67.1% 67.5% 64.1% 65.2% 65.5% 60.6% 59.2% 60.0% 60.2% 62.2% 63.1% 61.1% 62.8% Fourth Quintile 75.7% 75.6% 75.2% 73.9% 73.1% 73.8% 73.6% 71.5% 69.7% 70.7% 71.7% 71.9% 73.1% 73.1% 70.9% 72.0% 81-95% 74.8% 75.3% 76.1% 74.6% 73.1% 72.9% 75.2% 72.8% 71.8% 73.2% 70.5% 73.0% 73.7% 71.7% 71.6% 75.8% Top 5% 63.3% 66.3% 64.8% 66.5% 64.2% 65.7% 68.0% 64.3% 61.2% 65.0% 63.6% 64.1% 66.8% 69.3% 64.4% 68.7% Total 56.3% 56.7% 56.6% 57.0% 56.2% 55.4% 55.4% 54.8% 51.9% 52.1% 53.7% 53.7% 54.6% 56.1% 54.8% 56.5% Lowest Quintile 27.3% 25.9% 25.3% 24.9% 23.7% 23.8% 24.1% 22.4% 20.0% 21.9% 22.8% 22.3% 22.6% 22.7% 22.5% 22.4% Second Quintile 45.0% 48.0% 47.7% 49.3% 48.1% 46.8% 45.6% 45.2% 43.6% 41.9% 45.0% 44.0% 44.8% 48.2% 46.0% 48.8% Third Quintile 60.7% 61.5% 61.1% 62.2% 62.1% 61.1% 60.3% 60.2% 56.3% 57.5% 59.1% 59.2% 60.0% 61.6% 60.9% 62.3% Fourth Quintile 70.9% 72.3% 72.4% 72.0% 71.5% 69.4% 71.5% 70.4% 65.5% 66.8% 68.6% 68.8% 71.0% 70.2% 70.2% 72.9% 81-95% 77.3% 77.1% 77.2% 77.7% 76.6% 75.9% 77.2% 76.2% 74.9% 74.6% 74.0% 75.6% 75.8% 77.7% 74.8% 76.3% Top 5% 78.6% 72.2% 75.4% 73.6% 72.2% 75.3% 70.6% 74.5% 71.1% 66.4% 70.5% 71.1% 72.0% 77.5% 73.6% 74.9% Men Women CRS-42 Percentile 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 % Change 1979-2009 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers Total 54.5% 55.6% 55.3% 56.6% 56.8% 56.2% 54.7% 53.3% 53.6% 53.1% 51.6% 49.3% 52.1% 51.9% 51.5% -7.5% Lowest Quintile 23.3% 24.4% 24.9% 25.8% 25.8% 25.3% 24.7% 24.0% 22.4% 22.7% 20.6% 21.4% 22.2% 22.8% 22.4% -7.1% Second Quintile 45.8% 47.5% 46.8% 48.3% 48.1% 48.7% 46.3% 44.3% 46.3% 44.6% 43.5% 40.2% 44.5% 45.0% 44.0% -9.1% Third Quintile 60.2% 60.7% 61.7% 63.7% 63.6% 61.3% 60.4% 59.1% 58.1% 58.2% 58.0% 55.1% 57.6% 58.3% 57.9% -6.1% Fourth Quintile 69.9% 71.6% 70.4% 70.9% 71.4% 71.6% 70.1% 67.9% 68.9% 68.3% 66.0% 63.2% 66.8% 64.5% 64.9% -9.8% 81-95% 74.3% 74.9% 73.6% 75.2% 75.7% 74.8% 73.4% 71.7% 73.7% 72.6% 70.6% 67.2% 69.9% 69.8% 69.0% -7.2% Top 5% 70.9% 70.8% 70.9% 71.2% 74.0% 71.9% 68.8% 69.1% 69.2% 70.0% 67.4% 65.5% 67.3% 66.6% 65.9% 0.0% Total 54.1% 55.0% 54.8% 56.0% 56.7% 55.7% 54.2% 52.3% 52.5% 51.6% 50.1% 47.7% 50.5% 50.5% 50.0% -10.4% Lowest Quintile 21.9% 22.5% 23.2% 23.9% 24.2% 22.3% 22.5% 20.8% 19.6% 19.4% 18.8% 18.7% 20.0% 20.0% 20.1% -8.6% Second Quintile 45.2% 45.4% 45.4% 47.9% 48.3% 47.8% 44.6% 43.1% 45.0% 41.7% 42.2% 38.3% 41.9% 43.3% 43.0% -13.2% Third Quintile 60.7% 61.5% 62.7% 62.5% 63.9% 61.8% 61.5% 59.9% 57.3% 58.5% 56.0% 53.4% 56.1% 56.3% 54.8% -14.7% Fourth Quintile 69.6% 72.6% 69.3% 72.6% 72.1% 72.4% 70.7% 68.7% 69.2% 67.9% 65.2% 62.1% 65.6% 64.8% 65.3% -10.3% 81-95% 74.3% 74.6% 74.5% 74.2% 75.5% 75.9% 72.5% 70.1% 72.6% 70.9% 69.5% 66.9% 70.0% 68.9% 67.4% -7.4% Top 5% 69.5% 68.9% 70.9% 70.8% 72.8% 69.8% 68.7% 65.8% 67.1% 69.8% 65.0% 62.8% 64.9% 65.0% 65.0% 1.7% Total 55.2% 56.5% 56.1% 57.4% 57.1% 56.9% 55.5% 54.6% 55.3% 55.3% 53.7% 51.7% 54.3% 53.9% 53.4% -2.9% Lowest Quintile 22.7% 24.4% 24.5% 26.5% 24.2% 25.1% 24.6% 25.2% 23.9% 24.6% 22.6% 23.3% 23.9% 23.2% 23.3% -4.0% Second Quintile 46.5% 48.3% 47.2% 48.6% 48.4% 50.9% 46.5% 45.5% 45.9% 47.3% 44.5% 42.4% 44.9% 46.9% 45.9% 0.9% Third Quintile 57.9% 61.0% 62.2% 63.7% 63.9% 62.0% 61.1% 59.9% 61.5% 60.9% 59.8% 57.0% 60.3% 60.0% 57.9% -2.9% Fourth Quintile 71.6% 72.3% 71.9% 71.0% 70.9% 70.3% 70.0% 67.8% 70.1% 70.3% 68.2% 65.6% 69.0% 67.9% 68.5% -2.4% 81-95% 78.8% 77.5% 75.4% 78.4% 79.5% 76.6% 76.7% 74.0% 75.4% 72.8% 73.3% 70.8% 73.6% 71.7% 72.2% -5.2% Top 5% 71.9% 72.7% 71.9% 73.2% 73.0% 75.6% 70.9% 76.2% 74.0% 74.8% 73.5% 68.2% 71.5% 70.7% 69.9% -8.7% Men Women Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Estimates are for persons age 16 and over. CRS-43 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Table A-7. Gini Coefficients for All Workers and for Full-Time, Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009 Year Total Men Women 1979 0.41764 0.38118 0.37645 1980 0.41500 0.37902 0.37979 1981 0.41832 0.38657 0.37936 1982 0.42416 0.39653 0.38709 1983 0.42845 0.40207 0.39513 1984 0.42782 0.39854 0.40189 1985 0.43445 0.40870 0.40643 1986 0.43916 0.41606 0.40608 1987 0.43700 0.41447 0.40982 1988 0.43918 0.41856 0.41105 1989 0.44372 0.42770 0.41192 1990 0.43694 0.42042 0.41238 1991 0.43603 0.42096 0.41239 1992 0.43653 0.42484 0.41204 1993 0.46279 0.45505 0.43331 1994 0.46807 0.45950 0.43855 1995 0.47431 0.46835 0.44358 1996 0.46406 0.45790 0.43515 1997 0.46617 0.46026 0.43605 1998 0.46628 0.45756 0.44347 1999 0.45288 0.44374 0.42834 2000 0.46679 0.46885 0.42539 2001 0.47068 0.46564 0.44669 2002 0.47152 0.47456 0.43294 2003 0.46831 0.46403 0.44594 2004 0.46678 0.46611 0.43695 2005 0.47500 0.47887 0.43933 2006 0.46989 0.46681 0.44776 2007 0.46280 0.46190 0.43873 2008 0.47302 0.47302 0.44617 2009 0.46701 0.46490 0.44625 All Workers Congressional Research Service 44 Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Year Total Men Women Full-Time, Year-Round Workers 1979 0.33096 0.31298 0.26142 1980 0.32541 0.30840 0.26152 1981 0.32860 0.31375 0.26255 1982 0.33434 0.32216 0.27392 1983 0.33526 0.32512 0.27678 1984 0.33670 0.32520 0.28272 1985 0.34365 0.33669 0.28583 1986 0.35061 0.34394 0.29563 1987 0.34967 0.34366 0.29781 1988 0.35144 0.34608 0.30345 1989 0.35983 0.35768 0.30737 1990 0.35580 0.35714 0.30509 1991 0.35169 0.35032 0.30841 1992 0.35594 0.35838 0.30881 1993 0.38496 0.39129 0.33265 1994 0.39029 0.39629 0.33975 1995 0.38731 0.39594 0.33095 1996 0.39246 0.40016 0.34233 1997 0.39093 0.39941 0.33888 1998 0.38999 0.39703 0.34263 1999 0.38020 0.38363 0.33654 2000 0.40197 0.41458 0.33904 2001 0.40573 0.41449 0.35912 2002 0.40194 0.41410 0.34917 2003 0.39841 0.40673 0.35634 2004 0.40204 0.41409 0.35386 2005 0.40645 0.42065 0.35455 2006 0.40868 0.41705 0.37138 2007 0.39260 0.40162 0.35423 2008 0.40081 0.41257 0.35453 2009 0.40105 0.41088 0.36265 Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Estimates are for persons age 16 and over. Congressional Research Service 45 Table A-8. Share of Total Weekly Earnings by Quintile, All Workers, 1979-2009 (percent) Percentile 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 All Workers Lowest Quintile 4.1% 4.1% 4.0% 3.9% 3.7% 3.8% 3.7% 3.7% 3.7% 3.7% 3.7% 3.9% 3.9% 3.8% 3.6% 3.7% Second Quintile 10.2% 10.2% 10.1% 9.9% 9.8% 9.7% 9.6% 9.5% 9.5% 9.5% 9.5% 9.6% 9.6% 9.6% 9.1% 9.0% Third Quintile 16.0% 16.0% 16.0% 15.9% 15.9% 15.8% 15.6% 15.5% 15.6% 15.6% 15.4% 15.5% 15.5% 15.6% 14.8% 14.5% Fourth Quintile 24.0% 24.2% 24.2% 24.1% 24.1% 24.3% 23.9% 23.8% 23.7% 23.7% 23.3% 23.4% 23.6% 23.5% 22.5% 22.2% 81-95% 27.3% 27.4% 27.6% 27.8% 27.9% 28.1% 27.7% 27.6% 27.7% 27.4% 27.2% 27.3% 27.5% 27.5% 26.7% 26.6% Top 5% 18.5% 18.1% 18.1% 18.4% 18.6% 18.3% 19.4% 19.9% 19.7% 20.1% 20.9% 20.3% 19.9% 20.0% 23.3% 24.1% Lowest Quintile 4.6% 4.6% 4.5% 4.2% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.3% 4.2% 4.1% 3.8% 3.9% Second Quintile 11.4% 11.4% 11.1% 10.8% 10.6% 10.6% 10.4% 10.2% 10.3% 10.2% 10.1% 10.2% 10.1% 10.0% 9.4% 9.3% Third Quintile 17.3% 17.4% 17.3% 17.0% 16.9% 17.0% 16.6% 16.4% 16.4% 16.3% 15.9% 15.9% 16.0% 15.9% 15.0% 14.7% Fourth Quintile 24.0% 24.2% 24.3% 24.2% 24.3% 24.5% 24.0% 23.7% 23.8% 23.5% 23.2% 23.2% 23.5% 23.3% 22.2% 21.9% 81-95% 25.5% 25.6% 26.0% 26.5% 26.6% 26.9% 26.5% 26.2% 26.5% 26.2% 26.1% 26.4% 26.7% 26.8% 26.0% 25.9% Top 5% 17.2% 16.8% 16.9% 17.3% 17.5% 16.9% 18.3% 19.3% 18.9% 19.7% 20.8% 20.0% 19.6% 19.9% 23.6% 24.4% Lowest Quintile 4.6% 4.5% 4.5% 4.3% 4.2% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.0% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 3.8% 4.0% Second Quintile 11.5% 11.4% 11.2% 10.9% 10.7% 10.5% 10.3% 10.3% 10.2% 10.2% 10.1% 10.2% 10.2% 10.2% 9.7% 9.6% Third Quintile 17.4% 17.3% 17.4% 17.2% 17.0% 16.8% 16.7% 16.5% 16.5% 16.5% 16.3% 16.3% 16.2% 16.2% 15.7% 15.4% Fourth Quintile 24.4% 24.3% 24.5% 24.7% 24.6% 24.5% 24.4% 24.6% 24.3% 24.5% 24.3% 24.3% 24.3% 24.4% 23.6% 23.3% 81-95% 26.3% 26.5% 26.8% 27.1% 27.3% 27.3% 27.3% 27.6% 27.5% 27.7% 27.7% 27.4% 27.7% 27.6% 27.3% 27.1% Top 5% 15.8% 16.0% 15.6% 15.7% 16.2% 16.9% 17.2% 16.9% 17.4% 17.2% 17.4% 17.7% 17.6% 17.4% 19.8% 20.7% Men Women CRS-46 Percentile 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Total Change 19792009 All Workers Lowest Quintile 3.6% 3.8% 3.7% 3.8% 3.9% 3.9% 3.8% 3.8% 3.8% 3.8% 3.8% 3.9% 4.0% 3.8% 3.8% 0.1%a Second Quintile 8.9% 9.1% 9.1% 9.1% 9.3% 9.2% 9.1% 9.1% 9.1% 9.2% 9.0% 9.1% 9.3% 9.0% 9.0% -0.6% Third Quintile 14.4% 14.6% 14.6% 14.6% 14.9% 14.4% 14.3% 14.3% 14.4% 14.4% 14.1% 14.2% 14.5% 14.2% 14.4% -0.9% Fourth Quintile 21.9% 22.1% 21.9% 21.8% 22.4% 21.6% 21.4% 21.4% 21.6% 21.7% 21.3% 21.5% 21.6% 21.4% 21.7% -1.3% 81-95% 26.2% 26.6% 26.4% 26.3% 27.3% 26.2% 26.3% 26.3% 26.7% 26.7% 26.3% 26.4% 26.4% 26.5% 26.9% 0.3% Top 5% 25.0% 23.8% 24.3% 24.4% 22.1% 24.7% 25.1% 25.1% 24.4% 24.2% 25.5% 24.9% 24.3% 25.1% 24.2% 2.4% Lowest Quintile 3.8% 3.9% 4.0% 4.0% 4.1% 4.0% 4.0% 4.0% 4.0% 4.0% 3.9% 4.1% 4.2% 3.9% 4.0% 0.2% Second Quintile 9.2% 9.4% 9.4% 9.5% 9.7% 9.2% 9.3% 9.1% 9.3% 9.3% 9.0% 9.2% 9.3% 9.1% 9.2% -0.5% Third Quintile 14.6% 14.8% 14.7% 14.8% 15.1% 14.2% 14.3% 14.1% 14.4% 14.3% 13.9% 14.2% 14.3% 14.1% 14.4% -0.7% Fourth Quintile 21.6% 21.9% 21.5% 21.6% 22.3% 21.1% 21.1% 20.9% 21.4% 21.3% 20.8% 21.1% 21.3% 21.1% 21.4% -1.4% 81-95% 25.3% 25.7% 25.7% 25.9% 26.9% 25.4% 25.8% 25.8% 26.3% 26.2% 25.8% 26.1% 26.0% 26.2% 26.6% 0.0% Top 5% 25.5% 24.3% 24.7% 24.3% 22.0% 26.0% 25.4% 26.2% 24.6% 25.0% 26.6% 25.3% 24.8% 25.6% 24.5% 2.2% Lowest Quintile 3.9% 4.1% 4.0% 4.1% 4.2% 4.2% 4.1% 4.1% 4.0% 4.0% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.0% 4.0% -0.3% Second Quintile 9.6% 9.7% 9.7% 9.6% 9.9% 10.0% 9.6% 9.9% 9.6% 9.8% 9.7% 9.5% 9.8% 9.5% 9.5% -1.6% Third Quintile 15.3% 15.5% 15.5% 15.2% 15.6% 15.8% 15.1% 15.5% 15.2% 15.5% 15.3% 15.0% 15.3% 15.1% 15.1% -1.8% Fourth Quintile 23.0% 23.1% 23.1% 22.6% 23.2% 23.1% 22.3% 22.9% 22.4% 22.8% 22.6% 22.4% 22.6% 22.5% 22.5% -1.1% 81-95% 26.9% 27.0% 26.9% 26.4% 27.3% 27.0% 26.2% 26.7% 26.5% 27.1% 26.9% 26.6% 26.5% 26.6% 27.0% 1.0% Top 5% 21.4% 20.7% 20.8% 22.1% 19.8% 19.9% 22.7% 20.9% 22.2% 20.8% 21.4% 22.5% 21.7% 22.2% 21.9% 3.7% Men Women Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Estimates are for persons age 16 and over. a. CRS-47 Because of changes in topcoding that affected the change in weekly earnings between 1992 and 1993, the percentage point change in total earnings by quintile from 1979 to 2009 is the sum changes from 1979 to 1992 and 1993 to 2009. Table A-9. Share of Total Weekly Earnings by Quintile, Full-Time,Year-Round Workers, 1979-2009 (percent) Percentile 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers Lowest Quintile 7.3% 7.4% 7.3% 7.2% 7.0% 6.9% 6.9% 6.7% 6.8% 6.7% 6.6% 6.7% 6.7% 6.7% 6.3% 6.2% Second Quintile 12.4% 12.4% 12.3% 12.2% 12.3% 12.2% 12.0% 11.9% 11.9% 11.9% 11.8% 11.8% 11.9% 11.8% 11.2% 11.0% Third Quintile 16.9% 17.0% 17.1% 16.9% 16.9% 17.0% 16.8% 16.7% 16.6% 16.6% 16.3% 16.4% 16.5% 16.5% 15.7% 15.5% Fourth Quintile 23.0% 23.2% 23.2% 23.0% 23.2% 23.3% 23.0% 22.9% 22.9% 22.8% 22.5% 22.6% 22.8% 22.6% 21.7% 21.6% 81-95% 24.5% 24.5% 24.7% 24.9% 25.0% 25.2% 24.9% 24.9% 24.9% 24.8% 24.7% 24.9% 25.0% 24.9% 24.3% 24.5% Top 5% 15.9% 15.4% 15.5% 15.7% 15.6% 15.4% 16.4% 16.9% 16.9% 17.1% 18.1% 17.6% 17.0% 17.5% 20.8% 21.1% Lowest Quintile 7.5% 7.6% 7.4% 7.2% 7.0% 6.8% 6.8% 6.6% 6.7% 6.7% 6.6% 6.6% 6.6% 6.5% 6.1% 6.0% Second Quintile 13.1% 13.2% 13.0% 12.8% 12.8% 12.7% 12.4% 12.3% 12.2% 12.2% 11.9% 11.9% 12.0% 11.8% 11.1% 10.9% Third Quintile 17.6% 17.8% 17.7% 17.5% 17.6% 17.6% 17.2% 17.1% 17.1% 17.0% 16.5% 16.6% 16.7% 16.6% 15.6% 15.5% Fourth Quintile 22.7% 22.8% 23.1% 23.0% 23.1% 23.3% 23.0% 22.8% 22.8% 22.6% 22.3% 22.5% 22.7% 22.5% 21.5% 21.5% 81-95% 23.7% 23.7% 23.9% 24.5% 24.6% 24.7% 24.4% 24.4% 24.4% 24.5% 24.5% 24.7% 24.9% 24.9% 24.1% 24.4% Top 5% 15.3% 14.9% 14.9% 15.1% 15.1% 14.8% 16.2% 16.8% 16.8% 17.0% 18.2% 17.8% 17.0% 17.7% 21.5% 21.8% Lowest Quintile 9.2% 9.1% 9.0% 8.7% 8.5% 8.3% 8.3% 8.0% 7.9% 7.8% 7.7% 7.8% 7.7% 7.6% 7.2% 7.1% Second Quintile 14.4% 14.5% 14.3% 14.0% 14.0% 13.7% 13.6% 13.3% 13.4% 13.2% 13.1% 13.1% 13.0% 13.0% 12.6% 12.3% Third Quintile 18.2% 18.1% 18.2% 18.0% 18.0% 18.0% 17.9% 17.8% 17.7% 17.6% 17.5% 17.6% 17.5% 17.7% 17.0% 16.8% Fourth Quintile 22.9% 23.0% 23.2% 23.2% 23.3% 23.4% 23.5% 23.4% 23.2% 23.2% 23.2% 23.3% 23.2% 23.2% 22.7% 22.6% 81-95% 23.0% 23.1% 23.3% 23.3% 23.5% 23.7% 23.8% 23.9% 23.9% 24.1% 24.2% 24.1% 24.2% 24.3% 24.0% 24.2% Top 5% 12.4% 12.3% 12.0% 12.7% 12.7% 12.9% 12.9% 13.5% 13.8% 14.0% 14.2% 14.1% 14.4% 14.2% 16.5% 17.0% Men Women CRS-48 Percentile 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 % Change 1979-2009 Full-Time, Year-Round Workers Lowest Quintile 6.3% 6.3% 6.3% 6.3% 6.3% 6.1% 6.1% 6.2% 6.2% 6.1% 6.1% 6.0% 6.3% 6.2% 6.2% -0.7%a Second Quintile 11.1% 11.1% 11.1% 11.1% 11.2% 10.8% 10.7% 10.8% 10.9% 10.8% 10.6% 10.6% 10.9% 10.7% 10.7% -1.1% Third Quintile 15.6% 15.3% 15.4% 15.5% 15.7% 15.1% 14.9% 15.0% 15.1% 15.0% 14.9% 14.9% 15.3% 15.0% 15.1% -1.0% Fourth Quintile 21.8% 21.4% 21.4% 21.5% 22.0% 21.2% 20.9% 21.1% 21.3% 21.2% 21.1% 21.1% 21.5% 21.3% 21.2% -0.9% 81-95% 24.6% 24.4% 24.4% 24.6% 25.5% 24.6% 24.6% 25.0% 25.2% 25.0% 25.1% 25.1% 25.3% 25.2% 25.1% 1.3% Top 5% 20.7% 21.5% 21.4% 21.1% 19.3% 22.2% 22.7% 22.0% 21.4% 21.8% 22.1% 22.4% 20.7% 21.5% 21.7% 2.5% Lowest Quintile 6.1% 6.0% 6.1% 6.1% 6.2% 5.9% 5.9% 5.9% 6.0% 5.8% 5.8% 5.8% 6.1% 5.9% 5.9% -1.3% Second Quintile 11.0% 10.9% 11.0% 11.0% 11.2% 10.5% 10.5% 10.5% 10.6% 10.5% 10.3% 10.3% 10.6% 10.4% 10.5% -1.9% Third Quintile 15.5% 15.3% 15.3% 15.4% 15.7% 14.8% 14.7% 14.8% 15.0% 14.9% 14.7% 14.8% 15.2% 14.8% 14.9% -1.8% Fourth Quintile 21.5% 21.2% 21.1% 21.3% 22.0% 21.0% 20.8% 21.0% 21.3% 21.0% 20.9% 20.9% 21.5% 21.2% 21.1% -0.7% 81-95% 24.3% 24.2% 24.3% 24.7% 25.4% 24.4% 24.5% 25.0% 25.3% 25.1% 25.0% 25.2% 25.4% 25.4% 25.3% 2.4% Top 5% 21.7% 22.3% 22.2% 21.6% 19.6% 23.5% 23.5% 22.9% 21.8% 22.7% 23.4% 22.9% 21.3% 22.3% 22.3% 3.2% Lowest Quintile 7.2% 7.3% 7.3% 7.2% 7.1% 7.1% 7.0% 7.1% 6.9% 6.9% 7.0% 6.8% 7.1% 7.0% 6.9% -1.8% Second Quintile 12.5% 12.3% 12.3% 12.2% 12.3% 12.4% 11.9% 12.1% 12.0% 12.0% 11.8% 11.5% 11.9% 11.9% 11.7% -2.3% Third Quintile 17.0% 16.5% 16.7% 16.6% 16.9% 16.7% 16.1% 16.3% 16.2% 16.3% 16.3% 15.8% 16.2% 16.2% 15.9% -1.6% Fourth Quintile 22.8% 22.2% 22.4% 22.2% 22.7% 22.5% 21.8% 22.1% 22.0% 22.1% 22.2% 21.7% 22.0% 22.2% 21.9% -0.4% 81-95% 24.6% 24.2% 24.3% 24.3% 24.8% 24.6% 24.2% 24.4% 24.4% 24.7% 24.9% 24.5% 24.6% 24.8% 24.8% 2.1% Top 5% 15.9% 17.5% 17.1% 17.4% 16.2% 16.7% 19.0% 17.9% 18.4% 17.9% 17.8% 19.7% 18.2% 17.9% 18.8% 4.0% Men Women Source: Calculated by CRS from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Note: Estimates are for persons age 16 and over. a. CRS-49 Because of changes in topcoding that affected the change in weekly earnings between 1992 and 1993, the percentage point change in total earnings by quintile from 1979 to 2009 is the sum changes from 1979 to 1992 and 1993 to 2009. Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings Author Contact Information Gerald Mayer Analyst in Labor Policy gmayer@crs.loc.gov, 7-7815 Congressional Research Service 50