Homeland Security and House Committees: Analysis of 109th Congress Jurisdiction Changes and Their Impact on the Referral of Legislation

Order Code RL33061 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Homeland Security and House Committees: Analysis of 109th Congress Jurisdiction Changes and Their Impact on the Referral of Legislation August 30, 2005 Michael L. Koempel Senior Specialist in American National Government Government and Finance Division Judy Schneider Specialist in Congress Government and Finance Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Homeland Security and House Committees: Analysis of 109th Congress Jurisdiction Changes and Their Impact on the Referral of Legislation Summary The creation by the House of the standing Homeland Security Committee in the 109th Congress (H.Res. 5) has led to changes in the referral of bills and joint resolutions on a wide range of subjects under the broad rubric of homeland security. The House vested the new committee with jurisdiction over “overall homeland security policy,” “organization and administration of the Department of Homeland Security” (DHS), and, with certain exceptions, over six DHS functions: border and port security, customs, homeland security information, domestic preparedness and response to terrorism, research and development, and transportation security. During House debate on H.Res. 5, Rules Committee Chairman Dreier inserted in the Congressional Record a “Legislative History” explaining the meaning and scope of the new committee’s jurisdiction and the jurisdictional relationship between the new committee and 10 existing committees. This complex document is a guideline to the Speaker in his referral of legislation and to all the affected committees on their potential claim to jurisdiction over specific subject matter. This report analyzes the Legislative History to explain how it allocates jurisdiction among committees by retaining jurisdiction over some subject matter in one or more of the existing committees, by sharing jurisdiction over other subject matter between the new committee and one or more of the existing committees, and by defining the primary claim of the Homeland Security Committee to yet other subject matter. Realignment of House committee jurisdictions has traditionally been accompanied by concern and contention among committees. However, referrals reflecting the 109th Congress rules changes and the complex arrangements in the Legislative History seem to indicate that a jurisdictional denouement existed the first half of the first session of this Congress. Referrals seemed consistent with the Legislative History, and the rules changes seemed to be implemented without contention. Even in the potential sequential referral of two measures reported from the Homeland Security Committee, the committee reached agreements with existing committees that could claim jurisdiction. Whether the denouement lasts through inevitable change makes the evolution of the new committee’s role worth watching. This report analyzes 828 bills and joint resolutions that were introduced in the 109th Congress through May 26, 2005, and that concerned subject matter included in the rules changes and the Legislative History. Additional criteria pertaining to the identification of legislation for the analysis is explained in the report. A committeeby-committee analysis shows the impact of rules changes on referrals of legislation to specific committees. An analysis of subject-matter jurisdiction, including a comparison to the referral of related measures in the 108th Congress, shows the impact on the referral of specific subject matter. This report will not be updated. For an analysis of options for homeland security jurisdiction, see CRS Report RL32711, Homeland Security: Compendium of Recommendations Relevant to House Committee Organization and Analysis of Considerations for the House. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Rule X Changes and Supplementary Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Legislative History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Referral Precedents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 H.Res. 5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Selection of Measures for Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Legislation Included in Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Analysis of Referrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Agriculture Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Armed Services Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Energy and Commerce Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Additional Critical Infrastructure Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Financial Services Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Government Reform Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Homeland Security Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Intelligence Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Judiciary Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Science Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Transportation and Infrastructure Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Coast Guard and Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 FEMA and Emergency Preparedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 First Responders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Transportation Safety and Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Department Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Ways and Means Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Sequential Referral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 DHS Authorization Bill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 First Responders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Delimiting the Jurisdictional Meaning of Homeland Security . . . . . . 35 Other Subject Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Implementation of the Rules Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 No Referral to the Homeland Security Committee . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Referral to an Existing Committee and the Homeland Security Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Armed Services Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Energy and Commerce Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Government Reform Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Judiciary Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Transportation and Infrastructure Committee . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Ways and Means Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Measures Referred Solely to the Homeland Security Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 First Responders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 DHS Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Homeland Security Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Border Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Transportation Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Sequential Referral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Oversight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Concluding Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Appendix 1 Bills and Joint Resolutions Included in Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Agriculture Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Armed Services Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Energy and Commerce Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Financial Services Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Government Reform Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Homeland Security Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Intelligence Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Judiciary Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Science Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Transportation and Infrastructure Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Ways and Means Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Temporary Duty Suspension or Reduction Bills Referred to Ways and Means Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Appendix 2 Hearings and Markups Related to the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Agriculture Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Armed Services Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Energy and Commerce Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Financial Services Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Government Reform Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Homeland Security Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Intelligence Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Judiciary Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Science Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Transportation and Infrastructure Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Ways and Means Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 List of Tables Table 1. Bills and Joint Resolutions Referred Reflecting the Rule X Changes in H.Res. 5 and the Legislative History to Accompany the Changes to Rule X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Homeland Security and House Committees: Analysis of 109th Congress Jurisdiction Changes and Their Impact on the Referral of Legislation Introduction The referral of legislation and the jurisdiction of committees are closely related. The cornerstone of the House’s referral system is a directive to the Speaker, who refers legislation.1 The Speaker is to refer legislation so as to — ...ensure to the maximum extent feasible that each committee that has jurisdiction under clause 1 of rule X over the subject matter of a provision thereof [of a measure to be referred] may consider such provision and report to the House thereon.2 House Rule X, cl. 1 lists the jurisdiction of each standing committee of the House. The descriptions of jurisdiction vary, using both broad and narrow subject terms, program names, and agency names. The rule is supplemented by precedents, agreements, and other information. The parliamentarian’s notes accompanying Rule X in the Constitution, Jefferson’s Manual, and Rules of the House of Representatives, list precedents. Formal agreements between committees may be printed in the Congressional Record. Such agreements are often referred to as memoranda of understanding, and are generally considered by the parliamentarian to be binding in referral decisions. The Speaker also on occasion makes announcements concerning the referral of legislation. Other information, such as comments made on the floor of the House in the course of debate on the House’s adoption of its rules, may also affect the referral of legislation. Since legislation under this system may need to be referred to two or more committees, the House at the beginning of the 104th Congress directed the Speaker to designate a “primary” committee in referring measures and to designate other committees to receive referral in addition, or sequentially.3 A committee receiving 1 The parliamentarian acts in behalf of the Speaker in referring legislation. 2 House Rule XII, cl. 2(b). See Sec. 101 of H.Res. 988, agreed to in the House Oct. 8, 1974. 3 House Rule XII, cl. 2(c)(1). See Sec. 205 of H.Res. 6, agreed to in the House Jan. 4, 1995. Before this change, the House allowed the Speaker to make a joint referral of a measure to two or more committees for concurrent consideration; other forms of referral were also allowed and are generally in effect today. See Sec. 101 of H.Res. 988, agreed to in the (continued...) CRS-2 a referral sequentially usually does so for the consideration of only those provisions within its jurisdiction. Subsequently, in the 108th Congress, the Speaker was given discretion not to designate a primary committee. Many congressional observers perceived that this change was to provide the Speaker with flexibility in referring homeland security legislation. The House amended Rule XII, cl. 2(c)(1) to add the phrase shown here in italic: (c) In carrying out paragraphs (a) and (b) with respect to the referral of a matter, the Speaker — (1) shall designate a committee of primary jurisdiction (except where he determines that extraordinary circumstances justify review by more than one committee as though primary);4 The Speaker also has other referral options in order to allow each committee with a jurisdictional claim to have an opportunity to review a piece of legislation, and he may set “appropriate time limitations” on a referral.5 Committees also have oversight responsibilities, which provide them with authority to review or investigate matters of interest within their jurisdiction. General oversight responsibilities are described in House Rule X, cl. 2. Special oversight functions for specific committees are provided in Rule X, cl. 3. Oversight authority also extends from the grants of legislative jurisdiction in Rule X and from the enactment of laws and other actions. Consequently, there may be more overlaps in oversight jurisdiction between committees than there are in legislative jurisdiction. At the beginning of the 109th Congress, the House created a standing Committee on Homeland Security, vested it with jurisdiction in Rule X, and supplemented that jurisdiction with other documentation, principally a Legislative History described below. This report analyzes the referral of legislation to the new committee and other standing committees in light of the changes to Rule X and the supplemental guidelines in the 109th Congress, through the end of business before the Memorial Day district work period on May 26, 2005. 3 (...continued) House Oct. 8, 1974. Previously, the Speaker referred a measure to just one committee. 4 H.Res. 5, §2(i), agreed to in the House Jan. 7, 2003. In explaining the package of rules changes proposed to the House, Rules Committee Chairman Dreier said about this change: “Section 2(1) permits the joint referral of measures without designation of primary jurisdiction. This change is meant only as a minor deviation from the normal requirement under the rules for the designation of one committee of primary jurisdiction and should be exercised only in extraordinary jurisdictionally deserving instances.” Rep. David Dreier, remarks in House, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 149, Jan. 7, 2003, p. H11. 5 House Rule XII, cl. 2(c). CRS-3 Rule X Changes and Supplementary Guidelines On January 4, 2005, the House created a standing Committee on Homeland Security in agreeing to H.Res. 5, providing for the adoption of the House’s rules for the 109th Congress.6 New House Rule X, cl. 1(i)7 granted jurisdiction to the new committee: (1) Overall homeland security policy. (2) Organization and administration of the Department of Homeland Security. (3) Functions of the Department of Homeland Security relating to the following: (A) Border and port security (except immigration policy and non-border enforcement). (B) Customs (except customs revenue). (C) Integration, analysis, and dissemination of homeland security information. (D) Domestic preparedness for and collective response to terrorism. (E) Research and development. (F) Transportation security. The new committee was also given “special oversight functions,” like those of other committees, in new Rule X, cl. 3(f),8 which stated: The Committee on Homeland Security shall review and study on a continuing basis all Government activities relating to homeland security, including the interaction of all departments and agencies with the Department of Homeland Security. To differentiate the jurisdiction of the new committee from that of existing committees, the homeland-security-related Rule X jurisdiction of three standing committees was amended by H.Res. 5. An addition was made to the Judiciary Committee’s jurisdiction — “criminal law enforcement”9 — and the committee’s jurisdiction over “immigration and naturalization” was amended to “immigration policy and non-border enforcement.”10 The Transportation and Infrastructure Committee’s jurisdiction over “related transportation regulatory agencies” was amended to add an exception — “except the 6 “Rules of the House,” debate in the House, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 151, Jan. 4, 2005, pp. H7-H31. 7 The rules changes contained in H.Res. 5 redesignated the paragraphs of clause 1, after paragraph (h), in order to insert the Homeland Security Committee alphabetically at clause 1(i). Conforming cross references were also made in other places in the House rules. 8 The rules changes contained in H.Res. 5 redesignated the paragraphs of clause 3, after paragraph (e), in order to insert the Homeland Security Committee alphabetically at clause 3(f). 9 Redesignated Rule X, cl. 1(l)(7). 10 Redesignated Rule X, cl. 1(l)(9). CRS-4 Transportation Security Administration.”11 The committee’s general jurisdiction over transportation was also amended to add an exception — “transportation security functions of the Department of Homeland Security.” This paragraph then read: Transportation, including civil aviation, railroads, water transportation, transportation safety (except automobile safety and transportation security functions of the Department of Homeland Security), transportation infrastructure, transportation labor, and railroad retirement and unemployment (except revenue measures related thereto).12 The Ways and Means Committee’s jurisdiction over “customs” was amended to state “customs revenue.” This paragraph then read: Customs revenue, collection districts, and ports of entry and delivery.13 Legislative History. Rules Committee Chairman Dreier inserted in the Congressional Record a Legislative History concerning the meaning and scope of the changes to Rule X.14 The Legislative History in the first part of its first section explained that the new committee’s legislative jurisdiction over “overall homeland security policy” was to be interpreted “on a government-wide or multi-agency basis similar to the Committee on Government Reform’s jurisdiction over ‘overall economy, efficiency, and management of government operations and activities....’” The Legislative History stated further: “Surgical addresses of homeland security policy in sundry areas of jurisdiction occupied by other committees would not be referred to the Committee on Homeland Security on the basis of ‘overall’ homeland security policy jurisdiction.” This part of the Legislative History gave an example of jurisdiction over critical infrastructure protection. The Homeland Security Committee would have jurisdiction over “coordinating the homeland security efforts by all of the critical infrastructure protection sectors,” while jurisdiction “addressing the protection of a particular sector would lie with the committee otherwise having jurisdiction over that sector.”15 Second, the Legislative History interpreted the new committee’s legislative jurisdiction over the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) “organization and administration” to be “confined to organizational and administrative efforts and would not apply to programmatic efforts within the Department of Homeland Security within the jurisdiction of other committees.”16 Third, the Legislative History explained the new committee’s homeland security oversight jurisdiction. The new committee would have oversight jurisdiction over 11 Redesignated Rule X, cl. 1(r)(18). 12 Redesignated Rule X, cl. 1(r)(20). 13 Redesignated Rule X, cl. 1(t)(1). 14 “Legislative History to Accompany Changes to Rule X,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 151, Jan. 4, 2005, pp. H25-H26. Hereafter cited as “Legislative History.” 15 Ibid., p. H25. 16 Ibid., p. H25. CRS-5 the “homeland security community of the United States.” However, this jurisdiction would not necessarily circumscribe the oversight jurisdiction of other committees: Nothing in this clause shall be construed as prohibiting or otherwise restricting the authority of any other committee to study and review homeland security activities to the extent that such activity directly affects a matter otherwise within the jurisdiction of that committee.17 Fourth, the Legislative History in its second section interpreted the “individual committee concerns” between the new committee on the one hand and nine standing committees and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence on the other. This section of the Legislative History detailed jurisdictional relationships covering a number of specific policy and programmatic areas; the relationships are detailed in the Analysis of Referrals section below. In addition, in further explanation of the relationship between the new committee and the Ways and Means Committee, the Legislative History contained a copy of the “Delegation from the Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of Homeland Security of general authority over Customs revenue functions vested in the Secretary of the Treasury as set forth in the Homeland Security Act of 2002.”18 Referral Precedents. In the “Speaker’s Announcements” for the 109th Congress, the Speaker included a statement about the referral of legislation to the new committee: The 109th Congress established the Committee on Homeland Security. The Chair would announce that the Speaker’s referrals of measures to the Select Committee on Homeland Security of the 108th Congress will not constitute precedent for referrals to the new committee.19 (Emphasis added.) H.Res. 5 Summary. Chairman Dreier also inserted a section-by-section summary of H.Res. 5 in the Congressional Record, which included a summary of the jurisdiction granted to the Homeland Security Committee.20 In remarks to the House, Chairman Dreier commented on the creation of the new committee: ...This change in House rule X, which governs the committees and their legislative jurisdictions, is a delicately crafted architecture. It creates a primary committee while recognizing the other legitimate oversight roles of existing committees. We envision a system of purposeful redundancy. By that, we mean more than one level of oversight and an atmosphere in which the competition of ideas is encouraged. 17 Ibid., p. H25. 18 Ibid., p. H26. Hereinafter cited as “Delegation from the Secretary of the Treasury.” 19 “Announcement by the Speaker Pro Tempore,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 151, Jan. 4, 2005, p. H35. 20 “Section-by-Section Summary of H.Res. 5, Adopting House Rules for the 109th Congress,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 151, Jan. 4, 2005, p. H12. CRS-6 With this jurisdiction and the legislative history that I will be placing in the Record, the Department of Homeland Security will have more certainty as to which committee has the primary responsibility for homeland security. At the same time, the American people will live with the assurance that we are working to prevent anything from falling through the cracks.21 Chairman Dreier’s remarks seemed to emphasize the primary legislative role of the new committee within the House on the subject matter of homeland security and the complementary role of other committees on this subject matter. Selection of Measures for Study Criteria. The legislation included in this study was selected according to the following criteria: (1) only bills and joint resolutions, which are the forms of legislation that are used to make law; (2) all bills and joint resolutions referred to the Homeland Security Committee; (3) all bills and joint resolutions — (a) referred to the nine standing committees and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence named in the Legislative History, and (b) described by subject matter in the Legislative History; and (4) all bills and joint resolutions — (a) referred to the three standing committees whose jurisdictions were amended by H.Res. 5, (b) described by the subject matter of the amendments, and (c) dealing with the duties of the Homeland Security Department or the subject of homeland security or both. “Referral” means the referral of bills and resolutions to committee at the time of introduction, including sequential referrals made at the time of introduction or later in the legislative process. Referral of legislation also means bills and joint resolutions received from the Senate and referred to one or more House committees. House and Senate measures not referred to committee are not included in this study. The standing committees named in the Legislative History were the Committees on Agriculture, Armed Services, Energy and Commerce, Financial Services, Government Reform, Judiciary, Science, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means. As mentioned, the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence was also named. 21 Rep. David Dreier, remarks in the House, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 151, Jan. 4, 2005, p. H14. CRS-7 Again, the three committees whose jurisdictions were amended, as described above, were the Committees on Judiciary, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means. The subject matter of the bills and joint resolutions included in the study was determined by examining the official title, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) summary of the legislation, and, in some instances, the legislative text, all of which appear on the Legislative Information Service (LIS). This study includes bills and joint resolutions introduced in the 109th Congress through May 26, 2005, the beginning of the House’s Memorial Day district work period. Legislation Included in Study. The following table shows the number of bills and joint resolutions that met the criteria listed above and that were therefore included in the study. The table also shows the number of measures referred to the Homeland Security Committee or to another committee, noting which committee was designated as primary by the Speaker in making the referral. CRS-8 Table 1. Bills and Joint Resolutions Referred Reflecting the Rule X Changes in H.Res. 5 and the Legislative History to Accompany the Changes to Rule X Referral of Measures to the Committee and Another Committee But Not the Homeland Security Committee Referral of Measures to the Committee and the Homeland Security Committee Total of Such Measures Referred to Committee Measures Referred Solely to Committee Committee Designated as Primary Homeland Security Committee Designated as Primary Another Committee Designated as Primary Committee Designated as Primary Another Committee Designated as Primary 7 6 0 0 1 0 0 Armed Services 28 17 1 0 2 4 4 Energy and Commerce 20 8 5 4 2 0 1 6 3 0 0 1 1 1 Government Reform 74 35 2 1 1 10 25 Homeland Security 50 18 n/a 13 19 n/a n/a Intelligence 6 1 0 1 2 0 2 Judiciary 87 60 7 7 2 6 5 Science 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 50 31 2 9 1 3 4 498 486 1 2 2 2 5 Committee Agriculture Financial Services Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Note regarding bills referred to Ways and Means Committee: Rep. Clay Shaw, chair of the Trade Subcommittee, Ways and Means Committee, notified the House on March 10, 2005, that Members planning to introduce tariff legislation or miscellaneous corrections to the trade laws do so by April 28, 2005, so that the subcommittee would have sufficient time to review the measures in preparation of a “miscellaneous trade bill.” See [http://waysandmeans.house.gov/Special.asp?section=1718], visited June 17, 2005. The time frame to introduce these bills was subsequently extended by an e-mail notification. At least 454 of the bills referred to the Ways and Means Committee were introduced in anticipation of or in response to Chairman Shaw’s announcement. CRS-9 Analysis of Referrals To summarize what appears above, measures are referred to committee based on a committee’s jurisdiction. Rule X, cl. 1 lists these jurisdictions. Rule X is supplemented by precedents, which are set through prior referrals of measures and memoranda of understanding negotiated between committees. Other information, such as announcements by the Speaker, may also influence the referral of legislation. In the 109th Congress, the House created a standing Committee on Homeland Security, vesting it with jurisdiction in Rule X, cl. 1(i). This statement of jurisdiction was implemented most significantly by changes in the jurisdiction of three standing committees and by a Legislative History inserted in the Congressional Record that distinguished the jurisdiction of the new committee from those of 10 existing committees. Relevant excerpts from the rules changes and Legislative History appear below with the individual committee analyses. Moreover, the Speaker announced that referrals of legislation to the Select Committee on Homeland Security in the 108th Congress would not constitute precedent for referrals to the new committee. Finally, two specific matters described above also need to be restated. First, Chairman Dreier in remarks to the House seemed to emphasize the primary legislative role of the new committee within the House on the subject matter of homeland security and the complementary role of other committees on this subject matter. He said the changes in Rule X “create[d] a primary committee while recognizing the other legitimate oversight roles of existing committees.”22 Second, the Speaker may under “extraordinary circumstances” refer measures to more than one committee without designating a primary committee (Rule XII, cl. 2(c)(1)). This authority, added to House rules in the 108th Congress, was perceived by many congressional observers to provide the Speaker with flexibility in referring homeland security legislation and some other legislation. However, the Speaker did not use this authority for any of the legislation included in this study. This section analyzes the implementation of the changes to Rule X in the referral of bills and joint resolutions in the 109th Congress through May 26, 2005. Agriculture Committee. The Homeland Security Committee’s jurisdiction vis-à-vis the Agriculture Committee’s was “limited to agricultural importation and entry inspection activities of the Department of Homeland Security.” The Agriculture Committee “retain[ed] jurisdiction over animal and plant disease policy including the authority reserved to the Department of Agriculture to regulate policy” under the Homeland Security Act (P.L. 107-296, §421; 116 Stat. 2135, 2182-2184) and other laws, and over the “agricultural research and diagnosis mission at the Plum Island Animal Disease Center.”23 22 Rep. David Dreier, remarks in the House, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 151, Jan. 4, 2005, p. H14. In addition, House Rule X, clauses 2 and 3 provide general and special oversight functions, respectively, for House committees. 23 “Legislative History,” p. H25. CRS-10 Legislation dealing with the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) into the United States was referred solely to the Agriculture Committee. A bill to comprehensively amend immigration law (H.R. 2092) was referred to the Agriculture and Homeland Security Committees. The Judiciary Committee was designated as primary in the referral of the measure, which was referred in addition to the Ways and Means, Energy and Commerce, and Financial Services Committees. No measures were introduced and referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee that dealt expressly with the subject matter described in the Legislative History under the Agriculture Committee. Armed Services Committee. The Armed Services Committee “retain[ed] jurisdiction over warfighting, the military defense of the United States, and other military activities, including any military response to terrorism.”24 Bills dealing with troop levels, ships, nuclear weapons, and other military matters were referred to the Armed Services Committee.25 Most of this legislation was referred solely to the committee. The committee was designated as the primary committee on four of these bills: ! ! ! ! H.R. 514, dealing with anthrax and smallpox immunization of members of the armed forces, which was referred in addition to the Veterans’ Affairs Committee; H.R. 871, establishing reporting requirements for expenditures in Iraq and Afghanistan, which was referred in addition to the International Relations Committee; H.R. 1194, relating to public health and safety should U.S. nuclear weapons testing be resumed, which was referred in addition to the Energy and Commerce and Resources Committees; and H.R. 1348, providing for nuclear disarmament and economic conversion, which was referred in addition to the International Relations Committee. Other committees were designated as primary in the referral of four bills, which were referred in addition to the Armed Services Committee. The Judiciary Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of H.R. 1076, dealing with detaining a U.S. person or resident as an enemy combatant. The Science Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of H.R. 2420, on peaceful uses of space, which was referred in addition to the International Relations Committee. The International Relations Committee was designated as the primary 24 Ibid., p. H25. The Legislative History in addition references the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296, §876; 116 Stat. 2135, 2244), which states: “Nothing in this Act shall confer upon the Secretary [of Homeland Security] any authority to engage in warfighting, the military defense of the United States, or other military activities, nor shall anything in this Act limit the existing authority of the Department of Defense or the Armed Forces to engage in warfighting, the military defense of the United States, or other military activities.” 25 Legislation dealing with pay and various benefits of military personnel and veterans was not included in this study. CRS-11 committee in the referral of H.R. 2011, relating to federal contracts for private security functions. And, the Government Reform Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of H.R. 2067, providing for an improved acquisition system. Three bills were referred to the Armed Services and Homeland Security Committees. H.R. 1291, dealing with medical countermeasures to radiation, was also referred to the Energy and Commerce Committee, which was designated as the primary committee in the measure’s referral. In the referral of H.R. 1986, dealing with assistance by military personnel in border protection, the Armed Services Committee was designated as the primary committee. H.R. 2672, directing the Secretaries of State and Homeland Security to establish a program of mutual security and safety between the United States, Canada, and Mexico, was also referred to the International Relations Committee, which was designated as the primary committee in the measure’s referral. No other measures were introduced and referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee that dealt expressly with the subject matter described in the Legislative History under the Armed Services Committee. Energy and Commerce Committee. The Homeland Security Committee was granted jurisdiction “over measures that address the Department of Homeland Security’s activities for domestic preparedness and collective response to terrorism.” There must be a “direct relation to terrorism,” and the phrase “collective response to terrorism” provides the committee with jurisdiction over measures related to DHS’s “responsibilities for, and assistance to, first responders as a whole.” The Energy and Commerce Committee “and other relevant committees” retained jurisdiction over measures “addressing the separate entities that comprise the first responders.”26 As noted earlier, the Legislative History provided that the Homeland Security Committee would have “jurisdiction over a bill coordinating the homeland security efforts by all of the critical infrastructure protection sections,” but that jurisdiction over a measure related to a “particular sector” would remain with the committee having jurisdiction over that sector.27 One bill relating to specific first responders (H.R. 1794, relating to the New York City fire department) was referred solely to the Energy and Commerce Committee. Another measure dealing with first responders who are reservists called to active duty (H.R. 154, providing grants to states, localities, and tribes when such reserves are mobilized) was referred to the Energy and Commerce, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Judiciary Committees; the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral. A measure providing for an increase in the number of political subdivisions receiving awards to improve state and local preparedness for bioterrorism and other public health 26 The statement of the Homeland Security Committee’s jurisdiction includes “domestic preparedness for and collective response to terrorism” (Rule X, cl. 1(i)(3)(D)). The excerpts are from the “Legislative History,” p. H25. 27 “Legislative History,” p. H25. CRS-12 emergencies (H.R. 1987) was referred solely to the Energy and Commerce Committee. Ten bills were referred to the Energy and Commerce Committee and the Homeland Security Committee. The Energy and Commerce Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of five of these bills: ! ! ! ! ! H.R. 895, establishing interagency planning related to potential terrorist attacks against the Yucca Mountain Project; H.R. 1251, providing grants related to communications interoperability; H.R. 1291, relating to medical countermeasures to radiation, which was also referred to the Armed Services Committee; H.R. 2101, developing the READICall emergency alert system; and H.R. 2237, protecting the public against the threat of chemical attacks. The Homeland Security Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of a bill authorizing DHS grants to first responders (H.R. 91), which was also referred to the Transportation and Infrastructure and Judiciary Committees; a bill related to release of hazardous substances by acts of terrorism (H.R. 1562); and a bill providing homeland security grant coordination (H.R. 2041), which was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure and Judiciary Committees. In two instances of legislation referred to both the Energy and Commerce Committee and Homeland Security Committee, the Judiciary Committee was designated as primary in the referral of the legislation. It was designated as primary in the referral of H.R. 2092, a bill to comprehensively amend immigration law, which was referred in addition to the Ways and Means, Agriculture, and Financial Services Committees. The Judiciary Committee was also designated as the primary committee in the referral of H.R. 2330, dealing with border security and immigration, which was referred in addition to the International Relations and Education and the Workforce Committees. One measure reported by the Homeland Security Committee, H.R. 1817, the FY2006 Department of Homeland Security authorization bill, was sequentially referred to the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Government Reform, Judiciary, Science, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Four measures related to the allocation of grant funds to first responders (H.R. 228, H.R. 1093, H.R. 1419, and H.R. 1544) were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. Another measure providing local-government grants for homeland-security preparedness that could be distributed to first responders (H.R. 796) was also referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. Additional Critical Infrastructure Issues. The Energy and Commerce Committee has jurisdiction over the “domestic nuclear energy industry” (Rule X, cl. 1(f)(13)). A bill, H.R. 966, regarding criteria to be considered in relicensing nuclear CRS-13 facilities, was referred solely to the committee. One of the criteria listed is “vulnerability to terrorist attack” (sec. 2). H.R. 2689, increasing the security of radiation sources, was also referred solely to the committee. The Energy and Commerce Committee also has jurisdiction over the “regulation of interstate and foreign communications” (Rule X, cl. 1(f)(14)), and three measures, H.R. 998, H.R. 1323, and H.R. 2418, dealing with emergency or public-safety communications, were referred solely to the committee. H.R. 733, requiring emergency wireless telephone number access in subterranean subway stations, was also referred solely to the Energy and Commerce Committee. A measure amending the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to enhance cybersecurity (H.R. 285) was referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. Financial Services Committee. The Financial Services Committee retained jurisdiction over the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA’s) National Flood Insurance Program and Emergency Food and Shelter Program; the Defense Production Act; and the “anti-money laundering, terrorist financing, and anticounterfeiting activities within the Department of the Treasury and the financial regulators.”28 Legislation related to the National Flood Insurance Program and to terrorist financing were referred to the Financial Services Committee. With two exceptions, this legislation was referred solely to the Financial Services Committee. One bill related to international relations and terrorist financing (H.R. 1952) was referred to the International Relations and Financial Services Committees, with the Financial Services Committee designated as primary in the bill’s referral. A bill establishing procedural protections for the use of national security letters (H.R. 2715) was referred to the Judiciary and Financial Services Committees, with the Judiciary Committee designated as primary in the bill’s referral. One measure, H.R. 2092, a bill to comprehensively amend immigration law, was referred to the Financial Services and Homeland Security Committees. The Judiciary Committee was designated as primary in the referral of this bill, which was referred in addition to the Ways and Means, Energy and Commerce, and Agriculture Committees. No measures were introduced and referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee that dealt expressly with the subject matter described in the Legislative History under the Financial Services Committee. Government Reform Committee. The Homeland Security Committee was granted jurisdiction over the “organization and administration of the Department of 28 Ibid., p. H25. In addition to the subject matter described in the Legislative History, the Financial Services Committee also has jurisdiction over subject matter that can include homeland-security-related issues. For example, the committee’s jurisdiction includes “insurance generally” (Rule X, cl. 1(g)(4)). A bill, H.R. 1153, extending the terrorism insurance program, was referred to the committee. This other subject matter is not included in this study. CRS-14 Homeland Security,”29 and the Government Reform Committee “retain[ed] jurisdiction over Federal civil service, the overall economy, efficiency, and management of government operations and activities, including Federal procurement, and Federal paperwork reduction.”30 The Homeland Security Committee was granted jurisdiction over “integration, analysis, and dissemination of homeland security information by the Department of Homeland Security.”31 The Government Reform Committee “retain[ed] jurisdiction over government-wide information management efforts including the Federal Information Security Management Act,” and over “measures addressing public information and records generally including the Privacy Act and the Freedom of Information Act.” The Legislative History also stated that the Government Reform Committee “shall have jurisdiction over the policy coordination responsibilities of the Office of Counternarcotics Enforcement.”32 Bills related to the civil service, procurement and contracts, the Paperwork Reduction Act, Freedom of Information Act, and other matters of government efficiency and management were referred to the Government Reform Committee. Most of this legislation was referred solely to the committee. The committee was designated as the primary committee on 10 bills: ! ! ! ! ! H.R. 368, dealing with state driver’s licenses, which was referred in addition to the Judiciary Committee; H.R. 839, relating to scientific integrity in federal research and policymaking, which was referred in addition to the Science Committee; H.R. 925, prohibiting federal agencies from accepting certain forms of foreign identification, which was referred in addition to the Judiciary, House Administration, and Armed Services Committees; H.R. 974, establishing a Corporate Subsidy Reform Commission, which was referred in addition to the Ways and Means Committee; H.R. 1418, including infertility treatment in certain health benefit plans, which was referred in addition to the Armed Services Committee; 29 The statement of the Homeland Security Committee’s jurisdiction also includes this provision (Rule X, cl. 1(i)(2)). 30 “Legislative History,” p. H25. 31 The statement of the Homeland Security Committee’s jurisdiction also includes this provision (Rule X, cl. 1(i)(3)(C)). 32 “Legislative History,” p. 25. The Government Reform Committee also has jurisdiction over the municipal affairs of the District of Columbia (Rule X, cl. 1(h)(2)), which may result in the committee dealing with homeland-security-related matters not described in the Legislative History. For example, H.R. 2057, to prevent the taking effect of the District’s Terrorism Prevention in Hazardous Materials Transportation Emergency Act of 2005 and the Terrorism Prevention in Hazardous Materials Transportation Temporary Act of 2005, was referred solely to the Government Reform Committee. This other subject matter is not included in this study. CRS-15 ! ! ! ! ! H.R. 1455, including the Secretary and the Department of Homeland Security in lists of executive officers and departments, which was referred in addition to the Judiciary Committee; H.R. 1642, prohibiting federal agencies from obligating funds pursuant to certain appropriations earmarks, which was referred in addition to the Rules Committee; H.R. 2067, providing for an improved acquisition system, which was referred in addition to the Armed Services Committee; H.R. 2470, establishing a commission to review federal agencies and programs and recommend elimination or realignment, which was referred in addition to the Rules Committee; and H.R. 2517, dealing with federal retirees’ annuities, which was referred in addition to the House Administration Committee. Another committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of 25 of these bills: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! H.R. 220, regarding confidentiality of Social Security numbers, where the Ways and Means Committee was designated as the primary committee; H.R. 279, amending the Family and Medical Leave Act, where the Education and Workforce Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the House Administration Committee; H.R. 475, amending the Family and Medical Leave Act, where the Education and Workforce Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the House Administration Committee; H.R. 476, amending the Family and Medical Leave Act, where the Education and the Workforce Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the House Administration Committee; H.R. 582, relating to privacy in the workplace, where the Education and the Workforce Committee was designated as the primary committee; H.R. 620, establishing a study of state driver’s licenses, where the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee was designated as the primary committee; H.R. 692, excluding the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund from the federal budget, where the Budget Committee was designated as the primary committee; H.R. 705, dealing with fuel efficiency standards, including those of federal vehicles, where the Energy and Commerce Committee was designated as the primary committee; H.R. 735, providing infertility treatment under health plans, including federal plans, where the Energy and Commerce Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the Ways and Means, Education and the Workforce, and Armed Services Committees; CRS-16 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! H.R. 818, providing acupuncture services under health plans, including federal plans, where the Energy and Commerce Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the Ways and Means Committee; H.R. 942, dealing with procurement of architectural and engineering services, where the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee was designated as the primary committee; H.R. 994, pertaining to the tax treatment of federal civilian and military retirees’ health insurance premiums, where the Ways and Means Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the Armed Services Committee; H.R. 1069, protecting electronically stored personal information, where the Energy and Commerce Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the Financial Services Committee; H.R. 1200, providing health care for all Americans, where the Energy and Commerce Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the Ways and Means and Armed Services Committees; H.R. 1256, creating an exemption under the Freedom of Information Act, where the Agriculture Committee was designated as the primary committee; H.R. 1335, raising the mandatory retirement age of the Capitol Police, where the House Administration Committee was designated as the primary committee; H.R. 1410, providing hormone replacement therapy under health plans, including federal plans, where the Energy and Commerce Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the Ways and Means, Education and the Workforce, and Veterans’ Affairs Committees; H.R. 1589, providing several forms of assistance to working families, where the Education and the Workforce Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the House Administration and Financial Services Committees; H.R. 1667, allowing leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act and Title 5, where the Education and the Workforce Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the House Administration Committee; H.R. 1765, dealing with the tax treatment of benefits under federal student loan programs, where the Ways and Means Committee was designated as the primary committee; H.R. 1902, providing paid sick leave, where the Education and the Workforce Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the House Administration Committee; H.R. 1993, allowing leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act and Title 5, where the Education and the Workforce Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the House Administration Committee; CRS-17 ! ! ! H.R. 2290, reforming the federal budget process, where the Budget Committee was designation as primary; this measure was referred in addition to the Rules, Ways and Means, and Appropriations Committees; H.R. 2390, dealing with the tax treatment of certain fringe benefits, where the Ways and Means Committee was designated as the primary committee; and H.R. 2664, providing biennial budgeting, where the Budget Committee was designated as the primary committee; this measure was referred in addition to the Rules Committee. Three other bills were referred to the Government Reform and Homeland Security Committees: H.R. 418, dealing with state driver’s licenses; H.R. 1310, amending the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 with regard to the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board; and H.R. 2331, strengthening laws providing an open government. The Judiciary Committee, to which H.R. 418 was also referred, was designated as the primary committee in the referral of that measure. The Government Reform Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of H.R. 1310, which was also referred to the Judiciary Committee and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. The Government Reform Committee was also designated as the primary committee in the referral of H.R. 2331. One measure reported by the Homeland Security Committee, H.R. 1817, the FY2006 Department of Homeland Security authorization bill, was sequentially referred to the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Government Reform, Judiciary, Science, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Four measures referred to the Homeland Security Committee but not to the Government Reform Committee dealt expressly with the Homeland Security Department’s organization. H.R. 58 and H.R. 1324 required the establishment of specific offices in specific locations. H.R. 1324 was referred in addition to the Judiciary and Ways and Means Committees. H.R. 285, amending the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to enhance cybersecurity and establish in the department a cybersecurity office, was referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. H.R. 1805 proposed the creation of a northern border coordinator in the department; it was referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. H.R. 44, directing the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a panel to assess homeland security for the National Capital Region, where the federal government and its workforce is the dominant presence, was referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. H.R. 1383, requiring annual reports from the President on national homeland security strategy, and H.R. 2035, requiring a report from the President on homeland security spending, were also referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. CRS-18 Homeland Security Committee. Of the 50 bills referred to the Homeland Security Committee, 18 were referred solely to the committee. These measures dealt with — ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! homeland-security needs of the national capital region, border patrol (two bills), shipping containers, air cargo security, aviation security, first-responder grants (four bills), cybersecurity, seaport security (two bills), homeland security grants to local governments, national homeland security strategy, point of entry inspections for recreational boaters, reporting by the President on funding requested for certain homeland security programs, and DHS organization. Of the 32 bills referred to the Homeland Security Committee and one or more other committees, the Homeland Security Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of 12 bills. Eight of these measures were referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee; six to the Judiciary Committee; three to the Energy and Commerce Committee; and one to the Ways and Means Committee. These 12 measures were: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! H.R. 91, dealing with first-responder grants, which was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure, Judiciary, and Energy and Commerce Committees; H.R. 153, increasing rail and public transit security, which was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee; H.R. 1109, increasing rail and public transit security, which was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee; H.R. 1116, reducing vulnerability of public transit systems, which was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee; H.R. 1196, improving the security clearance process on the U.S.Mexico border, which was referred in addition to the Judiciary Committee; H.R. 1324, establishing a U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Office of Investigations field office in Tulsa, OK, which was referred in addition to the Judiciary and Ways and Means Committees; H.R. 1414, directing the issuance of DHS regulations on shipping hazardous materials, which was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee; CRS-19 ! ! ! ! ! H.R. 1562, protecting human health and the environment from release of hazardous substances through acts of terrorism, which was referred in addition to the Energy and Commerce Committee; H.R. 1818, making funds available from the Aviation Security Capital Fund to establish a checkpoint screening security fund, which was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee; H.R. 2041, providing homeland security grant coordination, which was referred in addition to the Energy and Commerce, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Judiciary Committees; H.R. 2628, setting deadlines for machine-readable, tamper-resistant entry and exit documents, which was referred in addition to the Judiciary Committee; and H.R. 2649, strengthening aviation security, which was referred in addition to the Judiciary and Transportation and Infrastructure Committees. The Judiciary Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of seven bills that were referred to it and to the Homeland Security Committee: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! H.R. 173, dealing with port security, which was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure and Ways and Means Committees; H.R. 418, establishing regulations for state driver’s licenses and identification security standards, which was referred in addition to the Government Reform Committee; H.R. 688, amending the Immigration and Nationality Act regarding terrorists, drug traffickers, illegal aliens, and others; H.R. 1320, regarding border security; H.R. 1502, regarding civil liberties, which was referred in addition to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; H.R. 2092, comprehensively amending immigration law, which was referred in addition to the Ways and Means, Energy and Commerce, Agriculture, and Financial Services Committees; and H.R. 2330, dealing with border security and immigration, which was referred in addition to the International Relations, Energy and Commerce, and Education and the Workforce Committees. The Energy and Commerce Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of five bills that were referred to it and the Homeland Security Committee: ! ! ! ! H.R. 895, regarding interagency planning for potential terrorist attacks against the Yucca Mountain Project; H.R. 1251, providing grants related to communications interoperability; H.R. 1291, relating to medical countermeasures to radiation, which was also referred to the Armed Services Committee; H.R. 2101, developing the READICall emergency alert system; and CRS-20 ! H.R. 2237, protecting the public against the threat of chemical attack. The Transportation and Infrastructure Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of two bills that were referred to it and the Homeland Security Committee: H.R. 1525, establishing a U.S. Commission on an Open Society with Security; and H.R. 2351, providing for safety and security of railroads. The Government Reform Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of two bills that were referred to it and the Homeland Security Committee: H.R. 1310, amending the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 with regard to the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, which was also referred to the Judiciary Committee and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; and H.R. 2331, strengthening laws providing an open government. The Armed Services Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of one bill that was referred to it and the Homeland Security Committee, H.R. 1986, dealing with assistance by military personnel in border protection. In addition, a committee not included in the Legislative History, the International Relations Committee, was designated as the primary committee in the referral of H.R. 2672, directing the Secretaries of State, Homeland Security, and Defense to establish a program of mutual security and safety between the United States, Canada, and Mexico, which was referred in addition to the Armed Services and Homeland Security Committees. The Ways and Means Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of one bill that was referred to it and the Homeland Security Committee, H.R. 98, amending the Immigration and Nationality Act to restrict employment of unauthorized aliens through use of improved Social Security cards. This measure was also referred to the Judiciary and Education and the Workforce Committees. One measure reported by the Homeland Security Committee, H.R. 1817, the FY2006 Department of Homeland Security authorization bill, was sequentially referred to the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Government Reform, Judiciary, Science, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Intelligence Committee. The Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence “retain[ed] jurisdiction over the intelligence and intelligence-related activities of all departments and agencies of the Federal Government, including the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and the National Counterterrorism Center as defined in the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004.”33 The fiscal year 2006 intelligence authorization bill (H.R. 2475) was referred solely to the Intelligence Committee. 33 “Legislative History,” p. H25. CRS-21 Two intelligence-related measures (H.R. 1157, exempting bookstores and libraries from orders for the production of certain items in certain foreign intelligence investigations, and H.R. 1526, regarding the protection of civil liberties in the exercise of foreign intelligence surveillance authorities) were referred to the Intelligence and Judiciary Committees, and the Judiciary Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral. Two bills were referred to the Intelligence and Homeland Security Committees. H.R. 1310, amending the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 with regard to the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, was also referred to the Government Reform and Judiciary Committees. The Government Reform Committee was designated as primary in the referral. H.R. 1502, regarding civil liberties, was also referred to the Judiciary Committee, which was designated as the primary committee in the referral. One measure reported by the Homeland Security Committee, H.R. 1817, the FY2006 Department of Homeland Security authorization bill, was sequentially referred to the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Government Reform, Judiciary, Science, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. No measures were introduced and referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee that dealt expressly with the subject matter described in the Legislative History under the Intelligence Committee. Judiciary Committee. The Judiciary Committee “retain[ed] jurisdiction over immigration policy and non-border enforcement of the immigration laws.”34 The term immigration “shall be construed to include ‘naturalization’.” Immigration policy “include[s] such matters as the immigration and naturalization process, numbers of aliens (including immigrants and non-immigrants) allowed, classifications and lengths of allowable stay, the adjudication of immigration petitions and the requirements for the same, the domestic adjudication of immigration petitions and applications submitted to the Department of Labor or the Department of Homeland Security and setting policy with regard to visa issuance and acceptance.” Non-border enforcement is “limited to those aspects of immigration enforcement not associated with the immediate entry of individuals into the country, including those aspects of the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement.” The Homeland Security Committee was granted jurisdiction over “border and port security including the immigration responsibilities of inspectors at ports of entry and the border patrol.”35 As noted above, the Judiciary Committee’s jurisdiction was also amended to add “criminal law enforcement” (Rule X, cl. 1(l)(7)). Legislation referred to the committee dealing with law enforcement agencies is included in this study. The 34 As noted above, this phrase was included in the amended jurisdiction of the Judiciary Committee (Rule X, cl. 1(l)(9)). 35 “Legislative History,” p. H25. CRS-22 Judiciary Committee’s jurisdiction over criminal law enforcement and over other subject matter, for example, crimes, civil liberties, and judicial proceedings (Rule X, cl. 1(l)), can include legislation with the purpose of addressing homeland security issues. Legislation with this purpose was also included in this study.36 Bills dealing with immigration were referred to the Judiciary Committee. Most of this legislation was referred solely to the committee. The committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of two bills: H.R. 19, requiring employment eligibility verification, which was referred in addition to the Education and the Workforce Committee; and H.R. 2049, requiring certain federal service contractors to participate in a pilot program for employment eligibility confirmation, which was referred in addition to the Education and the Workforce Committee. Another committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of three immigration-related bills: H.R. 209, regarding Cuban nationals playing professional baseball in the United States, where the International Relations Committee was designated as the primary committee; H.R. 368, dealing with state driver’s licenses, where the Government Reform Committee was designated as the primary committee; and H.R. 925, prohibiting federal agencies from accepting certain forms of foreign identification, where the Government Reform Committee was designated as the primary committee, and the measure was referred in addition to the House Administration and Armed Services Committees. Bills dealing with criminal law enforcement were referred to the Judiciary Committee. Most of this legislation was referred solely to the committee. The committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of four bills: ! ! ! ! H.R. 1076, dealing with detaining a U.S. person or resident as an enemy combatant, which was referred in addition to the Armed Services Committee; H.R. 1157, exempting bookstores and libraries from orders for the production of certain items in certain foreign intelligence investigations, which was referred in addition to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; H.R. 1526, regarding the protection of civil liberties in the exercise of foreign intelligence surveillance authorities, which was also referred to the Intelligence Committee; and H.R. 2715, establishing procedural protections for use of national security letters, which was referred in addition to the Financial Services Committee. Another committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of two bills related to criminal law enforcement: H.R. 154, providing grants to states, localities, and tribes when first responders who are reservists are mobilized, where the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee was designated as the primary 36 See Judiciary Committee Chairman Sensenbrenner, letter on a proposed homeland security committee to then-Chairman Linder, Subcommittee on Technology and the House, Committee on Rules, Oct. 18, 2004. CRS-23 committee, and the measure was referred in addition to the Energy and Commerce Committee; and H.R. 926, allowing Veterans Affairs Department police to enforce certain state and local arrest warrants, where the Veterans’ Affairs Committee was designated as the primary committee. Thirteen bills were referred to the Judiciary and Homeland Security Committees. The Judiciary Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of seven of these bills: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! H.R. 173, regarding port security, which was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure and Ways and Means Committees; H.R. 418, establishing regulations for state driver’s licenses and identification security standards, which was referred in addition to the Government Reform Committee; H.R. 688, amending the Immigration and Nationality Act regarding terrorists, drug traffickers, illegal aliens, and others; H.R. 1320, regarding border security; H.R. 1502, regarding civil liberties, which was referred in addition to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; H.R. 2092, comprehensively amending immigration law, which was referred in addition to the Ways and Means, Energy and Commerce, Agriculture, and Financial Services Committees; and H.R. 2330, improving border security and immigration, which was referred in addition to the International Relations, Energy and Commerce, and Education and the Workforce Committees. The Homeland Security Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of six of these bills: ! ! ! ! ! ! H.R. 91, authorizing DHS grants to first responders, which was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure and Energy and Commerce Committees; H.R. 1196, improving the security clearance process on the U.S.Mexico border; H.R. 1324, establishing a U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Office of Investigations field office in Tulsa, OK, which was referred in addition to the Ways and Means Committee; H.R. 2041, providing for homeland security grant coordination, which was referred in addition to the Energy and Commerce and Transportation and Infrastructure Committees; H.R. 2628, setting deadlines for machine-readable, tamper-resistant entry and exit documents; and H.R. 2649, strengthening aviation security, which was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. Committees other than the Judiciary or Homeland Security Committee were designated as the primary committee in the referral of two bills to the Judiciary and Homeland Security Committees: H.R. 98, amending the Immigration and Nationality Act to restrict employment of unauthorized aliens through use of improved Social CRS-24 Security cards, where the Ways and Means Committee was designated as the primary committee, and the measure was referred in addition to the Education and the Workforce Committee; and H.R. 1310, amending the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 with regard to the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, where the Government Reform Committee was designated as the primary committee, and the measure was referred in addition to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. One measure reported by the Homeland Security Committee, H.R. 1817, the FY2006 Department of Homeland Security authorization bill, was sequentially referred to the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Government Reform, Judiciary, Science, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Four first-responder measures were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee (H.R. 228, H.R. 1093, H.R. 1419, and H.R. 1544). Five bills dealing with border issues were referred to the Homeland Security Committee but not to the Judiciary Committee: ! ! ! ! ! H.R. 58, establishing a Border Patrol unit for the Virgin Islands; H.R. 780, amending the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to fund additional Border Patrol agents; H.R. 1509, allowing an inspection program using videophone systems at certain points of entry in Florida; H.R. 1805, establishing the position of northern border coordinator in the Homeland Security Department; and H.R. 1986, authorizing the secretary of defense to assign members of the military to assist the Homeland Security Department in border protection functions. Science Committee. The Science Committee “retain[ed] some jurisdiction over the research and development activities of the Department of Homeland Security as such matters are incidental to the Committee on Science’s existing jurisdiction (except where those activities are in the jurisdiction of another committee).”37 No measures appeared to be introduced that fit this explanation of jurisdiction in the Legislative History, and no measures were referred upon introduction to both the Science and Homeland Security Committees. A measure amending the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to enhance cybersecurity (H.R. 285) was referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. One measure reported by the Homeland Security Committee, H.R. 1817, the FY2006 Department of Homeland Security authorization bill, was sequentially referred to the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Government Reform, Judiciary, Science, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. 37 “Legislative History,” pp. H25-H26. CRS-25 Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. The explanation in the Legislative History of the jurisdiction of the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee vis-à-vis that of the Homeland Security Committee covered four areas of subject matter. One bill described by the rules changes and Legislative History is listed last in a fifth subject-matter area. Coast Guard and Port Security. The Transportation and Infrastructure Committee “retain[ed] jurisdiction over the Coast Guard.” The Homeland Security Committee was granted “jurisdiction over port security [Rule X, cl. 1(i)(3)(A)], and some Coast Guard responsibilities in that area will fall within the jurisdiction of both committees.”38 Three measures related to the Coast Guard were referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure committee: H.R. 889, authorizing appropriations; H.R. 1412, requiring notification to the Coast Guard of obstructions to navigation; and H.R. 1448, regarding the conveyance of a decommissioned cutter. No measures were introduced and referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee that dealt expressly with the Coast Guard subject matter described in the Legislative History under the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. H.R. 173, regarding port security, was referred to the Judiciary Committee, which was designated as the primary committee in the referral, and in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure, Ways and Means, and Homeland Security Committees. H.R. 478 and H.R. 1731, both dealing with port security, were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. H.R. 163, regarding empty shipping containers, was also referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. FEMA and Emergency Preparedness. Jurisdiction over “emergency preparedness will be split” between the Transportation and Infrastructure and Homeland Security Committees. The Transportation and Infrastructure Committee “retain[ed] its jurisdiction under clause 1(r)(2) [of Rule X] over ‘federal management of emergencies and natural disasters’.” The further explanation in the Legislative History is — This means that the committee retains its general jurisdiction over the emergency preparedness and response operations of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Bills addressing FEMA’s general preparation for disaster from any cause shall be referred to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. The Legislative History recognized the Homeland Security Committee’s jurisdiction over DHS’s “responsibilities with regard to emergency preparedness only as they relate to acts of terrorism.” The committee “shall have jurisdiction over the responsibilities of the Office for Domestic Preparedness, in accordance with section 430 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002.”39 38 Ibid., p. H26. 39 Ibid., p. H26. Section 430 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296; 116 Stat. (continued...) CRS-26 Six bills dealing with FEMA or emergency preparedness, or both, were referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee: H.R. 88, directing designation of a task force as part of the National Urban Search and Rescue System; H.R. 1137, improving the federal response to disasters; H.R. 1552, clarifying that the religious status of a nonprofit facility does not preclude its receiving disaster assistance; H.R. 1795, relating to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001; H.R. 1870, expediting payment of certain federal emergency assistance; and H.R. 2338, designating a small-state advocate in FEMA. Two measures were referred to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee and other committees: H.R. 566, relating to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, where the Energy and Commerce Committee was designated as primary in the referral; and H.R. 1386, regarding drought preparedness, where the Agriculture Committee was designated as primary in the referral, and the measure was referred in addition to the Resources Committee. H.R. 1525, relating to the security of federal buildings and other federal property, was referred to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, which was designated as the primary committee in the referral, and in addition to the Homeland Security Committee. First Responders. The Legislative History cross referenced the subject matter described under the Energy and Commerce Committee. The Homeland Security Committee was granted jurisdiction over “domestic preparedness for and collective response to terrorism” (Rule X, cl. 1(i)(3)(D)), which the Legislative History explained “means that [the committee] would receive referrals of bills addressing the Department of Homeland Security’s responsibilities for, and assistance to, first responders as a whole and not over measures addressing first responder communities individually.”40 A measure dealing with first responders, H.R. 154, providing grants to states, localities, and tribes when first responders who are reservists are mobilized, was referred to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, which was designated the primary committee in the referral, and in addition to the Energy and Commerce and Judiciary Committees. A bill creating a national volunteer service corps to serve in domestic and international emergencies, H.R. 2724, was referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. A measure authorizing homeland security grants to first responders, H.R. 91, was referred to the Homeland Security Committee, which was designated the primary committee in the referral, and in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure, Judiciary, and Energy and Commerce Committees. Another measure, H.R. 2041, providing for homeland security grant coordination, was referred to the Homeland 39 (...continued) 2135, 2191-2192) located the Office of Domestic Preparedness within the Directorate of Border and Transportation Security, established the position of director, and set forth the office’s responsibilities. 40 “Legislative History,” p. H26. CRS-27 Security Committee, which was designated the primary committee in the referral, and in addition to the Energy and Commerce, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Judiciary Committees. Four measures related to the allocation of grant funds to first responders (H.R. 228, H.R. 1093, H.R. 1419, and H.R. 1544) were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. Another measure providing local-government grants for homeland-security preparedness that could be distributed to first responders (H.R. 796) was also referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. Transportation Safety and Security. The Homeland Security Committee was granted jurisdiction over “transportation security” (Rule X, cl. 1(i)(3)(F)). “In general,” the committee “would have jurisdiction over bills addressing the Transportation Security Administration.” The Transportation and Infrastructure Committee “retain[ed] its jurisdiction over transportation safety.” It would have “jurisdiction over bills addressing the various entities within the Department of Transportation having responsibility for transportation safety, such as the Federal Aviation Administration and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.” The Homeland Security Committee’s jurisdiction “does not include expenditures from trust funds under the jurisdiction of other committees.”41 Some measures referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee — such as H.R. 3, authorizing funds for federal-aid highways, highway safety, and transit; H.R. 168, establishing a goods movement program; and H.R. 911 and H.R. 1496, dealing with aviation at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport — may include security as one purpose or component of a broader federal program or activity. That is also the case for H.R. 242, authorizing funds for surface transportation research, where the Science Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral, and the measure was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. (A related bill for surface transportation research, H.R. 243, was referred solely to the Science Committee.) H.R. 3 also authorizes expenditures from the Highway Trust Fund, among other purposes. A bill providing a temporary extension of highway and related programs, H.R. 2566, was referred to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, which was designated as primary, and in addition to the Committees on Ways and Means, Science, and Resources. Another bill, H.R. 35, authorizing expenditures from the Highway Trust Fund to widen Interstate 35 in Texas, was referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. All bills dealing with transportation safety but for one were referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. H.R. 909, establishing a hazardous materials cooperative research program, was referred to the Science Committee, which was designated as the primary committee, as well as to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. 41 Ibid., p. H26. CRS-28 A bill requiring a Government Accountability Office study of security measures for driver’s licenses and the denial of licenses to illegal aliens (H.R. 620) was referred to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, which was designated as the primary committee, and to the Government Reform Committee. A bill, H.R. 418, establishing state driver’s license and identification document security standards, was referred to the Judiciary Committee, which was designated as primary in the referral, and in addition to the Homeland Security and Government Reform Committees. A related bill, H.R. 368, was referred to the Government Reform Committee, which was designated as primary, and in addition to the Judiciary Committee. Neither H.R. 418 nor H.R. 368 was referred to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. Seven bills dealing with transportation security were referred to both the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee and the Homeland Security Committee. The Transportation and Infrastructure Committee was designated as primary in the referral of H.R. 2351, providing for safety and security of railroads. The Homeland Security Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of six of these bills. H.R. 153 and H.R. 1109 both dealt with rail transportation and public transit security, and H.R. 1116 dealt with public transportation security. H.R. 1414 directed the issuance of DHS regulations on shipping hazardous materials. H.R. 1818 made funds available from the Aviation Security Capital Fund to establish a checkpoint screening security fund. H.R. 2649 strengthened aviation security, which was referred in addition to the Judiciary Committee. A bill to improve air cargo security, H.R. 2044, was referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. A bill, H.R. 2688, to establish a deadline related to screening for entry into secure areas of airports, was also referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. Department Authorization. One measure reported by the Homeland Security Committee, H.R. 1817, the FY2006 Department of Homeland Security authorization bill, was sequentially referred to the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Government Reform, Judiciary, Science, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Ways and Means Committee. The Ways and Means Committee’s jurisdiction over “‘customs revenue’ is intended to include those functions contemplated in section 412(b)(2) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 and includes those functions as carried out in collection districts and ports of entry and delivery.”42 Section 412(b)(2) lists these functions as ...functions performed by the following personnel, and associated support staff, of the United States Customs Service on the day before the effective date of this Act: Import Specialists, Entry Specialists, Drawback Specialists, National Import Specialist[s], Fines and Penalties Specialists, attorneys of the Office of 42 Ibid., p. H26. CRS-29 Regulations and Rulings, Customs Auditors, International Trade Specialists, Financial Systems Specialists.43 The Legislative History also contained, as noted above, a memorandum from the Secretary of the Treasury delegating to the Secretary of Homeland Security general authority over customs revenue functions.44 This memorandum references section 415 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002,45 in addition to section 412 concerning customs revenue functions, which covers — Assessing and collecting customs duties.... Processing and denial of entry of persons, baggage, cargo, and mail.... Detecting and apprehending persons engaged in fraudulent practices.... Enforcing section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930.... Collecting accurate import data.... Enforcing reciprocal trade agreements.... Functions performed by [listed personnel].... Functions performed by [listed offices]....46 All tariff duty bills were referred solely to the Ways and Means Committee. Other bills amending the Tariff Act of 1930, the Trade Act of 1974, and other trade laws and dealing with subject matter such as the marking of an imported good were also referred solely to the Ways and Means Committee.47 Two measures dealing with relations with Cuba, H.R. 208 and H.R. 579, were referred to the Ways and Means Committee. The International Relations Committee was designated as primary in the referral of these two bills, which were referred in addition to the Energy and Commerce, Judiciary, Financial Services, Government Reform, and Agriculture Committees. Measures dealing with relations with Syria (H.R. 1141) and Libya (H.R. 1453) were referred to the Ways and Means Committee. The International Relations Committee was designated as primary in the referral of these two bills, which were referred in addition to the Financial Services and Government Reform Committees. H.R. 1170, extending permanent normal trade relations treatment to products of Ukraine, was referred to the Ways and Means Committee and in addition to the Rules Committee. H.R. 1498, regarding exchange-rate manipulation by the People’s Republic of China, was referred to the Ways and Means Committee and in addition to the Armed Services Committee. 43 P.L. 107-296, §412(b)(2); 116 Stat. 2135, 2180. 44 “Delegation from the Secretary of the Treasury,” Congressional Record, Jan. 4, 2005, p. H26. 45 P.L. 107-296, §415; 116 Stat. 2135, 2180-2181. 46 Ibid. 47 Tax, Social Security, health, and other measures related to noncitizens, first responders, the armed forces, or terrorist victims were also referred to the Ways and Means Committee, but were not included in this study. CRS-30 Four measures were referred to the Ways and Means and Homeland Security Committee. The Ways and Means Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of H.R. 98, amending the Immigration and Nationality Act to restrict employment of unauthorized aliens through use of improved Social Security cards, which was also referred to the Judiciary and Education and the Workforce Committees. The Homeland Security Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of H.R. 1324, establishing a U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Office of Investigations field office in Tulsa, OK, which was referred in addition to the Judiciary Committee. The Judiciary Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of two bills that were referred in addition to the Ways and Means and Homeland Security Committees: H.R. 173, dealing with port security, which was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee; and H.R. 2092, a bill to comprehensively amend immigration law, which was referred in addition to the Energy and Commerce, Agriculture, and Financial Services Committees. One measure reported by the Homeland Security Committee, H.R. 1817, the FY2006 Department of Homeland Security authorization bill, was sequentially referred to the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Government Reform, Judiciary, Science, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Eight bills were referred to the Homeland Security Committee that were not referred to the Ways and Means Committee and that dealt with border issues: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! H.R. 58, establishing a Border Patrol unit for the Virgin Islands; H.R. 780, amending the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to fund additional Border Patrol agents; H.R. 1320, pertaining to border security, where the Judiciary Committee was designated as primary in the referral; H.R. 1509, allowing an inspection program using videophone systems at certain points of entry in Florida; H.R. 1805, establishing the position of northern border coordinator in the Homeland Security Department; H.R. 1986, authorizing the Secretary of Defense to assign members of the military to assist the Homeland Security Department in border protection functions, where the Armed Services Committee was designated as primary in the referral; H.R. 2044, dealing with air cargo security; and H.R. 2672, directing the Secretaries of State and Homeland Security to establish a program of mutual security and safety between the United States, Canada, and Mexico, where the International Relations Committee was designated as primary in the referral and which was referred in addition to the Armed Services Committee. H.R. 974, establishing a Corporate Subsidy Reform Commission, was referred to the Government Reform Committee, which was designated as primary, and in addition to the Ways and Means Committee. CRS-31 Sequential Referral. At the time a bill or resolution is introduced, or later in the legislative process, such as upon the measure’s being reported from a committee, a measure might be sequentially referred by the Speaker to one or more additional committees for their consideration of provisions of the measure within their jurisdiction. Sequential referrals may include a time limit on these committees’ consideration. The two measures covered in this section were not sequentially referred at the time of introduction. It is their later legislative history that is helpful in understanding the Homeland Security Committee’s jurisdictional relationship to other committees. DHS Authorization Bill. One bill reported from the Homeland Security Committee was sequentially referred after being reported. H.R. 1817, the FY2006 Department of Homeland Security authorization bill, was reported by the Homeland Security Committee May 3, 2005 (H.Rept. 109-71, Part I), with an amendment in the nature of a substitute. It was referred sequentially May 3 to the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Government Reform, Judiciary, Science, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means and to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. The sequential referral provided the referral was “...for a period ending not later than May 13, 2005, for consideration of such provisions of the bill and amendment as fall within the jurisdiction of that committee....” The bill was reported with amendments May 13 by the Energy and Commerce Committee (H.Rept. 109-71, Part II) and the Judiciary Committee (H.Rept. 109-71, Part III). The other committees were discharged May 13 from further consideration of the measure. The Rules Committee reported a special rule May 17, 2005 (H.Res. 283, H.Rept. 109-84), making it in order for the Speaker to declare the House resolved into the Committee of the Whole to consider H.R. 1817. Under the special rule, one hour of general debate was divided equally and controlled by the chair and ranking member of the Homeland Security Committee. In place of the amendments recommended to the House by the Committees on Homeland Security, Energy and Commerce, and the Judiciary, the special rule made it in order to consider “as an original bill for the purpose of amendment...the amendment in the nature of a substitute printed in part A of the report [H.Rept. 109-84] accompanying this resolution [H.Res. 283].” All points of order against the amendment in the nature of a substitute were waived. The special rule was a “structured” rule, making in order only amendments specified in the report and placing additional restrictions on the consideration of the amendments.48 All points of order against the amendments were waived. 48 Twenty-four amendments were made in order. The sponsors of the amendments allowed by the special rule were members of the following committees: Agriculture, 1; Appropriations, 2; Armed Services, 1; Budget, 1; Education and the Workforce, 4; Energy and Commerce, 3; Financial Services, 4; Government Reform, 3; Homeland Security, 8; House Administration, 2; International Relations, 1; Judiciary, 4; Resources, 1; Rules, 3; Science, 5; Small Business, 1; Transportation and Infrastructure, 6; Veterans’ Affairs, 1; and Ways and Means, 2. In addition, in its markup of H.Res 283 May 17, 2005, the Committee on Rules defeated seven motions to make in order other amendments. CRS-32 The House debated and agreed to the special-rule resolution 284-124, May 18, 2005, after ordering the previous question 226-199.49 The Speaker pro tempore subsequently declared the House in the Committee of the Whole to consider H.R. 1817. Homeland Security Committee Chairman Cox concluded general debate on H.R. 1817 by inserting in the Congressional Record “a series of letters exchanged between the Committee on Homeland Security and other standing committees, including the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence...concerning jurisdictional issues raised by this legislation.”50 In their letters, Agriculture Committee Chairman Goodlatte and Armed Services Committee Chairman Hunter indicated that their committees would not seek sequential referral of H.R. 1817, with the understanding that the committees were not waiving their jurisdiction and that the committees were reserving the right to seek representation on a House-Senate conference to deal with provisions within the committees’ jurisdiction. Intelligence Committee Chairman Hoekstra, whose committee received a sequential referral of H.R. 1817, indicated in his letter that the Intelligence Committee “waive[d] further consideration of the bill,” with the same understandings included in the Agriculture and Armed Services letters. Government Reform Chairman Tom Davis and Ways and Means Committee Chairman Thomas in their letters included the same understandings, but also indicated that their committees forwent consideration of H.R. 1817 because of agreements reached between their committees and the Homeland Security Committee to include changes in the Homeland Security Committee’s amendment.51 Seventeen amendments were agreed to in the Committee of the Whole, two by roll-call vote. Three amendments were rejected, all by roll-call vote, in the Committee of the Whole, including an amendment in the nature of a substitute offered by Homeland Security Committee Ranking Member Bennie Thompson. Three amendments were offered and subsequently withdrawn. After the Committee of the Whole rose and reported, no Member sought a separate vote on an amendment adopted in the Committee of the Whole, and the amendment in the nature of a substitute, as amended, was agreed to. Ranking Member Thompson offered a motion to recommit with instructions, which was defeated 199-228. The House passed H.R. 1817, as amended, 424-4. First Responders. A second bill, H.R. 1544, the Faster and Smarter Funding for First Responders Act of 2005, was not sequentially referred, but again Homeland Security Committee Chairman Cox inserted in the Congressional Record an exchange of letters regarding committees’ jurisdiction between himself and the chairs of other committees. 49 Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 151, May 18, 2005, pp. H3443-H3454. 50 Rep. Christopher Cox, remarks in the House, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 151, May 18, 2005, pp. H3462-H3465. Due to a printing error, the insertion was incomplete, and the set of letters was printed in the next day’s Congressional Record, vol. 151, May 19, 2005, pp. H3688-H3691. 51 Ibid. CRS-33 H.R. 1544 was reported with an amendment in the nature of a substitute by the Homeland Security Committee April 28, 2005 (H.Rept. 109-65). The Rules Committee reported a special rule (H.Res. 269, H.Rept. 109-77) May 10, 2005. Under the special rule, one hour of general debate was divided equally and controlled by the chair and ranking member of the Homeland Security Committee. The special rule made it in order to consider “as an original bill for the purpose of amendment” the amendment in the nature of a substitute recommended by the Homeland Security Committee. All points of order against the committee amendment were waived. The special rule was a “structured” rule, making in order only amendments specified in the report and placing additional restrictions on the consideration of the amendments.52 All points of order against the amendments were waived. The House debated and agreed to the resolution by voice vote May 12, 2005, after ordering the previous question by voice vote.53 The Speaker pro tempore subsequently declared the House in the Committee of the Whole to consider H.R. 1544. Homeland Security Committee Chairman Cox during general debate on H.R. 1544 inserted in the Congressional Record an exchange of letters between the Committee on Homeland Security and other standing committees regarding sequential referral and the committees’ jurisdiction. These committees were the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Judiciary, Science, and Transportation and Infrastructure. Each of the letters from the chairs of these committees waived sequential referral of H.R. 1544 in noting a desire to expedite floor action on the measure; stated that this waiver did not affect the committee’s jurisdiction; indicated generally or specifically the jurisdiction of the committee over provisions in H.R. 1544; reserved the right of the committee to seek representation on a House-Senate conference to deal with provisions within the committee’s jurisdiction; and requested that the letter and Chairman Cox’s response be included in the Homeland Security Committee’s report on H.R. 1544 and in the Congressional Record.54 Four amendments were agreed to in the Committee of the Whole. One amendment was rejected by roll-call vote. After the Committee of the Whole rose and reported, no Member sought a separate vote on an amendment adopted in the Committee of the Whole, and the amendment in the nature of a substitute, as amended, was agreed to. No Member made a motion to recommit. The House passed H.R. 1544, as amended, 409-10. 52 Five amendments were made in order. The sponsors of the amendments allowed by the special rule were members of the following committees: Appropriations, 1; Education and the Workforce, 2; Energy and Commerce, 2; Financial Services, 1; Judiciary, 1; and Transportation and Infrastructure, 1. 53 54 Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 151, May 12, 2005, pp. H3204-H3211. Rep. Christopher Cox, remarks in the House, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 151, May 12, 2005, pp. H3212-H3213. CRS-34 Conclusion At a news conference August 1, 2005, Homeland Security Department Secretary Michael Chertoff announced that a unit of DHS, the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, had arrested 582 suspected gang members and their associates in the previous two weeks and more than 1,000 such individuals since March. The Secretary stated that more than ninety percent of those arrested were illegal aliens.55 This kind of announcement is a reminder of how broad is DHS’s mandate. Congress created the department at President Bush’s request to combat terrorism directed at the United States, and most Americans probably think of this role whenever they hear a reference to DHS. As the President explained his proposal for the department in addressing the nation: The Department of Homeland Security will be charged with four primary tasks. This new agency will control our borders and prevent terrorists and explosives from entering our country. It will work with state and local authorities to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies. It will bring together our best scientists to develop technologies that detect biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons, and to discover the drugs and treatments to best protect our citizens. And this new department will review intelligence and law enforcement information from all agencies of government, and produce a single daily picture of threats against our homeland. Analysts will be responsible for imagining the worst, and planning to counter it.56 Capturing suspected gang members who are illegal aliens, promoting recreational boating safety, and investigating counterfeiting are not federal programs that most Americans would probably think of as DHS responsibilities, but they also are, in addition to its homeland security responsibilities. The agencies and programs reorganized to form the department had many more congressionally mandated duties than homeland security. This situation challenged Congress in creating the department and, subsequently, in its own realignment of committee jurisdiction over homeland security. As indicated earlier in this report, the House created a Select Committee on Homeland Security in the 108th Congress and superseded its potential continuation with a standing Committee on Homeland Security in the 109th Congress. The new committee was given jurisdiction over “overall homeland security policy” and the “organization and administration” of DHS, but its jurisdiction over specific homeland-security policy areas was limited to “(f)unctions of the Department of Homeland Security” relating to those policy areas (Rule X, cl. 1(i)). With the establishment of the permanent committee, again as indicated, Rules Chairman Dreier inserted in the Congressional Record an extensive Legislative History to 55 Dan Eggen, “Customs Jails 1,000 Suspected Gang Members,” The Washington Post, Aug. 2, 2005, sec. A, p. A2; Jerry Seper, “Anti-Gang Initiative Leads to 582 Arrests,” The Washington Times, Aug. 2, 2005, sec. A, p. A1. 56 President Bush, Address to the Nation Proposing a Cabinet-Level Department of Homeland Security, June 6, 2002, available online at [http://www.whitehouse.gov/ news/releases/2002/06/20020606-8.html], visited Aug. 19, 2005. CRS-35 distinguish the new committee’s legislative jurisdiction from that of existing committees, providing a guide to the Speaker in the referral of legislation. Much of the Legislative History served to distinguish strictly homeland security issues that would be under the exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction of the Homeland Security Committee, from both homeland-security-related issues and non-homelandsecurity-related issues that would continue to be under the jurisdiction of other committees of the House. This section of conclusions analyzes some of the choices the House made in realigning committee jurisdiction over homeland security and the operation of those choices related to the referral of legislation early in the 109th Congress. Delimiting the Jurisdictional Meaning of Homeland Security. In implementing the Rule X changes, the Legislative History contains three approaches to the Homeland Security Committee’s jurisdiction. In addition, to understand the Legislative History’s explanation related to a specific committee or subject-matter, one must look in more than one place in that document. First, the Legislative History details grants of exclusive jurisdiction. For example, the Homeland Security Committee was granted jurisdiction over “overall homeland security policy” (Rule X, cl. 1(i)(1)). The first section of the Legislative History, explaining the meaning of these and the other words in clause 1(i), states that the phrase overall homeland security policy is to be “interpreted on a government-wide or multi-agency basis similar to the Committee on Government Reform’s jurisdiction over ‘overall economy, efficiency and management of government operations and activities’.” 57 With regard to government-wide or multiagency homeland security activities, the Homeland Security Committee was granted comprehensive jurisdiction. Second, the Legislative History details grants of shared jurisdiction. An example is in the jurisdictional relationship between the Homeland Security Committee and the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. As defined by the “functions” assigned DHS in the Homeland Security Act of 2002,58 the Homeland Security Committee was granted jurisdiction over “port security” and “domestic preparedness for and collective response to terrorism” (Rule X, cl. 1(i)(3)(A) and (3)(D)). In the section of the Legislative History delineating the jurisdictional relationship between the two committees, the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee “retain[ed] jurisdiction over the Coast Guard.” However, the Legislative History then explains the nature of shared jurisdiction over the Coast Guard: “...the Homeland Security Committee has jurisdiction over port security, and some Coast Guard responsibilities in that area will fall within the jurisdiction of both committees.”59 57 “Legislative History,” p. H25. 58 P.L.107-296; 116 Stat. 2135. 59 Ibid., p. H26. CRS-36 In this same section of the Legislative History, in the instance of emergency preparedness, the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee retained its “general jurisdiction” over the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The Legislative History provides: “Bills addressing FEMA’s general preparation for disaster from any cause shall be referred to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure.” With regard to emergency preparedness and terrorist acts, however: “The Committee on Homeland Security shall have jurisdiction over the Department of Homeland Security’s responsibilities with regard to emergency preparedness only as they relate to acts of terrorism.”60 Consequently, one might expect all or most Coast Guard and FEMA legislation to be referred to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee; the Homeland Security Committee might seek a sequential referral. If legislation deals with port security and includes provisions affecting the responsibilities of the Coast Guard, or if the legislation deals specifically with emergency preparedness and acts of terrorism, the Homeland Security Committee might be designated the primary committee in a referral, with the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee possibly seeking a sequential referral. Third, as explained in the Legislative History, the 10 named committees each retained jurisdiction in many instances to the exclusion of the Homeland Security Committee, even when the programs or activities described are among DHS’s responsibilities. For example, the Homeland Security Committee was granted jurisdiction over “border...security (except immigration policy and non-border enforcement)” (Rule X, cl. 1(i)(3)(A)). In the section of the Legislative History delineating the jurisdictional relationship between the Homeland Security Committee and the Judiciary Committee, the Legislative History amplifies the meaning of this provision of the Homeland Security Committee’s limited jurisdiction, and the Judiciary Committee’s relatively broad jurisdiction (Rule X, cl. l(9)), over immigration policy. The Legislative History explains: [The Judiciary Committee’s] jurisdiction over immigration policy shall include matters such as the immigration and naturalization process, numbers of aliens (including immigrants and non-immigrants) allowed, classifications and lengths of allowable stay, the adjudication of immigration petitions and the requirements for the same, the domestic adjudication of immigration petitions and applications submitted to the Department of Labor or the Department of Homeland Security[,] and setting policy with regard to visa issuance and acceptance. Its jurisdiction over non-border enforcement shall be limited to those aspects of immigration enforcement not associated with the immediate entry of individuals into the country, including those aspects of the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement.61 The Homeland Security Committee’s jurisdiction over specific components of immigration is carved out of the Judiciary Committee’s continuing broad jurisdiction, and the explanation in the Legislative History seems clear that the carve-out does not provide the Homeland Security Committee with shared jurisdiction. Although the 60 Ibid., p. H26. 61 Ibid., p. H25. CRS-37 Departments of Justice, Labor, and State all play significant roles in executing immigration laws, the Homeland Security Department is the parent of the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection, the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, and other units, which have large workloads in executing immigration laws. Through its immigration jurisdiction, the Judiciary Committee continues to have a key legislative and oversight role affecting the Homeland Security Department. In addition, in seeking understanding of jurisdiction granted to the Homeland Security Committee or retained by other committees, it is often necessary to look in more than one place in the Legislative History. For example, to obtain a fuller understanding of the distinction of the Homeland Security Committee’s jurisdiction from that of the Energy and Commerce Committee, one would look in the first section of the Legislative History, where the meaning of the jurisdictional grant to the Homeland Security Committee in Rule X, cl. 1(i) is set forth. There, it is explained that, while overall homeland security policy is within the jurisdiction of the Homeland Security Committee, specific instances of homeland security policy might be outside the committee’s jurisdiction: “Surgical addresses of homeland security policy in sundry areas of jurisdiction occupied by other committees would not be referred to the Committee on Homeland Security on the basis of ‘overall’ homeland security policy jurisdiction.” This paragraph of the Legislative History then goes on to cite an example that is relevant to differentiating the Homeland Security Committee’s and the Energy and Commerce Committee’s (and other committees’) jurisdictions: For example, the Committee on Homeland Security shall have jurisdiction over a bill coordinating the homeland security efforts by all of the critical infrastructure protection sectors. Jurisdiction over a bill addressing the protection of a particular sector would lie with the committee otherwise having jurisdiction over that sector.62 An additional distinction in the committees’ jurisdictions appears in the section of the Legislative History delineating the jurisdictional relationship between the Homeland Security Committee and 10 existing committees. In the case of the Energy and Commerce Committee, after explaining a conceptual difference between its and the Homeland Security Committee’s jurisdictions, there is another example of the distinction in jurisdictions: The Committee on Energy and Commerce (and other relevant committees) shall retain their jurisdiction over bills addressing the separate entities that comprise the first responders. For example, the Committee on Energy and Commerce shall retain its jurisdiction over a bill directing the Department of Health and Human Services to train emergency medical personnel.63 The section of the Legislative History distinguishing the jurisdiction of the Homeland Security Committee from 10 existing committees also contains, in the 62 Ibid., p. H25. 63 Ibid., p. H25. CRS-38 explanation of one existing committee’s jurisdiction, distinctions that might be relevant to one or more of other existing committees. For example, the explanation of the Energy and Commerce Committee’s jurisdiction contains this information that is applicable to the distinction between its and other committees’ jurisdiction and that of the Homeland Security Committee: The Committee on Homeland Security shall have jurisdiction over measures that address the Department of Homeland Security’s activities for domestic preparedness and collective response to terrorism [in Rule X, cl. 1(i)(3)(D)]. The words ‘to terrorism’ require a direct relation to terrorism. The Committee on Homeland Security’s jurisdiction over ‘collective response to terrorism’ means that it shall receive referrals of bills addressing the Department of Homeland Security’s responsibilities for, and assistance to, first responders as a whole. The Committee on Energy and Commerce (and other relevant committees) shall retain their jurisdiction over bills addressing the separate entities that comprise the first responders.64 A related statement explaining the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee’s jurisdiction is short and is made more understandable, in reading the lengthier distinction contained in the Energy and Commerce Committee’s jurisdictional explanation, where the larger framework is apparent. The brief Transportation and Infrastructure Committee statement reads: “The Committee on Homeland Security shall have jurisdiction over the Department of Homeland Security’s responsibilities with regard to emergency preparedness only as they relate to acts of terrorism.”65 Yet another instance in which an understanding of the jurisdictional distinctions between the Homeland Security Committee and the existing committees requires looking in more than one place are the references to the Homeland Security Act of 2002.66 For example, the Ways and Means Committee’s jurisdiction was amended to “customs revenue” from “customs” (Rule X, cl. 1(t)(1)), consistent with the grant of jurisdiction to the Homeland Security Committee over “customs (except customs revenue)” (Rule X, cl. 1(i)(3)(B)). The explanation of the Ways and Means Committee’s jurisdiction in the Legislative History states that the committee’s jurisdiction — ...over ‘customs revenue’ is intended to include those functions contemplated in section 412(b)(2) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 and includes those functions as carried out in collection districts and ports of entry and delivery.67 The cited section of the Homeland Security Act provides: FUNCTIONS. — The functions referred to in paragraph (1) are those functions performed by the following personnel, and associated support staff, of the United States Customs Service on the day before the effective date of this Act: Import 64 Ibid., p. H25. 65 Ibid., p. H26. 66 P.L. 107-296; 116 Stat. 2135. 67 “Legislative History,” p. H26. CRS-39 Specialists, Entry Specialists, Drawback Specialists, National Import Specialist[s], Fines and Penalties Specialists, attorneys of the Office of Regulations and Rulings, Customs Auditors, International Trade Specialists, Financial Systems Specialists.68 When the provision of the Homeland Security Act and the attachment to the Legislative History, “Delegation from the Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of Homeland Security of general authority over Customs revenue functions vested in the Secretary of the Treasury as set forth in the Homeland Security Act of 2002,”69 are read with the explanation, it seems clear that a specific and limited carving out of the Ways and Means Committee’s jurisdiction over customs policy occurred. Similar to the Judiciary Committee retaining jurisdiction over important components of immigration policy, the Ways and Means Committee retained jurisdiction over important components of customs policy. Other Subject Matter. Not all legislative references to the words homeland security or terrorism are covered by the Legislative History. For example, benefits proposed in legislation to be made available to the victims of terrorist attacks, such as the victims of the 9/11 attacks, are not mentioned in the Legislative History. Such legislation introduced in the 109th Congress was not referred to the Homeland Security Committee, but to the committee or committees with jurisdiction over the benefit proposed to be bestowed. Another example of the use of the word terrorism that is absent from the Legislative History is terrorism insurance. Legislation introduced in the 109th Congress amending the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 200270 was referred to the Financial Services Committee. Drafting choices, including the U.S. Code or statutory provisions that might be amended; popular title options; and other considerations can influence the referral of legislation under the specific language of Rule X, cl. 1 and relevant interpretive materials, such as the Legislative History in this instance. The terms homeland security or terrorism included in legislation do not alone provide much guidance of how a bill might be referred, just as their absence does not.71 Implementation of the Rules Changes. The parliamentarian, acting for the Speaker, referred many and perhaps all measures included in this study pursuant to the changes to Rule X and the Legislative History that interprets those changes. The parliamentarian might also have referred to the Rule X changes and the Legislative History in considering how to refer measures that were not included in this study. The criteria set out in the section Selection of Measures for Study attempts to provide an objective basis for reading legislative and digest text so that a reader of this report could have an impartial explanation of how measures had been referred. 68 P.L. 107-296, §412(b)(2); 116 Stat. 2135, 2180. 69 “Legislative History,” p. H26. 70 P.L. 107-297; 116 Stat. 2322. 71 See CRS Report 98-175, House Committee Jurisdiction and Referral: Rules and Practice, by Judy Schneider. CRS-40 A number of measures included in this study were introduced and referred to one or more of 10 existing committees but not the Homeland Security Committee. Other measures in the study were referred both to one or more of the 10 committees and to the Homeland Security Committee. Still other measures were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. No Referral to the Homeland Security Committee. There were a sufficient number of referrals to five of the existing committees, where no referral was also made to the Homeland Security Committee, to discern that referrals seemed consistent with the rules changes and the Legislative History. The Armed Services Committee was referred 25 measures that were not referred to the Homeland Security Committee. As noted in the committee-by-committee analysis above, and as can be observed from the list of legislation in Appendix A, these measures dealt with warfighting, military defense, and military activities. Seventy measures were referred to the Government Reform Committee that were not also referred to the Homeland Security Committee. As noted above, and as can be observed in Appendix A, these measures dealt with the federal civil service, the overall economy, efficiency, and management of government operations and activities, federal procurement, the Freedom of Information Act, and other subject matter described in the Legislative History. The Judiciary Committee was referred 71 measures that were not referred to the Homeland Security Committee. Nearly all of the measures dealt with immigration policy; several dealt with changes to the criminal code or affected criminal law enforcement, as the analysis above and Appendix A show. Thirty-six measures were referred to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee but not to the Homeland Security Committee. These measures dealt with the Coast Guard, FEMA, first responders, and transportation safety, as shown in the analysis above and in Appendix A. The Legislative History explained the committee’s claim to measures on the Coast Guard and FEMA, and the measures referred to the committee but not to the Homeland Security Committee seemed to match the criteria. First-responder legislation, pursuant to the Legislative History, was to be referred to one or more of the existing committees if the legislation dealt with specific first-responder entities, and the referrals to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee but not to Homeland Security Committee seemed consistent with this criterion. The Transportation and Infrastructure Committee retained jurisdiction over transportation safety; such measures were referred to it. The Ways and Means Committee was referred 496 measures that were not referred to the Homeland Security Committee, most of which dealt with customs revenue functions, as the analysis above and in Appendix A show. Measures referred to the other five committees seemed consistent with the explanation of jurisdictions in the Legislative History, but too few measures were referred to these five committees, and not to the Homeland Security Committee, to CRS-41 be able to comment on the referrals. These committees, the number of referrals, and the general subject matter are as follows: ! ! ! ! ! Agriculture Committee — six referrals — animal disease policy, Animal Health Protection Act; Energy and Commerce Committee — nine referrals — communications, critical infrastructure, bioterrorism; Financial Services — five referrals — national flood insurance program, terrorist financing; Intelligence — three referrals — Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, intelligence authorization; and Science — one referral — hazardous materials. Referral to an Existing Committee and the Homeland Security Committee. Numerous measures were referred to the Homeland Security Committee and to one or more of the 10 existing committees, with one of those committees designated in the referral as primary. (Not all measures that were referred to one of the existing committees and also to the Homeland Security Committee are listed here. One of the existing committees or the Homeland Security Committee was designated as primary in the referral of most of the measures appearing here. See the committee-by-committee analysis above for a complete record.) Armed Services Committee. The potential use of military personnel in border protection (H.R. 1986 and H.R. 2672) triggered the jurisdiction of both the Armed Services and Homeland Security Committees. The Armed Services Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of H.R. 1986; a related bill introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was referred to the Armed Services Committee, which was designated as the primary committee, and to the Select Committee on Homeland Security. The International Relations Committee was designated as primary in the referral of H.R. 2672 in the 109th Congress, which was referred in addition to the Armed Services and Homeland Security Committees. Energy and Commerce Committee. The jurisdictional relationship between the Energy and Commerce and Homeland Security Committees affected a number of referrals. With regard to communications issues, the Energy and Commerce Committee was designated as the primary committee in two referrals to it and the Homeland Security Committee (H.R. 1251 and H.R. 2101). Related measures introduced by the same sponsors in the 108th Congress were referred to the Energy and Commerce Committee, which was designated as the primary committee, and to the Select Committee on Homeland Security. Four other public-safety communications bills in the 109th Congress (H.R. 733, H.R. 998, H.R. 1323, and H.R. 2418) were referred to the Energy and Commerce Committee, but not to the Homeland Security Committee. The Energy and Commerce Committee was designated as primary in the referral of two critical infrastructure measures (H.R. 895 and H.R. 2237) to it and to the Homeland Security Committee in the 109th Congress. In the 108th Congress, related bills introduced by the same sponsors were referred to the Energy and Commerce CRS-42 Committee; the 108th Congress bill related to H.R. 895 was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure and Judiciary Committees. In the 109th Congress, the Homeland Security Committee was designated as primary in the referral to it and the Energy and Commerce Committee of one critical infrastructure bill (H.R. 1562). A related bill in the 108th Congress was referred solely to the Energy and Commerce Committee. Two other critical infrastructure bills in the 109th Congress (H.R. 966 and H.R. 2689) were referred solely to the Energy and Commerce Committee. The Homeland Security Committee was designated as primary in the referral of two first-responder bills (H.R. 91 and H.R. 2041) that were referred to it and the Energy and Commerce Committee in the 109th Congress. H.R. 91 was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure, Judiciary, and Energy and Commerce Committees. In the 108th Congress, a bill related to H.R. 91 introduced by the same sponsor was referred to the Select Committee on Homeland Security, which was designated as primary, and also to the Transportation and Infrastructure, Judiciary, and Energy and Commerce Committees. (The Energy and Commerce Committee had sole jurisdiction in the 109th Congress over two first-responder bills (H.R. 1794 and H.R. 1987). Four such measures were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee (H.R. 228, H.R. 1093, H.R. 1419, and H.R. 1544).) The Energy and Commerce Committee was designated as primary in the referral of one medical research bill (H.R. 1291). Government Reform Committee. While a large number of measures referred to the Government Reform Committee met the criteria in the Legislative History, there were only two bills that were referred to it and the Homeland Security Committee, where the Government Reform Committee was designated as primary in the referral: H.R. 1310, pertaining to the independence of the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, and H.R. 2331, dealing with the classification of certain government information. A bill related to H.R. 2331 that was introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was referred to the Government Reform Committee, which was designated as the primary committee, and in addition to the Select Committee on Homeland Security. Four bills introduced in the 109th Congress dealing with DHS organization were referred to the Homeland Security Committee and not to the Government Reform Committee (H.R. 58, H.R. 285, H.R. 1324, and H.R. 1805). Three measures relating to homeland-security strategy (H.R. 44, H.R. 1383, and H.R. 2035) were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee in the 109th Congress. Judiciary Committee. The jurisdictional relationship between the Judiciary Committee and the Homeland Security Committee also affected a number of referrals. The Judiciary Committee was designated as primary in the referral of bills to it and the Homeland Security Committee where immigration policy appeared to be the dominant purpose of the legislation (H.R. 418, H.R. 688, H..R. 1320, H.R. 1502, H.R. 2092, and H.R. 2330). A bill related to H.R. 688 introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was referred solely to the Judiciary Committee. A bill related to H.R. 1502 introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was CRS-43 referred to the Judiciary Committee, which was designated as the primary committee, and to the Intelligence Committee; H.R. 1502 was also referred in addition to the Intelligence Committee. The Judiciary Committee was also designated in the 109th Congress as primary in the referral of a port security bill (H.R. 173), where changes to the criminal code seemed to dominate; the measure was referred in addition to the Homeland Security, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means Committees. A related bill in the 108th Congress introduced by the same sponsor was referred to the Judiciary Committee, which was designated as primary, and in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure and Ways and Means Committees. The Homeland Security Committee was designated as primary in the 109th Congress in the referral of bills to it and the Judiciary Committee where border functions rather than immigration policy appeared to dominate (H.R. 1196 and H.R. 2628). Five bills dealing with border issues were referred to the Homeland Security Committee but not to the Judiciary Committee (H.R. 58, H.R. 780, H.R. 1509, H.R. 1805, and H.R. 1986). The Homeland Security Committee was also designated as primary in the 109th Congress in the referral of bills that dealt with first responders as a whole (H.R. 91 and H.R. 2041). H.R. 91 was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure, Judiciary, and Energy and Commerce Committees. In the 108th Congress, as mentioned above, a bill related to H.R. 91 introduced by the same sponsor was referred to the Select Committee on Homeland Security, which was designated as the primary committee, and in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure, Judiciary, and Energy and Commerce Committees. Four firstresponder measures were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee (H.R. 228, H.R. 1093, H.R. 1419, and H.R. 1544) in the 109th Congress. Also in the 109th Congress, the Homeland Security Committee was designated as the primary committee in the referral of an aviation security bill (H.R. 2649) and a DHS organization bill affecting border security (H.R. 1324). H.R. 1324 was referred in addition to the Ways and Means Committee as well as the Judiciary Committee. In the 108th Congress, a bill related to H.R. 1324 introduced by the same sponsor was referred to the Judiciary Committee, which was designated as the primary committee, and in addition to the Ways and Means Committee. Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. A third committee where the jurisdictional relationship with the Homeland Security Committee affected a number of referrals was the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. The Transportation and Infrastructure Committee was designated as primary in the referral of a bill dealing with the security of federal buildings and other federal property (H.R. 1525). Six bills related to FEMA or emergency preparedness, or both, were referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee (H.R. 88, H.R. 1137, H.R. 1552, H.R. 1795, H.R. 1870, and H.R. 2338). The Transportation and Infrastructure Committee was also designated as primary in the referral of a bill concerning railroad safety and security where there were key assignments of responsibilities to the National Transportation Safety Board CRS-44 and the Secretary of Transportation (H.R. 2351). A related bill introduced in the 108th Congress by the same sponsor was referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. The Homeland Security Committee was designated in the 109th Congress as primary in the referral of bills to it and the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee that dealt with transportation security (H.R. 153, H.R. 1109, H.R. 1116, H.R. 1414, H.R. 1818, and H.R. 2649). Bills related to H.R. 153, H.R. 1109, H.R. 1116, H.R. 1414, and H.R. 2649 introduced by the same sponsors in the 108th Congress were referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. The Homeland Security Committee was referred solely two transportation security bills (H.R. 2044 and H.R. 2688) in the 109th Congress. The Homeland Security Committee was also designated as primary in the 109th Congress in the referral of bills that dealt with first responders as a whole (H.R. 91 and H.R. 2041). H.R. 91, as mentioned above, was referred in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure, Judiciary, and Energy and Commerce Committees. In the 108th Congress, a bill related to H.R. 91 introduced by the same sponsor was referred to the Select Committee on Homeland Security, which was designated as the primary committee, and in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure, Judiciary, and Energy and Commerce Committees. Five first-responder measures were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee (H.R. 228, H.R. 796, H.R. 1093, H.R. 1419, and H.R. 1544) in the 109th Congress. Two first-responder bills were referred to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee and not to the Homeland Security Committee (H.R. 154 and H.R. 2724). Three bills related to the Coast Guard were referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee (H.R. 889, H.R. 1412, and H.R. 1448) in the 109th Congress, while three bills related to port security were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee (H.R. 163, H.R. 478, and H.R. 1731). In the 108th Congress, bills related to H.R. 163 and H.R. 478 introduced by the same sponsors were referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. Ways and Means Committee. The Ways and Means Committee and the Homeland Security Committee were referred two bills. The Ways and Means Committee was designated as primary for a bill dealing with the security of Social Security cards (H.R. 98), which was referred in addition to the Judiciary and Education and the Workforce Committees as well as the Homeland Security Committee. A related bill introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was referred to the Ways and Means Committee, which was designated as the primary committee, and in addition to the Education and the Workforce and Judiciary Committees. The Homeland Security Committee was designated as primary in the referral in the 109th Congress of a bill to create a new local office for a Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement unit (H.R. 1324). H.R. 1324 was referred in addition to the Judiciary Committee as well as the Ways and Means Committee. In the 108th Congress, a related bill introduced by the same sponsor was referred to the Judiciary Committee, which was designated as primary, and in addition to the Ways and Means Committee. The Homeland Security Committee and not the Ways and Means CRS-45 Committee was referred eight bills in the 109th Congress dealing with border issues (H.R. 58, H.R. 780, H.R. 1320, H.R. 1509, H.R. 1805, H.R. 1986, H.R. 2044, and H.R. 2672). Measures Referred Solely to the Homeland Security Committee. Measures were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee that relied on the rules changes and the criteria of the Legislative History pertinent to six of the existing committees: Energy and Commerce, Government Reform, Judiciary, Science, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means. No measures seemed to be referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee that related expressly to the rules changes and the criteria of the Legislative History pertinent to the Committees on Agriculture, Armed Services, or Financial Services, or the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. First Responders. Five bills that dealt with first responders as a whole (H.R. 228, H.R. 796, H.R. 1093, H.R. 1419, and H.R. 1544) were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. A bill related to H.R. 228 introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was referred to the Judiciary Committee. A bill related to H.R. 796 introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was referred to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, which was designated as primary, and in addition to the Judiciary and Energy and Commerce Committees. H.R. 1544 is discussed below under Sequential Referral. DHS Organization. Three bills referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee pertained to DHS’s organization (H.R. 58, H.R. 285, and H.R. 1805). H.R. 58 requires the establishment of a specific office in specific location. A related bill to H.R. 58 introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was referred to the Judiciary Committee. A bill to establish a National Cybersecurity Office in DHS and assign duties to the office (H.R. 285) was also referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. A related bill introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was referred to the Select Committee on Homeland Security, which was designated as primary, and in addition to the Science Committee. H.R. 1805, creating a northern border coordinator in DHS, was referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee. A related bill introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was referred to the Select Committee on Homeland Security, which was designated as the primary committee, and in addition to the Judiciary, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means Committees. Homeland Security Strategy. The Homeland Security Committee also received the exclusive referral of a bill related to domestic terrorism preparedness of the national capital area (H.R. 44) and to national homeland-security strategy and spending (H.R. 1383 and H.R. 2035, respectively). In the 108th Congress, a related bill to H.R. 44 introduced by the same sponsor was referred to the Select Committee on Homeland Security. Border Security. The Homeland Security Committee received sole referral of bills related to border security (H.R. 58, H.R. 780, and H.R. 1509). As noted above, CRS-46 a related bill to H.R. 58 introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was referred to the Judiciary Committee. As also described above, H.R. 1805, creating a northern border coordinator in DHS, was referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee in the 109th Congress. A related bill introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was referred to the Select Committee on Homeland Security, which was designated as the primary committee, and in addition to the Judiciary, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Ways and Means Committees. Port Security. Three port security bills were referred solely to the Homeland Security Committee (H.R. 163, H.R. 478, and H.R. 1731). In the 108th Congress, bills related to H.R. 163 and H.R. 478 introduced by the same sponsors were referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. Transportation Security. Two measures pertaining to transportation security were referred to the Homeland Security Committee (H.R. 2044 and H.R. 2688). Bills related to these bills introduced by the same sponsors in the 108th Congress were referred solely to the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. Sequential Referral. As discussed earlier in this report, two bills reported from the Homeland Security Committee could have been the subject of a sequential referral. The DHS authorization bill (H.R. 1817) was sequentially referred to seven of the 10 existing committees named in the Legislative History. No referral was made to the Agriculture, Armed Services, or Financial Services Committee; however, the Agriculture and Armed Services Committees had for one time waived their right to a sequential referral. The first-responder bill reported from the Homeland Security Committee (H.R. 1544) was not sequentially referred to another committee since the Homeland Security Committee was successful in obtaining one-time waivers of referral. The committees agreeing to waivers were the Energy and Commerce, Judiciary, Science, and Transportation and Infrastructure Committees. A related bill introduced by the same sponsor in the 108th Congress was referred to the Select Committee on Homeland Security, which was designated as primary, and in addition to the Transportation and Infrastructure, Judiciary, Energy and Commerce, and Science Committees. Oversight. As noted in the Introduction, committees’ oversight jurisdiction may have more frequent overlaps than their legislative jurisdiction. Appendix B lists all committee meetings expressly relevant to the subject matter of the House rules changes and the Legislative History that were held by the Homeland Security Committee and the 10 existing committees, through May 26, 2005. Many of these meetings are hearings and markups related to specific legislation; others are oversight hearings on an issue, which, of course, could result in legislative activity or would inform legislative activity. CRS-47 The committees held more meetings than are listed in Appendix B. Other meetings did not expressly relate to the subject matter of the rules changes or the Legislative History. The subject matter of the Homeland Security Committee’s meetings seemed targeted and closely related to the specific aspects of its legislative jurisdiction. Other committees’ meetings also seemed to be focused on discrete subject matter within their jurisdiction. Comparing the list of topics on which the committees held hearings, there were few hearings where the topic of a hearing in one committee was the same topic in another hearing, although a hearing by one committee on an agency budget or a specific program could well have contained testimony of interest to another committee. Concluding Observations. Realignment of committee jurisdiction — whether accomplished legislatively through amendments to chamber rules, or changed through precedent created by bill referrals and memoranda of understanding, or negotiated in a legislative history — traditionally causes concern, if not outright conflict, among committees. As jurisdictional realignment is discussed initially as a possibility in Congress, committees begin to explain why such a change would disadvantage them and congressional policymaking. And, once changes are made, committees do not always adhere to the new arrangements without complaint — whether in public or through less public forums. What is rare, therefore, is the response of affected House committees to the changes made to accommodate the creation of a Homeland Security Committee with legislative authority. Debate on the Rule X changes and the Legislative History related to the Homeland Security Committee’s creation cannot be considered extensive, detailed, contentious, or overt. Even the minority party’s alternative House rules package did not include a different approach to homeland security jurisdiction, and debate on the minority-party package did not engender much discussion on the creation of the new committee and the related jurisdictional changes. Existing committees’ concerns with a standing Homeland Security Committee were voiced, or at least could have been voiced, at the time changes were being designed during the second session of the 108th Congress. In fact, both the Select Committee on Homeland Security and the House Rules Committee held hearings in the 108th Congress on the creation of a homeland security committee and on possible jurisdictional changes that creation of a committee might necessitate.72 Some committee chairs and ranking members objected to the creation of a standing Homeland Security Committee, arguing and documenting that their panels had conducted oversight and considered appropriate legislation. In addition, some argued that a new committee would exacerbate, rather than solve, the jurisdictional problem that advocates of a new committee hoped to ameliorate. By the time the 109th Congress convened, it is possible that no chair of an existing committee wanted to object to jurisdictional realignment related to homeland security for fear of being 72 See CRS Report RL32711, Homeland Security: Compendium of Recommendations Relevant to House Committee Organization and Analysis of Considerations for the House, by Michael L. Koempel. CRS-48 thought to be opposed to homeland security, rather than to a new House structure to deal with the issue. As legislation began to be introduced and referred pursuant to the Rule X changes, there was no public indication that committees sought referrals of legislation where they thought a referral was incorrectly made. In some instances, the referral of a particular bill, when compared to a related bill introduced in the 108th Congress, was simplified, as advocates of the new committee expected. In other instances, the referral of a particular bill, when compared to a related bill introduced in the 108th Congress, was referred to yet another committee, as opponents of a new committee predicted. In fact, as the preceding analysis seems to attest, referral of legislation that could have been made differently — in the designation of a primary committee or in the failure of a committee to receive a referral at all — was not questioned on the floor. There were also no additional memoranda of understanding included in the Congressional Record. Whether this denouement erodes through time remains to be seen. It should be noted, however, and could be argued, that committees with jurisdiction over aspects of homeland security — such as first responders, immigration, and transportation security, among others — that were most affected by the creation of a new committee on homeland security with legislative jurisdiction were busy, some might say consumed, with work on other pressing issues in the first quarter of the 109th Congress. For example, the Energy and Commerce Committee reported out a comprehensive energy bill (H.R. 6, P.L. 109-58); the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee completed work on a highway bill after a number of temporary extensions of programs authorized by the legislation (H.R. 3, P.L. 109-59); and the Judiciary Committee finished work on reauthorization of the USA Patriot Act (H.R. 3199). Other committees were also involved with major legislation, such as the Ways and Means Committee’s consideration of the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) (H.R. 3045, P.L. 109-53) and Social Security reform, and the Government Reform Committee held extensive hearings on steroids use in professional sports. This observation is not to imply that committees cannot consider several important issues at a time, but to indicate the workload of Congress to-date. It also remains to be seen how a change in the chair of the Homeland Security Committee might affect bill referrals. On June 30, 2005, President Bush nominated Representative Christopher Cox of California, the first chair of the new committee, to be a member of the Securities and Exchange Commission; the Senate confirmed the nomination July 29, 2005. In addition to chairing the standing committee in the 109th Congress, Representative Cox also chaired the Select Committee on Homeland Security in the 108th Congress. The select committee issued a report under Chairman Cox’s leadership that recommended the creation of a standing committee with jurisdiction broader than that granted the standing committee in the Rule X changes in the 109th Congress.73 Chairman Cox also indicated his views on the role of a 73 House Select Committee on Homeland Security, Recommendations of the Select Committee on Homeland Security on Changes to the Rules of the House of Representatives (continued...) CRS-49 standing committee in statements and testimony at hearings in the 108th Congress.74 Potential candidates to chair the Homeland Security Committee might have a different view from Chairman Cox’s of the committee’s role within the House’s committee system. One of the potential candidates for chair expressed his opposition in hearings in 2004 to the committee’s creation; the Member currently chairs one of the panels, the jurisdiction of which was changed in Rule X to accommodate the new committee. Two potential candidates serve on two other committees with jurisdiction over homeland security issues and other subject matter that is covered in the Legislative History. A fourth potential candidate was an advocate of creating the Homeland Security Committee and giving it defined jurisdiction. As has already been noted, Rules Committee Chairman Dreier stated the Rule X changes reflected a “delicately crafted architecture,” a “system of purposeful redundancy,” and an “atmosphere in which the competition of ideas is encouraged.”75 These concepts seem to indicate a flexible arrangement operating within the Rule X changes and the guidance of the Legislative History. It is too early to tell whether the patterns observed in this study will continue. Congress is always an evolving institution, and the Homeland Security Committee and its jurisdictional relationship with other committees are likely to evolve within the flexible arrangement put in place by the House. A new Secretary of Homeland Security since February 15, 2005; a new chair of the Homeland Security Committee to be selected following the August 2005 recess; the absence since 9/11 but potential for another terrorist attack on the homeland; and other factors endogenous and exogenous to Congress may all influence the evolution of the House’s management of homeland security. 73 (...continued) with Respect to Homeland Security Issues, 108th Cong., 2nd sess., Sep. 30, 2004. The select committee also issued Supplementary Materials and Summary of Activities of the Select Committee on Homeland Security. (Available online at [http://hsc.house.gov/files/mini_report_sigs.pdf], visited Aug. 19, 2004.) 74 CRS Report RL32711, Homeland Security: Compendium of Recommendations Relevant to House Committee Organization and Analysis of Considerations for the House. 75 Rep. David Dreier, remarks in the House, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 151, Jan. 4, 2005, p. H14. CRS-50 Appendix 1 Bills and Joint Resolutions Included in Study This appendix lists bills and joint resolutions introduced and referred to committee in the 109th Congress, through May 26, 2005. The measures listed here relate to the subject matter contained in the jurisdictional changes made in House rules and the jurisdictional explanations contained in the Legislative History.76 All research on bills and joint resolutions was conducted using the Legislative Information Service. Agriculture Committee Measure Number, Sponsor, Date of Introduction Official Title Committee Referral H.J.Res. 23 Rep. Herseth 2/17/05 Disapproving the rule submitted by the Department of Agriculture relating to the establishment of minimal-risk regions for the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into the United States Agriculture H.R. 187 Rep. Pomeroy 1/4/05 To prohibit the operation during a calendar year of the final rule issued by the Secretary of Agriculture to establish standards for the designation of minimalrisk regions for the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into the United States, including designation of Canada as a minimal-risk region, unless United States access to major markets for United States exports of cattle and beef products is equivalent or better than the access status accorded such exports as of January 1, 2003 Agriculture 76 H.Res. 5, agreed to in the House Jan. 4, 2005; and “Legislative History,” pp. H25-H26. CRS-51 H.R. 384 Rep. Herseth 1/26/05 To prohibit the operation during a calendar year of the final rule issued by the Secretary of Agriculture to establish standards for the designation of minimalrisk regions for the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into the United States, including designation of Canada as a minimal-risk region, and the importation into the United States from Canada of certain bovine ruminant products during that calendar year, unless country of origin labeling is required for the retail sale of a covered commodity during that calendar year. Agriculture H.R. 1254 Rep. C. Peterson (MN) 3/10/05 To amend the Animal Health Protection Act to require the establishment of an electronic nationwide livestock identification system, to prevent the unauthorized release of information collected under the system, to promote an objective review of Department of Agriculture responses to livestock disease outbreaks, and for other purposes Agriculture H.R. 1256 Rep. C. Peterson (MN) 3/10/05 To amend the Animal Health Protection Act to exempt certain animal identification information from disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act Agriculture H.R. 1740 Rep. Obey 4/20/05 To require labeling of raw agricultural forms of ginseng, including the country of harvest, and for other purposes. Agriculture H.R. 2092 Rep. JacksonLee 5/4/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to comprehensively reform immigration law and to better protect immigrant victims of violence, and for other purposes Judiciary Ways and Means Energy and Commerce Agriculture Homeland Security Financial Services CRS-52 Armed Services Committee Measure Number, Sponsor, Date of Introduction Official Title Committee Referral H.R. 112 Rep. Holt 1/4/05 To require the videotaping of interrogations and other pertinent actions between a detainee or prisoner in the custody or under the effective control of the Armed Forces of the United States pursuant to an interrogation, or other pertinent interaction, for the purpose of gathering intelligence and a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, an intelligence operative of the United States, or a contractor of the United States Armed Services H.R. 304 Rep. Crenshaw 1/25/05 To amend title 10, United States Code, to require the naval forces of the Navy to include not less than 12 operational aircraft carriers Armed Services H.R. 375 Rep. J. Davis (VA) 1/26/05 To declare, under the authority of Congress under Article I, section 8 of the Constitution to “provide and maintain a Navy”, a national policy for the naval force structure required in order to “provide for the common defense” of the United States throughout the 21st century Armed Services H.R. 416 Rep. Salazar 1/26/05 To prohibit the use of Department of Defense funds for any study related to the transportation of chemical munitions across State lines Armed Services H.R. 514 Rep. Shays 2/2/05 To prohibit the Department of Defense from requiring members of the Armed Forces to receive the anthrax and smallpox immunizations without their consent, to correct the records of service members previously punished for refusing to take these vaccines, and for other purposes Armed Services Veterans’ Affairs H.R. 730 Rep. Tauscher 2/9/05 To amend title 10, United States Code, to provide a temporary increase in the minimum end strength level for active duty personnel for the Army, the Marine Corps, and the Air Force, and for other purposes Armed Services CRS-53 H.R. 871 Rep. M. Thompson (CA) 2/16/05 To establish reporting requirements relating to funds made available for military operations in Iraq or the reconstruction of Iraq and for military operations in Afghanistan or the reconstruction of Afghanistan, and for other purposes Armed Services International Relations H.R. 1059 Rep. Meehan 3/2/05 To amend title 10, United States Code, to enhance the readiness of the Armed Forces by replacing the current policy concerning homosexuality in the Armed Forces, referred to as “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell”, with a policy of nondiscrimination on the basis of sexual orientation Armed Services H.R. 1076 Rep. Schiff 3/3/05 To authorize the President to detain an enemy combatant who is a United States person or resident who is a member of al Qaeda or knowingly cooperated with members of al Qaeda, to guarantee timely access to judicial review to challenge the basis for a detention, to permit the detainee access to counsel, and for other purposes Judiciary Armed Services H.R. 1194 Rep. Matheson 3/9/05 To protect public health and safety, should the testing of nuclear weapons by the United States be resumed Armed Services Energy and Commerce Resources H.R. 1291 Rep. Issa 3/15/05 To require the Secretaries of Health and Human Services, Defense, and Homeland Security to carry out activities toward bringing to market effective medical countermeasures to radiation from a nuclear or radiological attack Energy and Commerce Armed Services Homeland Security H.R. 1314 Rep. Ortiz 3/15/05 To amend the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 to require the 2005 base closure and realignment process to adhere to certain requirements regarding the preservation of military depot capabilities Armed Services H.R. 1348 Del. Norton 3/16/05 To provide for nuclear disarmament and economic conversion in accordance with District of Columbia Initiative Measure Number 37 of 1992 Armed Services International Relations H.R. 1495 Rep. Owens 4/6/05 To amend the Military Selective Service Act to terminate the registration requirement and the activities of civilian local boards, civilian appeal boards, and similar local agencies of the Selective Service System, and for other purposes Armed Services CRS-54 H.R. 1666 Rep. Tauscher 4/14/05 To amend title 10, United States Code, to provide a temporary five-year increase in the minimum end-strength levels for active-duty personnel for the Armed Forces, to increase the number of Special Operations Forces, and for other purposes Armed Services H.R. 1815 Rep. Hunter 4/26/05 To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2006 for military activities of the Department of Defense, to prescribe military personnel strengths for fiscal year 2006, and for other purposes Armed Services H.R. 1986 Rep. Goode 4/28/05 To amend title 10, United States Code, to authorize the Secretary of Defense to assign members of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, under certain circumstances and subject to certain conditions, to assist the Department of Homeland Security in the performance of border protection functions Armed Services Homeland Security H.R. 2011 Rep. D. Price (NC) 4/28/05 To require accountability for personnel performing private security functions under Federal contracts International Relations Armed Services H.R. 2067 Rep. T. Davis (VA) 5/4/05 To provide for an improved acquisition system Government Reform Armed Services H.R. 2420 Rep. Kucinich 5/18/05 To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by prohibiting the basing of weapons in space and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit, and for other purposes Science Armed Services International Relations H.R. 2427 Rep. Herseth 5/18/05 To postpone the 2005 round of defense base closure and realignment Armed Services H.R. 2455 Rep. Paul 5/18/05 To repeal the Military Selective Service Act Armed Services H.R. 2511 Rep. Paul 5/19/05 To postpone the 2005 round of defense base closure and realignment until the completion of certain specified activities by the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security Armed Services CRS-55 H.R. 2641 Rep. Slaughter 5/25/05 To require the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission to take into consideration the homeland security contributions and value of military installations when the Commission conducts its review and analysis of the list of military installations recommended for closure or realignment by the Secretary of Defense Armed Services H.R. 2667 Rep. Fitzpatrick 5/26/05 To require the Secretary of Homeland Security to prepare a report on the homeland security consequences of the base closure and realignment recommendations made by the Secretary of Defense and to require the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission to consider the report during their review of such recommendations Armed Services H.R. 2672 Rep. Harris 5/26/05 To direct the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a program to enhance the mutual security and safety of the United States, Canada, and Mexico, and for other purposes International Relations Armed Services Homeland Security H.R. 2723 Rep. Rangel 5/26/05 To provide for the common defense by requiring that all young persons in the United States, including women, perform a period of military service or a period of civilian service in furtherance of the national defense and homeland security, and for other purposes Armed Services H.R. 2733 Rep. Slaughter 5/26/05 To prohibit the closure or adverse realignment of facilities of the reserve components that the Secretary of Homeland Security determines have a significant role in homeland defense Armed Services CRS-56 Energy and Commerce Committee Measure Number, Sponsor, Date of Introduction Official Title Committee Referral H.R. 91 Rep. Frelinghuysen 1/4/05 To authorize the Secretary of Homeland Security to make grants to first responders, and for other purposes Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure Judiciary Energy and Commerce H.R. 154 Rep. Menendez 1/4/05 To authorize the Secretary of Homeland Security to make grants to reimburse State and local governments and Indian tribes for certain costs relating to the mobilization of Reserves who are first responder personnel of such governments or tribes Transportation and Infrastructure Energy and Commerce Judiciary H.R. 733 Rep. Weiner 2/9/05 To require providers of wireless telephone services to provide access to the universal emergency telephone number in subterranean subway stations located within their area of coverage Energy and Commerce H.R. 895 Rep. Berkley 2/17/05 To provide for interagency planning for preparing for, defending against, and responding to the consequences of terrorist attacks against the Yucca Mountain Project, and for other purposes Energy and Commerce Homeland Security H.R. 966 Rep. Saxton 2/17/05 To require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to consider certain criteria in relicensing nuclear facilities, and to provide for an independent assessment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station by the National Academy of Sciences prior to any relicensing of that facility Energy and Commerce H.R. 998 Rep. Pickering 3/1/05 To preserve local radio broadcast emergency and other services and to require the Federal Communications Commission to conduct a rulemaking for that purpose Energy and Commerce H.R. 1251 Rep. Lowey 3/10/05 To provide grants and other support to achieve communications interoperability in the United States, and for other purposes. Energy and Commerce Homeland Security CRS-57 H.R. 1291 Rep. Issa 3/15/05 To require the Secretaries of Health and Human Services, Defense, and Homeland Security to carry out activities toward bringing to market effective medical countermeasures to radiation from a nuclear or radiological attack Energy and Commerce Armed Services Homeland Security H.R. 1323 Rep. Stupak 3/15/05 To establish a permanent grant program to improve public safety communications and the interoperability of emergency communications equipment Energy and Commerce H.R. 1562 Rep. Fossella 4/12/05 To protect human health and the environment from the release of hazardous substances by acts of terrorism Homeland Security Energy and Commerce H.R. 1794 Rep. Maloney 4/21/05 To direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to procure the development and provision of improved and up-to-date communications equipment for the New York City Fire Department, including radios Energy and Commerce H.R. 1817 Rep. Cox 4/26/05 To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2006 for the Department of Homeland Security, and for other purposes Homeland Security Referred sequentially: Energy and Commerce Government Reform Judiciary Science Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Intelligence H.R. 1987 Rep. G. Green (TX) 4/28/05 To amend the Public Health Service Act to provide for an increase in the number of political subdivisions directly receiving awards under the program for improving State and local preparedness for bioterrorism and other public health emergencies Energy and Commerce H.R. 2041 Rep. Castle 5/2/05 To provide homeland security grant coordination and simplification, and for other purposes Homeland Security Energy and Commerce Transportation and Infrastructure Judiciary CRS-58 H.R. 2092 Rep. JacksonLee 5/4/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to comprehensively reform immigration law and to better protect immigrant victims of violence, and for other purposes Judiciary Ways and Means Energy and Commerce Agriculture Homeland Security Financial Services H.R. 2101 Rep. Meek (FL) 5/4/05 To amend the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to develop and implement the READICall emergency alert system Energy and Commerce Homeland Security H.R. 2237 Rep. Pallone 5/10/05 To help protect the public against the threat of chemical attacks Energy and Commerce Homeland Security H.R. 2330 Rep. Kolbe 5/12/05 To improve border security and immigration Judiciary Homeland Security International Relations Energy and Commerce Education and the Workforce H.R. 2418 Rep. Gordon 5/18/05 To promote and enhance public safety and to encourage the rapid deployment of IP-enabled voice services Energy and Commerce H.R. 2689 Rep. Markey 5/26/05 To increase the security of radiation sources, and for other purposes Energy and Commerce Financial Services Committee Measure Number, Sponsor, Date of Introduction Official Title Committee Referral H.R. 103 Rep. G. Green (TX) 1/4/05 To amend the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 to provide a 50 percent discount in flood insurance rates for the first 5 years that certain low-cost properties are included in flood hazard zones Financial Services H.R. 804 Rep. Baker 2/15/05 To exclude from consideration as income certain payments under the national flood insurance program Financial Services CRS-59 H.R. 815 Rep. Garrett 2/15/05 To amend section 5318 to prohibit the use of identification issued by foreign governments, other than passports, for purposes of verifying the identity of a person who opens an account at a financial institution, and for other purposes Financial Services H.R. 1952 Rep. Kelly 4/28/05 To require that certain measures be taken with respect to countries of concern regarding terrorist financing Financial Services International Relations H.R. 2092 Rep. JacksonLee 5/4/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to comprehensively reform immigration law and to better protect immigrant victims of violence, and for other purposes Judiciary Ways and Means Energy and Commerce Agriculture Homeland Security Financial Services H.R. 2715 Rep. Nadler 5/26/05 To establish reasonable procedural protections for the use of national security letters, and for other purposes Judiciary Financial Services Government Reform Committee Measure Number, Sponsor, Date of Introduction Official Title Committee Referral H.R. 55 Rep. Dreier 1/4/05 To make the Federal employees health benefits program available to individuals age 55 to 65 who would not otherwise have health insurance Government Reform H.R. 185 Rep. Platts 1/4/05 To require the review of Government programs at least once every 5 years for purposes of evaluating their performance Government Reform H.R. 220 Rep. Paul 1/4/05 To amend title II of the Social Security Act and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to protect the integrity and confidentiality of Social Security account numbers issued under such title, to prohibit the establishment in the Federal Government of any uniform national identifying number, and to prohibit Federal agencies from imposing standards for identification of individuals on other agencies or persons Ways and Means Government Reform CRS-60 H.R. 279 Rep. MillenderMcDonald 1/6/05 To amend the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 to include nurse practitioners and domestic partners within the scope of coverage of the Act and to extend the period of family or medical leave for spouses employed by the same employer Education and the Workforce House Administration Government Reform H.R. 368 Rep. T. Davis (VA) 1/26/05 To establish and rapidly implement regulations for State driver’s license and identification document security standards Government Reform Judiciary H.R. 373 Rep. DeLauro 1/26/05 To require notification to Congress of certain contracts, and to amend title 31, United States Code, to prohibit the unauthorized expenditure of funds for publicity or propaganda purposes Government Reform H.R. 408 Rep. Pombo 1/26/05 To amend title 5, United States Code, to provide for portal-to-portal compensation for wildland firefighters, and for other purposes Government Reform H.R. 418 Rep. Sensenbrenner 1/26/05 To establish and rapidly implement regulations for State driver’s license and identification document security standards, to prevent terrorists from abusing the asylum laws of the United States, to unify terrorism-related grounds for inadmissibility and removal, and to ensure expeditious construction of the San Diego border fence Judiciary Homeland Security Government Reform H.R. 475 Rep. Maloney 2/1/05 To amend the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 to permit leave to care for a same-sex spouse, domestic partner, parent-in-law, adult child, sibling, or grandparent if the same-sex spouse, domestic partner, parent-in-law, adult child, sibling, or grandparent has a serious health condition, and for other purposes Education and the Workforce Government Reform House Administration H.R. 476 Rep. Maloney 2/1/05 To amend the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 to allow employees to take, as additional leave, parental involvement leave to participate in or attend their children’s and grandchildren’s educational and extracurricular activities and to clarify that leave may be taken for routine family medical needs and to assist elderly relatives, and for other purposes Education and the Workforce Government Reform House Administration CRS-61 H.R. 480 Rep. Moran 2/1/05 To amend section 8339(p) of title 5, United States Code, to clarify the method for computing certain annuities under the Civil Service Retirement System which are based on part-time service, and for other purposes Government Reform H.R. 556 Rep. P. King (NY) 2/2/05 To amend the Federal Law Enforcement Pay Reform Act of 1990 to adjust the percentage differentials payable to Federal law enforcement officers in certain high-cost areas, and for other purposes Government Reform H.R. 582 Rep. Petri 2/2/05 To protect employees from invasion of privacy by employers by prohibiting certain video monitoring and audio monitoring of employees by their employers, and for other purposes Education and the Workforce Government Reform H.R. 620 Rep. JacksonLee 2/8/05 To require the Comptroller General of the United States to conduct a study on the development and implementation by States of security measures for driver’s licenses and identification cards and a study on the consequences of denying driver’s licenses to aliens unlawfully present in the United States, and for other purposes Transportation and Infrastructure Government Reform H.R. 633 Rep. Hoyer 2/8/05 To amend title 5, United States Code, to increase the level of Government contributions under the Federal employees health benefits program Government Reform H.R. 692 Rep. Bilirakis 2/9/05 To amend title 5, United States Code, to provide that the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund be excluded from the Federal budget Budget Government Reform H.R. 705 Rep. Gilchrest 2/9/05 To amend title 49, United States Code, to require phased increases in the fuel efficiency standards applicable to light trucks; to require fuel economy standards for automobiles up to 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight; to increase the fuel economy of the Federal fleet of vehicles, and for other purposes Energy and Commerce Government Reform H.R. 725 Rep. M. Rogers (MI) 2/9/05 To amend the Paperwork Reduction Act and titles 5 and 31, United States Code, to reform Federal paperwork and regulatory processes Government Reform CRS-62 H.R. 735 Rep. Weiner 2/9/05 To amend the Public Health Service Act, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, chapter 89 of title 5, United States Code, and title 10, United States Code, to require coverage for the treatment of infertility Energy and Commerce Ways and Means Education and the Workforce Government Reform Armed Services H.R. 818 Rep. Hinchey 2/15/05 To amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide for coverage of qualified acupuncturist services under part B of the Medicare Program, and to amend title 5, United States Code, to provide coverage of such services under th Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Energy and Commerce Ways and Means Government Reform H.R. 829 Rep. Waters 2/15/05 To make certain companies that have outsourced jobs during the previous five years ineligible for the receipt of Federal grants, Federal contracts, Federal loan guarantees, and other Federal funding, and for other purposes Government Reform H.R. 839 Rep. Waxman 2/16/05 To protect scientific integrity in Federal research and policymaking Government Reform Science H.R. 867 Rep. L. Smith (TX) 2/16/05 To promote openness in Government by strengthening section 552 of title 5, United States Code (commonly referred to as the Freedom of Information Act), and for other purposes Government Reform H.R. 925 Rep. Gallegly 2/17/05 To prohibit a Federal agency from accepting a form of individual identification issued by a foreign government, except a passport that is accepted on the date of enactment Government Reform Judiciary House Administration Armed Services H.R. 942 Rep. Kilpatrick 2/17/05 To require government agencies carrying out surface transportation projects to conduct a cost-benefit analysis before procuring architectural, engineering, and related services from a private contractor, and of other purposes Transportation and Infrastructure Government Reform CRS-63 H.R. 960 Rep. Platts 2/17/05 To amend the Law Enforcement Pay Equity Act of 2000 to permit certain annuitants of the retirement programs of the United States Park Police and United States Secret Service Uniformed Division to receive the adjustments in pension benefits to which such annuitants would otherwise be entitled as a result of the conversion of members of the United States Park Policy and United States Secret Service Uniformed Division to a new salary schedule under the amendments made by such Act Government Reform H.R. 974 Rep. A. Smith (WA) 2/17/05 To establish the Corporate Subsidy Reform Commission to review inequitable Federal subsidies and make recommendations for termination, modification, or retention of such subsidies, and to state the sense of the Congress that the Congress should promptly consider legislation that would make the changes in law necessary to implement the recommendations Government Reform Ways and Means H.R. 994 Rep. T. Davis (VA) 3/1/05 To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to allow Federal civilian and military retirees to pay health insurance premiums on a pretax basis and to allow a deduction for TRICARE supplemental premiums Ways and Means Government Reform Armed Services H.R. 1002 Rep. Filner 3/1/05 To amend the definition of a law enforcement officer under subchapter III of chapter 83 and chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code, respectively, to ensure the inclusion of certain positions Government Reform H.R. 1069 Rep. Bean 3/3/05 To require Federal agencies, and persons engaged in interstate commerce, in possession of electronic data containing personal information, to disclose any unauthorized acquisition of such information, to amend the Gramm-LeachBliley Act to require financial institutions to disclose to customers and consumer reporting agencies any unauthorized access to personal information, to amend the Fair Credit Reporting Act to require consumer reporting agencies to implement a fraud alert with respect to any consumer when the agency is notified of any such unauthorized access, and for other purposes Energy and Commerce Government Reform Financial Services CRS-64 H.R. 1167 Rep. Kelly 3/8/05 To amend the Truth in Regulating Act to make permanent the pilot project for the report on rules Government Reform H.R. 1200 Rep. McDermott 3/9/05 To provide for health care for every American and to control the cost and enhance the quality of the health care system Energy and Commerce Ways and Means Government Reform Armed Services H.R. 1256 Rep. C. Peterson (MN) 3/10/05 To amend the Animal Health Protection Act to exempt certain animal identification information from disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act Agriculture Government Reform H.R. 1271 Rep. T. Davis (VA) 3/14/05 To repeal a provision relating to privacy officers in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005 Government Reform H.R. 1276 Rep. Berkley 3/14/05 To amend title 5, United States Code, to make creditable for civil service retirement purposes certain periods of service performed with Air America, Incorporated, Air Asia Company Limited, or the Pacific Division of Southern Air Transport, Incorporated, while those entities were owned or controlled by the Government of the United States and operated or managed by the Central Intelligence Agency Government Reform H.R. 1283 Rep. J. Moran (VA) 3/14/05 To provide that transit pass transportation fringe benefits be made available to all qualified Federal employees in the National Capital Region; to allow passenger carriers which are owned or leased by the Government to be used to transport Government employees between their place of employment and mass transit facilities, and for other purposes Government Reform H.R. 1310 Rep. Maloney 3/15/05 To amend the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 with respect to the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, and for other purposes Government Reform Judiciary Homeland Security Intelligence CRS-65 H.R. 1317 Rep. Platts 3/15/05 To amend title 5, United States Code, to clarify which disclosures of information are protected from prohibited personnel practices; to require a statement in nondisclosure policies, forms, and agreements to the effect that such policies, forms, and agreements are consistent with certain disclosure protections; and for other purposes Government Reform H.R. 1335 Rep. Burton 3/16/05 To amend title 5, United States Code, to increase the mandatory retirement age for members of the Capitol Police from 57 to 60 years of age House Administration Government Reform H.R. 1410 Rep. Lee 3/17/05 To provide for coverage of hormone replacement therapy for treatment of menopausal symptoms, and for coverage of an alternative therapy for hormone replacement therapy for such symptoms, under the Medicare and Medicaid Programs, group health plans and individual health insurance coverage, and other Federal health insurance programs Energy and Commerce Ways and means Education and the Workforce Government Reform Veterans’ Affairs H.R. 1418 Rep. Meehan 3/17/05 To amend chapter 89 of title 5, United States Code, and chapter 55 of title 10, United States Code, to provide that any health benefits plan which provides obstetrical benefits shall be required also to provide coverage for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility Government Reform Armed Services H.R. 1449 Rep. Sullivan 3/17/05 To preserve open competition and Federal Government neutrality towards the labor relations of Federal Government contractors on Federal and federally funded construction projects Government Reform H.R. 1455 Rep. T. Davis (VA) 4/5/05 To amend title 5 and title 3, United States Code, to include the Department of Homeland Security and the Secretary of Homeland Security in lists of executive departments and officers Government Reform Judiciary H.R. 1474 Rep. Sanders 4/5/05 To designate certain functions performed at flight service stations of the Federal Aviation Administration as inherently governmental functions, and for other purposes Government Reform CRS-66 H.R. 1480 Rep. Van Hollen 4/5/05 To require that a conversion to contractor performance of an activity or function of the Federal Government may not result in the loss of employment of any Federal worker with a severe disability employed in that activity or function Government Reform H.R. 1513 Rep. Frelinghuysen 4/6/05 To exempt from the Freedom of Information Act certain photographic images of deceased persons that are taken by or for medical examiners Government Reform H.R. 1578 Rep. Porter 4/12/05 To amend title 5, United States Code, to provide for a real estate stock index investment option under the Thrift Savings Plan Government Reform H.R. 1589 Rep. Woolsey 4/13/05 To improve the lives of working families by providing family and medical need assistance, child care assistance, inschool and afterschool assistance, family care assistance, and encouraging the establishment of family-friendly workplaces Education and the Workforce House Administration Government Reform Financial Services H.R. 1612 Rep. Kaptur 4/13/05 To establish ethanol and biodiesel fuel requirements for the Federal fleet Government Reform H.R. 1620 Rep. Sherman 4/13/05 To establish the Commission on Freedom of Information Act Processing Delays Government Reform H.R. 1642 Rep. Flake 4/14/05 To prohibit Federal agencies from obligating funds for appropriations earmarks included only in congressional reports, and for other purposes Government Reform Rules H.R. 1667 Rep. T. Udall (NM) 4/14/05 To amend the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 and title 5, United States Code, to provide entitlement to leave to eligible employees whose spouse, son, daughter, or parent is a member of the Armed Forces who is serving on active duty in support of a contingency operation or who is notified of an impending call or order to active duty in support of a contingency operation, and for other purposes Education and the Workforce Government Reform House Administration CRS-67 H.R. 1739 Rep. J. Moran (VA) 4/20/05 To amend chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code, to allow individuals who return to Government service after receiving a refund of retirement contributions to recapture credit for the service covered by that refund by repaying the amount that was so received, with interest Government Reform H.R. 1765 Rep. T. Davis (VA) 4/21/05 To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to exclude from gross income amounts paid on behalf of Federal employees under Federal student loan repayment programs, and for other purposes Ways and Means Government Reform H.R. 1817 Rep. Cox 4/26/05 To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2006 for the Department of Homeland Security, and for other purposes Homeland Security Referred sequentially: Energy and Commerce Government Reform Judiciary Science Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Intelligence H.R. 1864 Rep. Wynn 4/26/05 To provide for enhanced retirement benefits for administrative law judges Government Reform H.R. 1902 Rep. DeLauro 4/27/05 To provide for paid sick leave to ensure that Americans can address their own health needs and the health needs of their families Education and the Workforce Government Reform House Administration H.R. 1993 Rep. Hinojosa 4/28/05 To amend the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 and title 5, United States Code, to allow leave for individuals who provide living organ donations Education and the Workforce Government Reform House Administration H.R. 2066 Rep. T. Davis (VA) 5/4/05 To amend title 40, United States Code, to establish a Federal Acquisition Service, to replace the General Supply Fund and the Information Technology Fund with an Acquisition Services Fund, and for other purposes Government Reform H.R. 2067 Rep. T. Davis (VA) 5/4/05 To provide for an improved acquisition system Government Reform Armed Services CRS-68 H.R. 2187 Rep. Langevin 5/5/05 To amend title 5, United States Code, to provide for a corporate responsibility investment option under the thrift Savings Plan Government Reform H.R. 2197 Rep. Pallone 5/5/05 To provide health benefits for workers and their families Education and the Workforce Energy and Commerce Ways and Means Government Reform Armed Services H.R. 2205 Rep. Tiberi 5/5/05 To amend title 5, United States Code, to extend the veterans’ preference provisions of such title to individuals who served on active duty in the armed forces for a period of more than 180 consecutive days any part of which occurred after September 11, 2001, and before January 1, 2006, and separated from the armed forces under honorable conditions Government Reform H.R. 2290 Rep. Hensarling 5/11/05 To reform Federal budget procedures, to impose spending safeguards, to combat waste, fraud, and abuse, to account for accurate Government agency costs, and for other purposes Budget Rules Ways and Means Appropriations Government Reform H.R. 2331 Rep. Waxman 5/12/05 To restore and strengthen the laws that provide for an open and transparent Federal Government Government Reform Homeland Security H.R. 2385 Rep. Turner 5/17/05 To make permanent the authority of the Secretary of Commerce to conduct the quarterly financial report program Government Reform H.R. 2390 Rep. McGovern 5/17/05 To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to equalize the exclusion from gross income of parking and transportation fringe benefits and to provide for a common cost-of-living adjustment, and for other purposes Ways and Means Government Reform H.R. 2470 Rep. Tiahrt 5/18/05 To establish a commission to conduct a comprehensive review of Federal agencies and programs and to recommend the elimination or realignment of duplicative, wasteful, or outdated functions, and for other purposes Government Reform Rules CRS-69 H.R. 2489 Rep. Cooper 5/19/05 To amend the Inspector General Act of 1978 to enhance the independence of the Inspectors General, to create a Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency, and for other purposes Government Reform H.R. 2517 Rep. Velázquez 5/19/05 To amend chapters 83 and 84 of title 5, United States Code, to provide for the indexation of deferred annuities; to provide that a survivor annuity be provided to the widow or widower of a former employee who dies after separating from Government service with title to a deferred annuity under the Civil Service Retirement System but before establishing a valid claim therefor, and for other purposes Government Reform House Administration H.R. 2521 Rep. Ferguson 5/23/05 To establish a program to transfer surplus computers of Federal agencies to schools and nonprofit community-based educational organizations, and for other purposes Government Reform H.R. 2554 Rep. McKinney 5/23/05 To provide for the expeditious disclosure of records relevant to the life and assassination of Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. Government Reform H.R. 2664 Rep. Dreier 5/26/05 To provide a biennial budget for the United States Government Budget Rules Government Reform H.R. 2740 Rep. Wynn 5/26/05 To amend title 31, United States Code, to require the provision of a written prompt payment policy to each subcontractor under a Federal contract and to require a clause in each subcontract under a Federal contract that outlines the provisions of the prompt payment statute and other related information Government Reform CRS-70 Homeland Security Committee Measure Number, Sponsor, Date of Introduction Official Title Committee Referral H.R. 44 Rep. Bartlett 1/4/05 To direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish an independent panel to assess the homeland security needs of the National Capital Region Homeland Security H.R. 58 Del. Christensen 1/4/05 To require the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish at least one Border Patrol unit for the Virgin Islands of the United States Homeland Security H.R. 91 Rep. Frelinghuysen 1/4/05 To authorize the Secretary of Homeland Security to make grants to first responders, and for other purposes Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure Judiciary Energy and Commerce H.R. 98 Rep. Dreier 1/4/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to enforce restrictions on employment in the United States of unauthorized aliens through the use of improved Social Security cards and an Employment Eligibility Database, and for other purposes Ways and Means Judiciary Homeland Security Education and the Workforce H.R. 153 Rep. Menendez 1/4/05 To provide increased rail and public transportation security Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 163 Rep. MillenderMcDonald 1/4/05 To amend title 46, United States Code, to direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to carry out an empty shipping container sealing pilot program to encourage shipping container handlers to seal empty shipping containers after they have unpacked them, and for other purposes Homeland Security H.R. 173 Rep. MillenderMcDonald 1/4/05 To prevent and respond to terrorism and crime at or through ports Judiciary Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Homeland Security H.R. 228 Rep. Sweeney 1/4/05 To establish a realistic, threat-based allocation of grant funds for first responders Homeland Security CRS-71 H.R. 285 Rep. Thornberry 1/6/05 To amend the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to enhance cybersecurity, and for other purposes Homeland Security H.R. 418 Rep. Sensenbrenner 1/26/05 To establish and rapidly implement regulations for State driver’s license and identification document security standards, to prevent terrorists from abusing the asylum laws of the United States, to unify terrorism-related grounds for inadmissibility and removal, and to ensure expeditious construction of the San Diego border fence Judiciary Homeland Security Government Reform H.R. 478 Rep. MillenderMcDonald 2/1/05 To improve seaport security Homeland Security H.R. 688 Rep. Barrett 2/9/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to bar the admission, and facilitate the removal, of alien terrorists and their supporters and fundraisers, to secure our borders against terrorists, drug traffickers, and other illegal aliens, to facilitate the removal of illegal aliens and aliens who are criminals or human rights abusers, to reduce visa, document, and employment fraud, to temporarily suspend processing of certain visas and immigration benefits, to reform the legal immigration system, and for other purposes Judiciary Homeland Security H.R. 780 Rep. Ruppersberger 2/10/05 To amend section 5202 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to provide for assured funding for more Border Patrol agents Homeland Security H.R. 796 Rep. McCarthy 2/14/05 To authorize the Secretary of Homeland Security to make grants to address homeland security preparedness shortcomings of units of municipal and county government Homeland Security H.R. 895 Rep. Berkley 2/17/05 To provide for interagency planning for preparing for, defending against, and responding to the consequences of terrorist attacks against the Yucca Mountain Project, and for other purposes Energy and Commerce Homeland Security H.R. 1093 Rep. Fossella 3/3/05 To amend the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 to change the manner of allocation of first responder grant funds Homeland Security CRS-72 H.R. 1109 Rep. Lynch 3/3/05 To provide for the security and safety of rail and rail transit transportation systems, and for other purposes Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1116 Rep. MillenderMcDonald 3/3/05 To direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to carry out activities to assess and reduce the vulnerabilities of public transportation systems Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1196 Rep. Ortiz 3/9/05 To improve the security clearance process along the United States-Mexico border, to increase the number of detention beds, and for other purposes Homeland Security Judiciary H.R. 1251 Rep. Lowey 3/10/05 To provide grants and other support to achieve communications interoperability in the United States, and for other purposes Energy and Commerce Homeland Security H.R. 1291 Rep. Issa 3/15/05 To require the Secretaries of Health and Human Services, Defense, and Homeland Security to carry out activities toward bringing to market effective medical countermeasures to radiation from a nuclear or radiological attack Energy and Commerce Armed Services Homeland Security H.R. 1310 Rep. Maloney 3/15/05 To amend the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 with respect to the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, and for other purposes Government Reform Judiciary Homeland Security Intelligence H.R. 1320 Rep. Reyes 3/15/05 To secure the borders of the United States, and for other purposes Judiciary Homeland Security H.R. 1324 Rep. Sullivan 3/15/05 To require the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Office of Investigations field office in Tulsa, OK Homeland Security Judiciary Ways and Means H.R. 1383 Rep. Ford 3/17/05 To direct the President to transmit to the Congress each year a comprehensive report on the national homeland security strategy of the United States Homeland Security H.R. 1414 Rep. Markey 3/17/05 To direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to issue regulations concerning the shipping of extremely hazardous materials, and for other purposes Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1419 Rep. Menendez 3/17/05 To require that Homeland Security grants related to terrorism preparedness and prevention be awarded based strictly on an assessment of risk, threat, and vulnerabilities Homeland Security CRS-73 H.R. 1502 Rep. Berman 4/6/05 To restore civil liberties under the First Amendment, the Immigration and Nationality Act, and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Judiciary Intelligence Homeland Security H.R. 1509 Rep. Foley 4/6/05 To create an inspection program that uses videophone systems at certain points of entry in Florida to satisfy customs and immigration reporting requirements Homeland Security H.R. 1525 Del. Norton 4/6/05 To establish the United States Commission on an Open Society with Security Transportation and Infrastructure Homeland Security H.R. 1544 Rep. Cox 4/12/05 To provide faster and smarter funding for first responders, and for other purposes Homeland Security H.R. 1562 Rep. Fossella 4/12/05 To protect human health and the environment from the release of hazardous substances by acts of terrorism Homeland Security Energy and Commerce H.R. 1731 Rep. Harman 4/20/05 To improve the security of the Nation’s ports by providing Federal grants to support Area Maritime Transportation Security Plans and to address vulnerabilities in port areas identified in approved vulnerability assessments or by the Secretary of Homeland Security Homeland Security H.R. 1805 Rep. Slaughter 4/21/05 To establish the position of Northern Border Coordinator in the Department of Homeland Security Homeland Security H.R. 1817 Rep. Cox 4/26/05 To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2006 for the Department of Homeland Security, and for other purposes Homeland Security Referred sequentially: Energy and Commerce Government Reform Judiciary Science Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Intelligence H.R. 1818 Rep. Oberstar 4/26/05 To amend title 49, United States Code, to make funds available for the Aviation Security Capital Fund, to establish a Checkpoint Screening Security Fund, and for other purposes Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure CRS-74 H.R. 1986 Rep. Goode 4/28/05 To amend title 10, United States Code, to authorize the Secretary of Defense to assign members of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, under certain circumstances and subject to certain conditions, to assist the Department of Homeland Security in the performance of border protection functions Armed Services Homeland Security H.R. 2035 Rep. B. Thompson (MS) 4/28/05 To direct the President to submit a report to Congress explaining the President’s funding requests for certain homeland security programs authorized by Public Law 108-458, which implemented the recommendations of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States Homeland Security H.R. 2041 Rep. Castle 5/2/05 To provide for homeland security grant coordination and simplification, and for other purposes Homeland Security Energy and Commerce Transportation and Infrastructure Judiciary H.R. 2044 Rep. Markey 5/3/05 To improve air cargo security Homeland Security H.R. 2092 Rep. JacksonLee 5/4/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to comprehensively reform immigration law and to better protect immigrant victims of violence, and for other purposes Judiciary Ways and Means Energy and Commerce Agriculture Homeland Security Financial Services H.R. 2101 Rep. K. Meek (FL) 5/4/05 To amend the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to develop and implement the READICall emergency alert system Energy and Commerce Homeland Security H.R. 2237 Rep. Pallone 5/10/05 To protect the public against the threat of chemical attacks Energy and Commerce Homeland Security H.R. 2330 Rep. Kolbe 5/12/05 To improve border security and immigration Judiciary Homeland Security International Relations Energy and Commerce Education and the Workforce CRS-75 H.R. 2331 Rep. Waxman 5/12/05 To restore and strengthen the laws that provide for an open and transparent Federal Government Government Reform Homeland Security H.R. 2351 Rep. Oberstar 5/12/05 To provide for the safety and security of United States railroads, passengers, workers, and communities, and to establish an assistance program for families of passengers involved in rail accidents Transportation and Infrastructure Homeland Security H.R. 2628 Rep. Flake 5/25/05 To modify certain deadlines pertaining to machine-readable, tamper-resistant entry and exit documents Homeland Security Judiciary H.R. 2649 Rep. Markey 5/26/05 To strengthen aviation security Homeland Security Judiciary Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 2672 Rep. Harris 5/26/05 To direct the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a program to enhance the mutual security and safety of the United States, Canada, and Mexico, and for other purposes International Relations Armed Services Homeland Security H.R. 2688 Rep. Lowey 5/26/05 To amend title 49, United States Code, to establish a deadline for the screening of all individuals, goods, property, vehicles, and other equipment entering a secure area of an airport, and for other purposes Homeland Security Intelligence Committee Measure Number, Sponsor, Date of Introduction Official Title Committee Referral H.R. 1157 Rep. Sanders 3/8/05 To amend the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act to exempt bookstores and libraries from orders requiring the production of any tangible things for certain foreign intelligence investigations, and for other purposes Judiciary Intelligence H.R. 1310 Rep. Maloney 3/15/05 To amend the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 with respect to the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, and for other purposes Government Reform Judiciary Homeland Security Intelligence CRS-76 H.R. 1502 Rep. Berman 4/6/05 To restore civil liberties under the First Amendment, the Immigration and Nationality Act, and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Judiciary Intelligence Homeland Security H.R. 1526 Rep. Otter 4/6/05 To amend the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 and title 18, United States Code, to strengthen protections of civil liberties in the exercise of the foreign intelligence surveillance authorities under Federal law, and for other purposes Judiciary Intelligence H.R. 1817 Rep. Cox 4/26/05 To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2006 for the Department of Homeland Security, and for other purposes Homeland Security Referred sequentially: Energy and Commerce Government Reform Judiciary Science Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Intelligence H.R. 2475 Rep. Hoekstra 5/19/05 To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2006 for intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the United States Government, the Community Management Account, and the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability System, and for other purposes Intelligence Judiciary Committee Measure Number, Sponsor, Date of Introduction Official Title Committee Referral H.R. 19 Rep. Calvert 1/4/05 To require employers to conduct employment eligibility verification Judiciary Education and the Workforce H.R. 52 Rep. Capito 1/4/05 To amend title 18, United States Code, to further protect rail and mass transportation, and for other purposes Judiciary CRS-77 H.R. 60 Rep. JacksonLee 1/4/05 To designate Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Somalia, Myanmar, Malaysia, Maldives, Tanzania, Seychelles, Bangladesh, and Kenya under section 244 of the Immigration and Nationality Act in order to render nationals of such foreign states eligible for temporary protected status under such section Judiciary H.R. 91 Rep. Frelinghuysen 1/4/05 To authorize the Secretary of Homeland Security to make grants to first responders, and for other purposes Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure Judiciary Energy and Commerce H.R. 98 Rep. Dreier 1/4/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to enforce restrictions on employment in the United States of unauthorized aliens through the use of improved Social Security cards and an Employment Eligibility Database, and for other purposes Ways and Means Judiciary Homeland Security Education and the Workforce H.R. 100 Rep. Dreier 1/4/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to modify provisions relating to judicial review of orders of removal Judiciary H.R. 105 Rep. G. Green (TX) 1/4/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to exempt elementary and secondary schools from the fee imposed on employers filing petitions with respect to non-immigrant workers under the H1B program Judiciary H.R. 139 Rep. Lantos 1/4/05 To provide for the recapture of unused employment-based immigrant visa numbers in order to facilitate improved health care for all persons in the United States Judiciary H.R. 154 Rep. Menendez 1/4/05 To authorize the Secretary of Homeland Security to make grants to reimburse State and local governments and Indian tribes for certain costs relating to the mobilization of Reserves who are first responder personnel of such governments or tribes Transportation and Infrastructure Energy and Commerce Judiciary H.R. 173 Rep. MillenderMcDonald 1/4/05 To prevent and respond to terrorism and crime at or through ports Judiciary Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Homeland Security CRS-78 H.R. 193 Rep. Linda Sánchez 1/4/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to provide for compensation to States incarcerating undocumented aliens charged with a felony or two or more misdemeanors Judiciary H.R. 209 Rep. Serrano 1/4/05 To waive certain prohibitions with respect to nationals of Cuba coming to the United States to play organized professional baseball International Relations Judiciary H.R. 245 Rep. JacksonLee 1/6/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act with respect to the record of admission for permanent residence in the case of certain aliens Judiciary H.R. 247 Rep. JacksonLee 1/6/05 To increase the numerical limitation on the number of asylees whose status may be adjusted to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence Judiciary H.R. 248 Rep. JacksonLee 1/6/05 To modify the requirements applicable to the admission into the United States of H1C nonimmigrant registered nurses, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 251 Rep. JacksonLee 1/6/05 To assist aliens who were transplanted to the United States as children in continuing their education and otherwise integrating into American society Judiciary H.R. 255 Rep. JacksonLee 1/6/05 To prevent commercial alien smuggling, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 257 Rep. JacksonLee 1/6/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to reunify families, permit earned access to permanent resident status, provide protection against unfair immigration-related employment practices, reform the diversity visa program, provide adjustment of status for Haitians and Liberian nationals, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 260 Rep. JacksonLee 1/6/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to modify the requirements for a child born abroad and out of wedlock to acquire citizenship based on the citizenship of the child’s father, and for other purposes Judiciary CRS-79 H.R. 261 Rep. JacksonLee 1/6/05 To expand the class of beneficiaries who may apply for adjustment of status under section 245(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act by extending the deadline for classification petition and labor certification filings Judiciary H.R. 334 Rep. Lynch 1/25/05 To designate Angola under section 244 of the Immigration and Nationality Act in order to make nationals of Angola eligible for temporary protected status under such section Judiciary H.R. 342 Rep. Owens 1/25/05 To provide for adjustment of immigration status for certain aliens granted temporary protected status in the United States because of conditions in Montserrat Judiciary H.R. 354 Rep. Ramstad 1/25/05 To amend title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 to provide standards and procedures to guide both State and local law enforcement agencies and law enforcement officers during internal investigations, interrogation of law enforcement officers, and administrative disciplinary hearings, to ensure accountability of law enforcement officers, to guarantee the due process rights of law enforcement officers, and to require States to enact law enforcement discipline, accountability, and due process laws Judiciary H.R. 368 Rep. T. Davis (VA) 1/26/05 To establish and rapidly implement regulations for State driver’s license and identification document security standards Government Reform Judiciary H.R. 418 Rep. Sensenbrenner 1/26/05 To establish and rapidly implement regulations for State driver’s license and identification document security standards, to prevent terrorists from abusing the asylum laws of the United States, to unify terrorism-related grounds for inadmissibility and removal, and to ensure expeditious construction of the San Diego border fence Judiciary Homeland Security Government Reform H.R. 557 Rep. Kolbe 2/2/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to authorize appropriations for fiscal years 2005 through 2011 to carry out the State Criminal Alien Assistance Program Judiciary CRS-80 H.R. 604 Rep. Weiner 2/2/05 To halt the issuance of visas to citizens of Saudi Arabia until the President certifies that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia does not discriminate in the issuance of visas on the basis of religious affiliation or heritage Judiciary H.R. 634 Rep. JacksonLee 2/8/05 To designate Poland as a program country under the visa waiver program established under section 217 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, subject to special conditions Judiciary H.R. 635 Rep. N. Johnson (CT) 2/8/05 To designate Poland as a program country under the visa waiver program established under section 217 of the Immigration and Nationality Act Judiciary H.R. 661 Rep. Rangel 2/8/05 To provide for naturalization through service in a combat zone designated in connection with Operation Iraqi Freedom, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 688 Rep. Barrett 2/9/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to bar the admission, and facilitate the removal, of alien terrorists and their supporters and fundraisers, to secure our borders against terrorists, drug traffickers, and other illegal aliens, to facilitate the removal of illegal aliens and aliens who are criminals or human rights abusers, to reduce visa, document, and employment fraud, to temporarily suspend processing of certain visas and immigration benefits, to reform the legal immigration system, and for other purposes Judiciary Homeland Security H.R. 698 Rep. Deal 2/9/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to deny citizenship at birth to children born in the United States of parents who are not citizens or permanent resident aliens Judiciary H.R. 793 Rep. Gilchrest 2/14/05 To revise certain requirements for H-2B employers and require submission of information regarding H-2B nonimmigrants, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 814 Rep. Evans 2/15/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to provide for the automatic acquisition of citizenship by certain individuals born in Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea, or Thailand Judiciary CRS-81 H.R. 820 Rep. P. King (NY) 2/15/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to reauthorize the State Criminal Alien Assistance Program Judiciary H.R. 884 Rep. Cannon 2/17/05 To provide for the adjustment of status of certain foreign agricultural workers, to amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to reform the H-2A worker program under that Act, to provide a stable, legal agricultural workforce, to extend basic legal protections and better working conditions to more workers, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 900 Rep. Case 2/17/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to remove from an alien the initial burden of establishing that he or she is entitled to nonimmigrant status under section 101(a)(15)(B) of such Act, in the case of certain aliens seeking to enter the United States for a temporary stay occasioned by the serious illness or death of a United States citizen or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 901 Rep. Case 2/17/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to give priority in the issuance of immigrant visas to the sons and daughters of Filipino World War II veterans who are or were naturalized citizens of the United States, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 925 Rep. Gallegly 2/17/05 To prohibit a Federal agency from accepting a form of individual identification issued by a foreign government, except a passport that is accepted on the date of enactment Government Reform Judiciary House Administration Armed Services H.R. 926 Rep. Gerlach 2/17/05 To amend title 38, United States Code, to authorize Department of Veterans Affairs police officers to execute on Department property arrest warrants of a State or local government within the jurisdiction of which such Department property is located Veterans’ Affairs Judiciary H.R. 936 Rep. Honda 2/17/05 To provide for immigration relief in the case of certain immigrants who are innocent victims of immigration fraud Judiciary CRS-82 H.R. 970 Rep. Schiff 2/17/05 To increase and enhance law enforcement resources committed to investigation and prosecution of violent gangs, to deter and punish violent gang crime, to protect lawabiding citizens and communities from violent criminals, to revise and enhance criminal penalties for violent crimes, to reform and facilitate prosecution of juvenile gang members who commit violent crimes, to expand and improve gang prevention programs, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 1076 Rep. Schiff 3/3/05 To authorize the President to detain an enemy combatant who is a United States person or resident who is a member of al Qaeda or knowingly cooperated with members of al Qaeda, to guarantee timely access to judicial review to challenge the basis for a detention, to permit the detainee access to counsel, and for other purposes Judiciary Armed Services H.R. 1147 Rep. Baca 3/8/05 To provide benefits to public safety officers who die or become disabled as a result of certain injuries Judiciary H.R. 1157 Rep. Sanders 3/8/05 To amend the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act to exempt bookstores and libraries from orders requiring the production of any tangible things for certain foreign intelligence investigations, and for other purposes Judiciary Intelligence H.R. 1168 Rep. P. King (NY) 3/8/05 To ensure that the national instant criminal background check system provides the Federal Bureau of Investigation with information on approved firearms transfers to persons named in the Violent Gang and Terrorist Organization File Judiciary H.R. 1172 Rep. Lofgren 3/8/05 To provide for the protection of unaccompanied alien children, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 1195 Rep. McCarthy 3/9/05 To increase public safety and reduce the threat to domestic security by including persons who may be prevented from boarding an aircraft in the National Instant Criminal Background Check System, and for other purposes Judiciary CRS-83 H.R. 1196 Rep. Ortiz 3/9/05 To improve the security clearance process along the United States-Mexico border, to increase the number of detention beds, and for other purposes Homeland Security Judiciary H.R. 1219 Rep. Goodlatte 3/10/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to eliminate the diversity immigrant program Judiciary H.R. 1225 Rep. Conyers 3/10/05 To better manage the national instant criminal background check system and terrorism matches Judiciary H.R. 1310 Rep. Maloney 3/15/05 To amend the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 with respect to the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, and for other purposes Government Reform Judiciary Homeland Security Intelligence H.R. 1320 Rep. Reyes 3/15/05 To secure the borders of the United States, and for other purposes Judiciary Homeland Security H.R. 1324 Rep. Sullivan 3/15/05 To require the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Office of Investigations field office in Tulsa, OK Homeland Security Judiciary Ways and Means H.R. 1325 Rep. Tancredo 3/15/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to repeal authorities relating to H1-B visas for temporary workers Judiciary H.R. 1374 Rep. Cooper 3/17/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to permit aliens who are independent living assistants to be accorded status as J nonimmigrants to provide in-home living and home support services to adults with disabilities Judiciary H.R. 1389 Rep. Hinchey 3/17/05 To prohibit the importation, manufacture, distribution, or storage of ammonium nitrate compound without a license, to prohibit the receipt of ammonium nitrate compound without a license or permit, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 1400 Rep. Keller 3/17/05 To amend title 18, United States Code, to provide penalties for aiming laser pointers at airplanes, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 1415 Rep. McCarthy 3/17/05 To improve the National Instant Criminal Background Check System, and for other purposes Judiciary CRS-84 H.R. 1502 Rep. Berman 4/6/05 To restore civil liberties under the First Amendment, the Immigration and Nationality Act, and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Judiciary Intelligence Homeland Security H.R. 1526 Rep. Otter 4/6/05 To amend the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 and title 18, United States Code, to strengthen protections of civil liberties in the exercise of the foreign intelligence surveillance authorities under Federal law, and for other purposes Judiciary Intelligence H.R. 1587 Rep. Tancredo 4/13/05 To match willing United States workers with employers, to increase and fairly apportion H-2B visas, and to ensure that H-2B visas serve their intended purpose Judiciary H.R. 1737 Rep. K. Meek (FL) 4/20/05 To amend the Haitian Refugee Immigration Fairness Act of 1998 to benefit individuals who were children when such Act was enacted Judiciary H.R. 1763 Rep. Carter 4/21/05 To increase criminal penalties relating to terrorist murders, deny Federal benefits to terrorists, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 1770 Rep. Gallegly 4/21/05 To require employers at critical infrastructure sites to participate in the pilot program for employment eligibility verification, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 1804 Rep. J. Ryun (KS) 4/21/05 To prescribe the oath of renunciation and allegiance for purposes of the Immigration and Nationality Act Judiciary H.R. 1817 Rep. Cox 4/26/05 To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2006 for the Department of Homeland Security, and for other purposes Homeland Security Referred sequentially: Energy and Commerce Government Reform Judiciary Science Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Intelligence H.R. 1823 Rep. Andrews 4/26/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to extend the provisions governing nonimmigrant status for spouses and children of permanent resident aliens awaiting the availability of an immigrant visa, and for other purposes Judiciary CRS-85 H.R. 1912 Rep. Graves 4/27/05 To suspend certain nonessential visas, in order to provide temporary workload relief critical to the successful reorganization of the immigration and naturalization functions of the Department of Homeland Security, to ensure that the screening and monitoring of arriving immigrants and nonimmigrants, and the deterrence of entry and settlement by illegal or unauthorized aliens, is sufficient to maintain the integrity of the sovereign borders of the United States, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 2041 Rep. Castle 5/2/05 To provide for homeland security grant coordination and simplification, and for other purposes Homeland Security Energy and Commerce Transportation and Infrastructure Judiciary H.R. 2049 Rep. Blackburn 5/3/05 To require certain Federal service contractors to participate in a pilot program for employment eligibility confirmation Judiciary Education and the Workforce H.R. 2055 Rep. B. Frank (MA) 5/3/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to permit certain longterm permanent resident aliens to seek cancellation of removal under such Act, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 2092 Rep. JacksonLee 5/4/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to comprehensively reform immigration law and to better protect immigrant victims of violence, and for other purposes Judiciary Ways and Means Energy and Commerce Agriculture Homeland Security Financial Services H.R. 2194 Rep. Lungren 5/5/05 To amend title 18, United States Code, to provide additional protections for law enforcement officers, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 2219 Rep. Gerlach 5/10/05 To ensure that, during time of war and in another country, the United States does not detain a United States citizen unless the United States first ensures that the citizen’s fundamental rights to information, counsel, and communication are protected Judiciary CRS-86 H.R. 2293 Rep. Hostettler 5/11/05 To provide special immigrant status for aliens serving as translators with the United States Armed Forces Judiciary H.R. 2330 Rep. Kolbe 5/12/05 To improve border security and immigration Judiciary Homeland Security International Relations Energy and Commerce Education and the Workforce H.R. 2363 Rep. Dreier 5/16/05 To amend title 18, United States Code, to increase the penalty on persons convicted of killing peace officers and who flee the country Judiciary H.R. 2367 Rep. Filner 5/16/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to permit certain Mexican children, and accompanying adults, to obtain a waiver of the documentation requirements otherwise required to enter the United States as a temporary visitor Judiciary H.R. 2513 Rep. J. Ryun (KS) 5/19/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to prescribe the oath or affirmation of renunciation and allegiance required to be naturalized as a citizen of the United States Judiciary H.R. 2592 Rep. A. Hastings (FL) 5/24/05 To designate Haiti under section 244 of the Immigration and Nationality Act in order to render nationals of Haiti eligible for temporary protected status under such section Judiciary H.R. 2628 Rep. Flake 5/25/05 To modify certain deadlines pertaining to machine-readable, tamper-resistant entry and exit documents Homeland Security Judiciary H.R. 2649 Rep. Markey 5/26/05 To strengthen aviation security Homeland Security Judiciary Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 2651 Rep. Schiff 5/26/05 To reduce crime and terrorism at America’s seaports, and for other purposes Judiciary H.R. 2687 Rep. Lofgren 5/26/05 To amend the Immigration and Naturalization Act to provide for the automatic acquisition of citizenship by certain Amerasians Judiciary CRS-87 H.R. 2715 Rep. Nadler 5/26/05 To establish reasonable procedural protections for the use of national security letters, and for other purposes Judiciary Financial Services S. 188 Sen. Feinstein 1/26/05 A bill to amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to authorize appropriations for fiscal years 2005 through 2011 to carry out the State Criminal Alien Assistance Program Judiciary Science Committee Measure Number, Sponsor, Date of Introduction Official Title Committee Referral H.R. 909 Rep. Cummings 2/17/05 To provide for the establishment of a hazardous materials cooperative research program Science Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1817 Rep. Cox 4/26/05 To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2006 for the Department of Homeland Security, and for other purposes Homeland Security Referred sequentially: Energy and Commerce Government Reform Judiciary Science Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Intelligence Transportation and Infrastructure Committee Measure Number, Sponsor, Date of Introduction H.R. 3 Rep. D. Young (AK) 2/9/05 Official Title To authorize funds for Federal-aid highways, highway safety programs, and transit programs, and for other purposes Committee Referral Transportation and Infrastructure CRS-88 H.R. 35 Rep. Burgess 1/4/05 To authorize the Secretary of Transportation to carry out a project to widen Interstate Route 35 East in Denton County, Texas Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 65 Rep. Gibbons 1/4/05 To amend the age restrictions for pilots Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 88 Rep. Frelinghuysen 1/4/05 To direct the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency to designate New Jersey Task Force 1 as part of the National Urban Search and Rescue System Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 91 Rep. Frelinghuysen 1/4/05 To authorize the Secretary of Homeland Security to make grants to first responders, and for other purposes Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure Judiciary Energy and Commerce H.R. 129 Rep. S. Jones (OH) 1/4/05 To allow a waiver or exemption of certain requirements for restricted airspace if security is not reduced Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 153 Rep. Menendez 1/4/05 To provide increased rail and public transportation security Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 154 Rep. Menendez 1/4/05 To authorize the Secretary of Homeland Security to make grants to reimburse State and local governments and Indian tribes for certain costs relating to the mobilization of Reserves who are first responder personnel of such governments or tribes Transportation and Infrastructure Energy and Commerce Judiciary H.R. 168 Rep. MillenderMcDonald 1/4/05 To amend title 23, United States Code, to establish a goods movement program to improve the productivity, security, and safety of freight transportation gateways Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 173 Rep. MillenderMcDonald 1/4/05 To prevent and respond to terrorism and crime at or through ports Judiciary Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Homeland Security H.R. 242 Rep. Ehlers 1/6/05 To authorize appropriations to the Department of Transportation for surface transportation research and development, and for other purposes Science Transportation and Infrastructure CRS-89 H.R. 494 Rep. Rohrabacher 2/1/05 To amend the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 to expand the authority of non-Federal interests to levy harbor fees Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 566 Rep. Maloney 2/2/05 To provide protections and services to certain individuals after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, in New York City, in the State of New York, and for other purposes Energy and Commerce Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 572 Rep. J. Moran (KS) 2/2/05 To amend the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 concerning the applicability of hours of service requirements to drivers operating commercial motor vehicles transporting agricultural commodities and farm supplies Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 587 Rep. Weiner 2/2/05 To improve the safe operation of aircraft Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 603 Rep. Watson 2/2/05 To improve safety and reduce traffic congestion at grade crossings Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 618 Rep. Beauprez 2/8/05 To amend title 49, United States Code, to ensure that the National Driver Registry includes certain information Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 620 Rep. JacksonLee 2/8/05 To require the Comptroller General of the United States to conduct a study on the development and implementation by States of security measures for driver’s licenses and identification cards and a study on the consequences of denying driver’s licenses to aliens unlawfully present in the United States, and for other purposes Transportation and Infrastructure Government Reform HR. 623 Rep. Boozman 2/8/05 To allow an operator of a commercial motor vehicle breaks in a daily tour of duty Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 734 Rep. Weiner 2/9/05 To improve the safe operation of aircraft Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 889 Rep. D. Young (AK) 2/17/05 To authorize appropriations for the Coast Guard for fiscal year 2006, to make technical corrections to various laws administered by the Coast Guard, and for other purposes Transportation and Infrastructure CRS-90 H.R. 909 Rep. Cummings 2/17/05 To provide for the establishment of a hazardous materials cooperative research program Science Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 911 Rep. T. Davis (VA) 2/17/05 To require the Secretary of Homeland Security to develop and implement standards for the operation of nonscheduled, commercial air carrier (air charter) and general aviation operations at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 954 Rep. Ney 2/17/05 To improve the safety of rural roads Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1012 Rep. Michaud 3/1/05 To establish a commercial truck highway safety demonstration program in the State of Maine, and for other purposes Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1109 Rep. Lynch 3/3/05 To provide for the security and safety of rail and rail transit transportation systems, and for other purposes Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1116 Rep. MillenderMcDonald 3/3/05 To direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to carry out activities to assess and reduce the vulnerabilities of public transportation systems Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1137 Rep. A. Hastings (FL) 3/7/05 To amend the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act to improve Federal response to disasters, and for other purposes Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1218 Rep. McGovern 3/10/05 To amend titles 23 and 49, United States Code, concerning length and weight limitations for vehicles operating on Federal-aid highways, and for other purposes Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1296 Rep. H. Brown (SC) 3/15/05 To amend title 49, United States Code, relating to responsibility for intermodal equipment compliance with commercial motor vehicle safety requirements, and for other purposes Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1386 Rep. A. Hastings (FL) 3/17/05 To establish a National Drought Council within the Department of Agriculture, to improve national drought preparedness, mitigation, and response efforts, and for other purposes Agriculture Resources Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1412 Rep. LoBiondo 3/17/05 To amend the Ports and Waterways Safety Act to require notification of the Coast Guard regarding obstructions to navigation, and for other purposes Transportation and Infrastructure CRS-91 H.R. 1414 Rep. Markey 3/17/05 To direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to issue regulations concerning the shipping of extremely hazardous materials, and for other purposes Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1448 Rep. Stupak 3/17/05 To direct the Commandant of the Coast Guard to convey the Coast Guard Cutter Mackinaw, upon its scheduled decommissioning, to the City and County of Cheboygan, Michigan, to use for purposes of a museum Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1496 Rep. D. Young (AK) 4/6/05 To return general aviation to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1525 Del. Norton 4/6/05 To establish the United States Commission on an Open Society with Security Transportation and Infrastructure Homeland Security H.R. 1552 Rep. Jindal 4/12/05 To amend the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act to clarify that the religious status of a private nonprofit facility does not preclude the facility from receiving assistance under the Act Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1795 Rep. Maloney 4/21/05 To amend the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act to modify the terms of the community disaster loan program, to authorize assistance under that program for losses related to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and for other purposes Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1817 Rep. Cox 4/26/05 To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2006 for the Department of Homeland Security, and for other purposes Homeland Security Referred sequentially: Energy and Commerce Government Reform Judiciary Science Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Intelligence H.R. 1818 Rep. Oberstar 4/26/05 To amend title 49, United States Code, to make funds available for the Aviation Security Capital Fund, to establish a Checkpoint Screening Security Fund, and for other purpose Homeland Security Transportation and Infrastructure CRS-92 H.R. 1870 Rep. Foley 4/27/05 To expedite payments of certain Federal emergency assistance authorized pursuant to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, and to direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to exercise certain authority provided under such Act Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 1874 Rep. Andrews 4/27/05 To improve national pier inspections and safety standards Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 2041 Rep. Castle 5/2/05 To provide for homeland security grant coordination and simplification, and for other purposes Homeland Security Energy and Commerce Transportation and Infrastructure Judiciary H.R. 2105 Rep. Pallone 5/4/05 To amend title 23, United States Code, relating to the use of safety belts and child restraint systems by children, and for other purposes Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 2210 Rep. Baca 5/10/05 To require combination 3-point safety belts on certain school buses, and for other purposes Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 2338 Rep. Cubin 5/12/05 To amend the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act to direct the President to designate a Small State Advocate in the Federal Emergency Management Agency Transportation and Infrastructure H.R. 2351 Rep. Oberstar 5/12/05 To provide for the safety and security of United States railroads, passengers, workers, and communities, and to establish an assistance program for families of passengers involved in rail accidents Transportation and Infrastructure Homeland Security H.R. 2566 Rep. D. Young (AK) 5/24/05 To provide an extension of highway, highway safety, motor carrier safety, transit, and other programs funded out of the Highway Trust Fund pending enactment of a law reauthorizing the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Science Resources H.R. 2649 Rep. Markey 5/26/05 To strengthen aviation security Homeland Security Judiciary Transportation and Infrastructure CRS-93 H.R. 2724 Rep. Rangel 5/26/05 To establish a national Civilian Volunteer Service Reserve program, a national volunteer service corps ready for service in response to domestic or international emergencies Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Committee Measure Number, Sponsor, Date of Introduction Official Title Committee Referral H.R. 98 Rep. Dreier 1/4/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to enforce restrictions on employment in the United States of unauthorized aliens through the use of improved Social Security cards and an Employment Eligibility Database, and for other purposes Ways and Means Judiciary Homeland Security Education and the Workforce H.R. 173 Rep. MillenderMcDonald 1/4/05 To prevent and respond to terrorism and crime at or through ports Judiciary Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Homeland Security H.R. 208 Rep. Serrano 1/4/05 To lift the trade embargo on Cuba, and for other purposes International Relations Ways and Means Energy and Commerce Judiciary Financial Services Government Reform Agriculture H.R. 445 Rep. Ehlers 2/1/05 To amend section 304 of the Tariff Act of 1930 with respect to the marking of imported home furniture Ways and Means H.R. 521 Rep. Sherwood 2/2/05 To impose tariff-rate quotas on certain casein and milk protein concentrates Ways and Means CRS-94 H.R. 579 Rep. Paul 2/2/05 To lift the trade embargo on Cuba, and for other purposes International Relations Ways and Means Energy and Commerce Judiciary Financial Services Government Reform Agriculture H.R. 707 Rep. Israel 2/9/05 To amend the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States with respect to rattan webbing Ways and Means H.R. 728 Rep. Sanders 2/9/05 To withdraw normal trade relations treatment from the products of the People’s Republic of China Ways and Means H.R. 746 Rep. Cardin 2/10/05 To require Congress to impose limits on United States foreign debt Ways and Means H.R. 885 Rep. Hyde 2/17/05 To authorize the extension of nondiscriminatory treatment (normal trade relations treatment) to the products of Ukraine Ways and Means H.R. 886 Rep. Kolbe 2/17/05 To extend certain trade preferences to certain least-developed countries, and for other purposes Ways and Means H.R. 915 Rep. English 2/17/05 To authorize the President to take certain actions to protect archaeological or ethnological materials of Afghanistan Ways and Means H.R. 967 Rep. Saxton 2/17/05 To provide that normal trade relations treatment may not be extended to the products of any country the government of which engages in certain violations of human rights Ways and Means H.R. 974 Rep. A. Smith (WA) 2/17/05 To establish the Corporate Subsidy Reform Commission to review inequitable Federal subsidies and make recommendations for termination, modification, or retention of such subsidies, and to state the sense of the Congress that the Congress should promptly consider legislation that would make the changes in law necessary to implement the recommendations Government Reform Ways and Means H.R. 1039 Rep. Pickering 3/2/05 To suspend temporarily new shipper bonding privileges Ways and Means CRS-95 H.R. 1053 Rep. Gerlach 3/2/05 To authorize the extension of nondiscriminatory treatment (normal trade relations treatment) to the products of Ukraine Ways and Means H.R. 1068 Rep. English 3/3/05 To maintain and expand the steel import licensing and monitoring program Ways and Means H.R. 1115 Rep. McKeon 3/3/05 To amend the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States to clarify the tariff rate for certain mechanics’ gloves Ways and Means H.R. 1121 Rep. Ramstad 3/3/05 To repeal section 754 of the Tariff Act of 1930 Ways and Means H.R. 1141 Rep. RosLehtinen 3/8/05 To strengthen sanctions against the Government of Syria, to establish a program to support a transition to a democratically elected government in Syria and the restoration of sovereignty and democratic rule in Lebanon, and for other purposes International Relations Financial Services Ways and means Government Reform H.R. 1170 Rep. Levin 3/8/05 To authorize the extension of unconditional and permanent nondiscriminatory treatment (permanent normal trade relations treatment) to the products of Ukraine, and for other purposes Ways and Means Rules H.R. 1216 Rep. English 3/10/05 To amend title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 to provide that the provisions relating to countervailing duties apply to nonmarket economy countries Ways and Means H.R. 1230 Rep. Blunt 3/10/05 To extend trade benefits to certain tents imported into the United States Ways and Means H.R. 1324 Rep. Sullivan 3/15/05 To require the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Office of Investigations field office in Tulsa, OK Homeland Security Judiciary Ways and Means H.R. 1336 Rep. Cunningham 3/16/05 To amend the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States to clarify the classification of laser light sources for semiconductor manufacturing Ways and Means H.R. 1407 Rep. LaTourette 3/17/05 To provide that certain wire rods shall not be subject to any antidumping duty or countervailing duty order Ways and Means CRS-96 H.R. 1450 Rep. Tancredo 3/1/7/05 To require additional tariffs be imposed on products of any nonmarket economy country until the President certifies to the Congress that that country is a market economy country, and to direct the Secretary of the Treasury to deposit the amounts generated from those tariffs into the Social Security trust funds Ways and Means H.R. 1453 Rep. Lantos 3/20/05 To strengthen United States relations with Libya, to facilitate the integration of Libya into the international community, and to encourage positive change in Libyan society, and for other purposes International Relations Financial Services Ways and Means Government Reform H.R. 1498 Rep. T. Ryan (OH) 4/6/05 To clarify that exchange-rate manipulation by the People’s Republic of China is actionable under the countervailing duty provisions and the product-specific safeguard mechanisms of the trade laws of the United States, and for other purposes Ways and Means Armed Services H.R. 1575 Rep. Myrick 4/12/05 To authorize appropriate action if the negotiations with the People’s Republic of China regarding China’s undervalued currency and currency manipulation are not successful Ways and Means H.R. 1609 Rep. Holt 4/13/05 To reduce until December 31, 2008, the duty on potassium sorbate Ways and Means H.R. 1610 Rep. Holt 4/13/05 To reduce until December 31, 2008, the duty on sorbic acid Ways and Means H.R. 1715 Rep. McIntyre 4/20/05 To reduce until December 31, 2008, the duty on PDCB (p-Dichlorobenzene) Ways and Means H.R. 1802 Rep. Rehberg 4/21/05 To amend the Tariff Act of 1930 with respect to the marking of imported live bovine animals Ways and Means H.R. 1813 Rep. Rangel 4/26/05 To require the payment of interest on amounts owed by the United States pursuant to the reliquidation of certain entries under the Tariff Suspension and Trade Act of 2000 and the Miscellaneous Trade and Technical Corrections Act of 2004 Ways and Means CRS-97 H.R. 1817 Rep. Cox 4/26/05 To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2006 for the Department of Homeland Security, and for other purposes Homeland Security Referred sequentially: Energy and Commerce Government Reform Judiciary Science Transportation and Infrastructure Ways and Means Intelligence H.R. 1824 Rep. Blumenauer 4/26/05 To provide for the duty-free entry of certain tramway cars and associated spare parts for use by the city of Portland, OR Ways and Means H.R. 1914 Rep. Honda 4/27/05 To amend the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States to provide that the calculation of the duty imposed on imported cherries that are provisionally preserved does not include the weight of the preservative materials of the cherries Ways and Means H.R. 1997 Rep. Manzullo 4/28/05 To amend the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States to clarify the article description relating to certain monochrome glass envelopes, and for other purposes Ways and Means H.R. 2003 Rep. Otter 4/28/05 To amend the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States to remove the 100 percent tariff imposed on Roquefort cheese Ways and Means H.R. 2092 Rep. JacksonLee 5/4/05 To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to comprehensively reform immigration law and to better protect immigrant victims of violence, and for other purposes Judiciary Ways and Means Energy and Commerce Agriculture Homeland Security Financial Services H.R. 2414 Rep. M. Rogers (MI) 5/17/05 To require the Secretary of the Treasury to analyze and report on the exchange rate policies of the People Republic of China, and to require that measures consistent with the obligations of the United States under the World Trade Organization be taken to offset any disadvantage to United States producers resulting from China’s exchange rate policies Ways and Means CRS-98 H.R. 2473 Rep. Shaw 5/19/05 To amend the Tariff Act of 1930 relating to determining the all-others rate in antidumping cases Ways and Means H.R. 2691 Rep. Melancon 5/26/05 To amend the Bipartisan Trade Promotion Authority Act of 2002 to require the President to submit to the Congress, within 90 days after entering into a trade agreement, the implementing legislation, the statement of administrative action, and supporting information, with respect to that trade agreement Ways and Means In addition, a number of bills were referred solely to the Ways and Means Committee related to the temporary suspension or reduction of duties on various items, many of which are chemical compounds. The official title of these bills closely followed one of these formats: (1) “To suspend temporarily the duty on [ ]”, (2) ]”, or (3) “To reduce “To extend the temporary suspension of the duty on [ temporarily the duty on [ ]”.77 These bills are listed in the following table: 77 Rep. Clay Shaw, chair of the Trade Subcommittee, Ways and Means Committee, notified the House on March 10, 2005, that Members planning to introduce tariff legislation or miscellaneous corrections to the trade laws should do so by April 28, 2005, so that the subcommittee would have sufficient time to review the measures in preparation of a “miscellaneous trade bill.” See [http://waysandmeans.house.gov/Special.asp?section=1718], visited June 17, 2005. The time frame to introduce these bills was subsequently extended by an e-mail notification. Some bills in the previous Ways and Means Committee table are similar in purpose to the bills in the following table, but had official titles in a different format. CRS-99 Temporary Duty Suspension or Reduction Bills Referred to Ways and Means Committee H.R. 53 H.R. 178 H.R. 617 H.R. 636 H.R. 637 H.R. 638 H.R. 639 H.R. 640 H.R. 641 H.R. 642 H.R. 643 H.R. 644 H.R. 645 H.R. 646 H.R. 647 H.R. 648 H.R. 1202 H.R. 1221 H.R. 1274 H.R. 1391 H.R. 1392 H.R. 1444 H.R. 1464 H.R. 1465 H.R. 1466 H.R. 1534 H.R. 1535 H.R. 1536 H.R. 1537 H.R. 1698 H.R. 1699 H.R. 1700 H.R. 1701 H.R. 1702 H.R. 1724 H.R. 1725 H.R. 1726 H.R. 1727 H.R. 1732 H.R. 1733 H.R. 1734 H.R. 1752 H.R. 1775 H.R. 1777 H.R. 1778 H.R. 1779 H.R. 1780 H.R. 1781 H.R. 1782 H.R. 1783 H.R. 1784 H.R. 1785 H.R. 1786 H.R. 1787 H.R. 1788 H.R. 1799 H.R. 1826 H.R. 1827 H.R. 1828 H.R. 1829 H.R. 1830 H.R. 1831 H.R. 1832 H.R. 1833 H.R. 1838 H.R. 1839 H.R. 1840 H.R. 1841 H.R. 1842 H.R. 1843 H.R. 1844 H.R. 1845 H.R. 1846 H.R. 1848 H.R. 1851 H.R. 1854 H.R. 1855 H.R. 1856 H.R. 1857 H.R. 1858 H.R. 1877 H.R. 1878 H.R. 1880 H.R. 1881 H.R. 1882 H.R. 1883 H.R. 1884 H.R. 1885 H.R. 1886 H.R. 1887 H.R. 1888 H.R. 1889 H.R. 1890 H.R. 1891 H.R. 1892 H.R. 1893 H.R. 1894 H.R. 1895 H.R. 1896 H.R. 1897 H.R. 1899 H.R. 1900 H.R. 1901 H.R. 1903 H.R. 1904 H.R. 1906 H.R. 1907 H.R. 1908 H.R. 1909 H.R. 1910 H.R. 1911 H.R. 1913 H.R. 1915 H.R. 1916 H.R. 1917 H.R. 1918 H.R. 1919 H.R. 1920 H.R. 1921 H.R. 1922 H.R. 1923 H.R. 1924 H.R. 1925 H.R. 1926 H.R. 1927 H.R. 1934 H.R. 1935 H.R. 1936 H.R. 1937 H.R. 1938 H.R. 1941 H.R. 1944 H.R. 1945 H.R. 1959 H.R. 1962 H.R. 1963 H.R. 1964 H.R. 1965 H.R. 1966 H.R. 1967 H.R. 1968 H.R. 1969 H.R. 1970 H.R. 1971 H.R. 1976 H.R. 1978 H.R. 1979 H.R. 1990 H.R. 1991 H.R. 1992 H.R. 2009 H.R. 2010 H.R. 2015 H.R. 2016 H.R. 2019 H.R. 2020 H.R. 2021 H.R. 2022 H.R. 2023 H.R. 2024 H.R. 2025 H.R. 2026 H.R. 2027 H.R. 2028 H.R. 2029 H.R. 2030 H.R. 2031 H.R. 2032 H.R. 2033 H.R. 2056 H.R. 2077 H.R. 2078 H.R. 2079 H.R. 2080 H.R. 2081 H.R. 2082 H.R. 2083 H.R. 2084 H.R. 2085 H.R. 2086 H.R. 2091 H.R. 2093 H.R. 2094 H.R. 2095 H.R. 2096 H.R. 2114 H.R. 2115 H.R. 2116 H.R. 2117 H.R. 2118 H.R. 2119 H.R. 2120 H.R. 2128 H.R. 2135 H.R. 2136 H.R. 2137 H.R. 2138 H.R. 2139 H.R. 2140 H.R. 2141 H.R. 2142 H.R. 2143 H.R. 2144 H.R. 2145 H.R. 2146 H.R. 2147 H.R. 2148 H.R. 2149 H.R. 2150 H.R. 2151 H.R. 2152 H.R. 2153 H.R. 2154 H.R. 2155 H.R. 2156 H.R. 2157 H.R. 2158 H.R. 2159 H.R. 2160 H.R. 2161 H.R. 2162 H.R. 2163 H.R. 2164 H.R. 2165 H.R. 2166 H.R. 2167 H.R. 2168 H.R. 2169 H.R. 2170 H.R. 2171 H.R. 2172 H.R. 2173 H.R. 2175 H.R. 2179 H.R. 2198 H.R. 2212 H.R. 2213 H.R. 2214 H.R. 2215 H.R. 2220 H.R. 2221 H.R. 2222 H.R. 2223 H.R. 2224 H.R. 2225 H.R. 2226 H.R. 2227 H.R. 2228 H.R. 2241 H.R. 2242 H.R. 2243 H.R. 2244 H.R. 2245 H.R. 2246 H.R. 2252 H.R. 2253 H.R. 2254 H.R. 2255 H.R. 2256 H.R. 2260 H.R. 2261 H.R. 2262 H.R. 2263 H.R. 2264 H.R. 2265 H.R. 2266 H.R. 2267 H.R. 2268 H.R. 2269 H.R. 2270 H.R. 2271 H.R. 2272 H.R. 2273 H.R. 2274 H.R. 2275 H.R. 2276 H.R. 2277 H.R. 2278 H.R. 2279 H.R. 2280 H.R. 2281 H.R. 2282 H.R. 2285 H.R. 2286 H.R. 2287 H.R. 2288 H.R. 2289 H.R. 2302 H.R. 2303 H.R. 2309 H.R. 2310 H.R. 2311 H.R. 2312 H.R. 2313 CRS-100 H.R. 2314 H.R. 2315 H.R. 2316 H.R. 2336 H.R. 2371 H.R. 2372 H.R. 2373 H.R. 2374 H.R. 2375 H.R. 2377 H.R. 2380 H.R. 2381 H.R. 2382 H.R. 2394 H.R. 2395 H.R. 2396 H.R. 2397 H.R. 2402 H.R. 2403 H.R. 2404 H.R. 2405 H.R. 2406 H.R. 2424 H.R. 2430 H.R. 2431 H.R. 2432 H.R. 2433 H.R. 2434 H.R. 2435 H.R. 2436 H.R. 2437 H.R. 2438 H.R. 2439 H.R. 2440 H.R. 2441 H.R. 2442 H.R. 2443 H.R. 2444 H.R. 2445 H.R. 2446 H.R. 2447 H.R. 2448 H.R. 2449 H.R. 2450 H.R. 2451 H.R. 2452 H.R. 2453 H.R. 2454 H.R. 2459 H.R. 2460 H.R. 2461 H.R. 2462 H.R. 2463 H.R. 2464 H.R. 2465 H.R. 2466 H.R. 2467 H.R. 2468 H.R. 2469 H.R. 2477 H.R. 2478 H.R. 2479 H.R. 2480 H.R. 2481 H.R. 2482 H.R. 2483 H.R. 2492 H.R. 2493 H.R. 2494 H.R. 2495 H.R. 2496 H.R. 2497 H.R. 2501 H.R. 2502 H.R. 2503 H.R. 2504 H.R. 2505 H.R. 2506 H.R. 2507 H.R. 2522 H.R. 2523 H.R. 2524 H.R. 2532 H.R. 2535 H.R. 2536 H.R. 2537 H.R. 2538 H.R. 2539 H.R. 2540 H.R. 2542 H.R. 2543 H.R. 2544 H.R. 2545 H.R. 2546 H.R. 2547 H.R. 2548 H.R. 2549 H.R. 2550 H.R. 2551 H.R. 2552 H.R. 2556 H.R. 2557 H.R. 2573 H.R. 2575 H.R. 2576 H.R. 2577 H.R. 2578 H.R. 2579 H.R. 2580 H.R. 2581 H.R. 2582 H.R. 2583 H.R. 2584 H.R. 2585 H.R. 2586 H.R. 2589 H.R. 2590 H.R. 2591 H.R. 2596 H.R. 2597 H.R. 2598 H.R. 2602 H.R. 2603 H.R. 2604 H.R. 2605 H.R. 2606 H.R. 2607 H.R. 2608 H.R. 2609 H.R. 2610 H.R. 2611 H.R. 2612 H.R. 2613 H.R. 2614 H.R. 2615 H.R. 2624 H.R. 2632 H.R. 2675 H.R. 2676 H.R. 2677 H.R. 2678 H.R. 2696 H.R. 2697 H.R. 2698 H.R. 2699 H.R. 2700 H.R. 2701 H.R. 2702 H.R. 2703 H.R. 2704 H.R. 2705 H.R. 2706 H.R. 2707 H.R. 2708 H.R. 2709 H.R. 2710 H.R. 2711 H.R. 2712 H.R. 2713 H.R. 2714 CRS-101 Appendix 2 Hearings and Markups Related to the Study This appendix lists hearings and markups held in the 109th Congress, through May 26, 2005. Hearings, including oversight hearings, and markups listed here relate to the subject matter contained in the jurisdictional changes made in House rules and the jurisdictional explanations contained in the Legislative History.78 All Homeland Security Committee meetings are listed. Each committee’s hearings and markups are listed in reverse chronological order.79 Agriculture Committee Full Committee, USDA’s Rule Providing for Canadian Beef and Cattle Imports, hearing, March 1, 2005. Armed Services Committee Full Committee, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, markup of H.R. 1815, May18, 2005. Subcommittee on Readiness, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, markup of H.R. 1815, May 12, 2005. Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, markup of H.R. 1815, May 12, 2005. Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, markup of H.R. 1815, May 12, 2005. Subcommittee on Military Personnel, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, markup of H.R. 1815, May 11, 2005. Subcommittee on Projection Forces, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, markup of H.R. 1815, May 11, 2005. 78 79 H.Res. 5, agreed to in the House Jan. 4, 2005; and “Legislative History,” pp. H25-H26. Research on committee meetings was conducted using the U.S. Congressional Committee Meetings Index compiled by the North Carolina State University Libraries. This index is a digest of congressional committee meeting listings contained in the Daily Digest of the Congres s i o n a l R ecord. Available online at [http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/stacks/senatebibs/govBackground.html], visited June 2, 2005. Additional information was obtained from the House committees’ web sites, available at [http://www.house.gov], and the Congressional Record, available at [http://www.congress.gov/]. CRS-102 Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, markup of H.R. 1815, May 11, 2005. Full Committee, Operation Iraqi Freedom/Vehicle Armoring, hearing, May 5, 2005. Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces, DOD Rotorcraft Programs, hearing, April 14, 2005. Subcommittee on Military Personnel, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006, hearing, April 7, 2005. Full Committee, Iraq’s Past, Present, and Future, hearing, April 6, 2005. Subcommittee on Readiness, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Reconstitution of Equipment, hearing, April 6, 2005. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Chemical Weapons Stockpile, hearing, April 6, 2005. Full Committee, Iraq — Current Operations and Political Transition, hearing, March 17, 2005. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Special Operations Command, hearing, March 17, 2005. Full Committee, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Department of the Air Force, hearing, March 16, 2005. Subcommittee on Military Personnel, Military Recruiting/Personnel Needs, hearing, March 16, 2005. Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Future Combat Systems, Modularity, and Force Protection Initiatives, hearing, March 16, 2005. Subcommittee on Projection Forces, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Navy Critical Enablers, hearing, March 15, 2005. Subcommittee on Readiness, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006, hearing, March 15, 2005. Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Missile Defense Programs, hearing, March 15, 2005. CRS-103 Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — DOD Responsibilities in Homeland Defense and Homeland Security Missions, hearing, March 15, 2005. Full Committee, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006, hearing, March 10, 2005. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Defense Science and Technology in Support of the War on Terrorism, hearing, March 10, 2005. Subcommittee on Projection Forces, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Navy’s Future Fleet, hearing, March 10, 2005. Full Committee, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006, hearing, March 9, 2005. Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Space Activities, hearing, March 9, 2005. Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces, DOD — Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Joint Unmanned Combat Air System Investment Programs Budget Request, hearing, March 9, 2005. Subcommittee on Military Personnel, Care of Injured and Wounded Service Members, hearing, March 3, 2005. Subcommittee on Readiness, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006, hearing, March 3, 2005. Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Department of the Navy and Department of the Air Force Aviation Acquisition Programs, hearing, March 3, 2005. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Tactical C-4 Systems, hearing, March 3, 2005. Full Committee, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006, hearing, March 2, 2005. Subcommittee on Projection Forces, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Navy R&D Programs in Support of the War on Terrorism, Naval Transformation, and Future Naval Capabilities, hearing, March 2, 2005. CRS-104 Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Department of Energy on Atomic Energy Defense Activities, hearing, March 2, 2005. Full Committee, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006, hearing, March 2, 2005. Full Committee, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Department of the Navy, hearing, February 17, 2005. Full Committee, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006, hearing, February 16, 2005. Full Committee, National Defense Authorization Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2006 — Department of the Army, hearing, February 9, 2005. Subcommittee on Military Personnel, Armed Forces Adequacy, hearing, February 2, 2005. Energy and Commerce Committee Subcommittee on Health, Pandemic Flu Threat, hearing, May 26, 2005 Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Nuclear Terrorism Threat Reduction, hearing, May 24, 2005. Full Committee, Department of Homeland Security Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, markup of H.R. 1817, May 11, 2005. Full Committee, Flu Season Readiness, hearing, May 4, 2005. Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, DOE Nuclear Facilities — Security Initiatives, hearing, March 18, 2005. Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality, Yucca Mountain Repository, hearing, March 10, 2005. Full Committee, Health Care Priorities for Fiscal Year 2006, hearing, February 17, 2005. Financial Services Committee Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Financial Institutions Detecting Financial Crimes, hearing, May 26, 2005. CRS-105 Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, and Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on International Terrorism and Nonproliferation, Terrorist Financing/Middle Eastern Financial Institutions, joint hearing, May 4, 2005. Subcommittee on Housing and Community Opportunity, National Flood Insurance Program, hearing, April 14, 2005. Full Committee, Miscellaneous Measures (including H.R. 804, amending the national flood insurance program), markup of H.R. 804, March 16, 2005. Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Terrorist Responses to Improved U.S. Financial Defenses, hearing, February 16, 2005. Government Reform Committee Full Committee, Federal Student Loan Program, hearing, May 26, 2005. Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs, Taxpayer Paperwork Burden, hearing, May 25, 2005. Subcommittee on Federalism and the Census, Bringing Community Development Block Grant Program Spending in the 21st Century, hearing, May 24, 2005. Subcommittee on Federal Workforce and Agency Organization, Committee Business (several bills affecting federal employees), markup of H.R. 994, H.R. 1283, and H.R. 1765, and Federal Food Inspection Program, hearing, May 17, 2005. Full Committee, Securing Our Borders, hearing, May 12, 2005. Subcommittee on Government Management, Finance, and Accountability, Freedom of Information Act Implementation, hearing, May 11, 2005. Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and International Relations, Overseas Security, hearing, May 10, 2005. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, DOD Counternarcotics Budget, hearing, May 10, 2005. Full Committee, Miscellaneous Measures (including H.R. 2066, General Services Administration Modernization Act), markup of H.R. 2066, and Roles of FDA and Pharmaceutical Companies in Ensuring the Safety of Approved Drugs, hearing, May 5, 2005. Subcommittee on Government Management, Finance, and Accountability, Department of Justice Financial Management Challenges, hearing, May 4, 2005. Full Committee, Re-examination — Federal Agencies’ Continuity of Operations Plans, hearing, April 28, 2005. CRS-106 Subcommittee on Federalism and the Census, Community Development Block Grant Formula, hearing, April 26, 2005. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, Drug Prevention Programs and the Fiscal Year 2006 Drug Control Budget, hearing, April 26, 2005. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, The National Parks: Will They Survive for Future Generations?, hearing, April 22, 2005. Full Committee, OMB Management Watch List, hearing, April 21, 2005. Subcommittee on Federal Workforce and Agency Organization, Thrift Savings Plan/Real Estate Trusts, hearing, April 19, 2005. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, Federal Health Programs, hearing, April 19, 2005. Full Committee, Miscellaneous Measures (including two government operations bills), markup of H.R. 22 and H.R. 1533, April 13, 2005. Subcommittee on Federal Workforce and Agency Organization, National Security Personnel System, hearing, April 12, 2005. Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs, Impact of Regulation on U.S. Manufacturing, hearing, April 12, 2005. Full Committee, Government Information Security, hearing, April 7, 2005. Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and International Relations, Assessing Anthrax Detection Methods, hearing, April 5, 2005. Subcommittee on Federal Workforce and Agency Organization, Yucca Mountain Project: Have Federal Employees Falsified Documents?, hearing, April 5, 2005. Full Committee, Rethinking the Way GSA Does Business, hearing, March 16, 2005. Subcommittee on Government Management, Finance, and Accountability, Army National Guard Travel Reimbursement Procedures, hearing, March 16, 2005. Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and International Relations, Iraqi Security Forces, hearing, March 14, 2005. Full Committee, Miscellaneous Measures (including H.R. 185, Program Assessment and Results Act), markup of H.R. 185, March 10, 2005. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, Drug Control Budget, hearing, March 10, 2005. CRS-107 Full Committee, Burden of Unfunded Mandates on State, County, and City Governments, hearing, March 8, 2005. Full Committee, Making Networx Work, hearing, March 3, 2005. Subcommittee on Federal Workforce and Agency Organization, Security Personnel System Implementation — Department of Homeland Security, hearing, March 2, 2005. Subcommittee on National Security, Emergency Threats, and International Relations, Emerging Threats — Overclassification and Pseudo-classification of Information, hearing, March 2, 2005. Subcommittee on Government Management, Finance, and Accountability, Protecting Pensions and Ensuring the Solvency of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, hearing, March 2, 2005. Subcommittee on Federalism and the Census, Strengthening Our Communities, hearing, March 1, 2005. Full Committee, Wounded Army Guard Reserve Forces, hearing, February 17, 2005. Full Committee, OMB Management, hearing, February 16, 2005. Subcommittee on Government Management, Finance, and Accountability, Improving Internal Controls — A Review of Changes to OMB Circular A-123, hearing, February 16, 2005. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, Fiscal Year 2006 Drug Budget, hearing, February 10, 2005. Subcommittee on Government Management, Finance, and Accountability, U.S. Government Financial Report, Fiscal Year 2004, hearing, February 9, 2005. Homeland Security Committee Subcommittee on Prevention of Nuclear and Biological Attack, Terrorist Activities — Nuclear Bomb Building, hearing, May 26, 2005. Subcommittee on Intelligence, Information Sharing, and Terrorism Risk Assessment, Agro-Terrorism Threat, hearing, May 25, 2005. Subcommittee on Management, Integration, and Oversight, Border Patrol Agent Training, hearing, May 24, 2005. Subcommittee on Economic Security, Infrastructure Protection, and Cybersecurity, Recreational Boaters Streamlined Inspection Act, hearing, May 19, 2005. CRS-108 Subcommittee on Economic Security, Infrastructure Protection, and Cybersecurity, TSA’s Screening of Airline Pilots, hearing, May 13, 2005. Full Committee, Department of Homeland Security Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, markup, April 27, 2005. Subcommittee on Intelligence, Information Sharing, and Terrorism Risk Assessment, Homeland Security Information Sharing and Enhancement Act of 2005, markup, April 26, 2005. Full Committee, Faster and Smarter Funding for First Responders Act, markup, April 21, 2005. Subcommittee on Economic Security, Infrastructure Protection, and Cybersecurity, Department of Homeland Security Cybersecurity Enhancement Act, hearing and markup, April 20, 2005. Subcommittee on Management, Integration, and Oversight, Homeland Security Department Management Challenges, hearing, April 20, 2005. Subcommittee on Prevention of Nuclear and Biological Attack, Homeland Security Department Nuclear Detection, hearing, April 20, 2005. Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Science, and Technology, Faster and Smarter Funding for First Responders Act, markup, April 19, 2005. Subcommittee on Prevention of Nuclear and Biological Attack, Homeland Security Department Nuclear Detection, hearing, April 19, 2005. Full Committee, First Responder Funding, hearing, April 14, 2005. Subcommittee on Management, Integration, and Oversight, Department of Homeland Security — Strengthen Information Security, hearing, April 14, 2005. Full Committee, Department of Homeland Security — Promoting Risk-Based Prioritization and Management, hearing, April 13, 2005. Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Science, and Technology, First Responders Funding, April 12, 2005. Full Committee, Port and Waterways Security, hearing, March 22, 2005. Subcommittee on Management, Integration, and Oversight, Customs and Border Protection Organizational Structure, hearing, March 9, 2005. Subcommittee on Economic Security, Infrastructure Protection, and Cybersecurity, Proposed FY2006 Budget — Integrating Homeland Security Screening Operations, March 2, 2005. CRS-109 Subcommittee on Intelligence, Information Sharing, and Terrorism Risk Assessment, DHS — Building Information Analysis Capability, hearing, February 16, 2005. Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Science, and Technology, FY2006 Budget Proposal — Enhancing Terrorism Preparedness for First Responders, hearing, February 10, 2005. Intelligence Committee Subcommittee on Terrorism, Human Intelligence Analysis, and CounterIntelligence, Briefing — CIA Humint Training Needs, hearing, May 25, 2005. Full Committee, Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, markup, May 24, 2005. Full Committee, Patriot Act, hearing, May 19, 2005. Full Committee, Patriot Act, hearing, May 11, 2005. Full Committee, General Defense Intelligence Program Budget, hearing, April 14, 2005. Full Committee, FBI Budget, hearing, April 13, 2005. Full Committee, CIA Budget, hearing, April 12, 2005. Full Committee, FY2006 Budget, hearing, March 17, 2005. Full Committee, FY2006 Budget, hearing, March 16, 2005. Full Committee, FY2006 Budget, hearing, March 15, 2005. Full Committee, FY2006 Budget, hearing, March 10, 2005. Full Committee, FY2006 Budget, hearing, March 9, 2005. Full Committee, FY2006 Budget, hearing, March 2, 2005. Full Committee, Security Clearance Process, hearing, February 10, 2005. Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, USA Patriot Act Implementation, hearing, May 26, 2005. CRS-110 Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Claims, Diversity Visa Program, hearing, May 25, 2005. Full Committee, Miscellaneous Measures (including H.R. 2293, providing a special immigrant status to alien translators for the U.S. armed forces), markup, May 18, 2005. Full Committee, Department of Homeland Security Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, markup, May 12, 2005. Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Claims, Illegal Immigration Enforcement and Social Security Protection Act, hearing, May 12, 2005. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, USA Patriot Act Implementation, hearing, May 10, 2005. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, USA Patriot Act Implementation, hearing, May 5, 2005. Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Claims, New “Dual Missions” of the Immigration Enforcement Agencies, hearing, May 5, 2005. Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Claims, New Jobs in Recession and Recovery: Who Are Getting Them and Who Are Not?, hearing, May 4, 2005. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, USA Patriot Act Implementation, hearing, May 3, 2005. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, USA Patriot Act Implementation, hearing, April 28, 2005. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, USA Patriot Act Implementation, hearing, April 26, 2005. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, USA Patriot Act Implementation, hearing, April 21, 2005. Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Claims, Visa Waiver Program, hearing, April 21, 2005. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, USA Patriot Act Implementation, hearing, April 19, 2005. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, USA Patriot Act Implementation, hearing, April 14, 2005. Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Claims, Immigration and Alien Gang Epidemic, hearing, April 13, 2005. CRS-111 Full Committee, Reauthorization of USA Patriot Act, hearing, April 6, 2005. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, Department of Homeland Security and the Security of the Nation’s Seaports and Cargo Entering Those Ports, hearing, March 15, 2005. Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Claims, Interior Immigration Enforcement Resources, hearing, and in addition requesting ICE reports on two private immigration bills, March 10, 2005. Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Claims, Immigration Enforcement Resources, hearing, March 3, 2005. Science Committee Full Committee, Federal R&D Budget Overview, hearing February 16, 2005. Transportation and Infrastructure Committee Full Committee, Miscellaneous Measures (including H.R. 889, Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act), markup, May 18, 2005. Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation, Coast Guard Amendments, hearing, May 12, 2005. Subcommittee on Highways, Transit, and Pipelines, Hazardous Materials Endorsement Background Checks, hearing, May 11, 2005. Subcommittee on Aviation, Financial Condition of Aviation Trust Fund, hearing, May 4, 2005. Subcommittee on Railroads, New Technologies for Rail Safety and Security, hearing, April 28, 2005. Full Committee, Miscellaneous Measures (including H.R. 1496, returning general aviation to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport), markup of H.R. 1496, April 27, 2005. Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation, Deepwater Implementation, hearing, April 20, 2005. Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings, and Emergency Management, National Preparedness System, hearing, April 14, 2005. Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation, Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act, markup, April 13, 2005. CRS-112 Subcommittee on Aviation, Lasers — A Hazard to Aviation Safety and Security?, hearing, March 15, 2005. Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation, FY2006 Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Budget, hearing, March 3, 2005. Full Committee, Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users, markup of H.R. 3, March 2, 2005. Ways and Means Committee Full Committee, World Trade Organization Withdrawal, markup of H.J.Res. 27, May 24, 2005. Subcommittee on Trade, World Trade Organization’s Future, hearing, May 17, 2005. Full Committee, Implementation of the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement, hearing, April 21, 2005. Full Committee, Highway-Related Taxes and Trust Funds Amendments, markup, March 3, 2005.