Architect of the Capitol: Appointment, Duties, and Current Issues

Order Code RL32820 Architect of the Capitol: Appointment, Duties, and Current Issues Updated October 16, 2008 Mildred Amer Specialist on the Congress Government and Finance Division Architect of the Capitol: Appointment, Duties, and Current Issues Summary The office of Architect of the Capitol (AOC) dates from 1793, when construction of the Capitol building began. The responsibilities of the office have grown substantially over time. In recent years, changes have also taken place in management and staffing policies. The AOC is appointed by the President and subject to Senate confirmation. Alan M. Hantman, FAIA, the most recent Architect, served from January 30, 1997, to February 4, 2007. Pursuant to law, he was confirmed for a 10year term. He declined to seek reappointment. Stephen T. Ayers, AIA, currently serves as Acting Architect of the Capitol until a permanent successor is installed. A bicameral congressional advisory commission is required to recommend to the President at least three candidates to fill the vacant AOC post. By law, the Architect, supported by such staff as may be authorized by Congress, operates and maintains the buildings and grounds of the Capitol complex. The AOC is a member of the Capitol Police Board, participates in reviews of Capitol Hill security, and his staff implements the various security enhancements in the Capitol complex. The AOC also supervises all construction and improvements to the Capitol complex, including the new Capitol Visitor Center (CVC). The 110th Congress faces a number of issues dealing with the Architect of the Capitol and the responsibilities of the office. Among them are the following: ! ! ! ! appointing of a new AOC to fill the currently vacant position; completing, opening, managing, and administering the new CVC; reducing energy consumption within the Capitol complex to help conserve natural resources and reduce costs; and addressing the health effects on workers said to be associated with the deterioration of steam and chilled water tunnels on Capitol Hill. In addition, the House and Senate have passed H.R. 5159 to establish the Office of the Capitol Visitor Center within the Office of the Architect of the Capitol. This measure is awaiting the President’s signature. This office is to be headed by the Chief Executive Officer for Visitor Services to manage and administer the CVC. On July 30, 2008, H.R. 6656, the Architect of the Capitol Appointment Act, was introduced to require that the AOC be appointed by the leadership of Congress rather than the President. This report discusses the responsibilities of the AOC, traces the statutory evolution of the office, summarizes the status of current and recent projects, and reviews selected issues before the 110th Congress. An appendix provides websites for biographical information about each of the persons who have served as Architect of the Capitol. The report will be updated as changing circumstances warrant. See also CRS Report RL31121, The Capitol Visitor Center: An Overview, by Stephen Stathis. Contents Responsibilities of the Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Overview of Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Responsibilities on the House Side of the Capitol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Responsibilities on the Senate Side of the Capitol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Statutory Evolution of the Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Current and Recent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Selected Issues in the 110th Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Appointment of a New Architect of the Capitol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Completion and Opening of the Capitol Visitor Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Management of the Capitol Visitor Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Hazards in the Capitol’s Utility Tunnel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 “Greening” the Capitol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Statutory Inspector General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Appendix. Architects of the Capitol Since 1793 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Architect of the Capitol: Appointment, Duties, and Current Issues The Architect of the Capitol (AOC) is an office nearly as old as the federal government. With the exception of a 22-year period from June 25, 1829 to June 11, 1851, the office has existed under various names since 1793.1 The AOC is responsible to Congress for “the maintenance, operation, development, and preservation of the United States Capitol Complex, which includes the Capitol, the congressional office buildings, the Library of Congress buildings, the Supreme Court building, the U.S. Botanic Garden, the Capitol Power Plant, and other facilities.”2 The AOC carries out its bicameral, nonpartisan responsibilities using its own staff and its contracting authority for architectural, engineering, and other professional services.3 The AOC reports on projects and operations to six separate congressional panels, as well as to several other entities on other issues.4 Statutory authorization for the Architect’s work falls primarily under the jurisdiction of four congressional standing committees (House Administration, House Transportation and Infrastructure, Senate Environment and Public Works, and Senate Rules and Administration). Several other House and Senate committees, commissions, boards, 1 The term “Architect of the Capitol” also refers to some of the early occupants of the office who were known as “Surveyor of the Public Buildings” or “Superintendent of the Capitol.” For more information, see William Allen, History of the United States Capitol (Washington: GPO, 2001), pp. 27, 50-51, 398, and 400-401. 2 Architect of the Capitol, “About Us,” available at [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/index.cfm]. The legal responsibilities of the Architect of the Capitol are dispersed through several titles of the United States Code. References to AOC duties are included in Title II (Congress), Title V (Government Organization and Employees), Title XXXVI (Patriotic Societies and Observances), Title XL (Public Buildings, Property, and Works), Title XLI (Public Contracts), and Title XLII (Public Health and Welfare). 3 The Architect’s principal office is located in Room SB-15 of the Capitol. Additional information about services performed by the office can be obtained at 202-228-1793 and at the website of the Architect [http://www.aoc.gov]. 4 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2000, hearings, 106th Cong., 1st sess., Feb. 3, 1999 (Washington: GPO, 1999), pp. 385, 404. These include the House and Senate Appropriations Committees as well as the House Administration Committee, the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, and the Senate Rules and Administration Committee. CRS-2 and other entities supervise specific functions. Funding for the AOC’s office comes primarily from appropriations acts for the legislative branch.5 The 110th Congress faces several issues concerning the Architect of the Capitol and matters for which the office is responsible. Among them are the following: ! ! ! ! appointing a new AOC to fill the currently vacant position; completing, opening, managing, and administering the new CVC; reducing energy consumption within the Capitol complex to help conserve natural resources, reduce costs, and protect the environment; and addressing the health effects on workers associated with the deterioration of steam and chilled water tunnels on Capitol Hill. To assist Congress in its consideration of those issues, this report discusses the responsibilities of the AOC, traces the statutory evolution of the office, summarizes the status of current and recent projects, and reviews selected issues pending before the 110th Congress. An appendix provides websites for brief biographical information about each of the 10 individuals who have served as Architect of the Capitol. Responsibilities of the Office The Architect, whose current salary is $167,800 per annum,6 heads an office that employs a workforce of approximately 2,200 people, including an executive team of a deputy architect/chief operating officer,7 a chief administrative officer, a chief 5 Other funding sources represent a small share of total funding. For example, funding for the AOC’s responsibilities with respect to the Supreme Court and the Federal Judicial Center comes from the Financial Services and General Government appropriations bill. 6 Pursuant to P.L. 107-68, §129, 115 Stat. 579, the salary of the Architect of the Capital is equal to the lesser of the salaries of the Sergeant at Arms of the House or the Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper of the Senate. 7 In 2003, Congress created the post of deputy architect/chief operating officer (COO), who was to “be responsible to the AOC for the overall direction, operation, and management of the Office of the AOC, including implementing the office’s goals and missions; providing overall organization management to improve the office’s performance.” (P.L. 108-7 § 1203, 117 Stat. 373) Subsequently, in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005 (P.L. 108-447), Congress eliminated funding for the deputy architect’s office because of conferees’ concern that “little had been accomplished through the then-new Chief Operating Officer.” To replace the deputy architect/COO, the conferees directed the AOC to contract with a private sector executive search firm to recruit a new individual. They further directed that a panel composed of the comptroller general, public printer, chief administrative officer of the House, a designee from the office of the Senate Sergeant at Arms, and the Architect of the Capitol review the applicants and forward a recommendation on at least three applicants to the AOC for his review. U.S. Congress, House, Making Appropriations for Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2005, and for Other Purposes, conference report to accompany H.R. 4818, H.Rept. 108-792 (Washington: GPO, 2004), p. 1349. In October 2005, Stephen Ayers was appointed (continued...) CRS-3 financial officer, an inspector general, and other senior management officials.8 A substantial number of individuals in skilled craft and trade positions are part of the AOC workforce. Overview of Responsibilities The AOC is charged with the operation, maintenance, and improvement of the U.S. Capitol and adjacent buildings and grounds — some 400 acres of land and 15 million square feet of building floor area in the Capitol building, the House and Senate office buildings, Library of Congress buildings, the Supreme Court, the House and Senate page residence facilities, the Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary Building, the Capitol Power Plant, all Capitol Police facilities, and the Robert A. Taft Memorial. Further, the Architect oversees the superintendents of the House and Senate office buildings. The Architect is also responsible for the planning and development of the Capitol Visitor Center, security improvements within the Capitol complex, conservation and care of art in the Capitol, and physical arrangements for both the presidential inauguration and other ceremonies and concerts held in the buildings or on the grounds. He is acting director of the Botanic Garden, under the supervision of the Joint Committee on the Library. The Architect serves as a member of the Capitol Police Board and the Capitol Guide Board (in both cases with the House and Senate Sergeants at Arms). Appropriations for the Office of the Architect include salaries for employees in the congressional flag office, House and Senate fitness centers, and House and Senate health service facilities.9 The Architect also has authority to acquire and lease warehouse space, and directs the master plan for future development of the Capitol Complex. Preservation and care of art in the Capitol is also overseen by the Architect, under the direction of the Joint Committee on the Library. The display of works of 7 (...continued) as the acting deputy architect/COO. In March 2006, following an interview process before a selection panel composed of the chief administrative officer of the House of Representatives, the comptroller general, the Senate Sergeant at Arms, and senior AOC officials, Mr. Ayers was selected as the deputy architect/COO. Pursuant to P.L. 108-7, §1203(h), the deputy architect is paid at a rate not to exceed $1,500 less than the annual rate of pay for the AOC. Mr. Ayers also currently serves as the Acting Architect of the Capitol. 8 Conversation on September 12, 2007, with Eva Malecki, AOC communications officer; and U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2007, hearings, 109th Cong., 2nd sess., Mar. 14, 2006 (Washington: GPO, 2006), p. 673. These positions include 12 positions at a salary not to exceed the highest rate for the Senior Executive Service (currently $191,300), and nine positions not to exceed 135% of the minimum rate payable for GS-15 of the General Schedule (currently $128,776). See 2 U.S.C. 1849. 9 The health service facilities are available to Members, staff, and tourists who visit the Capitol. CRS-4 art in the House side of the Capitol and House office buildings is a responsibility of the Architect, subject to direction (in consultation with the House Office Building Commission) from the House Fine Arts Board, whose members are also the House members of the Joint Committee on the Library. Comparable authority for the Senate is lodged with the Senate Commission on Art. The Architect is also an ex-officio member of the Capitol Preservation Commission. The AOC is responsible for implementing the Congressional Accountability Act (P.L. 104-1, 109 Stat. 3) as it applies to workers under his jurisdiction. He must implement labor, worker safety, and environmental requirements and respond to related labor-management issues. Pursuant to the Americans With Disabilities Act (P.L. 101-336, 104 Stat. 327), the AOC implements the removal of architectural barriers throughout the Capitol complex. Responsibilities of the AOC that extend beyond the Capitol buildings and grounds include providing maintenance, repair, and reconstruction services for the Supreme Court building and grounds, including the Oliver Wendell Holmes gardens and the Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary Building. These responsibilities are carried out under the supervision of the Chief Justice. Also, under the supervision of the Chief Justice, the Architect may lease unused judicial building space to other federal agencies. The Architect serves on the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, District of Columbia Zoning Commission, National Capital Memorial Commission, National Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Property, and Art Advisory Committee to the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Responsibilities on the House Side of the Capitol The operations, maintenance, and repair of the House side of the Capitol and the House office buildings are under the authority of the AOC, subject to direction from the Speaker and the House Office Building Commission, consisting of the Speaker and the House majority and minority leaders. The Committee on House Administration also has oversight over the AOC with regard to administrative matters affecting the House side of the Capitol. The Architect previously served as a member of the House Page Board, which directs the House page program, dormitory, and school, but he was formally removed from the board with the enactment of the FY1999 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act.10 The Architect is in charge of elevator operators on the House side of the Capitol and the Rayburn Building subway system. He manages the revolving fund account for the operation of the House Wellness Center (fitness center) and is also responsible for the Capitol Power Plant, subject to direction by the House Office Building Commission. The power plant provides heating and cooling service not only to House office buildings and the House side of the Capitol, but also to the Senate office buildings, Library of Congress, Supreme Court, Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary Building, Union Station, Folger Shakespeare Library, Government Printing 10 P.L. 105-275, 112 Stat. 2438. CRS-5 Office, and the former District of Columbia Main Post Office, now called Postal Square. Responsibilities on the Senate Side of the Capitol Responsibility for the maintenance, repair, and reconstruction of the Senate side of the Capitol and the Senate office buildings is exercised by the Architect, under direction of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration. Other duties include staffing, supervision, and management of the Senate health and fitness facility and parking garages; construction and maintenance of the subway system linking the Capitol with the Senate office buildings; and maintenance of the Daniel Webster Senate Page Residence and School. Moreover, under the direction of the Sergeant at Arms, the Architect supervises leased space for the Senate computer center and the service department in the Postal Square Building adjacent to Union Station. Since August 1961, Senate restaurant operations have been under the jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol. Pursuant to P.L. 87-822, the management of the Senate restaurants was transferred from the Committee on Rules and Administration to the Architect.11 Moreover, under the Architect’s management, Senate restaurant employees have been afforded all benefits associated with federal government employment.12 The provisions of the 1961 Act also allow the Committee on Rules and Administration to remove the restaurants from the Architect’s jurisdiction. Accordingly, during the 110th Congress, the chair and ranking Member of the committee authorized the AOC to enter into a contract with a private entity for the operation of the Senate restaurant system.13 This was done after legislation was enacted to continue federal benefits for certain Senate restaurant employees.14 The change is expected by the end of 2008. Statutory Evolution of the Office The origins of the office of the AOC can be traced to the Residence Act of 1790 (1 Stat. 130), which authorized a presidential commission to oversee the creation of the city of Washington and the construction of the first government buildings.15 The 11 2 U.S.C. § 2042. 12 See CRS Report RL34495, Continuation of Employment Benefits for Senate Restaurant Employees, by Jacob Straus. 13 Conversation with an official of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, Oct. 7, 2008; and Emily Yehle, “Senate Restaurants Poised For Privatized Ownership,” Roll Call, June 5, 2008, pp. 1, 42. 14 P.L. 110-279, 122 Stat. 2604, July 17, 2008. 15 Unpublished document: “The Architects of the Capitol Since 1793,” by William Allen, (continued...) CRS-6 act, which also laid the foundation for the AOC’s responsibilities for the oversight of the Capitol building, authorized the President to appoint three commissioners for as long as necessary “to provide suitable buildings for the accommodation of Congress.”16 In 1793, these commissioners staged a competition for the design of the Capitol. The winner was Dr. William Thornton, an amateur architect who was born in the West Indies and educated in Scotland. He received $500 and a city lot. Architect Stephen Hallet also submitted a competitive design. At the request of the three commissioners, he revised his proposal extensively. To recognize Hallet’s substantial work on his submission, the commission decided to award Hallet the same prize as the winner.17 Hallet was subsequently hired to supervise the construction of the Capitol. However, Dr. Thornton is honored as the “first architect” of the Capitol because his design was accepted by President George Washington in 1793.18 Dr. Thornton held no government position as a result of winning the architectural competition. In March 1803, President Jefferson created the temporary position of “Surveyor of Public Buildings” to oversee repairs and construction of the Capitol building and appointed Benjamin Latrobe, an architect and engineer who is considered the second Architect of the Capitol.19 He served until 1811, when construction funds were depleted. He was rehired in 1815 to serve as “architect in charge of Capitol repairs” following the British burning of the Capitol in 1814. He resigned in 1817 and was replaced by Charles Bulfinch, who was appointed by the commissioner of public buildings (with the approval of the President) and served until 1829 when the Capitol and its landscape were “declared complete.” The services of an architect were no longer needed, and the position was eliminated.20 Although Congress abolished the office in 1828 (4 Stat. 266), the President was authorized to continue the office long enough to complete the work on the Capitol building already in progress (4 Stat. 363). The duties of the office were then transferred to the commissioner of public buildings and grounds, who also had responsibility for other public buildings in the city of Washington. When Congress made the decision to extend the north and south wings of the Capitol in 1850, the Architect’s office was reestablished, with the President given the authority of making the appointment (9 Stat. 538). Thomas Walter, the next Architect of the Capitol, was appointed in 1851, although the commissioner of public buildings 15 (...continued) staff historian in the office of the AOC. Available from the author of this CRS report. 16 Ibid. 17 Pamela Scott, “Stephen Hallet’s Designs for the United States Capitol,” Winterthur Portfolio, vol. 27 (Summer - Autumn 1992), p. 147. 18 Unpublished document: “History of the Office of Architect of the Capitol,” by William Allen, staff historian in the office of the AOC. Available from the author of this CRS report. 19 Ibid. 20 Ibid. CRS-7 continued to care for the existing building and grounds. Subsequent acts frequently referred to the “Architect of the Capitol” or to the “Architect of the Capitol Extension.” On August 15, 1876, Congress transferred the duties performed by the commissioner of public buildings and grounds related to the Architect of the Capitol and provided permanent authority for the care of the Capitol. That enactment delegated to the Architect responsibility for the “care and superintendence of the Capitol including, lighting, and [required him to] submit through the Secretary of the Interior, estimates thereof.” It also provided that “all the duties relative to the Capitol building heretofore performed by the Commissioner of public buildings and grounds, shall hereafter be performed by the Architect of the Capitol, whose office shall be in the Capitol Building” (19 Stat. 147). Subsequently, the Urgent Deficiency Appropriations Act for 1902 changed the title of the office to “Superintendent of the Capitol Building and Grounds.” It assigned to the position all the power and authority previously exercised by the Architect of the Capitol, and once again the appointment was to be made by the President. Under the act, “no change in the architectural features of the Capitol building or the landscape features of the Capitol grounds shall be made except on plans to be approved by Congress.” (32 Stat. 20) In 1921, Congress restored the title of the office to “Architect of the Capitol,” which it remains (41 Stat. 1291). Current and Recent Projects Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the later discovery of anthrax spores on Capitol Hill, the AOC was involved in a series of high-profile activities. These included major security improvements within the Capitol complex, and the relocation of congressional employees during remediation of anthrax contamination in several congressional office buildings.21 These activities were undertaken through the AOC’s managerial responsibilities over the Capitol complex as well as through his membership on the Capitol Police Board, which oversees security in the Capitol complex. In addition to the construction of the Capitol Visitor Center, the renovation of the U.S. Botanic Garden Conservatory, and the construction of the National Garden, the office of the AOC has been involved in numerous other projects throughout the Capitol complex, including restoration of the West Central Front of the Capitol and of the Olmstead Terraces, rehabilitation and inspection of the Capitol Dome, maintenance of the Statue of Freedom, the Supreme Court modernization project, and 21 Statement of Rep. Charles Taylor, chairman, House Legislative Branch Appropriations Subcommittee, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2003, hearings, 107th Cong., 2nd sess., Apr. 25, 2002 (Washington: GPO, 2002), p. 359. See also “Senate Offices Refumigated But Still Closed,” The New York Times, Jan. 1, 2002, p. A12; and Ben Pershing, “Anthrax Fears Sweep Hill,” Roll Call, October 18, 2001, p. 3. CRS-8 maintenance and improvements to all of the other buildings under the Architect’s jurisdiction.22 Finally, the AOC staff, which maintains the historic Lincoln catafalque, prepared the Capitol and coordinated with the congressional leadership for the events surrounding the lying in state of President Ronald Reagan in 2004 and President Gerald Ford in 2007 and the lying in honor of civil rights activist Rosa Parks in 2005. Selected Issues in the 110th Congress The 110th Congress is faced with a number of issues concerning the Architect of the Capitol and matters for which the office is responsible. Some of the most important issues are discussed below. Appointment of a New Architect of the Capitol On July 31, 2006, AOC Alan Hantman, FAIA,23 announced his intention to leave office. On February 4, 2007, he retired from the position after 10 years of service. Currently, the position of the AOC is vacant. Deputy AOC/Chief Operating Officer, Stephen T. Ayers, AIA, is serving as Acting Architect.24 Prior to 1989, the Architect was selected by the President for an unlimited term without any formal action by Congress. On November 21, 1989, a provision in the FY1990 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act revised this procedure, empowering the President to nominate the AOC for a 10-year term, subject to the advice and consent of the Senate.25 The 1989 act created a bicameral congressional advisory commission to recommend to the President at least three candidates for the AOC post. The advisory commission is composed of the Speaker of the House, the President pro tempore of the Senate, and the majority and minority leaders of both houses, as well as the chairs and ranking members of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, Committee on House Administration, and House and Senate Committees on Appropriations.26 The 1989 act also required the then-incumbent Architect, George White, FAIA, to be reconfirmed (if he chose to remain in office) no later than November 21, 1995, the sixth anniversary of the enactment of the statute. White chose to retire on that date. 22 Testimony of Allan Hantman, architect of the Capitol, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2007, hearings, 109th Cong., 2nd sess., Mar. 14, 2006 (Washington: GPO, 2006), pp. 477-785; and [http://www.aoc.gov/projects/index.cfm]. 23 FAIA denotes an individual who is a fellow of the American Institute of Architects. 24 [http://www.aoc.gov]; and Elizabeth Brotherton and John McArdle, “Next Architect ‘10 to 14 Months’ Away,” Roll Call, Feb. 1, 2007, pp. 1, 20. Note: AIA designates an individual who is a member of the American Institute of Architects. 25 26 P.L. 101-163, 103 Stat. 1068, 40 U.S.C. §162-1. Appropriations Committee members were added to the commission in 1995 by P.L. 104-19, 109 Stat. 220. CRS-9 When the prospect of a vacancy arose in 1995, concerns were voiced about the criteria for selecting a new AOC — concerns that parallel those heard today. Questions were raised within and outside Congress and in the media whether the new AOC needed to be a licensed architect and whether professional management training and experience were needed. Some argued that “because of their training and work experience, architects have extensive practical skills in creative management solutions, so the decision shouldn’t have to come down to a choice between an architect and a manager: Architects are management experts.”27 The American Institute of Architects (AIA), then as now, expressed its preferences for a licensed architect with experience in management, procurement, and historic restoration.28 In 1995, according to press accounts, the AIA sent congressional leaders a list of nine potential AOC nominees for consideration.29 On January 6, 1997, President Clinton, the first President to make an appointment under the new AOC succession law, nominated Alan Hantman, who became the first Architect subject to Senate confirmation.30 At the time, Hantman was vice president for architecture, planning, and construction for the Rockefeller Center Management Corporation and manager of the New York City Rockefeller Complex. During his confirmation hearings before the Senate Rules and Administration Committee, he heard complaints about the Capitol complex, from the “unsightly security barriers to the Capitol’s poorly designed additions.”31 Other concerns centered on additional security issues, the way tourists line up to visit the Capitol, the newly designed meeting rooms on the “C” level of the Capitol, and privatization of the AOC’s workforce.32 Hantman was confirmed by the Senate on January 30, 1997.33 During Hantman’s service, GAO and others criticized the office of the AOC for its management practices, rising costs and missed deadlines associated with the Capitol Visitor Center (CVC) and other projects, and alleged health and safety violations in the utility tunnels beneath the Capitol complex.34 The House-passed 27 Bruce Wentworth [architect/guest observer], “New Architect Should Be Both A Manager And An Expert Builder,” Roll Call, June 1, 1995, p. 5. 28 Juliet Eilperin, “Nine Architects Make Short List,” Roll Call, Apr. 27, 1995, pp. 1, 16 29 Juliet Eilperin, “Search for Architect’s Successor Pits Management Experts vs. Visionaries,” Roll Call, May 8, 1995, pp. 1, 42. 30 U.S. President (Clinton), “Nominations Submitted to the Senate, Week Ending Friday, Jan. 10, 1997,” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, vol. 33, no. 2, Jan. 13, 1997, p. 34. 31 Juliet Eilperin, “Architect to Nix Cars on the East Front,” Roll Call, Jan. 30, 1997, pp. 1, 16. 32 Ibid. 33 Congressional Record, vol. 143, Jan. 30, 1997, pp. 1305-1307. 34 See, for example, testimony of David M. Walker, comptroller general, U.S. General Accounting Office, before the Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the (continued...) CRS-10 version of the FY2007 Legislative Branch Appropriations bill (H.R. 5521) contained a provision to strip Hantman of his responsibilities and give them to the comptroller general or his designee:35 Sec. 210. For fiscal year 2007 only, all authorities previously exercised by the Architect of the Capitol, including but not limited to the execution and supervision of contracts; and the hiring, supervising, training, and compensation of employees, shall be vested in the Comptroller General of the United States or his designee: Provided, That this delegation of authority shall terminate with the confirmation of a new Architect of the Capitol. This provision illustrated the frustration of many in Congress over the perceived management deficiencies of the AOC. Although the language was included in H.R. 5521 when it passed the House in June 2006, it did not become law since the bill never came to a vote in the Senate. To fill the current AOC vacancy, the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and others urge the selection of a licensed architect.36 The AIA also announced that it has issued a petition asking Congress to choose a licensed professional architect as the next AOC.37 Others 34 (...continued) Legislative Branch, Priority Attention Needed to Manage Schedules and Contracts, GAO report GAO-05-714T (Washington: May 17, 2005); U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Progress of Construction of the Capitol Visitors Center, 2005, hearings, 109th Cong., 1st sess., May 17, 2005 (Washington: GPO, 2005), pp. 9-11; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, 2007, report to accompany H.R. 5521, 109th Cong., 2nd sess., H.Rept. 109-485 (Washington: GPO, 2006), pp. 15-16, 25-26, 49-51; U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2007, report to accompany H.R. 5521, 109th Cong., 2nd sess, S.Rept. 109-267 (Washington: GPO, 2006), pp. 29, 34; Jackie Kucinich, “GAO Faults AOC Management for Rising Costs, Delays in Projects,” The Hill, Sept. 22, 2005, p. 4; John McArdle, “Hantman Leaves Mixed Legacy,” Roll Call, August 2, 2006, pp. 1, 14; Jackie Kucinich, “The Architect Strikes Back,” The Hill, June 28, 2006, p. 3; and “Manager Wanted” (editorial), The Hill, August 2, 2006, p. 16. 35 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2007, report to accompany H.R. 5521, 109th Cong., 2nd sess., H.Rept. 109-485 (Washington: GPO, 2006), pp. 49-50; and John McArdle, “Hantman Fight Overshadows Leg. Branch Bill,” Roll Call, May 30, 2006, p. 3. 36 American Institute of Architects, “The Architect of the Capitol Should be an Architect,” [http://www.aia.org/aoc]. See also “Tell the President to Choose an Architect,” The Angle, vol. 5, no. 22, Oct. 11, 2007, [http://www.aia.org/aoc_angle]; Reps. Earl Blumenauer and Phil English, “Architect Should be Selected for AOC Position” (editorial), Roll Call, June 5, 2007, p. 4; and John McArdle, “Finalist for AOC’s Top Job Delivered to President Bush,” Roll Call, August 13, 2007, pp. 3, 35. 37 American Institute of Architects, “The Architect of the Capitol Should be an Architect,” [http://www.aia.org/aoc]. The petition is available at [http://www.aia.org/aoc_petition]. CRS-11 request that the AOC nominee have a strong background in management because the job responsibilities are broader than building design and construction.38 Congress has long recognized the breadth and complexity of the AOC’s responsibilities. The AOC is the only joint administrative officer of Congress with direct management responsibilities over aspects of the internal operations of the legislative branch. The position requires a knowledge of historic preservation while managing the care, security, modernization, and improvements of the existing buildings in the Capitol complex (including the surrounding grounds and the art collections inside); managing new construction, including the letting of contracts; and managing a large workforce while following labor, fair hiring, and other workplace-related laws. The AOC administers medical services and employs the nursing staff who work with the Office of Attending Physician in providing care to Members, staff, and visitors. All of that must be done within budget constraints of funds appropriated by Congress. Thus, the AOC must be able to perform a variety of duties not ordinarily associated with typical architectural practice.39 Outgoing AOC Alan Hantman stated after he had announced his retirement: The job of the AOC is clearly more than just blueprints ... [the AOC] has to be somebody who has a real sense of stewardship, a sense of history in the place and pride in the place, and a sense of what facilities management is all about. They would have to understand that we are here to serve Congress.… Whoever the person is, they need to be a good communicator.40 When Hantman decided not to seek reappointment, his departure was the impetus for a commission, required by the 1989 act, to begin the process to recommend replacement candidates to the President. Although there have been no formal congressional announcements, press accounts have reported that Congress submitted the required list of three names to the President, who must then forward the name of one candidate to the Senate for confirmation.41 On October 24, 2007, however, a press report said that one of the three candidates submitted by Congress 38 See, for example, the statement of Rep. Zach Wamp, ranking member of the House Legislative Branch Appropriations Subcommittee, in U.S. Congress, House Legislative Branch Appropriations Subcommittee, Capitol Visitor Center, hearings, 110th Cong., 1st sess., July 31, 2007 (not yet published); John McArdle, “More Problems Prompt Effort to Revamp AOC,” Roll Call, August 2, 2007, pp. 3, 24; and “Architect Should be Selected for AOC Position” (editorial), Roll Call, June 5, 2007, p. 4. 39 Paul S. Rundquist, statement before the Senate Rules and Administration Committee, unpublished hearings, February 29, 1996. During hearings to review the operations of the AOC, Dr. Rundquist discussed the then-new selection process for the AOC and the potential criteria for the nomination and confirmation of a new Architect. Statement available from the author of this CRS report. 40 John McArdle, “Hantman’s Present Reflected in AOC Past,” Roll Call, August 14, 2006, pp. 1, 18. 41 John McArdle, “Members to Begin AOC Search in Lame Duck,” Roll Call, Oct. 17, 2006, pp. 3, 12; and John McArdle, “Finalist for AOC’s Top Job Delivered to President Bush,” Roll Call, August 13, 2007, pp. 3, 35. CRS-12 had withdrawn his name from consideration and that the bicameral congressional commission would need to identify a replacement candidate. A spokesman for the Senate Rules and Administration Committee is reported to have said, “The commission is evaluating the best way to proceed.”42 Subsequently, another press report indicated that a new Architect would unlikely be chosen before the expected December 2008 opening of the CVC.43 When the President’s nomination is sent for Senate advice and consent, it is likely to be referred to the Senate Rules and Administration Committee. On July 30, 2008, the Architect of the Capitol Appointment Act of 2008 (H.R. 6656) was introduced to shift the appointment of the AOC from the President to the congressional leadership.44 Under this measure, AOC would still serve a 10-year term. Completion and Opening of the Capitol Visitor Center Since 1991, Congress has discussed the need to enhance the experience and comfort of Capitol tourists and to strengthen security around the Capitol. Pursuant to that discussion and subsequent authorization, the AOC and his staff were charged with the design, all aspects of procurement, and construction of a new Capitol Visitor Center (CVC).45 Congressional leaders broke ground for the subterranean CVC on June 20, 2000. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the discovery of anthrax spores in congressional office buildings, and the identification of additional congressional requirements have led to numerous changes and additional costs for the CVC. The price has steadily increased beyond the original plans, and the opening has been postponed several times. Some Members of Congress, GAO, and the press have criticized the AOC because of the delays and increasing costs.46 These problems 42 Howard Gantman, staff director of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, quoted in Elizabeth Brotherton, “AOC Selection Process Takes Step Backward,” Roll Call, Oct. 24, 2007, p. 1. 43 Elizabeth Brotherton, “With AOC Selection on Hold, Ayers Steps Up,” Roll Call, Feb. 4, 2008, pp. 3, 24. 44 The leadership specified in this legislation includes the Speaker of the House, the majority leader of the Senate, the minority leaders of the House and Senate, and the chairs and ranking members of the congressional committees with jurisdiction over the AOC. 45 For more information on the CVC project, see CRS Report RL31121, The Capitol Visitor Center: An Overview, by Stephen Stathis. 46 See, for example, testimony of David M. Walker, comptroller general, U.S. General Accounting Office, before the Senate Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Priority Attention Needed to Manage Schedules and Contracts, GAO report GAO-05-714T (Washington: May 17, 2005); U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Progress of Construction of the Capitol Visitor Center, 2005, hearings, 109th Cong., 1st sess., May 17, 2005 (Washington: GPO, 2005), pp. 9-11; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, 2007, report to accompany H.R. 5521, 109th Cong., 2nd sess., H.Rept. 109-485 (Washington: GPO, 2006), pp. 15-16, 25-26, 49-51; U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2007, report to (continued...) CRS-13 are reported to be among the reasons Alan Hantman did not seek reappointment as AOC.47 During a hearing before the House Legislative Branch Appropriations Subcommittee, on September 25, 2007, Stephen Ayers, Acting AOC, and Terrell G. Dorn from GAO, announced that they had reached a consensus on the opening and cost of the CVC.48 The opening is approximately to be in December 2008 at a cost of $621 million.49 Management of the Capitol Visitor Center On March 5, 2008, the House passed H.R. 5159, the Capitol Visitor Center Act of 2008.50 The bill calls for the establishment of the Office of the Capitol Visitor Center within the Office of the Architect of the Capitol. The office, which is to be headed by the Chief Executive Officer for Visitor Services, is to provide for the 46 (...continued) accompany H.R. 5521, 109th Cong., 2nd sess, S.Rept. 109-267 (Washington: GPO, 2006), pp. 29, 34; Jackie Kucinich, “GAO Faults AOC Management for Rising Costs, Delays in Projects,” The Hill, Sept. 22, 2005, p. 4; John McArdle, “Hantman Leaves Mixed Legacy,” Roll Call, Aug. 2, 2006, pp. 1, 14; Jackie Kucinich, “The Architect Strikes Back,” The Hill, June 28, 2006, p. 3; “Manager Wanted” (editorial), The Hill, Aug. 2, 2006, p. 16; John McArdle, “AOC Takes More Heat on the CVC,” Roll Call, Oct. 19, 2005, p. 3; Jackie Kucinich, “Sen. Allard Says Architects’s Reputation Is On the Line On CVC,” The Hill, Oct. 19, 2005, p. 3; Daphne Retter, “Vote To Strip Architect’s Office of Power Underscores Ire Over the Visitor’s Center,” CQ Today, May 26, 2006, p. 6. 47 John McArdle, “Hantman Leaves Mixed Legacy,” Roll Call, August 2, 2006, pp. 1, 14. 48 Testimony of Stephen T. Ayers, acting Architect of the Capitol, and Terrell G. Dorn, director of physical infrastructure issues, Government Accountability Office, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Capitol Visitor Center, hearings, 110th Cong., 1st sess., Sept. 25, 2007 (not yet published). See also U.S. Government Accountability Office, Capitol Visitor Center: Update on Status of Project’s Schedule and Cost as of September 25, 2007, GAO-07-1249T, Sept. 25, 2007, pp. 2-5; and Elizabeth Brotherton, “It’s a Deal: Visitor Center to Open in 2008,” Roll Call, Sept. 26, 2007, pp. 3, 17. 49 [http://www.aoc.gov/cvc/upload/Fact_Sheet_opening_date_07_08.pdf], visited July 31, 2008; testimony of Stephen T. Ayers, acting Architect of the Capitol, and Terrell G. Dorn, director of physical infrastructure issues, Government Accountability Office, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Capitol Visitor Center, hearings, 110th Cong., 1st sess., Sept. 25, 2007 (not yet published). See also U.S. Government Accountability Office, Capitol Visitor Center: Update on Status of Project’s Schedule and Cost as of September 25, 2007, GAO-07-1249T, Sept. 25, 2007, pp. 2-5; and Elizabeth Brotherton, “It’s a Deal: Visitor Center to Open in 2008,” Roll Call, Sept. 26, 2007, pp. 3, 17. 50 “Capitol Visitor Center Act of 2008,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 154, Mar. 5, 2008, pp. H1249-H1254. CRS-14 effective management and administration of the Capitol Visitor Center.51 This measure, which does not affect the role of the office of the AOC in maintaining the CVC facility, also transfers the Capitol Guide Service to the Office of the CVC and establishes the Office of Congressional Accessibility Services to coordinate the services for Members of Congress, staff, and visitors to the Capitol who have disabilities.52 The Senate passed H.R. 5159 on September 27, 2008, after substituting its own language.53 On October 2, 2008, the House, by unanimous consent, accepted the Senate version of the measure.54 The most important difference in the two versions was the authority granted the Chief Executive Officer for Visitor Services in the House-passed version.55 The Senate version, which the House accepted, emphasizes the exclusive jurisdiction of the AOC for the “care and superintendence”of the CVC.56 Hazards in the Capitol’s Utility Tunnel System In April 2007, the office of the AOC removed its utility tunnel crew working in the tunnels of the Capitol Power Plant system that supplies steam and chilled water to the Capitol complex.57 The move came after long-standing complaints from some Members of Congress, the 10-member tunnel crew, and the Office of Compliance (OOC) about unsafe conditions for the workers who must go into the tunnels.58 These conditions include cracked and falling concrete and loose asbestos. The AOC’s reported failure to fix the problems that raised employee safety issues led the OOC 51 U.S. Congress, Committee on House Administration, Capitol Visitor Center Act of 2008, report to accompany H.R. 5159, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., H.Rept. 110-535 (Washington: GPO, 2008). 52 “Capitol Visitor Center Act of 2008,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 154, Mar. 5, 2008, p. H1249. Tours led by staff in Members’ offices would not be changed by the bill’s provisions. 53 “Capitol Visitor Center Act of 2008,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 154, Sept. 27, 2008, pp. S9881-S9883; and “Text of Amendment (SA5674),” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 154, Sept. 27, 2008, S10011-S10015. 54 “Capitol Visitor Center Act of 2008,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 154, Oct. 2, 2008, pp. H10673-H10677. 55 For a more in-depth discussion of the two versions of H.R. 5159, see CRS Report RL31121, The Capitol Visitor Center: An Overview, by Stephen Stathis, pp. 66-67. 56 Text of Amendment (SA5674),” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 154, Sept. 27, 2008, S10015. 57 58 John McArdle, “AOC Pulls Crew Out of Tunnels,” Roll Call, Apr. 11, 2007, p. 3. U.S. Congress, House Appropriations Committee, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2007, report to accompany H.R. 5521, 109th Cong., 2nd sess., H.Rept. 109-485 (Washington: GPO, 2006), pp. 15, 21-22; and U.S. Congress, House Appropriations Committee, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2008, hearings, pt. 2, 110th Cong., 1st sess., Mar. 1, 2007 (Washington: GPO, 2007), pp. 193-194. CRS-15 to file its first formal complaint since the office opened in 1996.59 The complaint was filed in February 2006. Following this complaint, the AOC and OOC reached an agreement requiring the AOC to conduct an immediate baseline survey of all health and safety hazards in the tunnels and to develop “a comprehensive site-management plan to establish milestones and estimated costs for a five-year hazard-abatement effort.”60 In June 2007, according to a press report, the tunnel crew and the office of the AOC also agreed on a settlement related to alleged harassment and retaliation as a result of their appeals to Congress about their working conditions.61 In the 109th Congress, the House Appropriations Committee directed the AOC to provide quarterly reports on its plans to enhance the safety of workers who must go into the tunnels, and directed GAO to continue to monitor the office as it implements plans for tunnel repairs.62 The next AOC will face continuing issues related to the health and safety of tunnel workers and the requirements imposed by Congress to repair problems and prevent a recurrence of unsafe conditions. “Greening” the Capitol The Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires the AOC to develop, update, and implement a cost-effective energy conservation and management plan for all congressional buildings to meet the energy performance requirements of the act.63 The act also requires the reduction of energy consumption by 2% below the baseline set in FY2003. Accordingly, projects undertaken by the AOC in the past few years have resulted in a reduction of energy consumption by 6.5% in FY2006, exceeding the goal of a 2% reduction annually.64 On March 1, 2007, Speaker Nancy Pelosi and other congressional leaders directed the House chief administrative officer (CAO) to take steps toward 59 U.S. Congress, House Appropriations Committee, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2008, hearings, pts. 2- 3, 110th Cong., 1st sess., Apr. 26-27, 2007 (Washington: GPO, 2007), pp. 296-302 and 377-389; and John McArdle, “Ex-Tunnel Chief Says Steam Pipes Pose Risk,” Roll Call, July 25, 2007, pp. 3, 26. 60 John McArdle, “AOC, OOC Agree to Plan for Tunnels,” Roll Call, May 10, 2007, pp. 3, 16. 61 John McArdle, “Half of Tunnel Crew Left AOC,” Roll Call, July 11, 2007, pp. 1, 20. 62 U.S. Congress, House Appropriations Committee, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2007, report to accompany H.R. 5521, 109th Cong., 2nd sess., H.Rept. 109-485 (Washington: GPO, 2006), pp. 21-22. 63 64 P.L. 109-58, 119 Stat. 605. Information provided by an AOC spokesperson, September 27, 2007. See also statement by Stephen Ayers, acting architect of the Capitol, in U.S. Congress, House Appropriations Committee, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2008, hearings, pt. 2, 110th Cong., 1st sess., Feb. 16, 2007 (Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 99. CRS-16 “greening” of the House buildings in the Capitol complex.65 On June 21, 2007, the Speaker announced the completion of the final “Green the Capitol” report by the CAO. The report is a plan for reducing House carbon emissions by the end of the 110th Congress and for reducing House energy consumption by 50% in the next 10 years.66 Evaluating and implementing the “greening” recommendations will inevitably involve the AOC because of the Architect’s responsibility for the maintenance and operations of congressional buildings. Statutory Inspector General In December 2007, Congress established a statutory, independent inspector general (IG) within the office of the AOC.67 This provision was included in P.L. 110161, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008, which contained FY2008 appropriations for the legislative branch.68 Under the new statutory mandate, the IG has independence and protections to conduct and supervise audits and investigations related to the AOC, provide leadership and coordination and recommend policies to promote economy and efficiency in the office, and keep the AOC and Congress informed about problems and deficiencies in the administration of programs and operations in the office of the AOC.69 The statutory IG, to be appointed by the AOC in consultation with the IGs of the Library of Congress, Government Printing Office, Government Accountability Office, and US Capitol Police, will be compensated an annual rate of pay equal to $1500 less than the annual rate of pay of the AOC.70 The law required that the IG position be filled within 180 days of enactment. The statutory IG provision was originally included in the FY2008 Legislative Branch Appropriations bill (H.R. 2771, §1202) reported from the House Appropriations Committee and passed by the House. The House committee report stated the following: Because of longstanding continuing lapses in management practices … the committee has reached its limit with the ongoing difficulties in the Architect’s office such as the delays and escalating costs of the Capitol Visitor Center; cost overruns and time delays on almost every other project, as well as the complete 65 Nancy Pelosi, “Greening the Capitol,” available at [http://speaker.house.gov/ issues?id=0023]. The full report by the chief administrative officer is available at [http://cao.house.gov/greenthecapitol/thereport.shtml] and on the Speaker’s website at [http://www.speaker.gov/pdf/GTCreport.pdf]. 66 Ibid. 67 For more information on the office of inspectors general, refer to CRS Report 98-379, Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Past and Present, by Fred Kaiser. 68 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Consolidated Appropriations Act, committee print to accompany H.R. 2764, 110th Cong.,1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 2008), pp. 1869-1870. 69 Ibid. 70 Ibid. CRS-17 management breakdown, failure of appropriate oversight responsibilities, and total disregard for the human element surrounding the Capitol Power Plant utility tunnels.71 The House committee also said creation of the new statutory IG was “to increase the ability of IG function to provide badly needed oversight and review of current operations [in the office of the AOC].”72 The Senate Appropriations Committee reported similar language in its version of the FY2008 Legislative Branch Appropriations bill (S. 1686, §1202), which was not acted on by the full Senate.73 The Senate committee report stated that its recommendation for a statutory AOC inspector general “is intended to promote integrity and efficiency in AOC programs, and detect and prevent fraud, waste, and abuse.”74 In both H.R. 2771 and S. 1686, Section 1202 provided for the creation, staffing, and independence of the proposed IG, who would be directed to insure that the AOC is using appropriate management practices and accounting standards. A similar position was also proposed in the 109th Congress. It was included in the FY2007 Legislative Branch Appropriations bill (H.R. 5521) passed by the House.75 At that time, the House Appropriations Committee expressed concern over the lack of progress by the AOC in determining opportunities for “outsourcing” some of its operations and the ongoing difficulties with the construction of the CVC.76 Moreover, just as it did again in the 110th Congress, the committee noted “the longstanding lapses in management practices in the office [of the AOC].”77 The Senate Appropriations Committee also recommended the creation of the inspector general position in its report on H.R. 5521, and the bill was placed on the 71 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2008, report to accompany H.R. 2771, 110th Cong., 1st sess., H.Rept. 110-198 (Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 17. 72 Ibid. 73 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2008, report to accompany S. 1686, 110th Cong., 1st sess., S.Rept. 110-89 (Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 34. 74 Ibid. 75 Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 152, June 7, 2006, pp. H3434-3435 and H3465H3466. 76 U.S. Congress, House Appropriations Committee, Legislative Branch Appropriations, 2007, report to accompany H.R. 5521, 109th Cong., 2nd sess., H.Rept. 109-485 (Washington: GPO, 2006), pp. 14-15. 77 Ibid., p. 15. CRS-18 legislative calendar on June 22, 2006.78 The Senate, however, took no further action on H.R. 5521.79 Thus, it was not until the 110th Congress, in P.L. 110-161, that a statutory, independent IG was established in the office of the AOC. The position was filled in August 2008.80 78 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, 2007, report to accompany H.R. 5521, 109th Cong., 2nd sess., S.Rept. 109-267 (Washington: GPO, 2006), p. 39. 79 The provision for an IG was not included in the FY2007 appropriations for the legislative branch that was eventually enacted as part of the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (P.L. 110-5). 80 See [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/cfo/committee/Carol-Bates.cfm], visited Sept. 18, 2008. CRS-19 Appendix. Architects of the Capitol Since 1793 Ten persons have held the position of Architect of the Capitol. The term Architect of the Capitol also refers to some of the early occupants of the office who were known as Commissioner, Surveyor of Public Buildings, or Superintendent of the Capitol.81 Each incumbent is listed below. Name Dates of Service Biographical Information at William Thornton 1793 [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/architects/thornton.cfm] Benjamin Latrobe 1803-1811 1815-1817 [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/architects/latrobe.cfm] Charles Bulfinch 1818-1829 [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/architects/bulfinch.cfm] Thomas Walter 1851-1865 [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/architects/walter.cfm] Edward Clark 1865-1902 [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/architects/clark.cfm] Elliott Woods 1902-1923 [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/architects/woods.cfm] David Lynn 1923-1954 [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/architects/lynn.cfm] J. George Stewart 1954-1970 [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/architects/stewart.cfm] George White 1971-1995 [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/architects/white.cfm] Alan Hantman 1997-2007 [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/architects/hantman.cfm] Sources: U.S. Architect of the Capitol, Architects of the Capitol since 1793, [http://www.aoc.gov/aoc/architects/index.cfm]; and William Allen, History of the United States Capitol (Washington: GPO, 2001). 81 For more information, see William Allen, History of the United States Capitol (Washington: GPO, 2001), pp. 27, 50-51, 398, and 400-401.