The Presidential Inauguration of 2005: Basic Facts and Information

Order Code RL32763 The Presidential Inauguration of 2005: Basic Facts and Information Updated January 19, 2007 Ryan Elliot Granger Information Research Specialist Knowledge Services Group The Presidential Inauguration of 2005: Basic Facts and Information Summary The most recent presidential inauguration took place January 20, 2005. This report provides the legislation, S.Con.Res. 2, concerning the inauguration, the estimated costs of the 2005 inauguration from both public and private sources, general information and facts concerning past inaugurations, as well as the financing (private funding only) of past inaugural festivities. Also provided is a brief list of resources on the history of presidential inaugurations and compilations of inaugural addresses. This report was authored previously by Tom Coipuram, Jr. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Presidential Inauguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Inauguration Day as a Federal Holiday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Funding for the 2005 Inauguration and Festivities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Funding from Government Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Funding from Private Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Historical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Costs (Private Funding Only) of Past Inaugural Festivities . . . . . . . . . . 3 Past Presidential Inaugurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Recent Presidential Inaugurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Inaugural Photographs/Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Inaugural Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Inaugural Committees, Tickets, and Parade Information (Historical Information) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (JCCIC) . . . 5 Presidential Inaugural Committee (PIC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (JTF-AFIC) . . . 6 Additional Sources of Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Presidential Inaugurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Presidential Inaugural Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The Presidential Inauguration of 2005: Basic Facts and Information Introduction In response to a variety of questions relating to the presidential inauguration, the following selected information has been compiled: legislation concerning the inauguration; inauguration day as a federal holiday; the costs of the 2005 inauguration from both public and private sources; the expenditures of recent inaugural festivities (private funding only provided); historical facts on past presidential inaugurations; the various inaugural committees supporting the inauguration; and historical information on the parade, the swearing-in, and other events. Presidential Inauguration The most recent inauguration of the President of the United States took place on Thursday, January 20, 2005.1 Legislation In early 2004, both the Senate and House of Representatives approved S.Con.Res. 94, a resolution establishing the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (JCCIC), and S.Con.Res. 93, a resolution authorizing the use of the Capitol Rotunda by the JCCIC. The authorities contained in S.Con.Res. 94 and S.Con.Res. 93 expired at the end of the 108th Congress, and were renewed by the 109th Congress on January 4, 2005, under S.Con.Res. 2, which extended the “life of the JCCIC and the provisions of S.Con.Res. 93 and S.Con.Res. 94 of the 108th Congress.” Inauguration Day as a Federal Holiday According to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) website, federal employees who work “in the District of Columbia, Montgomery or Prince George’s Counties in Maryland, Arlington or Fairfax Counties in Virginia, or the cities of Alexandria or Fairfax in Virginia, and who [are] regularly scheduled to perform non- 1 The U.S. Constitution, Twentieth Amendment, “Commencement of the Terms of Office,” states, “The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January ...” (ratified Jan. 23, 1933). CRS-2 overtime work on Inauguration Day, [are] entitled to a holiday” on Inauguration Day, which is every fourth January 20th after 1965.2 Funding for the 2005 Inauguration and Festivities Funding for the most recent inauguration came from both public and private sources, and totaled approximately $157.8 million. Funding from Government Sources. Funding from government sources, including the federal and DC governments, was $115.5 million.3 These funds provided security, the inaugural swearing-in ceremony, maintenance, cleanup, bleachers, fencing, a holiday for federal workers in the Washington area, etc. The costs incurred by the federal and the DC governments included the following: 2 ! Swearing-in Ceremony — The authorized funding for the swearing-in ceremony of the President and Vice President, which was conducted by the JCCIC, was $1.2 million.4 ! District of Columbia Government — The total cost to DC was $14.3 million. This included $10.3 million to the Metropolitan Police Department, $2.5 million to the Office of Property Management, and $1.5 million to other entities providing public works, health, transportation, fire, emergency management, sanitation, communications, and business services.5 ! National Park Service (NPS) — According to the NPS Budget Office,6 the National Capital Region (which provided the cleanup services, the temporary fencing, and maintenance) expended $846,000, and the United States Park Police spent $650,000 of the appropriated funds, and was reimbursed for $144,000 by the Presidential Inaugural Committee (PIC). ! Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (JTFAFIC) — According to their JTF-AFIC, the estimated cost for the inauguration was $4 million. This included funding for computers, communications, equipment, supplies, vehicles, utilities, maintenance, travel, etc. See OPM’s 2005 Federal Holiday website at [http://www.opm.gov/FEDHOL/2005.asp]. 3 This figure does not include funding provided by the Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which were unable to provide detailed information. 4 The Legislative Branch Appropriations Act for FY2004, P.L. 108-83, Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1019. 5 “Inaugural Expenses,” pages G-41 and G-42 from the District of Columbia’s FY 2007 Proposed Budget and Financial Plan. 6 George Bulman, budget analyst with NPS Budget Office, in a phone conversation with the author on Oct. 10, 2006. CRS-3 ! Architect of the Capitol (AOC) — The AOC had a budget of $2.8 million7 for a construction project to improve the West Front of the Capitol for the swearing-in ceremony. ! Office of Personnel Management (OPM) — The OPM Office of Congressional Relations estimates that the holiday for federal workers in the Washington area cost approximately $84.9 million, excluding benefits.8 ! U.S. Secret Service (USSS) — The amount budgeted by USSS for the event was $4.1 million. An additional $2.6 million from the USSS special event fund was also utilized, for a total of $6.7 million spent by USSS.9 The Secret Service employed security measures such as counter-surveillance of venues, controlled access to the parade route and event sites, and magnetometer screening of more than 297,000 event attendees.10 Funding from Private Sources. The 55th Presidential Inaugural Committee (PIC) reported a net of $42.3 million.11 This reportedly funded various inaugural festivities, such as fireworks, inaugural balls, the parade, the concert on the Mall, and other unofficial receptions and parties. Historical Information Costs (Private Funding Only) of Past Inaugural Festivities. Following is information on financing of past inaugural festivities from private funding sources only:12 ! George W. Bush, 2001, estimated $30 million;13 7 Debbie Thomas, deputy director of the Architect of the Capitol Budget Office, in a phone conversation with the author on Oct. 3, 2006. 8 Dino Carluccio, deputy director of OPM Office of Congressional Relations, in an e-mail to the author on Oct. 10, 2006. This estimate from late 2004 covers all federal employees (not counting U.S. Postal Service employees) in Washington, DC; Prince George’s and Montgomery Counties in Maryland; and Fairfax and Arlington Counties, Alexandria, Falls Church, and Fairfax City in Virginia. 9 Tony Lawrence, appropriations specialist in the U.S. Secret Service Office of Congressional Affairs, in a phone conversation with the author on Sept. 22, 2006. 10 Department of Homeland Security’s Performance and Accountability Report: Fiscal Year 2005, p. 47. [http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/budget/editorial_0430.shtm]. 11 Federal Elections Committee “Report of Donations Accepted” for 55th Presidential Inaugural Committee, July 19, 2005. Net donations — after total donations refunded are subtracted from total donations accepted — equaled $42,305,082. 12 Estimated costs through 1997 are from the 1997 Presidential Inaugural Committee and Facts on File, 1997. 13 “Bush Takes Oath of Office as 43rd U.S. President,” Facts on File World Press Digest, (continued...) CRS-4 ! ! ! ! ! Bill Clinton, 1997, estimated $29 million (included is the $9 million surplus from the 1993 inauguration); 1993, estimated between $25 million and $30 million; George H. W. Bush, 1989, estimated. $30 million; Ronald Reagan, 1985, estimated $20 million; 1981, estimated $16.3 million; Jimmy Carter, 1977, estimated $3.5 million; and Richard Nixon, 1973, estimated $4 million. Past Presidential Inaugurations. Historical information on past presidential inaugurations can be found at the Library of Congress Website, Presidential Inaugurations: “I Do Solemnly Swear ...,” which is a collection of 400 selected items from each of the 63 inaugurations, from George Washington’s in 1789 to George W. Bush’s in 2001. A wealth of historical information can be found at [http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/pihome.html], including: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Diaries and letters of Presidents and of those who witnessed the inaugurations; Handwritten drafts of inaugural addresses; Inaugural-related broadsides; Past inaugural tickets and programs; Inaugural prints, photographs, and sheet music; Facts about the oaths of office, precedents, and notable events; and Bible and scripture passages for each President since George Washington. Recent Presidential Inaugurations. The PBS Online NewsHour website provides historical information on past inaugurations, including a photo gallery and inauguration fashion, plus links to President George W. Bush’s 2001 and 2005 inaugurations. [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/inauguration/] The National Archives and Records Administration’s Clinton Inaugurations Website provides information and links to Bill Clinton’s 1993 and 1997 inaugurations. [http://clinton4.nara.gov/textonly/WH/Family/html/Inauguration.html] A brief history of the first presidential inauguration, including information on the tradition, language, and technology in past and current inaugurations, and a quiz to test your knowledge of inaugural trivia are also available at the National Archives and Records Administration’s Inauguration site. [http://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/presidents.html#inaug] The Census Bureau’s Facts for Features Special Edition — Inauguration Day: (Jan. 20, 2005) provides inaugural firsts and other “fun” facts such as the number of places 13 (...continued) Jan. 20, 2001. CRS-5 across the United States named “Bush” and “Cheney,”plus milestones of other presidential inaugurations. [http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_ special_editions/003426.html] Inaugural Photographs/Images. The Presidential Inaugural — Documentary Photographs website of the Smithsonian Institution provides photographs of recent inaugurals (1985-1997), including photographs of inaugural festivities held at various Smithsonian Museums since 1881. [http://photo2.si.edu/inaugural/inau_top/inaugural.html] “I Do Solemnly Swear”: A Half Century of Inaugural Images from the U.S. Senate Collection features historic engravings that depict inaugural festivities at the Capitol and around Washington, DC, from Franklin Pierce’s 1853 inauguration to Theodore Roosevelt’s 1905 inauguration. [http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/common/image_collection/inauguration_ slideshow.htm] Inaugural Addresses. Texts of the inaugural addresses of U.S. Presidents from George Washington to George W. Bush’s second inaugural address in 2005 are available at the Avalon Project of the Yale Law School website at [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/inaug/inaug.htm] or the Bartleby.com Website at [http://www.bartleby.com/124/]. At Bartleby.com, click on “Presidents Not Inaugurated” for brief information on Presidents who were not inaugurated and therefore did not make inaugural addresses: Presidents John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, and Gerald Ford. Inaugural Committees, Tickets, and Parade Information (Historical Information) The following is basic information on the three major committees14 that plan and support the various inaugural activities. Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (JCCIC). The JCCIC, at [http://www.inaugural.senate.gov/], was responsible for conducting the official swearing-in ceremony of the President and Vice President at the Capitol on January 20, 2005. This committee also distributed blocks of tickets for the swearing-in ceremony to Members of both houses, and Members decided how they wished to distribute the tickets. Detailed information about the allotments and the distribution process was available after the November 2004 election, and tickets were distributed in early January 2005. Historical information concerning the JCCIC and the names of past and current members of the committee are available at the JCCIC website. Also included is a link to “Facts & Firsts,” which provides historical information on past presidential inaugurations from George Washington to William 14 Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (JCCIC) Fact Sheet, Sept. 19, 2000. CRS-6 J. Clinton. Although the JCCIC office closed at the end of March 2005, the JCCIC Website is to be available permanently. Presidential Inaugural Committee (PIC). The PIC organized, planned, and executed most of the inaugural celebration activities, including the inaugural parade, opening ceremonies, concerts, galas, and inaugural balls. The PIC, which is directly responsible to the newly elected President and is staffed by volunteers, generally from the winning party, was formed shortly after the general election on November 2, 2004. The PIC handled all requests for ball tickets, the parade, and gala information. The PIC, with the support of the Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (JTF-AFIC, below), also selected the high school and college bands that participated in the inaugural parade. Traditionally, the bands are chosen so that each of the 50 states is represented. For additional information concerning the PIC, including the leadership of the 2005 PIC, see the White House November 19, 2004, press release.15 Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (JTF-AFIC). The JTF-AFIC, which was established by the Secretary of Defense, continued the tradition of military participation in the presidential inaugurations that dates back to 1789. It supported the work of both the JCCIC and the PIC. However, the JTFAFIC only supplemented support to the PIC. For example, it did not choose the groups that took part in the inauguration, but collected and organized applications from groups and individuals interested in participating in various inaugural events. Joint Task Force Armed Forces Inaugural Committee ATTN: Band Control 330 C Street SW, Suite 4064 A Washington, DC 20597-5580 In past presidential inaugurations, a Senator or Representative has either nominated or recommended a school band from their state or district to the PIC for the inaugural parade. School bands, in addition to submitting an application with the JTF-AFIC at the appropriate time in 2008, can also contact their Senators or Representatives if they are interested in participating in the parade in 2009. 15 Full text of the Nov. 19, 2004, White House press release is available at the White House website at [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2004/11/20041119.html]. CRS-7 Additional Sources of Information Presidential Inaugurations Boller, Paul F. Presidential Inaugurations. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2001. Durbin, Louise. Inaugural Cavalcade. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1971. Hurja, E. Edward. History of Presidential Inaugurations. New York: New York Democrat, 1933. The Inaugural Story, 1789-1969. New York: American Heritage Pub. Co., 1969. Kittler, Glenn D. Hail to the Chief: The Inauguration Days of Our Presidents. Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1965. Lomask, Milton. “I Do Solemnly Swear ...”: The Story of the Presidential Inauguration. New York: Ariel Books, 1966. McKee, Thomas Hudson. Presidential Inaugurations: from George Washington, 1789, to Grover Cleveland, 1893. Washington, DC: Statistical Pub. Co., 1893. Presidential Inaugurations: A Selected List of References. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1960. Presidential Inaugural Addresses Humes, James C. My Fellow Americans: Presidential Addresses That Shaped History. New York: Praeger, 1992. The Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents. Ed. with introd. by John Gabriel Hunt. Rev. ed. New York: Gramercy Books, 1997. Newton, Davis. The Presidents Speak: The Inaugural Addresses of the American Presidents from Washington to Clinton. New York: H. Holt and Co., 1994.