Athens Olympics 2004: U.S. Government Involvement in Security Preparations

The Athens Olympics 2004 are the first Summer Games to be held since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The Salt Lake City Winter Olympics were held in February 2002, but the Winter Games involve far fewer people than the Summer Games. For example, 2,399 athletes competed in 2002; 10,500 athletes are expected to compete at the Athens Games, August 13-29, 2004. The Greek government expects 2 million visitors, 21,500 journalists, 5,500 team officials, and 8,000 members of the Olympic family. To help safeguard the Olympics, Greece reportedly has spent $1.2 billion on security, and plans to provide 25,000 police officers, 7,000 military troops, 3,000 coast guardsmen, 1,500 firefighters, 3,500 private security personnel, and 5,000 trained volunteers. Major security concerns include Greece's location and topography, venues that were not completed until spring or summer 2004, and the status of a major security system. While the Paralympic Games will also be held in Athens, September 17-28, 2004, security concerns have largely focused on the traditional Olympics. U.S. government involvement in security efforts has taken several different forms. The United States, along with Australia, France, Germany, Israel, Spain, and the United Kingdom, form the Olympic Security Advisory Group (OSAG), which was established by the Greek government. OSAG members have provided various types of assistance to the Greek government, such as helping to develop a security plan and providing training on terrorism and explosives. U.S. government agencies and military forces also, for example, have helped to organize a security planning exercise, reportedly are prepared to assist with decontamination efforts, and have provided radiological detection equipment. The U.S. Sixth Fleet will patrol east and west of Greece during the Games. Overseeing the effort to safeguard the American team and support personnel in Athens will be the U.S. Ambassador to Greece, Thomas J. Miller. In 2001, the State Department assigned a Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS) special agent to serve as Olympic Security Coordinator (OSC). (Among its other missions, DS develops and implements security programs for safeguarding U.S. diplomatic personnel around the world.) As noted in State Department budget documents, the department plans to assign 150 DS special agents to Athens and surrounding areas before, and during, the Games. Reportedly, an evacuation plan has been developed for the U.S. Olympic team. Since January 2003, high-level U.S. government and Greek officials have met 10 times to discuss security issues and arrangements (among other topics, on occasion). Among the participants in such meetings have been Greece's Prime Minister and Public Order Minister, the mayor of Athens, and the President of the United States, Deputy Secretary of State, and Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This report will be updated as circumstances warrant.

Order Code RL32497 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Athens Olympics 2004: U.S. Government Involvement in Security Preparations July 28, 2004 name redacted Analyst in American National Government Government and Finance Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Athens Olympics 2004: U.S. Government Involvement in Security Preparations Summary The Athens Olympics 2004 are the first Summer Games to be held since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The Salt Lake City Winter Olympics were held in February 2002, but the Winter Games involve far fewer people than the Summer Games. For example, 2,399 athletes competed in 2002; 10,500 athletes are expected to compete at the Athens Games, August 13-29, 2004. The Greek government expects 2 million visitors, 21,500 journalists, 5,500 team officials, and 8,000 members of the Olympic family. To help safeguard the Olympics, Greece reportedly has spent $1.2 billion on security, and plans to provide 25,000 police officers, 7,000 military troops, 3,000 coast guardsmen, 1,500 firefighters, 3,500 private security personnel, and 5,000 trained volunteers. Major security concerns include Greece’s location and topography, venues that were not completed until spring or summer 2004, and the status of a major security system. While the Paralympic Games will also be held in Athens, September 17-28, 2004, security concerns have largely focused on the traditional Olympics. U.S. government involvement in security efforts has taken several different forms. The United States, along with Australia, France, Germany, Israel, Spain, and the United Kingdom, form the Olympic Security Advisory Group (OSAG), which was established by the Greek government. OSAG members have provided various types of assistance to the Greek government, such as helping to develop a security plan and providing training on terrorism and explosives. U.S. government agencies and military forces also, for example, have helped to organize a security planning exercise, reportedly are prepared to assist with decontamination efforts, and have provided radiological detection equipment. The U.S. Sixth Fleet will patrol east and west of Greece during the Games. Overseeing the effort to safeguard the American team and support personnel in Athens will be the U.S. Ambassador to Greece, Thomas J. Miller. In 2001, the State Department assigned a Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS) special agent to serve as Olympic Security Coordinator (OSC). (Among its other missions, DS develops and implements security programs for safeguarding U.S. diplomatic personnel around the world.) As noted in State Department budget documents, the department plans to assign 150 DS special agents to Athens and surrounding areas before, and during, the Games. Reportedly, an evacuation plan has been developed for the U.S. Olympic team. Since January 2003, high-level U.S. government and Greek officials have met 10 times to discuss security issues and arrangements (among other topics, on occasion). Among the participants in such meetings have been Greece’s Prime Minister and Public Order Minister, the mayor of Athens, and the President of the United States, Deputy Secretary of State, and Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This report will be updated as circumstances warrant. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Athens 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 U.S. Involvement in Security Efforts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Assisting Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Olympic Security Advisory Group (OSAG) and Other International Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 U.S. Government Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Security for the U.S. Olympic Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Meetings Between U.S. and Greek Officials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Athens Olympics 2004: U.S. Government Involvement in Security Preparations Introduction The 2004 Games are the second, but the first summer, Olympics to be held since the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001.1 The Winter Games are significantly smaller than the Summer Games — 2,399 athletes from 77 nations, supported by 22,000 volunteers, participated in 78 events at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.2 At the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, 10,651 athletes from 199 nations competed in 300 events. Volunteers numbered 46,967.3 In recent history, three Olympic Games have been the target of terrorists. The most deadly terrorist attack occurred in 1972, at the Summer Games in Munich, when members of the Palestinian group Black September killed two members of the Israeli Olympic team and took nine others hostage. The remaining hostages were subsequently killed during a clash between the terrorists and law enforcement authorities.4 In 1992, a Basque separatist group threatened an attack on the Barcelona Summer Games, but it never materialized. The Centennial Olympic Park, a venue at the 1996 Atlanta Games, was the site of a bombing that killed one person and injured 100. In the modern history on the Olympics, the Summer Games have been cancelled three times, because of war: Berlin, 1916 (World War I); Tokyo, 1940 (World War II); and London, 1944 (World War II). In 1972, following the terrorist attack on members of the Israeli team, a memorial service was held, and the Games were suspended for 34 hours.5 1 For information about potential terrorist threats and Greek and international security planning, see CRS Report RS21833, Greece: Threat of Terrorism and Security at the Olympics, by (name redacted). 2 International Olympic Committee, “Salt Lake City 2002,” available at [http://www. olympic.org/uk/games/past/index_uk.asp?OLGT=2&OLGY=2002], visited July 2, 2004. 3 International Olympic Committee, “Sydney 2000,” available at [http://www.olympic.org/ uk/games/past/index_uk.asp?OLGT=1&OLGY=2000], visited July 2, 2004. 4 International Olympic Committee, “Munich 1972, Games of the XX Olympiad,” available at [http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/past/index_uk.asp?OLGT=1&OLGY=1972], visited June 28, 2004; Dan Gilgoff, “The Meaning of Munich,” U.S. News and World Report, June 14, 2004, p. 39. 5 Ibid. CRS-2 After a summary of relevant information about the Athens Games largely from press reports, this report examines U.S. government efforts to assist the Greek government with security, and to safeguard the U.S. Olympic team. The next section consists of a list of meetings between high-level U.S. and Greek government officials that focused partially or entirely on security issues and preparations. Athens 2004 In 2004, the Olympics return to the site of the first modern Olympic Games, which were held in 1896. Also known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad, the Athens Games will be held August 13-29, when 10,500 athletes will compete in 28 sports at 38 venues; 5,500 team officials from 201 national Olympic committees (NOCs) will accompany the athletes. Reportedly, the U.S. Olympic team will number approximately 550 athletes and 300 support staff.6 The International Olympic Committee (IOC) expects 21,500 members of the media to attend and report on the Games. While some athletes may choose to stay elsewhere, the Olympic village has room to house 16,000 athletes and team officials.7 Also expected at the Olympics are 8,000 members of the Olympic family, 3,000 judges and referees, and approximately 2 million visitors.8 Greece plans to provide 25,000 police officers, 7,000 military troops, 3,000 coast guardsmen, 1,500 firefighters, 3,500 private security personnel, and 5,000 trained volunteers.9 Additional forces will be provided by the Hellenic Armed Forces.10 Reportedly, Public Order Minister George Voulgarakis has stated that Greece will muster a total security force of 70,000.11 By mid-May 2004, Greece’s security bill for the Olympics reportedly had reached $1.2 billion. According to the Washington Post, security costs for recent Olympics were $310 million for the 2002 Winter Games in Salt Lake City; $210 million for the 2000 Summer Games in Sydney; and $300 million for the 1996 Summer Games in Atlanta.12 The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has a $170 million insurance policy for the Athens Olympics in the event that the Games are cancelled completely, or in part, because of terrorism, or some other catastrophic event, such as an earthquake. This is the first time that the IOC has obtained an insurance policy, 6 “Rogge Discusses Security Matters,” Washington Post, May 20, 2004, p. D5. 7 International Olympic Committee, “Athens 2004, Games of the XXVIII Olympiad,”available at [http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/athens/index_uk.asp], visited May 11, 2004. 8 Hellenic Republic, Embassy of Greece, “Embassy of Greece Olympic Security — A Summary,” press release, June 11, 2004, available at [http://www.greekembassy.org/ Embassy/content/en/Folder.aspx?office=1&folder=24], visited July 1, 2004. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. 11 Thomas Heath, “Greek Minister Touts Preparation,” Washington Post, May 8, 2004, p. D5. 12 Amy Shipley, “Greece Playing It Safe with Olympics,” Washington Post, Jan. 4, 2003, p. A1. CRS-3 although IOC President Jacques Rogge attempted to obtain insurance for the Salt Lake City Games in 2002. Apparently, the cost was prohibitive. (The IOC plans to obtain insurance for the 2006, 2008, and 2010 Olympics.) The Athens 2004 Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (ATHOC) has opted not to seek an insurance policy for the Summer Games.13 Chief among security concerns are Greece’s location and topography; venues and associated infrastructure that were not completed until spring or summer 2004; and the status of a major security system. Greece consists of a mainland and islands, of which 169 are inhabited; it has more coastline than the United States, and is close to the Middle East.14 Geographic ease of access is complemented by legal means of access: Greece is a member of the European Union (EU), and visitors from other EU nations are not subject to immigration checks.15 Finishing construction months, if not a year, before the commencement of the Olympic Games allows enough time for installing and testing security systems, training technicians, and troubleshooting the systems. In Sydney (2000) and Barcelona (1992), security and communication systems were operational more than a year before the respective Games began.16 As of July 3, 2004, the main Olympic park and soccer stadium in Greece were still under construction.17 A security expert who oversaw security operations for athletes’ housing in Atlanta (1996), Robert Lang, described what he found in Atlanta prior to the Games: “You can’t really plan security until construction is finished .... We had the plans for the Olympic Stadium in hand, but it wasn’t until we actually walked it and saw, ‘Hoooo, those exit routes are too narrow,’ or what area is blocked from your view, that we could figure out what was the weakness of the facility.”18 A cautionary report from Sydney involves metal detectors. Officials discovered, at a non-Olympic event held prior to the 2000 Summer Games, that, because there were an insufficient number of metal detectors for screening spectators entering the stadium, volunteers turned off the detectors. In response, more entrance points with metal detectors were added for the Olympics.19 13 Amy Shipley, “IOC Has Insurance for Athens Olympics,” Washington Post, April 28, 2004, pp. D1, D7; Tim Layden, “Fear Factor?” Sports Illustrated, May 17, 2004, p. 85. A June 2004 ruling by the Georgia Supreme Court, which allows victims of the bombing at the 1996 Summer Games to sue the Atlanta Committee for the Olympics, might prompt organizers of future games to seek insurance policies. (Ariel Hart, “Victims of Olympics Bombing Win Right to Sue Organizers,” New York Times, June 29, 2004, p. A20.) 14 Raymond Bonner and Anthee Carassava, “Delays in Athens Raise Concern on Olympic Security Readiness,” New York Times, July 3, 2004, p. A9. 15 Craig Whitlock, “Greek Domestic Security an Issue Before Olympics,” Washington Post, May 14, 2004, p. D4. 16 Bonner and Carassava, “Delays in Athens Raise Concern on Olympic Security Readiness,” July 3, 2004, pp. A1, A9. 17 Ibid., p. A1. 18 Kim Clark, “Targeting the Olympics,” U.S. News and World Report, June 14, 2004, p. 39. 19 Bonner and Carassava, “Delays in Athens Raise Concern on Olympic Security Readiness,” p. A9. CRS-4 A major component of the Olympic security system will be, if completed, a $312 million system that includes infrared and high-resolution cameras; radio, communications, and computer networks; and command centers.20 Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) announced on May 22, 2003, that it had won the contract, and, reportedly, the original delivery date was nearly a year later, May 28, 2004.21 However, on July 7, 2004, a news article reported that Greek government officials have determined that the system is not satisfactory. The same article indicated that the security system in the athletes’ village would not be operational before July 30, and that SAIC officials and government representatives have not yet agreed on how to set up a security system in the port of Piraeus.22 The Paralympic Games are held in the same year and, since 1988, at the same venues as the Olympic Games.23 (Athletes with physical disabilities may compete in the Paralympic Games.) The 2004 Paralympic Games will be held September 1728 in Athens. The Parlaympics have not received the same level of attention with regard to security that the Olympics have received, which suggests that the Olympics might be viewed as a more likely target. The size of the Olympics, including the number of athletes and spectators, the extent of television coverage, and the presence of internationally known athletes (particularly, well-known American athletes, such as the members of the U.S. men’s basketball team) might contribute to the Olympics’ attractiveness as a potential target for terrorists. Fewer athletes participate in the Paralympics (3,843 competed in Sydney),24 and television coverage of the Paralympics will not be comparable to the 1,210 hours of television coverage scheduled by NBC Universal networks for the Athens Games.25 Furthermore, 20 Science Applications International Corporation, “SAIC Wins IT Security Contract for 2004 Athens Olympics,” news release, May 22, 2003, available at [http://www.saic.com/ news/2003/may/22.html], visited July 7, 2004; Jeanine Herbst, “SAIC to Stand Watch over Athens Olympics,” Washington Business Journal, May 22, 2003, available from CRS; Associated Press, “Security Network Will Be Ready, Official Promises,” Washington Post, June 3, 2004, p. D2. 21 Science Applications International Corporation, “SAIC Wins IT Security Contract for 2004 Athens Olympics”; Associated Press, “Security Network Will Be Ready, Official Promises,” p. D2. 22 “New Games Security Headache,” Kathimerini, July 7, 2004, available at [http://www. ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_politics_100006_07/07/2004_44720], visited July 12, 2004. 23 For information about U.S. Paralympics, a division of the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC), see [http://www.usparalympics.com], visited July 1, 2004. The first Olympic-type games for athletes with disabilities were held in Rome in 1960. (International Paralympic Committee, “Paralympic Games,” available at [http://www.paralympic.org/games/01/asp], visited July 1, 2004.) 24 International Paralympic Committee, “Paralympic Games.” Consistent with the Olympics, fewer paralympic athletes participate in the winter games than in the summer games. For example, 416 athletes from 36 countries participated in the Salt Lake City Paralylmpics in 2002. (International Paralympic Committee, “Paralympic Winter Games,” available at [http://www.paralympic.org/games/0202.asp], visited July 1, 2004.) 25 National Broadcasting Corporation, “Historic Olympic Broadcast Set for August,” (continued...) CRS-5 terrorists might calculate that the moral outrage of the world community over an attack on disabled athletes would outweigh any perceived gains on the terrorists’ part. However, some may be concerned that terrorists might mount an attack on the Paralympics. Would-be terrorists might anticipate that, following an uneventful Olympics, security procedures would be loosened, which could make an attack easier to stage. Additionally, depending on what situations or issues (including those deemed to be innocuous) arise during the Olympics involving, for example, transportation, the electrical grid, plumbing, crowd management, access points, or accommodations, would-be terrorists might be able to identify vulnerabilities in Olympic venues and logistics. In turn, they might be able to capitalize on this information for the purpose of planning and executing an attack during the Paralympics, although they would have a limited amount of time within which to act. U.S. Involvement in Security Efforts The information that follows comes mostly from news accounts. Details about security plans and initiatives generally have not been publicized. Security measures could be compromised if comprehensive, detailed information were made available to the general public. Another reported reason for minimizing the amount of information released is that the Greek people have a “strong aversion to foreign services operating in their country.”26 Assisting Greece Olympic Security Advisory Group (OSAG) and Other International Assistance. In 2000, the Greek government contacted seven countries, asking them to assist with security for the 2004 Olympics. The group’s initial meeting, held in December 2000, resulted in the establishment of the Olympic Security Advisory Group (OSAG). (Some materials refer to this organization as the Olympic Advisory Group, or OAG.27) Original members include Australia, France, Germany, Israel, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States.28 Reportedly, Greece added Russia to the advisory group in December 2003.29 25 (...continued) available at [http://www.nbcolympics.com/tvlistings/index.html], visited July 6, 2004. 26 Bonner and Carassava, “Delays in Athens Raise Concern on Olympic Security Readiness,” p. A9. 27 Hellenic Republic, Secretariat General of Information and Secretariat General of Communication, “Athens 2004 Security,” available at [http://www.mediainfo2004.gr/cgibin/ hweb?-A=157&-V=olympicissues&-w=], visited July 7, 2004. 28 U.S. Department of State, Embassy of the United States, Athens, Greece, “Olympic Security Coordination,” available at [http://www.usembassy.gr/olympics/security1.html], visited June 26, 2004. 29 “Olympic Security Planning to Include NATO, Russia,” Kathimerini, Dec. 4, 2003, available at (continued...) CRS-6 As reported by the media, OSAG members have provided various types of assistance to the Greek government. Member countries have helped to develop a security plan for the Olympics; France, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States have trained Greek police officers regarding terrorism and explosives; and Israel has provided training on how to handle suicide bombers.30 Mindful that would-be terrorists might attempt to infiltrate construction crews and plant explosives inside, or under, Olympic venues, a tactic that was successful in a stadium in Chechnya in 2004, OSAG members have advised the Greeks to conduct background checks on construction site employees. Apparently, some employees have traveled from countries where Al Qaeda has had cells.31 The United States also participates in a multinational effort to pool intelligence, which is known as the Olympic Intelligence Center. The U.S. contribution consists of a task force composed of representatives from more than a dozen federal agencies.32 U.S. government personnel, along with representatives from other countries, have participated in security exercises in Greece. “Shield of Heracles 2004,” a twoweek security drill that began on March 10, 2004, included simulated security systems breakdowns, bomb blasts, chemical warfare attacks, a plane hijacking, and an epidemic disease outbreak. In the exercise,1,500 Greek troops were joined by 400 American security forces and 100 military personnel from other countries, according to the Greek press.33 As reported on the CBS news website, a joint Greek-U.S. exercise was conducted in mid-May. Among the drill’s 77 scenarios were a rocket attack on a plane, a suicide bombing, the poisoning of the chief Olympic organizer, and a hostage-taking on the Queen Mary II.34 U.S. Government Agencies. As reported in the Washington Post, the U.S. government has established an interagency task force, consisting of personnel from 29 (...continued) [http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_politics_100010_04/12/2003/37042], visited July 7, 2004. 30 Liz Clarke, “No Terror Threat to ‘04 Games,” Washington Post, Jan. 17, 2004, p. D6. 31 Bonner and Carassava, “Delays in Athens Raise Concern on Olympic Security Readiness,” p. A9; Clark, “Targeting the Olympics,” p. 40. Chechnya’s President was killed in May 2004 by a bomb that had been implanted in a stadium while it was under construction. (Clark, “Targeting the Olympics,” p. 40.) 32 Susan Schmidt, “New Fears about Olympics,” Washington Post, May 6, 2004, p. A11. 33 “Huge Greek-US Military Drill,” Kathimerini, March 6, 2004, available at [http://www. ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/news/content.asp?aid=40358], visited July 12, 2004; “Vast Olympic Security Drill Starts,” Kathimerini, March 10, 2004, available at [http://www. ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/news/content.asp?aid=40490], visited July 12, 2004; “Greece Begins Multinational Security Exercises for Olympics,” Washington Post, March 11, 2004, p. D2; “Shield of Hercules ‘A Success’,” Kathimerini, March 26, 2004, available at [http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/news/content.asp?aid=41081], visited July 12, 2004. 34 “Terror Drills for Summer Olympics,” CBSNews.com, May 19, 2004, available at [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/05/25/uttm/main619506.shtml], visited July 8, 2004. CRS-7 the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Department of State, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and Department of Defense (DOD), to aid Greece on security matters. The mission of the task force is to observe security preparations underway in Athens, and to assist in troubleshooting security problems.35 In October 2001, the State Department assigned a Special Agent from the Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS) to serve full-time as Olympic Security Coordinator (OSC). (It is not known what relationship, if any, exists between the OSC and the interagency task force.) In addition to working with representatives from the six other nations who are members of OSAG, the OSC is responsible for coordinating all U.S. government assistance provided to the Greek government, advising Greek police on security matters, and developing an operational plan to protect U.S. interests during the games.36 Other steps reportedly taken by U.S. government agencies include the following: ! The U.S. military helped organize a planning exercise at its European command headquarters in November 2003 to aid Greek security personnel in identifying gaps in their security plans.37 ! Naval Support Activity (NSA) Souda Bay, a U.S. Navy installation, is stockpiling emergency medical equipment. Located on the island of Crete, the base is capable of establishing and operating decontamination sites and field hospitals with a few hours’ notice.38 ! The CIA is one of the security services that has advised Athens organizers on designing credential cards, 80,000 of which will be issued to athletes, journalists, and officials.39 ! The FBI’s Counterterrorism Division has helped to establish intelligence-sharing arrangements among various law enforcement and security agencies involved in providing security for the Games. The FBI is also helping to secure venues and create a rapid communications system that would be used in the event of an 35 Gregory L. Vistica, “For Athens Olympics, a Security Gap,” Washington Post, Sept. 27, 2003, p. A18. 36 U.S. Department of State, Embassy of the United States, Athens, Greece, “Olympic Security Coordination,” available at [http://www.usembassy.gr/olympics/security1.htm], visited June 26, 2004. 37 Brian Murphy, “FBI Director Prods Greece on Security Fears for Olympics,” Philadelphia Inquirer, Nov. 8, 2003, p. A12. 38 Associated Press, “U.S. Base Helps Boost Olympic Security,” New York Times (online), Jan. 22, 2004, available from author. 39 Associated Press, “Olympics Tightening Credentials Security,” New York Times (online), Feb. 11, 2004, available from author. CRS-8 attack.40 A Washington Post article stated that “a sizable FBI response team” will be stationed outside Greece.41 ! The U.S. Sixth Fleet, and the Italian and Turkish navies, will patrol east and west of Greece during August 2004.42 The Sixth Fleet operates in the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent areas, and has operational control of the following units: a carrier strike group, an expeditionary strike group, a Marine expeditionary unit (MEU), a logistics force, a naval special warfare task force, a force commander, land-based maritime patrol aircraft, and a submarine force.43 Vice Admiral Henry G. Ulrich III is the commander of the Sixth Fleet. ! The Department of Energy (DOE) provided handheld radiological detection equipment to Greek officials on May 25, 2004.44 According to the Associated Press, the value of the detectors exceeds $26 million; permanent detectors will be installed at 32 airports, seaports, and Olympic venues; and police officers, border guards, customs officers, and coast guardsmen will receive portable equipment.45 The Energy Department’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is training Greek personnel to use and maintain the equipment, securing several sealed radiological sources in Greece, and discussing with Greek officials how NNSA personnel could provide technical assistance for emergency response systems.46 Another news article suggested that a small team of DOE personnel who are experts on weapons of mass destruction (WMD) will be stationed nearby during the Olympics, but it is not known where they will be based.47 40 Curt Anderson, “FBI Chief to Check Olympics Security,” Denver Post, Nov. 3, 2003, available from author. 41 Schmidt, “New Fears about Olympics,” p. A11. 42 “3 Foreign Navies on 2004 Duty,” Kathimerini, Feb. 28, 2004, available at [http://www. ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/news/content.asp?aid=40096], visited July 12, 2004. 43 U.S. Navy, U.S. Sixth Fleet, “Organization,” available at [http://www.c6f.navy.mil/ organization.htm], visited July 2, 2004. 44 U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, “U.S. Department of Energy Provides Nuclear Security Assistance for 2004 Athens Olympics,” press release no. R-04-112, May 25, 2004, available at [http://www.nn.doe.gov], visited June 29, 2004. 45 Associated Press, “Greece Gets Radiation Detectors,” Washington Post, May 26, 2004, p. D7. 46 Joe Fiorill, “Agency Helps Greece Defend Against Olympic ‘Dirty Bomb’ Attack,” Government Executive, Daily Briefing, Jan. 14, 2004, available at [http://www.govexec. com], visited July 2, 2004. 47 Schmidt, “New Fears about Olympics,” p. A11. CRS-9 ! Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security James Loy and Director General of the Greek Directorate General of Customs and Excise Vassilios Manolopoulos announced, on June 24, 2004, that Greece will participate in the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) container security initiative (CSI). CBP plans to deploy a team of officers to the port of Piraeus. The objective is to identify any cargo destined for the United States that poses a risk for terrorism. To help ensure that the CSI initiative is operational before the Olympics begin, CBP will loan Greece nonintrusive inspection technology.48 ! U.S. experts in chemical and biological substances have been training Athenian physicians.49 Apparently, the training focuses on how to treat victims of chemical or biological attacks. Security for the U.S. Olympic Team Overseeing the effort to safeguard the American team and support personnel will be the U.S. Ambassador to Greece, Thomas J. Miller.50 Ambassador Miller was scheduled to leave Greece before August 2004, but now will remain in place until after the Olympics.51 As reported by the Minneapolis Star Tribune, the USOC chief of security, Larry Buendorf, will assist in coordinating security for the U.S. Olympic team.52 48 U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, “Greece Joins the CBP Container Security Initiative,” press release, June 24, 2004, available at [http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/newsroom/highlights/06242004_greece_initiative.xml], visited July 6, 2004. The port at Pireaus is of particular concern to security officials because a variety of yachts and ships housing Olympic visitors and dignitaries will be anchored there. As reported in the Homeland Security Monitor, “The shortage of top-grade hotel rooms in Athens pressed Pireaus’ port into service. The vessels, and other special yachts, will house some of the games’ most prominent guests, including heads of state.... About 15,000 visitors, state officials and dignitaries will be aboard at least eight cruise ships, including the world’s largest passenger ship, the Queen Mary 2.... For more than two weeks, one section of the port will host the world’s largest concentration of major passenger ships, hence offering a prime location for terrorist activity” (Homeland Security Monitor, “Pireaus Port Security to Create Impregnable Fortress,” July 7, 2004, available at [http://www2. intellibridge.com/rst/070704.htm], visited July 7, 2004. 49 Clark, “Targeting the Olympics,” pp. 35-36. 50 Information provided by telephone by the U.S. Olympic Committee, Government Relations, to the author on July 12, 2004. 51 52 Gregory L. Vistica, “For Athens Olympics, a Security Gap,” p. A18. Jay Weiner, “Olympic Security Is His Herculean Task,” Star Tribune, May 20, 2004, p. 1A. A news article reports that the annual security budget for the Olympic complex in Colorado Springs, which houses the U.S. Olympic Committee’s offices and a training center, is $1 million. Among the items covered by the budget are approximately 20 security contract officers, a video surveillance network, and a card-access system to facilities. (MeriJo Borzilleri, “Keeping an Eye on Things,” Gazette.com, Dec. 21, 2003, available at [http:// usoc.gazette.com//fullstory.php? id=1505], visited June 20, 2004. CRS-10 State Department budget documents indicate that the department’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security will provide federal agents to accompany the U.S. Olympic team. In its FY2004 budget request, the department sought a total of $4,486,000 for Diplomatic and Consular Programs (DCP) ($1,723,000) and worldwide security upgrades ($2,763,000) involving the Athens Olympics.53 The latter amount includes funds for the department’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS), which will provide additional security for the United States Olympic Team participating in the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. This protection is above and beyond normal levels provided by State for such events and is based on an assessment of available security resources and other factors related to the size and site of the event. To meet the requirement, 150 Special Agents will be assigned on temporary duty [TDY] to Athens and environs prior to and during the Olympic games. The requested funding will cover airfare, per diem, lodging, shipment of armored vehicles, local transportation, and other support costs.54 The Bureau of Diplomatic Security is the security and law enforcement arm of the State Department. Among its other missions, DS develops and implements security programs for safeguarding U.S. diplomatic personnel around the world. More than 486 special agents are assigned to diplomatic missions in 157 countries.55 Special agents who are stationed at U.S. diplomatic missions overseas are known as regional security officers (RSOs). An RSO serves as a personal adviser to the ambassador or chief of mission on all security issues, and coordinates all elements of a mission’s security program.56 Speculation continues about whether foreign security forces accompanying their nations’ teams will be allowed to carry weapons while traveling in Greece. Noting that it is not new or unusual for an Olympic team to bring its own security team, Jacques Rogge, IOC President, reportedly stated that the decision on whether foreign security personnel would be allowed to carry arms is a matter for the Greek government to determine. The same news source that cited Rogge’s comment noted that Greece’s Public Order Minister, Giorgos Voulgarakis, has said repeatedly that 53 Section 205 of S. 2144, the FY2005 Foreign Affairs Authorization Act, as reported, would require the Secretary of State to seek, “to the extent practicable, reimbursement from the United States Olympic Committee for security provided” to the American team by DS Special Agents during the Athens Olympics. S. 2144 was placed on the Senate Legislative Calendar on March 18, 2004. 54 U.S. Department of State, The Budget in Brief — Fiscal Year 2004, available at [http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/17243.pdf], visited June 30, 2004. 55 U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security, “Frequently Asked Questions,” available at [http://www.state.gov/m/ds/about/faq], visited June 28, 2004; U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security, “A Brief History,” available at [http://www. state.gov/m/ds/about/history/index.htm], visited June 28, 2004. Bureau of Diplomatic Security special agents are federal law enforcement officers. 56 U.S. Department of State, “Protecting People,” available at [http://www.state.gov/m/ds/ protection/c8756.htm], visited June 28, 2004. CRS-11 no foreign security forces will be allowed to carry arms while in Greece.57 In midApril 2004, Olympic organizers denied that Israel, the United Kingdom, and the United States have made “unofficial deal[s]” to allow their security personnel accompanying athletes to carry arms.58 Nonetheless, speculation continues that teams from the United States, and other high-risk nations, will be accompanied by armed personnel.59 As reported in a June 14, 2004, article, “U.S. security experts predict that a few countries will deploy their own contingents of armed guards.”60 Another news article stated that approximately half of a 45-person security contingent accompanying American athletes during pre-Olympic training at a camp on the Greek island of Crete would have permits from the Greek government allowing them to carry weapons. Dogs trained to detect explosives will also be part of the security team, and FBI agents visited Crete as part of their efforts to develop a security plan. A training camp is scheduled to begin in early August. The same news article cited a spokesman for the Greek police reiterating the government’s position that foreign security forces will not be allowed to carry weapons during the Olympics.61 Other possible security measures for the American team, as reported in a news article, include robust security for airplanes carrying American athletes to Greece; an evacuation strategy; and additional protection from Greek and international authorities (which will also be provided to athletes from other high-risk nations, such as Israel and Spain).62 Larry Buendorf, head of security for the U.S. Olympic Committee, has said that armed air marshals probably would accompany all flights carrying U.S. Olympic athletes to Greece.63 Meetings Between U.S. and Greek Officials The challenges of safeguarding the Athens Summer Games have been discussed at the highest levels of the U.S. and Greek governments. Senior-level officials from the United States and Greece have met numerous times to discuss security considerations and arrangements. The following list is illustrative of the meetings that have taken place between officials from the two countries since January 1, 2003. The list includes only those meetings that were reported by the news media, and that were reported as including 57 “Terror Drills for Summer Olympics.” 58 “Pair Leads, Falls Behind, Then Wins Kayak Race,” Washington Post, April 17, 2004, p. D4. 59 “Terror Drills for Summer Olympics.” 60 Clark, “Targeting the Olympics,” p. 36. 61 “Armed U.S. Agents Permitted in Crete,” Washington Post, July 10, 2004, p. D4. 62 Amy Shipley, “Security to Be Boosted for U.S. Athletes,” Washington Post, April 1, 2004, p. D1. It has been reported that the Australian Olympic Committee will have two jets available to evacuate its nation’s team in the event of an emergency. (Layden, “Fear Factor?” p. 85.) 63 Shipley, “Security to Be Boosted for U.S. Athletes,” p. D2. CRS-12 discussions about security at the Athens Olympics. It is possible that additional meetings were held, but not publicized. ! November 7, 2003: FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III met with security officials in Athens, including then-Public Order Minister Giorgos Floridis, the Chief of the Greek Police, and the Director General of the Hellenic National Intelligence Service.64 ! January 15-16, 2004: Greece’s Public Order Minister visited Attorney General John Ashcroft, National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice, then-Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) George Tenet, FBI Director Mueller, Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage, State Department Coordinator for Counterrorism J. Cofer Black, Assistant Secretary of State for Diplomatic Security Francis X. Taylor, and other Administration officials.65 ! March 23, 2004: A State Department counterterrorism official, Jose Rodriguez, and the U.S. Ambassador to Greece, Thomas Miller, met with the chief of the Athens 2004 Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (ATHOC), Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, and ATHOC’s managing director, Yiannia Spanoudakis.66 ! Mid-March 2004: Ambassador Miller met with Defense Minister Spilios Spiliotopoulo; accompanied by Vice Admiral Ulrich, commander of the Sixth Fleet, Miller also met with Public Order Minister Voulgarakis on March 15.67 ! March 29, 2004: A delegation of U.S. government officials, including Deputy National Security Adviser for Combating Terrorism and Deputy Assistant to the President Frances Townsend and the FBI’s Assistant Director of the Counterterrorism Division, Gary M. Bald, met with Greece’s Public Order Minister Voulgarakis.68 64 Brian Murphy, “FBI Director Prods Greece on Security Fears for Olympics,” Philadelphia Inquirer, Nov. 8, 2003, p. A12. 65 Embassy of Greece, “In Top-Level Consultations in Washington,” press release, Feb. 14, 2004, available at [http://www.greekembassy.org/Embassy/content/en/Folder.aspx? office= 1&folder=24], visited July 1, 2004. 66 “Athens Meetings Focus on Olympic Security,” Kathemerini, March 24, 2004, available at [http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_politics_100020_24/03/2004_41032], visited July 9, 2004. 67 “NATO Response Soon,” Kathimerini, March 16, 2004, available at [http://www. ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_politics_100012_16/03/2004_40725], visited July 9, 2004; “U.S. Conducts a Security Check,” Chicago Tribune, March 16, 2004, available from author. 68 “Olympic Security,” Kathimerini, March 30, 2004, available at (continued...) CRS-13 ! April 15, 2004: Representatives Porter J. Goss, the chairman of the House Committee on Intelligence, and Ray LaHood met with Public Order Minister Voulgarakis, the Chief of the Greek Police, Lieutenant General Fotis Nasiakos, and the Director General of the Hellenic National Intelligence Service, Pavlos Apostolides.69 ! May 6-7, 2004: Public Order Minister Voulgarakis met with Homeland Security Secretary Tom Ridge, National Security Adviser Rice, Deputy Secretary of State Armitage, FBI Director Mueller, and then-Director of Central Intelligence Tenet.70 ! May 20, 2004: Prime Minister Costas Karamanlis met with President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, and members of the House Committee on International Relations and the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations.71 ! June 6-8, 2004: Athens Mayor Dora Bakoyiannis met with Deputy Secretary of State Armitage, Deputy National Security Adviser for Combating Terrorism and Deputy Assistant to the President Frances Townsend, Senators Paul Sarbanes and Gordon Smith, and Representative Henry J. Hyde, the chairman of the House Committee on International Relations.72 68 (...continued) [http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_politics_100028_30/03/2004_41208], visited July 9, 2004. The news article identified the FBI official as Gary Ball. However, the FBI website, available at [http://www.fbi.gov/libref/executives /bald.htm], identified this individual as Gary M. Bald. On April 30, 2004, President Bush announced his intention to appoint Frances Townsend Assistant to the President and Homeland Security Adviser. The same announcement stated that Ms. Townsend would retain her positions as Deputy Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Adviser for Combating Terrorism until a replacement was found. (White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “Personnel Announcement,” press release, April 30, 2004, available at [http://www.whitehouse.gov/ news/releases/2004/04/20040430-9.html], visited July 9, 2004. 69 “U.S. Group Discusses Security with Greeks,” Washington Post, April 16, 2004, p. D9. 70 Embassy of Greece, “Olympic Security Is One of the Main Issues Discussed During Bilateral Visits,” press release, June 11, 2004, available at [http://www.greekembassy.org/ Embassy/content/en/Folder.aspx?office=1&folder=24], visited July 1, 2004. 71 Embassy of Greece, “Relations of Cooperation Between Greece and the United States Have Been Reaffirmed,” press release, May 21, 2004, available at [http://www. greekembassy.org/Embassy/content/en/Folder.aspx?office=1&folder=24], visited July 1, 2004; Embassy of Greece, “Olympic Security Is One of the Main Issues Discussed During Bilateral Visits.” 72 Embassy of Greece, “Mayor of Athens, Dora Bakoyiannis, Visits Washington (June 6-8, 2004) to Discuss Final Preparations for the 2004 Olympic Games,” press release, June 10, 2004, available at [http://www.greekembassy.org/Embassy/content/en/Folder.aspx?office= 1&foler=24], visited July 1, 2004. CRS-14 ! July 1, 2004: Public Order Minister Voulgarakis met with General James Jones, U.S. Marine Corps, Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR).73 Overview Preparing to host the first Summer Olympic Games since September 11, 2001, Greece has had a monumental task: constructing new venues, refurbishing or upgrading existing facilities and infrastructure, and ensuring that appropriate security measures are designed and implemented. The cost to Greece alone of providing an extensive and rigorous security system reportedly exceeds $1 billion, far outstripping the security costs of other recent Games. Official documents and news reports suggest that the U.S. government is involved in a variety of efforts to help safeguard the 2004 Olympics Games and the U.S. Olympic team. The State Department appears to have primary responsibility for the security of American athletes and support staff. Other U.S. government entities, such as the FBI and the military, also have participated in security preparations, and may be involved in providing security or support services during the Games. A number of publicly reported meetings between senior-ranking officials of the federal government and the Greek government have been reported. There does not appear to be available any one source documenting the amount spent by the U.S. government on Olympic-related security. As a result of the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympics and the 2004 Athens Olympics, U.S. government agencies may have gained valuable experience in securing Games held in the United States as well as assisting with security and protecting the American team at Games held overseas. This experience may serve the U.S. government well at upcoming Games: Torino, Italy (2006); Beijing, China (2008); and Vancouver, Canada (2010).74 73 “Games Security Moves into Action,” Kathimerini, July 2, 2004, available at [http://www. ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_politics_100014_02/07/2004 _44594], visited July 2, 2004. 74 New York City is among the five cities competing to host the 2012 Summer Games. The other cities are London, Madrid, Moscow, and Paris. EveryCRSReport.com The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is a federal legislative branch agency, housed inside the Library of Congress, charged with providing the United States Congress non-partisan advice on issues that may come before Congress. EveryCRSReport.com republishes CRS reports that are available to all Congressional staff. The reports are not classified, and Members of Congress routinely make individual reports available to the public. 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