FY2005 Defense Budget: Frequently Asked Questions

This report is designed to provide facts and figures about the United States defense budget in order to help answer frequently asked questions about defense spending. The answers to these questions are based on analysis of recent and historical trends in the defense budget up to and including the fiscal year (FY) 2005 budget request. Using figures taken primarily from the White House Office of Management and Budget's (OMB's) Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005: Historical Tables (February 2004), this report answers frequently asked questions that fall within four categories: (1) trends in defense spending over time, from World War II through OMB's FY2009 budget projections (questions 1, 2, 3, and 4); (2) the impact of defense on the economy (questions 5, 6, and 7); (3) costs of wars and supplemental appropriations (questions 8 and 9); (4) trends in force structure (questions 10, 11, and 12). The fifth section of the report consists of additional, more general budget data tables and a glossary of frequently used budget terms. This report will be updated as necessary.

Order Code RL32468 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web FY2005 Defense Budget: Frequently Asked Questions July 12, 2004 name redacted Analyst in National Defense Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress FY2005 Defense Budget: Frequently Asked Questions Summary This report is designed to provide facts and figures about the United States defense budget in order to help answer frequently asked questions about defense spending. The answers to these questions are based on analysis of recent and historical trends in the defense budget up to and including the fiscal year (FY) 2005 budget request. Using figures taken primarily from the White House Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB’s) Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005: Historical Tables (February 2004), this report answers frequently asked questions that fall within four categories: (1) trends in defense spending over time, from World War II through OMB’s FY2009 budget projections (questions 1, 2, 3, and 4); (2) the impact of defense on the economy (questions 5, 6, and 7); (3) costs of wars and supplemental appropriations (questions 8 and 9); (4) trends in force structure (questions 10, 11, and 12). The fifth section of the report consists of additional, more general budget data tables and a glossary of frequently used budget terms. This report will be updated as necessary. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Key Budget Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Budget Authority, Obligations, and Outlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The “050” vs. the “051” Budget Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Current and Constant Dollars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Discretionary and Mandatory Spending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Part I: Trends in Defense Spending Over Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Question 1: What Are the Recent, Historic, and Projected Trends in Budget Authority and Outlays for National Defense? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Question 2: What Are the Recent Trends in Budget Authority for Each Defense Appropriations Title? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Question 3: What Are the Historical Trends in Defense’s Share of Total Federal Outlays? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Question 4: What Are the Historical Trends in Defense’s Share of Total Federal Discretionary Outlays? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Part II: The Impact of Defense on the Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Question 5: What Are the Historical Trends in U.S. Defense Outlays as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Question 6: What Are the Historical Trends in Different Categories of Federal Spending as a Percentage of GDP? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Question 7: How Do U.S. Defense Outlays Compare to Those of Other Countries, Both in Dollars and as a Percentage of GDP? . . . . . 16 Part III: Costs of Wars and Defense Supplementals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Question 8: How Much Has Congress Enacted in Defense Supplemental Appropriations since September 11, 2001? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Question 9: How Much Has Each Major War in the History of the United States Cost? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Part IV: Trends in Force Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Question 10: What Have Been the Recent Trends in U.S. Military Personnel Levels? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Question 11: What Are the Recent Trends in U.S. Military Force Structure? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Question 12: How Much Budget Authority Has Been Provided to Each Service in Recent Years? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Part V: Appendix and Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 CRS Defense Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 List of Figures Figure 1. National Defense Budget Authority and Outlays, FY1947-FY2009 . . . 3 Figure 2. National Defense Budget Authority and Outlays, FY1997-FY2009 . . . 4 Figure 3. Department of Defense Budget Authority by Appropriations Title, FY1976-FY2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Figure 4. Shares of Total Federal Outlays by Type of Spending, FY1962-FY2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Figure 5. Defense and Non-Defense Discretionary Outlays as a Share of Total Federal Discretionary Outlays, FY1962-FY2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 6. GDP and Defense’s Share of GDP, FY1962-FY2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Figure 7. Federal Spending by Category as a Percentage of GDP, FY1962-FY2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Figure 8. Regular and Supplemental Defense Appropriations, FY2001-FY2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Figure 9. Active Duty and Selected Reserve End-Strength, Selected Years, FY1989-FY2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Figure 10. Department of Defense Budget Authority by Service, FY2005 Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 List of Tables Table 1. National Defense Budget Function and Department of Defense Budget, FY1997-FY2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Table 2. National Defense Budget Function Trends by Appropriations Title, Budget Authority, FY1997-FY2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 3. National Defense Budget Function by Appropriations Title, Budget Authority, Selected Years, FY1976-FY2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table 4. National Defense Budget Function Outlays by Appropriations Title, FY1997-2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Table 5. Defense Spending of Top 25 Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table 6. Regular and Supplemental Appropriations for the National Defense Budget Function, FY2001-2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Table 7. Costs of Major U.S. Wars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Table 8. Department of Defense Personnel Levels, Selected Years . . . . . . . . . . 22 Table 9. U.S. Military Force Structure, FY1980-2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Table 10. Department of Defense Budget Authority by Service, FY1995-FY2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Table 11. Real Growth/Decline in National Defense Budget Authority and Outlays, FY1940-FY2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Table 12. National Defense Outlays as a Percentage of GDP, FY1910-FY2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Table 13. Allocation of Federal Outlays by Budget Enforcement Act Category, FY1962-FY2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 14. Percentage Allocation of Federal Outlays by Budget Enforcement Act Category, FY1962-FY2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 FY2005 Defense Budget: Frequently Asked Questions Introduction This report is designed to answer Congress’s most frequently asked questions and provide essential facts and figures about the defense budget. It includes figures from the president’s fiscal year (FY) 2005 budget request and provides brief analyses of recent and historical trends in the defense budget. Each frequently asked question about the defense budget falls within one of the following four sections in this report: (1) trends in defense spending over time, from World War II through OMB’s FY2009 budget projections (questions 1, 2, 3, and 4); (2) the impact of defense on the economy (questions 5, 6, and 7); (3) costs of wars and supplemental appropriations (questions 8 and 9); (4) trends in force structure (questions 10, 11, and 12); The fifth section of the report consists of additional data tables with historical budget authority and outlay figures, and a glossary of frequently used budget terms. Most of the figures used in this report are taken from annual budget documents prepared by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).1 It is important to note that OMB figures for budget authority and outlays through FY2004 include both regular and supplemental appropriations. As a result, budget authority and outlay totals for FY2003 and FY2004, which included significant supplemental appropriations, are sometimes larger than totals for FY2005, which represent the president’s FY2005 request and do not include any FY2005 supplemental appropriations. In addition, please note that the budget authority and estimated outlay figures for the president’s FY2005 request include the $25 billion budget amendment for Iraq and Afghanistan submitted by the president to Congress on May 12, 2004. Outlay estimates provided by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) for the $25 billion amendment are added to OMB outlay projections for FY2006FY2009 included in this report. Please note as well that all figures provided for FY2006 through FY2009 in this report are either OMB, CBO, or Department of Defense projections, and represent neither congressional appropriations nor the President’s request. 1 Most figures are from the Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005: Historical Tables, February 2004. CRS-2 Key Budget Terminology The federal budget has its own unique vocabulary, a basic understanding of which is essential to understand the significance of defense budget figures and trends. The following budget terms, which will be used often in this report, are frequently used, yet sometimes misunderstood. Budget Authority, Obligations, and Outlays. When Congress appropriates money, it provides agencies with “budget authority.” Budget authority gives an agency the legal authority to obligate money for the provision of goods or services. Appropriations are the most common, but not the only, type of budget authority.2 Obligations then occur, for example, when agencies enter into contracts, submit purchase orders, and employ personnel. When those obligations are liquidated — or in simpler terms, when the “check is written” and the performance of an obligation is paid for — outlays occur. The term “defense spending” technically refers to outlays, although budget authority and outlays are frequently confused in budget discussions. The “050” vs. the “051” Budget Function. The federal budget is divided into several functions, including the National Defense Budget Function, or “050” function. The 050 function consists of three sub-functions — Department of Defense (051), atomic energy defense activities (053), and defense-related activities in other agencies (054). Thus, “national defense” spending consists of more than just the Department of Defense’s annual expenditures. Although the majority of the 050 function consists of the Department of Defense (051) function, the 050 function also consists of billions of dollars ($16.75 billion in FY2004) appropriated to the Department of Energy for atomic energy defense activities. This report contains figures for both the 050 and 051 functions, depending on which is most useful to the reader. Current and Constant Dollars. The cost of goods or services in current dollars is the value of such goods or services in terms of prices current at the time of purchase. For example, FY1985 national defense outlays in current dollars represent the amount spent on national defense in FY1985 according to what the dollar was worth in FY1985. Current dollars may also be referred to as “then-year” dollars. The cost of goods or services in constant dollars is the value adjusted to eliminate the effects of changes in prices (usually due to inflation). Constant dollars, expressed in terms of a particular reference year (normally the current budget year), 2 Other types include borrowing authority and contract authority — for further explanation of these terms, see Allen Schick, The Federal Budget: Politics, Policy, Process (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2000). CRS-3 are determined by dividing current dollars by a deflator based on the prices in the reference year. Constant dollars are used to measure the growth rates of programs over time independently of the effects of inflation. For this reason, figures in this report measuring trends in the defense budget use constant-dollar figures. Discretionary and Mandatory Spending. Within the federal budget, budget authority is classified as either discretionary or mandatory. Generally, budget authority is discretionary if provided by Congress in appropriations acts and mandatory if provided in permanent authorizing law (examples include Social Security, Medicare, and federal employee retirement). However, a portion of mandatory budget authority, including Medicaid and certain veterans’ programs, is funded in annual appropriations acts. Discretionary budget authority must be renewed annually, while most mandatory budget authority is available automatically each year without legislative action by Congress. Outlays are also classified as discretionary or mandatory according to the classification of the budget authority from which they flow. Part I: Trends in Defense Spending Over Time The following section (questions 1, 2, 3, and 4) provides figures and an analysis of trends in defense spending over time. Question 1: What Are the Recent, Historic, and Projected Trends in Budget Authority and Outlays for National Defense? Figure 1. National Defense Budget Authority and Outlays, FY1947-FY2009 (constant FY2005 dollars in billions) Source: Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005: Historical Tables, February 2004, pp. 53-58, 82-85, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/ fy2005/pdf/hist.pdf]. Figures for FY2006-FY2009 are projected; CBO estimated outlays for the $25 billion budget amendment for Iraq and Afghanistan are included in FY2005-FY2009 outlay figures. CRS-4 Figure 1 shows the pattern of budget authority and outlays since World War II. Since 1947, there have been four periods of significant increases in budget authority and outlays — the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Reagan era military build-up, and the post-9/11 defense spending increases. Each period to date has been followed by a period of significant decreases in budget authority and outlays. Following the end of the Cold War and the disappearance of the Soviet threat, some observers believed that this cyclical pattern in budget authority and outlays would end with a long, or even permanent, decline in defense spending.3 However, the events of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, and the ongoing Global War on Terrorism ended the decline in budget authority and outlays that had continued through most of the 1990s. Figure 2 shows recent trends in budget authority and outlays from FY1997 through projected totals for FY2009. Table 1, below, shows budget authority and outlays in current and constant FY2005 dollars for both the national defense budget function (the “050” function) and the Department of Defense budget (the “051” function) from FY1997 through FY2009. Figure 2. National Defense Budget Authority and Outlays, FY1997-FY2009 (constant FY2005 dollars in billions) Source: Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005: Historical Tables, February 2004, pp. 58-59, 84-85, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/ fy2005/pdf/hist.pdf]. Figures for FY2006-FY2009 are projected; CBO outlay estimates for the $25 billion budget amendment for Iraq and Afghanistan are included in FY2005-FY2009 outlay figures. FY1998 was the final year of a period of decline in budget authority and outlays that began in FY1986. From FY1999 through FY2001, budget authority and outlays increased modestly in real terms, by 8.6% and 4.8%, respectively. From FY2001 through FY2004, budget authority increased by 27.7% and outlays increased by 3 Colonel Joe Conley, “Impacts of Declining Budgets and Defense Mergers on the Department of Defense,” U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA, April 2002, p.3. CRS-5 37.7%. The Bush Administration’s regular FY2005 national defense budget request of $423.1 billion, when combined with the administration’s $25 billion budget amendment for Iraq and Afghanistan submitted to Congress on May 12, 2004 and a supplemental request that is expected early in calendar year 2005, will most likely exceed FY2004 budget authority. 292.3 339.5 5.1% 274.9 320.3 0.4% 278.5 323.5 5.1% 261.3 304.4 0.1% 270.4 271.3 330.3 323.1 -0.7% -2.2% 270.5 268.5 328.9 318.9 -0.6% -3.0% 257.9 258.5 315.2 307.9 -0.8% -2.3% 258.3 256.1 314.1 304.2 -0.5% -3.2% 281.2 318.4 4.6% 290.4 328.8 1.6% 294.5 333.5 4.1% 304.1 344.2 1.4% Proj. 2006 464.8 443.0 2.1% Proj. 2007 434.8 448.4 420.5 427.7 442.9 448.4 411.3 408.6 9.6% 1.2% -8.3% -0.7% 444.9 424.1 2.5% 453.7 469.4 441.0 447.9 462.1 469.4 431.3 427.9 9.4% 1.6% -8.1% -0.8% 345.0 437.9 441.7 427.6 423.7 369.2 456.9 450.5 427.6 413.8 5.1% 23.8% -1.4% -5.1% -3.2% 291.0 332.0 387.3 319.7 354.6 404.0 0.4% 10.9% 13.9% 319.4 351.3 6.8% Est. Req. 2004 2005 362.1 456.2 460.5 448.1 444.0 387.6 476.0 469.7 448.1 433.7 5.1% 22.8% -1.3% -4.6% -3.2% 305.5 348.6 404.9 335.6 372.3 422.5 0.6% 10.9% 13.5% 335.5 368.9 7.2% Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 447.9 417.5 2.2% 466.8 433.8 2.3% 467.4 435.7 1.8% 485.8 451.5 1.9% Proj. 2008 468.1 425.6 1.9% 488.9 443.0 2.1% 487.4 443.2 1.7% 508.2 460.5 2.0% Proj. 2009 Note: FY2005-FY2009 outlay figures include unpublished CBO outlay estimates for the $25 billion amendment to the FY2005 request submitted by the Administration to Congress on May 12, 2004. Source: Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005: Historical Tables, February 2004, pp. 58-59, 84-85, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/pdf/hist.pdf]. FY2005 Dept. of Defense deflators used for conversions to constant FY2005 dollars. Fiscal Year: National Defense Budget Function Budget Authority Current year dollars Constant FY2005 dollars Real growth/decline Outlays Current year dollars Constant FY2005 dollars Real growth/decline Department of Defense Budget Authority Current year dollars Constant FY2005 dollars Real growth/decline Outlays Current year dollars Constant FY2005 dollars Real growth/decline (current and constant FY2005 dollars in billions) Table 1. National Defense Budget Function and Department of Defense Budget, FY1997-FY2009 CRS-6 CRS-7 Question 2: What Are the Recent Trends in Budget Authority for Each Defense Appropriations Title? Figure 3. Department of Defense Budget Authority by Appropriations Title, FY1976-FY2005 200 Operations and Maintenance Military Personnel 150 100 Procurement 50 R,D,T&E 0 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 Source: Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005, February 2004, pp. 82-85, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/ fy2005/pdf/hist.pdf]; FY2005 deflators from DOD Comptroller. Note: Figures for FY2005 do not include the $25 billion budget amendment for Iraq and Afghanistan submitted by the Bush Administration to Congress on May 12, 2004, as the Administration’s amendment did not allocate funds by appropriation title. As shown in Figure 3, budget authority for procurement has varied far more than that of the other appropriations titles since FY1976. When national defense budget authority increased during this period — especially during the Reagan-era build-up — procurement budget authority increased sharply. On the other hand, when national defense budget authority was reduced significantly after the Cold War, procurement funding faced much deeper cuts than military personnel, operations and maintenance (O&M), and research, development, test, and evaluation (R,D,T&E). Tables 2, 3, and 4 list recent budget authority in current year and constant year dollars, and outlay levels in current year dollars for each of these appropriations titles, respectively. Budget authority for military personnel also declined considerably after the Cold War, due largely to the drawdown in active duty and selected reserve personnel that took place from 1989 to 1999. On the other hand, the O&M and R,D,T&E titles have, until recently, been funded at relatively steady levels during periods of overall increases and decreases in national defense budget authority. Since FY2002, budget authority for each appropriations title has increased sharply, in part as a result of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and enhanced security for defense installations. Supplemental appropriations in FY2003 and FY2004 were CRS-8 a major cause of the sharp increases in military personnel and O&M budget authority. Procurement and R,D,T&E have increased steadily in regular appropriations since FY1997, and have also received some additional funding in recent supplemental appropriations. 270.4 271.3 292.3 1.6 1.2 335.5 14.4 12.4 304.1 319.5 290.5 362.1 1.8 15.3 345.0 87.0 133.2 62.7 48.7 6.6 4.0 2.7 Req. 2005 2.1 16.8 3.2 17.2 456.2 460.5 448.1 2.0 16.4 109.1 117.7 106.3 178.3 168.5 141.2 78.5 80.9 74.9 58.1 64.7 68.9 6.7 6.0 5.3 4.2 3.8 4.2 3.0 0.2 1.7 25.0 437.9 441.7 427.6 Est. 2004 Proj. 2007 Proj. 2008 Proj. 2009 2.3 17.6 2.4 16.7 2.4 16.9 444.0 464.8 485.8 508.2 2.3 18.1 423.7 444.9 466.8 488.9 110.9 114.7 118.4 122.1 146.8 151.8 156.9 164.6 80.4 90.6 105.1 114.0 71.0 70.7 71.6 70.7 8.8 12.1 10.8 10.2 4.6 4.5 3.6 3.5 1.1 0.5 0.3 3.8 Proj. 2006 $25 billion amendment to the FY2005 request, for Iraq and Afghanistan, submitted by the Bush administration to Congress on May 12, 2004, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/amendments/amendment_5_12_04.pdf]. The Administration did not allocate the $25 billion by appropriations title, so in this table the amendment is reflected separately from the appropriations titles but as part of the Department of Defense subtotal and national defense total. a Sources: Figures through FY2005 taken from the Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005, February 2004, pp.84-85, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/pdf/hist.pdf]. Projected figures for FY2006-FY2009 for the Department of Defense taken from National Defense Budget Estimates for FY2005, Office of the Undersecretary of Defense (Comptroller), March 2004, p. 115, [http://www.defenselink.mil/comptroller/defbudget/fy2005/fy2005_greenbook.pdf]. Total, National Defense 76.9 115.8 62.6 41.6 5.4 3.7 13.5 73.8 108.8 55.0 38.7 5.1 3.5 5.6 Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Department of Defense (military activities only) Military Personnel 70.3 69.8 70.6 Operation & Maintenance 92.4 97.2 105.0 Procurement 43.0 44.8 51.1 RDT&E 36.4 37.1 38.3 Military Construction 5.7 5.5 5.4 Family Housing 4.1 3.8 3.6 Other 6.1 0.3 4.6 a Budget Amendment Subtotal, Department of 258.0 258.6 278.6 Defense Department of Energy Atomic Energy Defense 11.4 11.7 12.6 Activities Other Agencies Defense-Related Activities 1.0 1.0 1.1 Fiscal Year: (current year dollars in billions) Table 2. National Defense Budget Function Trends by Appropriations Title, Budget Authority, FY1997-FY2009 CRS-9 1.2 1.3 14.6 321.6 333.6 493.9 435.2 330.3 323.1 339.5 1.2 0.9 13.9 1.8 15.8 1.9 16.4 2.0 17.1 2.1 17.1 344.2 368.9 387.6 476.0 469.7 1.4 14.1 448.1 3.2 17.2 106.3 141.2 74.9 68.9 5.3 4.2 1.7 25.0 427.6 Req. 2005 $25 billion amendment to the FY2005 request, for Iraq and Afghanistan, submitted by the Bush administration to Congress on May 12, 2004, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/amendments/amendment_5_12_04.pdf]. The Administration did not allocate the $25 billion by appropriations title, so in this table the amendment is reflected separately from the appropriations titles but as part of the Department of Defense subtotal and national defense total. a Sources: Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005, February 2004, pp. 82-85, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/pdf/hist.pdf]; FY2005 deflators from Department of Defense Comptroller. Total, National Defense 13.9 328.8 351.3 369.2 456.9 450.5 420.4 315.2 307.9 323.5 13.9 88.9 89.7 95.9 115.6 120.9 124.5 127.7 143.2 186.3 171.8 58.6 66.1 65.4 80.8 82.2 41.6 44.1 50.9 59.8 65.6 5.5 5.8 7.0 6.9 6.0 3.8 3.9 4.2 4.3 3.9 5.9 14.2 2.8 3.1 0.2 Est. 2004 132.7 95.3 90.7 89.1 127.1 113.8 116.3 122.5 103.3 47.5 49.1 55.3 47.5 40.8 41.1 41.9 6.6 6.4 6.1 5.9 4.1 4.6 4.2 3.9 -1.0 6.7 0.4 4.9 Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual 1976 1980 1985 1990 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Department of Defense (military activities only) Military Personnel 125.8 118.8 133.0 Operation & Maintenance 90.0 99.7 132.7 Procurement 63.0 71.9 146.3 RDT&E 27.3 27.2 48.6 Military Construction 6.3 4.4 8.6 Family Housing 3.7 3.0 4.4 Other -0.5 1.1 7.1 a Budget Amendment Subtotal, Department of 315.6 326.2 480.8 Defense Department of Energy Atomic Energy Defense 5.6 6.9 12.3 Activities Other Agencies Defense-Related Activities 0.5 0.5 0.8 Fiscal Year (constant FY2005 dollars in billions) Table 3. National Defense Budget Function by Appropriations Title, Budget Authority, Selected Years, FY1976-FY2005 CRS-10 270.5 268.5 274.9 294.5 305.5 348.6 404.9 1.6 1.8 Req. 2005 Proj. 2006 Proj. 2007 Proj. 2008 3.3 17.7 2.2 18.4 2.3 17.9 453.7 469.4 436.1 447.0 2.3 16.6 2.4 467.1 17.1 117.3 108.9 110.4 111.4 117.8 165.7 163.9 147.0 151.2 155.8 77.7 78.2 78.4 81.8 89.1 60.6 66.2 69.0 70.1 70.7 6.2 6.0 6.0 7.6 9.7 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.4 3.4 2.4 0.6 0.3 0.1 18.8 4.9 0.8 0.3 434.8 448.4 415.5 426.9 447.6 Est. 2004 487.2 2.4 16.9 121.6 161.9 98.6 70.5 10.0 4.5 0.8 0.2 467.9 Proj. 2009 Based on unpublished CBO outlay estimates of the $25 billion amendment to the FY2005 request, for Iraq and Afghanistan, submitted by the Bush administration to Congress on May 12, 2004, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/amendments/amendment_5_12_04.pdf]. a Sources: Figures through FY2005 taken from Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005, February 2004, pp. 58-59, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/pdf/hist.pdf]. Figures for FY2005 do not include the $25 billion budget amendment for Iraq and Afghanistan submitted by the Bush Administration to Congress on May 12, 2004. Projected figures for FY2006-FY2009 for the Department of Defense taken from National Defense Budget Estimates for FY2005, Office of the Undersecretary of Defense (Comptroller), March 2004, p.133, [http://www.defenselink.mil/comptroller/defbudget/fy2005/fy2005_greenbook.pdf.] Total, National Defense 16.0 14.8 332.0 387.3 86.8 106.7 130.0 151.4 62.5 67.9 44.4 53.1 5.1 5.9 3.7 3.8 -0.5 -1.5 Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Department of Defense (military activities only) Military Personnel 69.7 69.0 69.5 76.0 74.0 Operation & Maintenance 92.4 93.4 96.3 105.8 112.0 Procurement 47.7 48.2 48.8 51.7 55.0 RDT&E 37.0 37.4 37.4 37.6 40.4 Military Construction 6.2 6.0 5.5 5.1 5.0 Family Housing 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.5 Other 1.2 -1.9 0.6 1.6 1.1 a Budget Amendment Subtotal, Department of 258.3 256.1 261.3 281.2 291.0 Defense Department of Energy Atomic Energy Defense 11.3 11.3 12.2 12.1 12.9 Activities Other Agencies Defense-Related Activities 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.6 Fiscal Year (current year dollars in billions) Table 4. National Defense Budget Function Outlays by Appropriations Title, FY1997-2009 CRS-11 CRS-12 Question 3: What Are the Historical Trends in Defense’s Share of Total Federal Outlays? Figure 4. Shares of Total Federal Outlays by Type of Spending, FY1962-FY2009 Source: Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005, February 2004, pp. 127-128, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/ budget/fy2005/pdf/hist.pdf]; FY2005 deflators from DOD Comptroller. Notes: See p. 3 for definitions of mandatory and discretionary budget authority and outlays. Figure 4 reveals two important long-term trends. The first trend is the decline of defense discretionary outlays as a percentage of total federal outlays since FY1962. In FY1962, defense discretionary represented 49.2%, or almost half, of total federal outlays, while in FY2003 its share of total federal outlays declined to 18.8%. Defense discretionary outlays have declined consistently as a percentage of federal outlays in large part because of a second trend: the rapid increase of mandatory outlays, mostly for major “entitlement” programs. Between FY1962 and FY2004, mandatory outlays rose by 833% while defense outlays rose by 30% in real terms.4 The share of federal outlays of mandatory programs increased from 26.1% in FY1962 to 54.1% in FY2004 and is projected to reach 56.5% by FY2009. 4 Percent growth in mandatory outlays and defense outlays between FY1962 and FY2004 is measured in constant FY2000 dollars using figures from the Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005, February 2004, p. 126, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/pdf/hist.pdf]. CRS-13 Question 4: What Are the Historical Trends in Defense’s Share of Total Federal Discretionary Outlays? Figure 5. Defense and Non-Defense Discretionary Outlays as a Share of Total Federal Discretionary Outlays, FY1962-FY2009 Source: Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005, February 2004, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/ pdf/hist.pdf]; p.127. Note: See p. 3 for definition of discretionary budget authority and outlays. Defense discretionary outlays have declined from almost 75% of total discretionary outlays in FY1962 to just under 50% of total discretionary outlays in FY2003. This steady decline was interrupted significantly by the Reagan build-up of the 1980s, during which time defense discretionary outlays rose from 50.1% of total discretionary outlays in FY1981 to 62% in FY1987. Since FY1995, defense discretionary outlays have remained between 47% and 50% of total discretionary outlays, although this percentage has increased from 47.1% in FY2001 to 49.7% in FY2004. Under current projections, defense will rise to 51.4% of total discretionary outlays by FY2009. CRS-14 Part II: The Impact of Defense on the Economy The following section (questions 5, 6, and 7) looks at the impact of defense on the economy, measured in terms of defense outlays and federal outlays as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), and compares U.S. defense outlays to those of foreign countries. Question 5: What Are the Historical Trends in U.S. Defense Outlays as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? Figure 6. GDP and Defense’s Share of GDP, FY1962-FY2005 (constant FY2005 dollars in trillions / percent of GDP) Source: GDP deflators and figures from the Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005, February 2004, [http://www. whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/pdf/hist.pdf], pp. 128, 184. Advocates of higher defense spending frequently cite defense’s declining percentage of GDP to argue that the nation can afford more for defense. These observers note that even with recent increases, defense spending is still at relatively low levels historically as a percentage of GDP, as shown in Figure 6. Whereas defense spending reached 9.5% of GDP in FY1968 and 6.2% of GDP in FY1986 at the height of the Reagan build-up, it equaled only 3.9% of GDP in FY2004.5 Others’ counterargument, however, is that defense spending as a percentage of GDP is as much dependent on the level of GDP growth as it is dependent on the level of defense spending growth. Since 1962, GDP has grown 306% in real terms while 5 See Table 12 in the Appendix for the data that correspond to Figures 6 and 7. CRS-15 defense outlays have risen 30% during the same period.6 Therefore, some say, the story of defense’s decline as a percentage of GDP is as much a story of the rapid growth of the U.S. economy as it is a story of declining defense spending. Question 6: What Are the Historical Trends in Different Categories of Federal Spending as a Percentage of GDP? It should be noted that the trend in defense outlays is part of a broader long-term trend in the federal budget, in which both defense and non-defense discretionary outlays have declined as shares of GDP while mandatory outlays have increased. As Figure 7 below shows, total federal spending has been remarkably stable at about 20% of GDP over the past 40 years. Figure 7. Federal Spending by Category as a Percentage of GDP, FY1962-FY2005 Source: Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005: Historical Tables, February 2004, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/pdf/ hist.pdf], p. 128. 6 Percent growth in GDP and defense outlays between FY1962 and FY2004 is measured in constant FY2000 dollars using figures from the Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005, February 2004, pp. 126, 184-185, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/pdf/hist.pdf]. CRS-16 Question 7: How Do U.S. Defense Outlays Compare to Those of Other Countries, Both in Dollars and as a Percentage of GDP? Table 5 ranks the top 25 countries in defense spending and lists the share of GDP that each country devotes to defense. Table 5. Defense Spending of Top 25 Countries (current year U.S. dollars in millions) Country Rank WMEATa 1999-2000 Defense Expenditures (1999 Data) IISS Military Balanceb 2003-2004 % GDP Defense Expenditures (2002 Data) % GDP United States 1 281,000 3.0% 348,500 3.3% China — Mainland 2 88,900 2.2% 51,000 4.1% Japan 3 43,200 1.0% 39,500 1.0% France 4 38,900 2.7% 40,200 2.5% United Kingdom 5 36,500 2.5% 37,300 2.4% Russia 6 35,000 5.6% 50,800 4.8% Germany 7 32,600 1.6% 33,300 1.5% Italy 8 23,700 2.0% 25,600 1.9% Saudi Arabia 9 21,200 14.9% 22,200 12.0% China — Taiwan 10 15,200 5.2% 7,900 2.7% South Korea 11 11,600 2.9% 13,300 2.8% India 12 11,300 2.5% 13,800 2.7% Turkey 13 9,950 5.3% 9,200 5.1% Brazil 14 9,920 1.9% 10,200 2.3% Israel 15 8,700 8.8% 9,900 9.7% Canada 16 8,320 1.4% 8,200 1.1% Spain 17 7,560 1.3% 8,700 1.2% Australia 18 7,060 1.8% 8,000 2.0% Netherlands 19 7,030 1.8% 7,700 1.6% Iran 20 6,880 2.9% 5,100 4.6% Poland 21 6,690 2.1% 3,600 1.9% Greece 22 6,060 4.7% 6,500 4.4% Sweden 23 5,330 2.3% 4,200 1.7% Dem. Rep. of Congo 24 5,150 14.4% 1,000 21.7% Ukraine 25 5,110 3.0% 5,000 2.2% Source: Data from the International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS) and the U.S. Dept. of State. a U.S. Department of State, World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers (WMEAT), Washington, February 2003; countries are ranked according to WMEAT figures. b International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), The Military Balance: 2003-2004 (Oxford University Press, 2003). CRS-17 Part III: Costs of Wars and Defense Supplementals The following section (questions 8 and 9) provides figures and analysis on the costs of wars and recent supplemental appropriations for the Department of Defense. Question 8: How Much Has Congress Enacted in Defense Supplemental Appropriations since September 11, 2001? Figure 8. Regular and Supplemental Defense Appropriations, FY2001-FY2005 (current year dollars in billions) Source: House Appropriations Committee tables. Note: FY2005 figures include the $25 billion amendment to the FY2005 request, for Iraq and Afghanistan, submitted by the Bush Administration to Congress on May 12, 2004, [http://www. whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/amendments/amendment_5_12_04.pdf]. Congress enacted a total of $165.63 billion7 in supplemental appropriations for defense from FY2001 through FY2004. More than half of this $165.63 billion was enacted in FY2003 and FY2004 emergency supplemental appropriations, which funded the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.8 As shown in Figure 8, the combination 7 Total excludes $5.834 billion appropriated by Congress in P.L. 107-20, FY2001 nonemergency supplemental appropriations, enacted before September 11, 2001; total also reflects the $3.49 billion recission in P.L. 108-87, FY2004 DoD regular appropriations, of funds appropriated in P.L. 108-11, FY2003 emergency supplemental appropriations. 8 For a detailed analysis, see CRS Report RL32090, FY2004 Supplemental Appropriations for Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Global War on Terrorism: Military Operations and Reconstruction Assistance, by (name redacted), (name redacted(name t Tredacted), and Rhoda CRS-18 of increased supplemental and regular appropriations has resulted in a significant increase in overall defense appropriations for the last four fiscal years. Table 6 lists administration requests and the enacted levels of regular and supplemental appropriations for defense since FY2001. For FY2005, Figure 8 includes the $25 billion budget amendment requested by the president on May 12, 2004 to cover the costs of Iraq and Afghanistan for part of FY2005. 8 (...continued) Margesson. CRS-19 Table 6. Regular and Supplemental Appropriations for the National Defense Budget Function, FY2001-2005 (current year dollars in millions) Request Enacted Difference FY2001 305,312.9 309,974.0 +4,661.1 5,841.0 5,834.0 -7.0 14,041.0 14,041.0 0.0 325,194.9 329,849.0 +4,654.1 343,435.0 343,429.0 -6.0 7,467.0 3,867.0 -3,600.0 14,022.0 13,370.0 -652.0 364,924.0 360,666.0 -4,258.0 392,837.0 382,027.0 -10,809.0 Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, H.J.Res2 0 10,000.0 +10,000.0 Emergency supplemental, H.R. 1559, P.L. 108-11 62,587.0 62,583.0 -4.0 Regular Appropriations Supplemental Appropriations: Non-emergency supplemental H.R. 2216, P.L. 107-20a Emergency supplemental H.R. 2228, P.L. 107-38 TOTAL FY2001 FY2002 Regular Appropriations Supplemental Appropriations Emergency Terrorism Response, H.R. 3338, P.L. 107-117 Emergency supplemental, H.R. 4775, P.L. 107-206 TOTAL FY2002 FY2003 Regular Appropriations Supplemental Appropriations Rescission of funds from P.L. 108-11 b TOTAL FY2003 -3,490.0 455,424.0 451,120.0 -4,304.0 400,476.0 398,688.0 -1,788.0 65,560.0 65,251.0 -309.0 466,036.0 463,939.0 -2,097.0 FY2004 Regular Appropriations Supplemental Appropriations Emergency supplemental, H.R. 3289, P.L. 108-106 TOTAL FY2004 FY2005 (Request) Regular Appropriationsc Budget Amendment 448,098.0 25,000.0 473,098.0 TOTAL FY2005 Source: Conference Reports for each bill and House Appropriations Tables as printed in the Congressional Record. Total for FY2005 include the $25 billion budget amendment for Iraq and Afghanistan submitted by the Bush Administration to Congress on May 12, 2004. a Enacted before September 11, 2001. Congress rescinded $3.49 billion from P.L. 108-11 (FY2003 emergency supplemental) in the FY2004 Department of Defense appropriations act (P.L. 108-87). This rescission reduces the funding scored in FY2004 but reduces the resources available in the FY2003 emergency supplemental. c Total includes $25.0 billion budget amendment for Iraq and Afghanistan submitted by the Bush administration to Congress on May 12, 2004. b CRS-20 Question 9: How Much Has Each Major War in the History of the United States Cost? Table 7 lists the costs of each major war in United States’ history in current and constant FY2005 dollars. Table 7. Costs of Major U.S. Wars (amounts in millions and billions of dollars) American Revolution Current Year Constant FY2005 $ War of 1812 Current Year Constant FY2005 $ Mexican War Current Year Constant FY2005 $ Civil War: Union Current Year Constant FY2005 $ Civil War: Confederacy Current Year Constant FY2005 $ Spanish American War Current Year Constant FY2005 $ World War Ia Current Year Constant FY2005 $ World War II Current Year Constant FY2005 $ Korea Current Year Constant FY2005 $ Vietnam Current Year Constant FY2005 $ Persian Gulf War (1991)b Current Year Constant FY2005 $ $120 $3,315 million million $89 $1,043 million million $82 $1,841 million million $2,300 $52,165 million million $1,000 $22,707 million million $270 $6,750 million million $33 $613 billion billion $360 $5,008 billion billion $50 $426 billion billion $111 $609 billion billion $61 $86 billion billion Sources and Notes: American Revolution through Korean War Costs from the Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1994; deflators and all other data from the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller). Costs for the American Revolution through the Korean War were converted to constant FY2005 dollars from figures cited in the Statistical Abstract. a World War I figures include the amount of war loans to allies, which totaled between $9.4 and $9.5 billion in current year dollars, or 28%-29% of the total cost. b Most Persian Gulf War costs were offset by allied contributions or were absorbed by DOD. Net costs to U.S. taxpayers totaled $4.7 billion in current year dollars, or 7.7% of the total cost. Source: Department of Defense Annual Report to Congress, January 1993. CRS-21 Part IV: Trends in Force Structure The following section (questions 10, 11, and 12) provides figures and analysis on U.S. military personnel levels, force structure, and budget authority by service. Question 10: What Have Been the Recent Trends in U.S. Military Personnel Levels? Figure 9. Active Duty and Selected Reserve End-Strength, Selected Years, FY1989-FY2005 Sources: See Table 8 sources on following page. As shown in Figure 9 and in Tables 8 and 9, the United States military experienced a sharp drawdown in military personnel and forces that began in the late 1980s and ended, for the most part, by FY1999. The decision to decrease both active duty and selected reserve forces reflected the disappearance of the Soviet threat and congressional efforts to reduce budget deficits in the 1990s. Although Congress has enacted significant increases in funding for national defense, and military forces have been deployed in large numbers abroad since March 2003, the force structure has remained stable. In response to the demands of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Secretary of Defense has temporarily increased active-duty end strength temporarily by 30,000 troops, exercising authority that allows the President to waive authorized end strength ceilings in national emergencies. CRS-22 Table 8. Department of Defense Personnel Levels, Selected Years (end strength /civilian employees in thousands)a Fiscal Year: Army Navy Marine Corps Air Force Total Active Selected Reserves Total Civilians Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Est. 1981 1985 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2002 2003 2004 781 781 770 725 572 509 492 479 481 487 499 482 540 571 593 571 510 435 396 373 378 383 382 374 191 198 197 195 178 174 174 173 173 174 178 175 570 602 571 511 444 400 378 361 354 368 375 359 2,082 2,151 2,130 2,002 1,705 1,518 1,440 1,386 1,385 1,412 1,434 1,391 851 1,188 1,171 1,138 1,058 946 902 877 869 874 875 863 984 1,107 1,075 1,013 891 802 723 666 647 645 636 648 Proj. 2005 482 366 175 360 1,383 861 651 Sources: Active duty force levels and selected reserve levels for FY2003-FY2005 from Department of Defense, Undersecretary of Defense Comptroller, National Defense Budget Estimate for FY2005, March 2004, pp. 33, 212-213, [http://www.defenselink.mil/comptroller/defbudget/fy2005/fy2005_greenbook.pdf]. Selected reserve levels for prior years from U.S. Department of Defense, Manpower Requirements Report, FY1998, July 1998 and prior years; and from Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government for FY2002: Appendix, April 2001 and prior years. Civilian levels from Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government for FY2005, February 2004, pp. 295-296, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/pdf/hist.pdf]. a End strength refers to the number of military personnel on board on the last day of a fiscal year. Selected reserves do not include Standby Reserve, Individual Ready Reserve, and Inactive National Guard. Totals may not add due to rounding. CRS-23 Question 11: What Are the Recent Trends in U.S. Military Force Structure? Table 9 lists the force structure for each service from FY1980 though FY2005. Table 9. U.S. Military Force Structure, FY1980-2005 Fiscal Year Army Divisions Marine Divisions Naval Forces Air Force Tactical Wings Active Reserve Active Reserve Carriers Total Active Reserve 1980 16 8 3 1 13 477 26 11 1981 16 8 3 1 13 491 26 11 1982 16 8 3 1 14 513 26 12 1983 16 8 3 1 14 514 25 12 1984 16 9 3 1 14 524 25 12 1985 17 10 3 1 14 542 25 12 1986 18 10 3 1 14 556 25 12 1987 18 10 3 1 15 569 25 12 1988 18 10 3 1 15 566 25 12 1989 18 10 3 1 15 567 25 12 1990 18 10 3 1 15 546 24 12 1991 16 10 3 1 15 526 22 13 1992 14 10 3 1 14 466 16 13 1993 14 10 3 1 13 434 16 11 1994 12 8 3 1 12 387 13 9 1995 12 8 3 1 11+1 373 13 8 1996 10 8 3 1 11+1 365 13 7 1997 10 8 3 1 11+1 357 13 7 1998 10 8 3 1 11+1 333 13 7 1999 10 8 3 1 11+1 317 13 7.2 2000 10 8 3 1 11+1 316 13 7.6 2001 10 8 3 1 11+1 316 12.6 7.6 2002 10 8 3 1 11+1 315 12+ 7+ 2003 10 8 3 1 11+1 296 12+ 7+ 2004 10 8 3 1 11+1 292 12+ 7+ 2005 10 8 3 1 11+1 290 12+ 7+ Sources: [http://www.defenselink.mil/pubs/almanac/]; U.S. Navy, Highlights of the Department of the Navy FY2005 Budget, [http://navweb.secnav.navy.mil]; briefing materials accompanying the FY2005 budget request and similar materials provided in prior years; CRS Report 90-401, U.S./Soviet Military Balance: Statistical Trends, 1980-1989, RCO, by John M. Collins and (name redacted); CRS Report 91-672, U.S. Armed Forces: Statistical Trends, 1985-1990, by John M. Collins and (name redacted); U.S. Department of the Navy (Program Information Center), Listing of U.S. Naval Ship Battle Forces as of 30 September 1993, Washington 1993 and previous editions. Notes: Figures for FY2004 and FY2005 are Administration projections. Air Force figures do not include a wing of F-117 aircraft prior to FY1990. b Carrier figures exclude one auxiliary training carrier for FY1980-92 but include one operational reserve training carrier (shown as “+1”) since FY1995. a CRS-24 Question 12: How Much Budget Authority Has Been Provided to Each Service in Recent Years? Table 10 shows Department of Defense budget authority by service from FY1995-FY2005, and Figure 10 shows the Administration’s FY2005 request by service as a percent of total Department of Defense budget authority. Table 10. Department of Defense Budget Authority by Service, FY1995FY2005 (current year dollars in billions/percent of total) Fiscal Year: Army % of DOD Total Navy/Marines % of DOD Total Air Force % of DOD Total Defense Wide % of DOD Total DOD Total Actual 1995 Actual 1996 Actual 1997 Actual 1998 Actual 1999 Actual 2000 Actual 2001 Actual 2002 Actual 2003 Est. 2004 Proj. 2005 63.3 64.5 64.4 64.0 68.4 73.2 77.0 85.9 121.1 132.9 97.0 24.8% 25.4% 25.0% 24.8% 24.5% 25.2% 24.9% 24.9% 27.7% 30.1% 24.1% 76.9 80.0 79.5 80.7 84.0 88.8 95.5 102.4 124.0 120.3 119.2 30.1% 31.4% 30.8% 31.2% 30.2% 30.6% 30.8% 29.6% 28.3% 27.2% 29.6% 73.9 73.0 73.2 76.3 81.9 83.1 89.5 100.2 125.2 124.0 120.4 28.9% 28.7% 28.4% 29.5% 29.4% 28.6% 28.9% 29.0% 28.6% 28.1% 29.9% 41.6 37.0 40.8 37.6 44.3 45.5 47.9 57.1 67.4 64.5 66.0 16.3% 14.5% 15.8% 14.5% 15.9% 15.7% 15.4% 16.5% 15.4% 14.6% 16.4% 255.7 254.4 258.0 258.6 278.6 290.5 309.9 345.6 437.7 441.7 Figure 10. Department of Defense Budget Authority by Service, FY2005 Request Source: Department of Defense Comptroller, National Defense Budget Estimates for FY2005, April 2004, [http://www.defenselink.mil/comptroller/defbudget/fy2005/fy2005_greenbook.pdf]. 402.6 CRS-25 Part V: Appendix and Glossary Part V provides additional data tables and a glossary of frequently used defense budget terms. Table 11 provides the real growth/decline in national defense budget authority and outlays from FY1940 to FY2009, in both current and constant FY2005 dollars. Table 12 lists national defense outlays as a percentage of GDP from FY1910 to FY2009. The amounts of defense discretionary spending, non-defense discretionary spending, mandatory spending, and net interest that make up total federal outlays from FY1962 to FY2009 are shown in Table 13, while Table 14 shows each of these four categories as a percentage of total federal outlays from FY1962 to FY2009. CRS-26 Table 11. Real Growth/Decline in National Defense Budget Authority and Outlays, FY1940-FY2009 (current and constant FY2005 dollars in billions) FISCAL YEAR 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 BUDGET AUTHORITY Current Dollars 39.2 44.0 9.0 9.5 10.9 16.5 57.8 67.5 56.9 38.7 32.9 35.0 39.4 40.1 45.1 44.3 45.1 50.2 52.1 51.6 50.6 64.4 73.1 77.2 78.5 75.3 72.7 76.4 79.1 81.5 86.2 97.3 110.2 117.2 126.5 143.9 180.0 216.5 245.0 265.2 294.7 289.1 287.4 Constant FY2005 Dollars 740.8 637.7 138.4 122.5 149.0 187.2 488.8 594.3 522.8 383.5 326.7 325.1 348.8 335.8 352.8 340.8 344.5 376.6 382.6 365.7 350.6 405.6 442.8 450.8 440.8 401.0 365.7 351.6 335.6 318.2 307.6 321.6 334.5 329.8 328.1 333.6 370.8 410.0 442.7 462.5 493.9 474.9 460.2 Real Growth/ Decline -13.9% -78.3% -11.5% 21.60% 25.6% 161.1% 21.6% -12.0% -26.7% -14.8% -0.5% 7.3% -3.7% 5.1% -3.4% 1.1% 9.3% 1.6% -4.4% -4.1% 15.7% 9.2% 1.8% -2.2% -9.0% -8.8% -3.9% -4.6% -5.2% -3.3% 4.6% 4.0% -1.4% -0.5% 1.7% 11.1% 10.6% 8.0% 4.5% 6.8% -3.8% -3.1% OUTLAYS Current Dollars 1.7 6.4 25.7 66.7 79.1 83.0 42.7 12.8 9.1 13.2 13.7 23.6 46.1 52.8 49.3 42.7 42.5 45.4 46.8 49.0 48.1 49.6 52.3 53.4 54.8 50.6 58.1 71.4 81.9 82.5 81.7 78.9 79.2 76.7 79.3 86.5 89.6 97.2 104.5 116.3 134.0 157.5 185.3 209.9 227.4 252.7 273.4 282.0 Constant Real FY2005 Growth/ Dollars Decline 30.0 97.9 226.8% 329.7 236.7% 806.5 144.6% 1,055.0 30.8% 1,202.4 14.0% 647.7 -46.1% 182.7 -71.8% 125.2 -31.5% 173.5 38.5% 170.3 -1.9% 261.0 53.3% 451.0 72.8% 497.7 10.4% 473.3 -4.9% 408.1 -13.8% 385.5 -5.5% 390.6 1.3% 380.9 -2.5% 380.0 -0.3% 370.8 -2.4% 369.9 -0.2% 390.9 5.7% 395.3 1.1% 391.1 -1.0% 359.0 -8.2% 383.1 6.7% 441.9 15.4% 480.8 8.8% 469.5 -2.3% 436.2 -7.1% 398.1 -8.7% 369.3 -7.2% 336.9 -8.8% 322.4 -4.3% 315.0 -2.3% 305.1 -3.1% 307.4 0.8% 307.5 0.0% 316.9 3.1% 324.9 2.5% 339.5 4.5% 362.6 6.8% 391.0 7.8% 406.7 4.0% 433.2 6.5% 455.1 5.0% 456.5 0.3% CRS-27 FISCAL YEAR 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 BUDGET AUTHORITY Current Dollars 292.0 299.6 301.2 296.2 287.7 281.1 263.3 266.4 266.2 270.4 271.3 292.3 304.1 335.5 362.1 456.2 460.5 448.1 444.0 464.8 485.8 508.2 Constant Real FY2005 Growth/ Dollars Decline 451.3 -1.9% 445.5 -1.3% 435.2 -2.3% 411.5 -5.4% 390.8 -5.0% 374.2 -4.2% 343.2 -8.3% 340.0 -0.9% 332.5 -2.2% 330.3 -0.7% 323.1 -2.2% 339.5 5.1% 344.2 1.4% 368.9 7.2% 387.6 5.1% 476.0 22.8% 469.7 -1.3% 448.1 -4.6% 433.7 -3.2% 443.0 2.1% 451.5 1.9% 460.5 2.0% OUTLAYS Current Dollars 290.4 303.6 297.9 296.7 286.1 283.9 278.9 271.0 265.2 270.5 268.5 274.9 294.5 305.5 348.6 404.9 453.7 469.4 441.0 447.9 467.4 487.4 Constant Real FY2005 Growth/ Dollars Decline 454.9 -0.4% 456.0 0.3% 435.3 -4.5% 417.1 -4.2% 389.0 -6.7% 376.1 -3.3% 360.8 -4.1% 345.0 -4.4% 331.0 -4.1% 328.9 -0.6% 318.9 -3.0% 320.3 0.4% 333.5 4.1% 335.6 0.6% 372.3 10.9% 422.5 13.5% 462.1 9.4% 469.4 1.6% 431.3 -8.1% 427.9 -0.8% 435.7 1.8% 443.2 1.7% Sources: Current dollar budget authority figures for FY1940-FY1975 from Department of Defense Comptroller, National Defense Budget Estimates for FY1982, March 1983; all other current dollar figures from U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005, February 2004, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/ pdf/hist.pdf]; constant dollar figures calculated by CRS using FY2005 deflators from Department of Defense Comptroller. Note: CBO outlay estimates for $25 billion budget amendment for Iraq and Afghanistan included in FY2005 outlay figures. FY2006-FY2009 outlay estimates for the amendment were not available at the printing of this report. CRS-28 Table 12. National Defense Outlays as a Percentage of GDP, FY1910-FY2009 (current year dollars in billions) Fiscal Year 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 National Defense Outlays 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 7.1 13.5 4.0 2.6 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.7 6.4 25.7 66.7 79.1 83.0 42.7 12.8 9.1 13.2 13.7 23.6 46.1 52.8 49.3 42.7 42.5 45.4 46.8 49.0 GNP/ GDPa 35.3 35.8 39.4 39.6 38.6 40.0 48.3 60.4 76.4 84.0 91.5 69.6 74.1 85.1 84.7 93.1 97.0 94.9 97.0 103.1 97.4 83.8 67.6 57.6 61.2 69.6 78.5 87.8 89.0 89.1 96.8 114.1 144.3 180.3 209.2 221.3 222.7 233.2 256.7 271.3 273.2 320.3 348.7 372.6 377.1 395.9 427.0 450.9 460.0 490.2 Outlays as % of GNP/GDP 0.8% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.6% 1.0% 9.3% 16.1% 4.4% 3.7% 1.3% 0.8% 0.8% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.9% 1.0% 1.1% 0.9% 1.0% 1.2% 1.1% 1.2% 1.2% 1.7% 5.6% 17.8% 37.0% 37.9% 37.5% 19.2% 5.5% 3.6% 4.8% 5.0% 7.3% 13.2% 14.1% 13.1% 10.8% 9.9% 10.1% 10.2% 10.0% Fiscal Year 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 National Defense Outlays 48.1 49.6 52.3 53.4 54.8 50.6 58.1 71.4 81.9 82.5 81.7 78.9 79.2 76.7 79.3 86.5 89.6 97.2 104.5 116.3 134.0 157.5 185.3 209.9 227.4 252.7 273.4 282.0 290.4 303.6 299.3 273.3 298.4 291.1 281.6 272.1 265.8 270.5 268.5 274.9 294.5 305.5 348.6 404.9 453.7 469.4 441.0 447.9 467.4 487.4 GNP/ GDP 518.9 529.9 567.8 599.2 641.4 687.5 755.8 810.2 868.5 948.3 1,012.9 1,080.3 1,176.9 1,311.0 1,438.9 1,560.8 1,738.8 1,974.4 2,218.3 2,502.4 2,725.4 3,058.6 3,225.5 3,442.7 3,846.7 4,148.9 4,406.7 4,654.4 5,011.9 5,401.7 5,737.0 5,934.2 6,240.6 6,578.4 6,964.2 7,325.1 7,697.4 8,186.6 8,626.3 9,127.0 9,708.4 10,040.7 10,373.4 10,828.3 11,466.0 12,042.4 12,641.1 13,279.1 13,972.6 14,701.6 Outlays as % of GNP/GDP 9.3% 9.4% 9.2% 8.9% 8.5% 7.4% 7.7% 8.8% 9.4% 8.7% 8.1% 7.3% 6.7% 5.9% 5.5% 5.5% 5.7% 5.6% 5.3% 5.2% 4.9% 5.1% 5.7% 6.1% 5.9% 6.1% 6.2% 6.1% 5.8% 3.1% 5.2% 4.6% 4.8% 4.4% 4.1% 3.7% 3.5% 3.3% 3.1% 3.0% 3.0% 3.0% 3.4% 3.7% 3.9% 3.9% 3.5% 3.4% 3.3% 3.3% Sources: Outlays, FY1910-FY1939, and GNP/GDP, FY1910-FY1939, from U.S. Department of Commerce, Historical Statistics of the United States (Washington: GPO, 1975); outlays, FY1940FY2009, and GDP, FY1940-FY2009, from U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005, February 2004, pp. 110, 184-185. a Figures for FY1910-FY1929 were calculated in gross national product (GNP) rather than GDP. CRS-29 Table 13. Allocation of Federal Outlays by Budget Enforcement Act Category, FY1962-FY2009 (current year dollars in billions) Fiscal Year 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Defense Discretionary Outlays 52.6 53.7 55.0 51.0 59.0 72.0 82.2 82.7 81.9 79.0 79.3 77.1 80.7 87.6 89.9 97.5 104.6 116.8 134.6 158.0 185.9 209.9 228.0 253.1 273.8 282.5 290.9 304.0 300.1 319.7 302.6 292.4 282.3 273.6 266.0 271.7 270.2 275.5 295.0 306.1 348.9 404.9 451.6 467.0 434.6 445.6 465.5 485.6 Non-Defense Discretionary Outlays 19.5 21.6 24.1 26.8 31.1 34.5 35.8 34.6 38.3 43.5 49.2 53.3 57.5 70.3 85.7 99.6 114.1 123.2 141.7 149.9 140.0 143.4 151.4 162.7 164.7 161.7 173.5 184.8 200.4 213.6 231.2 247.0 259.1 271.3 266.7 275.6 281.9 296.5 319.9 343.3 385.4 420.8 456.6 465.8 457.7 458.8 457.4 456.7 Mandatory Outlays Net Interest Total Federal Outlays 27.9 28.3 31.2 31.8 35.0 40.7 49.1 53.6 61.0 72.8 86.7 98.0 109.7 151.1 169.5 182.2 204.6 221.4 262.1 301.6 334.8 365.2 361.3 401.1 415.9 421.3 448.2 485.8 568.2 596.6 648.5 671.4 717.5 738.8 786.8 810.0 859.4 900.1 951.0 1,008.3 1,105.7 1,178.9 1,254.4 1,307.9 1,367.6 1,441.5 1,526.7 1,612.0 6.9 7.7 8.2 8.6 9.4 10.3 11.1 12.7 14.4 14.8 15.5 17.3 21.4 23.2 26.7 29.9 35.5 42.6 52.5 68.8 85.0 89.8 111.1 129.5 136.0 138.6 151.8 169.0 184.3 194.4 199.3 198.7 202.9 232.1 241.1 244.0 241.1 229.8 223.0 206.2 171.0 153.1 156.3 177.9 213.4 246.2 274.6 299.1 106.8 111.3 118.5 118.2 134.5 157.5 178.1 183.6 195.6 210.2 230.7 245.7 269.4 332.3 371.8 409.2 458.7 504.0 590.9 678.2 745.7 808.4 851.9 946.4 990.4 1,004.1 1,064.5 1,143.6 1,253.2 1,324.4 1,381.7 1,409.5 1,461.9 1,515.8 1,560.5 1,601.2 1,652.6 1,701.9 1,788.8 1,863.8 2,011.0 2,157.6 2,318.8 2,399.8 2,473.3 2,592.1 2,724.3 2,853.5 Source: Office of Management and Budget: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005: Historical Tables, February 2004, p. 125, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/pdf/ hist.pdf]. CRS-30 Table 14. Percentage Allocation of Federal Outlays by Budget Enforcement Act Category, FY1962-FY2009 (percentage of total outlays) Fiscal Year 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Defense Discretionary Outlays 49.2 48.3 46.4 43.1 43.9 45.7 46.1 45.0 41.9 37.6 34.4 31.4 30.0 26.4 24.2 23.8 22.8 23.2 22.8 23.3 24.9 26.0 26.8 26.7 27.6 28.1 27.3 26.6 24.0 24.1 21.9 20.7 19.3 18.0 17.0 17.0 16.4 16.2 16.5 16.4 17.4 18.8 19.5 18.7 17.6 17.2 17.1 17.0 Non-Defense Discretionary Outlays 18.3 19.4 20.3 22.6 23.2 21.9 20.1 18.8 19.6 20.7 21.3 21.7 21.3 21.2 23.1 24.3 24.9 24.4 24.0 22.1 18.8 17.7 17.8 17.2 16.6 16.1 16.3 16.2 16.0 16.1 16.7 17.5 17.7 17.9 17.1 17.2 17.1 17.4 17.9 18.4 19.2 19.5 19.7 19.4 18.5 17.7 16.8 16.0 Mandatory Outlays 26.1 25.4 26.3 26.9 26.0 25.9 27.5 29.2 31.2 34.6 37.6 39.9 40.7 45.5 45.6 44.5 44.6 43.9 44.4 44.5 44.9 45.2 42.4 42.4 42.0 42.0 42.1 42.5 45.3 45.0 46.9 47.6 49.1 48.7 50.4 50.6 52.0 52.9 53.2 54.1 55.0 54.6 54.1 54.5 55.3 55.6 56.0 56.5 Net Interest 6.4 7.0 6.9 7.3 7.0 6.5 6.2 6.9 7.4 7.1 6.7 7.1 8.0 7.0 7.2 7.3 7.7 8.5 8.9 10.1 11.4 11.1 13.0 13.7 13.7 13.8 14.3 14.8 14.7 14.7 14.4 14.1 13.9 15.3 15.4 15.2 14.6 13.5 12.5 11.1 8.5 7.1 6.7 7.4 8.6 9.5 10.1 10.5 Defense Share Discretionary 73.0 71.3 69.5 65.6 65.5 67.6 69.7 70.5 68.1 64.5 61.7 59.1 58.4 55.4 51.2 49.5 47.8 48.7 48.7 51.3 57.0 59.4 60.1 60.9 62.4 63.6 62.6 62.2 59.9 59.9 56.7 54.2 52.1 50.2 49.9 49.7 48.9 48.2 48.0 47.1 47.5 49.0 49.7 49.1 48.7 49.3 50.4 51.5 Source: Office of Management and Budget: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2005: Historical Tables, February 2004, p. 127, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/pdf/ hist.pdf]. CRS-31 Glossary The definitions that follow are taken from Office of Management and Budget and Department of Defense publications. Accrual Accounting — as applied to military retired pay, a method of recording costs designed to reflect the liability of the federal government for the future retirement costs of military personnel currently on active or reserve duty. First used in FY1985 in DOD, this method of accounting represents a change from the earlier practice in which the cost of military retirement was measured in terms of actual payments to current retirees. Appropriation — one form of budget authority provided by Congress for the funding of an agency, department, or program for a given amount of time. An appropriation provides funds for purposes specifically designated by Congress. Funds will not necessarily all be spent in the year in which they are initially provided. Authorization — establishes or maintains a government program or agency by defining its scope. Authorizing legislation is normally a prerequisite for appropriations and may set specific limits on the amount that may be appropriated for the specified program or agency. An authorization, however, does not make money available, and sometimes appropriations are made without having been authorized. Budget Authority — legal authority for an agency to enter into obligations for the provision of goods or services. It may be available for one or more years. An appropriation is one form of budget authority. Current/Constant Dollars — the cost of goods or services in current dollars is the value in terms of prices current at the time of purchase — current dollars are also referred to simply as “dollars” or as “then-year dollars.” The cost of goods or services in constant dollars is the value adjusted to eliminate the effects of changes in prices (usually due to inflation). Constant dollars, expressed in terms of a selected reference year (generally the most recent fiscal year), are determined by dividing current dollars by a “deflator” based on the prices in the reference year. Constant dollars are used to assess changes in funding of programs independently of the effects of inflation. Growth rates in constant, inflation-adjusted dollars are referred to as “real growth” rates. Deficit — in the federal budget, the amount by which total federal budget outlays for a given fiscal year exceed total federal revenues for that year. Fiscal Year — a fiscal year in the federal government begins on October 1 and ends on September 30 and is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, FY2005 begins on October 1, 2004 and will end on September 30, 2005. (Note that the federal fiscal year ran from July 1 to June 30 until FY1977.) CRS-32 National Defense Budget Function — one of the categories of the federal budget. It consists of the Department of Defense (DOD) budget, which funds all direct DOD military programs, and a number of defense-related activities administered by other agencies. These activities include atomic energy defense activities funded through the Department of Energy, civil defense programs administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the Selective Service System. The DOD budget constitutes more than 95% of the National Defense Budget Function. Obligation — an order placed, contract awarded, service agreement undertaken, or other commitments made by federal agencies during a given period which will require outlays during the same or some future period. Outlays — money spent by a federal agency from funds provided by Congress. Outlays in a given fiscal year are a result of obligations that in turn follow the provision of budget authority. Unexpended Funds — budget authority that has been appropriated by Congress, but remains unspent, representing future outlays. Unexpended funds, whether obligated or as yet unobligated, are formally appropriated by Congress for specific programs. Unobligated Funds — budget authority that has been appropriated by Congress for specific programs but that has not yet been pledged or obligated by contract. CRS-33 CRS Defense Reports CRS annually prepares a number of issue briefs and reports on specific weapons systems and other defense issues that impact the defense budget. For updated lists of CRS products on defense-related issues, congressional offices should go to [http://www.crs.gov/products/browse/is-defense.shtml]. Selected defense-related products include: CRS Report RL32305, Authorization and Appropriations for FY2005: Defense, by (name redacted) a nd (name redacted). CRS Issue Brief IB85159, Military Retirement: Major Legislative Issues, by (name redacted). CRS Issue Brief IB93103, Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers, by Richard A. Best, Jr. CRS Issue Brief IB10089, Military Pay and Benefits: Key Questions and Answers, by (name redacted). CRS Report RS20851, Naval Transformation: Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke. CRS Report RS21059, Navy DD(X) Destroyer Program: Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke. CRS Report RS21195, Evolutionary Acquisition and Spiral Development in DoD Programs: Policy Issues for Congress, by (name redacted) and Ronald O’Rourke. CRS Issue Brief IB92115, Tactical Aircraft Modernization: Issues for Congress, by (name redacted). CRS Report RL31872, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress, by (name redacted). CRS Report RS20859, Air Force Transformation, by (name redacted). CRS Report RL30802, Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers, by (name redacted). CRS Report RL32141, Funding for Military and Peacekeeping Operations: Recent History and Precedents, by (name redacted). CRS Report RL32321, Policing in Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations: Problems and Proposed Solutions, by (name redacted). CRS Report RS21822, Military Base Closures: DoD’s 2005 Internal Selection Process, by Daniel Else EveryCRSReport.com The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is a federal legislative branch agency, housed inside the Library of Congress, charged with providing the United States Congress non-partisan advice on issues that may come before Congress. EveryCRSReport.com republishes CRS reports that are available to all Congressional staff. The reports are not classified, and Members of Congress routinely make individual reports available to the public. Prior to our republication, we redacted names, phone numbers and email addresses of analysts who produced the reports. We also added this page to the report. We have not intentionally made any other changes to any report published on EveryCRSReport.com. 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