Senate Committee Party Ratios: 98th-108th Congresses

Order Code RL32148 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Senate Committee Party Ratios: 98th-108th Congresses November 13, 2003 Lorraine H. Tong Analyst in American National Government Government and Finance Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Senate Committee Party Ratios: 98th-108th Congresses Summary In general, it has been the practice of the Senate to apportion committee seats to the majority and minority parties in a manner that corresponds closely to the party strength in the full chamber. This report provides an overview of Senate standing committee sizes and ratios for 11 Congresses (98th through 108th). Also included are data on select committees with legislative jurisdiction. For each Congress, a table shows the total number of seats on each committee, the number of seats assigned to the majority and minority parties and, where present, the number of seats assigned to independents. The tables also provide the number of majority and minority seats on each committee as percentages of the total, and majority-minority seat margins in the chamber, in the total number of committee seats, and on each individual committee. The percentage of committee seats held by the majority is compared with its full chamber strength. During the 11 Congresses, the sizes of committees have generally increased as have the number of committee assignments a Senator typically receives. Data from this study indicate that the majority party ratios on committees roughly approximate the majority party strength in the Senate chamber, regardless of which party is in control, with a very slight over-representation on overall total committee seats. The data also suggest that the narrower the majority-minority party margin in the chamber, the tighter the control the majority exerts in committee assignments. This report will be updated as events warrant. Contents Sources and Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Comparative Analysis of Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 108th Congress and 107th Congresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Committee Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Committee Totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Committee Seat Margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Prospects for the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 List of Tables Senate Committee Party Ratios: Senate Committee Party Ratios: Senate Committee Party Ratios: Senate Committee Party Ratios: Senate Committee Party Ratios: Senate Committee Party Ratios: Senate Committee Party Ratios: Senate Committee Party Ratios: Senate Committee Party Ratios: Senate Committee Party Ratios: Senate Committee Party Ratios: 108th Congress (2003-2005 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 107th Congress (2001-2003) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 106th Congress (1999-2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 105th Congress (1997-1999) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 104th Congress (1995-1997) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 103rd Congress (1993-1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 102nd Congress (1991-1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 101st Congress (1989-1991) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 100th Congress (1987-1989) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 99th Congress (1985-1987) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 98th Congress (1983-1985) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Senate Committee Party Ratios: 98th-108th Congresses The standing rules of the Senate are silent regarding committee party ratios. The majority and minority leaders, in consultation, determine the apportionment of the committee seats to each party. They implement this agreement through resolutions electing Senators to committees. This report provides an overview and data on Senate standing committee party ratios the 98th through 108th Congresses (19832005). In addition to the standing committees, data on permanent select committees with legislative jurisdiction are also included. Sources and Method Assignment data for each Senate committee for the 98th through the 108th Congresses were taken from the official committee assignment lists issued by the Secretary of the Senate, after assignments were made in each Congress.1 Data for the 107th Congress reflect committee ratios established after the Senate reorganization in June 2001as a result of the switch in party control.2 The numbers on overall party strength in the Senate for each Congress are taken from the same lists issued by the Secretary of the Senate. The tables at the end of the report provide data for each Senate standing committee and permanent select committees with legislative jurisdictions. A table for each of the 11 Congresses covered in this report reflects the committees as 1 Each list is the first official list prepared, excluding preliminary lists, under the direction of the Secretary of the Senate as a Senate publication. Most of the lists were issued in the spring of the first session of each Congress. In the 99th Congress, the list used as a source was marked preliminary, as were all the lists published during the first session of that Congress. The dates of the publications are footnoted at the end of each table. As noted, the 107th Congress is an exception due to the unusual circumstances of the equally divided Senate. 2 At the beginning of the 107th Congress, the Senate was divided equally between Republicans and Democrats. As a result, Democrats chaired all committees for the first 17 days of the session, and Republicans assumed the committee chairmanships following the inauguration of Vice President Richard Cheney. An historic powersharing agreement, S.Res. 8, was presented by party leaders and agreed to on Jan. 5, 2001. In June 2001, after one Republican announced his intention to become an Independent, the Republicans were reduced to 49 seats and the Democrats, with 50 seats, gained control of the Senate. A provision of S.Res. 120, agreed to on June 29, 2001, gave the majority a one seat advantage on each Senate committee (except for the Ethics Committee). The resolution further provided that no Senator would lose a committee seat by virtue of the resolution. For more details, see CRS Report RL30881, Senate Organization in the 107th Congress: The Powersharing Agreement And Recent Developments, by Paul S. Rundquist. CRS-2 established and titled in that Congress. The tables indicate the total number of seats on each committee, as well as the number assigned to the majority and minority parties and, where present, to independents. The majority and minority seats on each committee are also shown as percentages of the total (which do not add to 100 when independents are present). Also included are (1) the chamber’s majority-minority distribution; (2) the total number of committee seats controlled by each party; and (3) party strength on each individual committee. The majority percentage of total committee seats is compared to the majority percentage of the full Senate.3 Vacancies on committees (as noted in the Secretary’s lists) are counted in individual and overall committee totals for consistency. The following statistical information and selected analyses are based on the tables to illustrate trends over time and to highlight variations from traditional practices.4 Comparative Analysis of Ratios The data shows that the majority party has generally over-represented itself slightly in making committee assignments in most Congresses (with the exception of the Committee on Ethics, on which equal party strength is required, and the Select Committee on Intelligence which by rule has a one-seat majority edge). In nine of the 11 Congresses, the majority had a slight over-representation, as calculated in percentage points. From the 98th to the 108th Congresses, the majority ratio in committee, compared to its strength in the Senate chamber, ranged from an underrepresentation of -0.37 percentage points in the 102nd Congress to an overrepresentation of 1.70 percentage points in the 108th Congresses. During five Congresses of this period, the majority party had a substantial numerical advantage. In two Congresses (102nd and 103rd), the majority was underrepresented on committees, compared with its overall strength in the Senate. In the 102nd Congress, the majority was under-represented on committees by -0.37 percentage points. In the 103rd Congress, the majority was under-represented on committees in which it was under-represented by -0.09 percentage points. These two Congresses constitute two of the widest majority-minority seat margins in the period examined: 12 seats in the 102nd Congress and 14 seats in the 103rd. In three other Congresses (101st, 105th, and 106th) when the majority-minority seat margin was 10 in each Congress, the majority over-representation on committees was 0.05, 0.19, and 0.16, respectively. By comparison, in the other six Congresses where the Senate party strengths have been closer, majority party over-representation in committees has been greater. 3 4 All percentages are calculated by computer, and reflect rounding. It is to be noted that these are not the only sources and methodologies available and that the use of alternate sources or methodologies will yield different data and findings. CRS-3 108th Congress and 107th Congresses With 51 Senate seats in the 108th Congress, the majority holds 52.70% of the committee seats, compared to the minority’s 48 Senate seats and 46.22% of the committee seats. The majority was over-represented on committees in the 108th Congress by 1.70 percentage points. With 50 Senate seats in the 107th Congress (after June 2001), the majority held 51.34% of the committee seats compared to the minority’s 49 Senate seats and 47.58% of the committee seats. The majority was over-represented on committees in the 107th Congress by 1.34 percentage points. From the 107th Congress to the 108th Congress, the total number of committee seats dropped from 372 to 370 seats; at the same time the majority gained two additional seats. Committee Sizes The size of committees during the 11 Congresses covered by this report ranged from six (Ethics) to 29 (Appropriations). The size of a committee is a factor in calculating ratios by percentage. The smaller the size of the committee, the greater percentage point difference a change of one seat makes. For example, mathematically speaking, in the current 51 to 49 majority-minority margin, a one-seat advantage for the majority at eight seats to the minority’s seven on a committee of 15 Members (as on the Committee of Indian Affairs in the 108th Congress) translates into a majority over-representation of 2.33 percentage points. In contrast, on the Committee on Appropriations (the largest committee in the 108th Congress), the majority’s one-seat advantage over the minority (15 to 14) resulted in an overrepresentation of 0.72 percentage points. In the 100th Congress, when the majority had 54 seats compared to the minority’s 46 in the full chamber, the aggregate majority committee seat percentage exceeded its strength in the chamber by 0.77 percentage point. On the six-member Ethics Committee, which has equal representation, the majority’s ratio was calculated at 4.00 percentage points less than its strength in the Senate. In this same Congress, the majority was over-represented by 8.50 percentage points on the Committee on Indian Affairs (then known as the Special Committee on Indian Affairs). The committee had a total of eight seats with a five-to- three majority-minority allocation. This committee almost doubled in size to a total of 15 seats in the 108th Congress while the majority over-representation decreased to 2.33 percentage points. These examples illustrate the importance of taking into consideration the size of the committee and its impact on the percentage point calculations. Committee Totals Since the 98th Congress, the sizes of Senate committees have generally increased as has the number of committee assignments a Senator typically receives. Total committee seats in the 11 Congresses covered ranged from 312 (99th Congress) to 372 (107th Congress). Senate Rule XXV, paragraph 4, generally limits to three the number of standing committee assignments an individual Senator may have. The growth in overall committee assignments during the period covered shows 60 CRS-4 additional seats added to Senate committees. The result is that Senators now serve, on average, on nearly four standing committees each. Generally, the growth in assignments reflects the interests of Senators in serving on more committees and the need for party leaders to seek waivers of assignment limits to assure working control for the majority on critical committees. Committee Seat Margins Over this period, during these 11 Congresses, the majority-minority party advantage in the full Senate ranged from one seat (the second half of the First Session of the 107th Congress) to 14 (102nd Congress). The data appear to indicate that the closer the majority-minority seat margin in the Senate, the greater the likelihood of majority over-representation on committees, and the higher the percentage point difference between total committee and chamber ratios. In the 108th Congress, with a majority-minority margin of three seats (51 Republicans, 48 Democrats, and 1 Independent), the majority committee party ratio, when compared with its strength in the chamber, has an over-representation of 1.70 percentage points. This was the majority party’s highest percentage point overrepresentation during this period (98th -108th Congresses). In the closely divided 107th Congress (50 Democrats, 49 Republicans, 1 Independent, after June 2001 reorganization), the majority over-representation was 1.34 percentage points. Conversely, the greater advantage of the majority in the full Senate, the more likely it is to be under-represented in committee strength. For example, in the 102nd Congress, the majority-minority seat margin in the Senate was 14. The aggregate majority committee party ratio was less than its strength in the Senate by -0.37 percentage points. The majority was also under-represented slightly at -0.09 percentage points in the 103rd Congress, when the majority-minority seat margin in the chamber was 12. During these two Congresses, the majority was slightly underrepresented on nearly half of individual committees. During the period surveyed, the majority-minority margins on individual committees (with the exception of the Ethics and Intelligence Committees, and the unusual circumstances of the 107th Congress) ranged from one to three seats. A twoseat margin on most committees, regardless of the margin in the Senate, was more common in the Congresses prior to the 107th Congress, when there were no Independent Members. In the 107th and 108th Congresses, most committees had a one-seat majority-minority margin that reflected the very close margin in the party strength in the Senate chamber. Prospects for the Future An examination of the committee ratios surveyed shows a trend: the majority party ratios on committees roughly approximate majority party strength in the Senate chamber, regardless of which party is in control, with a very slight overrepresentation on overall total committee seats. The data further suggest that the narrower the majority-minority party margin in the chamber, the tighter the control CRS-5 the majority exerts in committee assignments. Barring any drastic departure from Senate practice and custom, the data appear to suggest that this historical trend may well continue in future Congresses. CRS-6 Senate Committee Party Ratios: 108th Congress (2003-2005 ) Distribution of Seats Number Total Senate Party Strength Total Committee Seats Committees Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Indian Affairs Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business and Entrepreneurship Veterans' Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Select Committee on Intelligence Majority (R) Minority (D) 100 370 51 195 48 171 21 29 25 21 23 23 21 19 21 19 17 21 15 19 19 19 15 6 17 11 15 13 11 12 12 12 10 11 10 9 11 8 10 10 10 8 3 9 10 14 12 10 11 11 9 8 9 9 8 9 7 9 9 9 6 3 8 Distribution of Seats Percentage Independent 1 4 1 1 1 1 MajorityMinority Seat Margin Majority (R) Minority (D) Difference in % Committee Majority Compared to % Senate Majority 3 24 51.00 52.70 48.00 46.22 1.70 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 0 1 52.38 51.72 52.00 52.38 52.17 52.17 57.14 52.63 52.38 52.63 52.94 52.38 53.33 52.63 52.63 52.63 53.33 50.00 52.94 47.62 48.28 48.00 47.62 47.83 47.83 42.86 42.11 42.86 47.37 47.06 42.86 46.67 47.37 47.37 47.37 40.00 50.00 47.06 1.38 0.72 1.00 1.38 1.17 1.17 6.14 1.63 1.38 1.63 1.94 1.38 2.33 1.63 1.63 1.63 2.33 -1.00 1.94 Source: The Senate of the United States Committee and Subcommittee Assignments for the One Hundred Eighth Congress, Prepared Under the Direction of Emily J. Reynolds, Secretary of the Senate, by David J. Tinsley, Legislative Clerk, Mar. 31, 2003 (Washington: GPO, 2003). Notes: Percentages were calculated by computer, and reflect rounding. Data on the Select Committee on Homeland Security are excluded because the panel was temporary in the 107th and 108th Congresses. CRS-7 Senate Committee Party Ratios: 107th Congress (2001-2003) Distribution of Seats Number Total Senate Party Strength Total Committee Seats Committees Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Indian Affairs Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business and Entrepreneurship Veterans' Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Select Committee on Intelligence Majority (D) Minority (R) 100 372 50 191 49 177 21 29 25 21 23 23 23 19 21 19 17 21 15 19 19 19 15 6 17 11 15 13 11 12 12 12 9 10 10 9 10 8 10 10 10 7 3 9 10 14 12 10 11 11 11 9 10 9 8 10 7 9 9 9 7 3 8 Distribution of Seats Percentage Independent 1 4 1 1 1 1 MajorityMinority Seat Margin Majority (D) Minority (R) Difference in % Committee Majority Compared to % Senate Majority 1 14 50.00 51.34 49.00 47.58 1.34 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 52.38 51.72 52.00 52.38 52.17 52.17 52.17 47.37 47.62 52.63 52.94 47.62 53.33 52.63 52.63 52.63 46.67 50.00 52.94 47.62 48.28 48.00 47.62 47.83 47.83 47.83 47.37 47.62 47.37 47.06 47.62 46.67 47.37 47.37 47.37 46.67 50.00 47.06 2.38 1.72 2.00 2.38 2.17 2.17 2.17 -2.63 -2.38 2.63 2.94 -2.38 3.33 2.63 2.63 2.63 -3.33 0.00 2.94 Source: The Senate of the United States Committee and Subcommittee Assignments for the One Hundred Seventh Congress, Prepared Under the Direction of Jeri Thomson, Secretary of the Senate, by David J. Tinsley, Legislative Clerk, Nov. 29, 2001 (Washington: GPO, 2002). Notes: Percentages were calculated by computer, and reflect rounding. The data reflect data compiled after the June 2001 party control switch. At the beginning of the 107th Congress, the Senate was divided equally between Republicans and Democrats. As a result, Democrats chaired all committees for the first 17 days of the session, and Republicans assumed the committee chairmanships following the inauguration of Vice President Richard Cheney, whose ability to break tie votes made it possible for Republicans to organize the Senate. S.Res. 8, an historic powersharing agreement was presented by party leaders and agreed to on January 5, 2001. As a result of one Republican switching to become an Independent in May 2001, the Republicans were reduced to 49 seats and the Democrats, with 50 seats, gained control of the Senate in June 2001. A provision of S.Res. 120, agreed to on June 29, 2001, gave the majority a one seat advantage on every committee of the Senate (except for the Ethics). The resolution further provided that no Senator would lose a committee seat by virtue of the resolution. Data on the Select Committee on Homeland Security are excluded because the panel was temporary in the 107th Congress. CRS-8 Senate Committee Party Ratios: 106th Congress (1999-2001) Distribution of Seats Number Total Senate Party Strength Total Committee Seats Committees Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Indian Affairs Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business Veterans' Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Select Committee on Intelligence Majority (R) Minority (D) MajorityMinority Seat Margin Distribution of Seats Percentage Majority (R) Minority (D) Difference in % Committee Majority Compared to % Senate Majority 100 339 55 187 45 152 10 35 55.00 55.16 45.00 44.84 0.16 18 28 20 20 22 20 20 18 20 18 16 18 14 18 16 18 12 6 17 10 15 11 11 12 11 11 10 11 10 9 10 8 10 9 10 7 3 9 8 13 9 9 10 9 9 8 9 8 7 8 6 8 7 8 5 3 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 55.56 53.57 55.00 55.00 54.55 55.00 55.00 55.56 55.00 55.56 56.25 55.56 57.14 55.56 56.25 55.56 58.33 50.00 52.94 44.44 46.43 45.00 45.00 45.45 45.00 45.00 44.44 45.00 44.44 43.75 44.44 42.86 44.44 43.75 44.44 41.67 50.00 47.06 0.56 -1.43 0.00 0.00 -0.45 0.00 0.00 0.56 0.00 0.56 1.25 0.56 2.14 0.56 1.25 0.56 3.33 -5.00 -2.06 Source: The Senate of the United States Committee and Subcommittee Assignments for the One Hundred Sixth Congress, Prepared Under the Direction of Gary Sisco, Secretary of the Senate by David J. Tinsley, Legislative Clerk, Mar. 29, 1999 (Washington: GPO, 1999). Note: Percentages were calculated by computer, and reflect rounding. CRS-9 Senate Committee Party Ratios: 105th Congress (1997-1999) Distribution of Seats Number Total Senate Party Strength Total Committee Seats Committees Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Labor and Human Resources Indian Affairs Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business Veterans' Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Select Committee on Intelligence Majority (R) Minority (D) MajorityMinority Seat Margin Distribution of Seats Percentage Majority (R) Minority (D) Difference in % Committee Majority Compared to % Senate Majority 100 337 55 186 45 151 10 35 55.00 55.19 45.00 44.81 0.19 18 28 18 18 22 20 20 18 20 18 16 18 14 18 16 18 12 6 19 10 15 10 10 12 11 11 10 11 10 9 10 8 10 9 10 7 3 10 8 13 8 8 10 9 9 8 9 8 7 8 6 8 7 8 5 3 9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 55.56 53.57 55.56 55.56 54.55 55.00 55.00 55.56 55.00 55.56 56.25 55.56 57.14 55.56 56.25 55.56 58.33 50.00 52.63 44.44 46.43 44.44 44.44 45.45 45.00 45.00 44.44 45.00 44.44 43.75 44.44 42.86 44.44 43.75 44.44 41.67 50.00 47.37 0.56 -1.43 0.56 0.56 -0.45 0.00 0.00 0.56 0.00 0.56 1.25 0.56 2.14 0.56 1.25 0.56 3.33 -5.00 -2.37 Source: The Senate of the United States Committee and Subcommittee Assignments for the One Hundred Fifth Congress, Prepared Under the Direction of Gary Scisco, Secretary of the Senate, by R. Scott Bates, Legislative Clerk, Feb. 14, 1997 (Washington: GPO, 1997). Note: Percentages were calculated by computer, and reflect rounding. CRS-10 Senate Committee Party Ratios: 104th Congress (1995-1997) Distribution of Seats Number Total Senate Party Strength Total Committee Seats Committees Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Labor and Human Resources Indian Affairs Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business Veterans' Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Select Committee on Intelligence Majority (R) Minority (D) MajorityMinority Seat Margin Distribution of Seats Percentage Majority (R) Minority (D) Difference in % Committee Majority Compared to % Senate Majority 100 331 53 180 47 151 6 29 53.00 54.38 47.00 45.62 1.38 17 28 21 16 22 19 18 16 20 18 15 16 17 18 16 19 12 6 17 9 15 11 9 12 10 10 9 11 10 8 9 9 10 9 10 7 3 9 8 13 10 7 10 9 8 7 9 8 7 7 8 8 7 9 5 3 8 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 0 1 52.94 53.57 52.38 56.25 54.55 52.63 55.56 56.25 55.00 55.56 53.33 56.25 52.94 55.56 56.25 52.63 58.33 50.00 52.94 47.06 46.43 47.62 43.75 45.45 47.37 44.44 43.75 45.00 44.44 46.67 43.75 47.06 44.44 43.75 47.37 41.67 50.00 47.06 -0.06 0.57 -0.62 3.25 1.55 -0.37 2.56 3.25 2.00 2.56 0.33 3.25 -0.06 2.56 3.25 -0.37 5.33 -3.00 -0.06 Source: The Senate of the United States Committee and Subcommittee Assignments for the One Hundred Fourth Congress, Prepared Under the Direction of Sheila P. Burke, Secretary of the Senate, by R. Scott Bates, Legislative Clerk, Feb. 27, 1995 (Washington: GPO, 1995). Note: Percentages were calculated by computer, and reflect rounding. CRS-11 Senate Committee Party Ratios: 103rd Congress (1993-1995) Distribution of Seats Number Total Senate Party Strength Total Committee Seats Committees Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Labor and Human Resources Indian Affairs Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business Veterans' Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Select Committee on Intelligence Majority (D) Minority (R) MajorityMinority Seat Margin Distribution of Seats Percentage Majority (D) Minority (R) Difference in % Committee Majority Compared to % Senate Majority 100 347 56 194 44 153 12 41 56.00 55.91 44.00 44.09 -0.09 18 29 22 19 21 20 21 17 20 20 14 17 18 18 16 22 12 6 17 10 16 12 11 12 11 12 10 11 11 8 10 10 10 9 12 7 3 9 8 13 10 8 9 9 9 7 9 9 6 7 8 8 7 10 5 3 8 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 55.56 55.17 54.55 57.89 57.14 55.00 57.14 58.82 55.00 55.00 57.14 58.82 55.56 55.56 56.25 54.55 58.33 50.00 52.94 44.44 44.83 45.45 42.11 42.86 45.00 42.86 41.18 45.00 45.00 42.86 41.18 44.44 44.44 43.75 45.45 41.67 50.00 47.06 -0.44 -0.83 -1.45 1.89 1.14 -1.00 1.14 2.82 -1.00 -1.00 1.14 2.82 -0.44 -0.44 0.25 -1.45 2.33 -6.00 -3.06 Source: The Senate of the United States Committees and Subcommittees Assignments for the One Hundred Third Congress, Prepared Under the Direction of Walter J. Stewart, Secretary of the Senate, by R. Scott Bates, Legislative Clerk, Nov. 22, 1993 (Washington: GPO, 1993). (This publication is marked interim, as were all four of the lists for the First Session of the 103rd Congress). Note: Percentages were calculated by computer, and reflect rounding. CRS-12 Senate Committee Party Ratios: 102nd Congress (1991-1993) Distribution of Seats Number Total Senate Party Strength Total Committee Seats Committees Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Labor and Human Resources Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business Veterans' Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Select Committee on Indian Affairs Select Committee on Intelligence Majority (D) Minority (R) MajorityMinority Seat Margin Distribution of Seats Percentage Majority (D) Minority (R) Difference in % Committee Majority Compared to % Senate Majority 100 332 57 188 43 144 14 44 57.00 56.63 43.00 43.37 -0.37 18 29 20 21 21 20 20 17 19 19 13 17 14 16 19 12 6 16 15 10 16 11 12 12 11 11 10 11 11 8 10 8 9 11 7 3 9 8 8 13 9 9 9 9 9 7 8 8 5 7 6 7 8 5 3 7 7 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 0 2 1 55.56 55.17 55.00 57.14 57.14 55.00 55.00 58.82 57.89 57.89 61.54 58.82 57.14 56.25 57.89 58.33 50.00 56.25 53.33 44.44 44.83 45.00 42.86 42.86 45.00 45.00 41.18 42.11 42.11 38.46 41.18 42.86 43.75 42.11 41.67 50.00 43.75 46.67 -1.44 -1.83 -2.00 0.14 0.14 -2.00 -2.00 1.82 0.89 0.89 4.54 1.82 0.14 -0.75 0.89 1.33 -7.00 -0.75 -3.67 Source: List of Standing Committees and Subcommittees and Select and Special Committees and Committee Assignments and list of Senators by State of the Senate of the United States Together with Certain Joint Committees of the Congress for the One Hundred Second Congress, Prepared Under the Direction of Walter J. Stewart, Secretary of the Senate, by Barry J. Wolk, Director of Senate Printing Services, Sept. 23, 1991, (Washington: GPO, 1991). Note: Percentages were calculated by computer, and reflect rounding. CRS-13 Senate Committee Party Ratios: 101st Congress (1989-1991) Distribution of Seats Number Total Senate Party Strength Total Committee Seats Committees Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Labor and Human Resources Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business Veterans' Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Select Committee on Indian Affairs Select Committee on Intelligence Majority (D) Minority (R) MajorityMinority Seat Margin Distribution of Seats Percentage Majority (D) Minority (R) Difference in % Committee Majority Compared to % Senate Majority 100 327 55 180 45 147 10 33 55.00 55.05 45.00 44.95 0.05 19 29 20 21 23 20 19 16 20 19 14 16 14 16 19 11 6 10 15 10 16 11 12 13 11 10 9 11 10 8 9 8 9 10 6 3 6 8 9 13 9 9 10 9 9 7 9 9 6 7 6 7 9 5 3 4 7 1 3 2 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 2 1 52.63 55.17 55.00 57.14 56.52 55.00 52.63 56.25 55.00 52.63 57.14 56.25 57.14 56.25 52.63 54.55 50.00 60.00 53.33 47.37 44.83 45.00 42.86 43.48 45.00 47.37 43.75 45.00 47.37 42.86 43.75 42.86 43.75 47.37 45.45 50.00 40.00 46.67 -2.37 0.17 0.00 2.14 1.52 0.00 -2.37 1.25 0.00 -2.37 2.14 1.25 2.14 1.25 -2.37 -0.45 -5.00 5.00 -1.67 Source: List of Standing Committees and Subcommittees and Subcommittees ad Select and Special Committees and Committee Assignments and List of Senators by State of the Senate of the Untied States Together with Certain Joint Committees of the One Hundred First Congress, Prepared Under the Direction of Walter J. Stewart, Secretary of the Senate, by Barry J. Wolk, Director of Senate Printing Services, May 19, 1989 (Washington: GPO, 1989). Note: Percentages were calculated by computer, and reflect rounding. CRS-14 Senate Committee Party Ratios: 100th Congress (1987-1989) Distribution of Seats Number Total Senate Party Strength Total Committee Seats Committees Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Labor and Human Resources Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business Veterans' Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Special Committee on Indian Affairs Select Committee on Intelligence Majority(D) Minority (R) MajorityMinority Seat Margin Distribution of Seats Percentage Majority (D) Minority (R) Difference in % Committee Majority Compared to % Senate Majority 100 325 54 178 46 147 8 31 54.00 54.77 46.00 45.23 0.77 19 29 20 20 24 20 19 16 20 19 14 16 14 16 19 11 6 8 15 10 16 11 11 13 11 10 9 11 10 8 9 8 9 10 6 3 5 8 9 13 9 9 11 9 9 7 9 9 6 7 6 7 9 5 3 3 7 1 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 2 1 52.63 55.17 55.00 55.00 54.17 55.00 52.63 56.25 55.00 52.63 57.14 56.25 57.14 56.25 52.63 54.55 50.00 62.50 53.33 47.37 44.83 45.00 45.00 45.83 45.00 47.37 43.75 45.00 47.37 42.86 43.75 42.86 43.75 47.37 45.45 50.00 37.50 46.67 -1.37 1.17 1.00 1.00 0.17 1.00 -1.37 2.25 1.00 -1.37 3.14 2.25 3.14 2.25 -1.37 0.55 -4.00 8.50 -0.67 Source: List of Standing Committees and Subcommittees and Subcommittees ad Select and Special Committees and Committee Assignments and List of Senators by State of the Senate of the Untied States Together with Certain Joint Committees of the One Hundredth Congress, Prepared Under the Direction of Walter J. Stewart, Secretary of the Senate, by Barry J. Wolk, Director of Senate Printing Services, July 1, 1987 (Washington: GPO, 1989). Note: Percentages were calculated by computer, and reflect rounding. CRS-15 Senate Committee Party Ratios: 99th Congress (1985-1987) Distribution of Seats Number Total Senate Party Strength Total Committee Seats Committees Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Labor and Human Resources Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business Veterans' Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Select Committee on Indian Affairs Select Committee on Intelligence Majority (R) Minority (D) MajorityMinority Seat Margin Distribution of Seats Percentage Majority (R) Minority (D) Difference in % Committee Majority Compared to % Senate Majority 100 312 53 168 47 144 6 24 53.00 53.85 47.00 46.15 0.85 17 29 19 15 22 17 18 15 20 17 13 16 18 15 19 12 6 9 15 9 15 10 8 12 9 10 8 11 9 7 9 10 8 10 7 3 5 8 8 14 9 7 10 8 8 7 9 8 6 7 8 7 9 5 3 4 7 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 0 1 1 52.94 51.72 52.63 53.33 54.55 52.94 55.56 53.33 55.00 52.94 53.85 56.25 55.56 53.33 52.63 58.33 50.00 55.56 53.33 47.06 48.28 47.37 46.67 45.45 47.06 44.44 46.67 45.00 47.06 46.15 43.75 44.44 46.67 47.37 41.67 50.00 44.44 46.67 -0.06 -1.28 -0.37 0.33 1.55 -0.06 2.56 0.33 2.00 -0.06 0.85 3.25 2.56 0.33 -0.37 5.33 -3.00 2.56 0.33 Source: List of Standing Committees and Select and Special committees and Committee Assignments and List of Senators by State of the Senate of the United States Together with Certain Joint Committees of the Congress for the Ninety-Ninth Congress (Preliminary), Prepared Under the Direction of Jo-Anne L. Coe, Secretary of the Senate by Barry J. Wolk, Director of Senate Printing Services, Aug. 1, 1986 (Washington: GPO, 1986). Note: Percentages were calculated by computer, and reflect rounding. CRS-16 Senate Committee Party Ratios: 98th Congress (1983-1985) Distribution of Seats Number Total Senate Party Strength Total Committee Seats Committees Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Judiciary Labor and Human Resources Rules and Administration Small Business Veterans' Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Select Committee on Indian Affairs Select Committee on Intelligence Majority (R) Minority (D) 100 320 54 175 46 145 18 29 18 18 22 17 20 16 20 17 18 18 18 12 19 12 6 7 15 10 15 10 10 12 9 11 9 11 9 10 10 10 7 10 7 3 4 8 8 14 8 8 10 8 9 7 9 8 8 8 8 5 9 5 3 3 7 MajorityMinority Seat Margin 8 30 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 0 1 1 Distribution of Seats Percentage Majority (R) Minority (D) Difference in % Committee Majority Compared to % Senate Majority 54.00 54.69 46.00 45.31 0.69 55.56 51.72 55.56 55.56 54.55 52.94 55.00 56.25 55.00 52.94 55.56 55.56 55.56 58.33 52.63 58.33 50.00 57.14 53.33 44.44 48.28 44.44 44.44 45.45 47.06 45.00 43.75 45.00 47.06 44.44 44.44 44.44 41.67 47.37 41.67 50.00 42.86 46.67 1.56 -2.28 1.56 1.56 0.55 -1.06 1.00 2.25 1.00 -1.06 1.56 1.56 1.56 4.33 -1.37 4.33 -4.00 3.14 -0.67 Source: List of Standing Committees and Select and Special committees and Committee Assignments and List of Senators by State of the Senate of the United States Together with Certain Joint Committees of the Congress for the Ninety-Eighth Congress, Prepared Under the Direction of William F. Hildenbrand, Secretary of the Senate, Mar. 14, 1983 (Washington: GPO, 1983). Note: Percentages were calculated by computer, and reflect rounding.